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Class lecture of Chapter 4 from Process Dynamics and Control 3rd Ed.

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Chapter 4

x (t )

X (s)

system

y (t )

Y (s)

x

input

output

forcing function

response

cause

effect

1

Chapter 4

output, y. Then, by definition

G (s)

Y (s)

X (s)

where:

Y ( s ) = L y ( t )

X ( s ) = L x ( t )

Chapter 4

3

holdup and flow rates:

dT

= wC (Ti T ) + Q

V C

dt

(1)

Chapter 4

T ( 0 ) = T , Ti ( 0 ) = Ti , Q ( 0 ) = Q

( 2)

conditions:

0 = wC (Ti T ) + Q

(3)

dT

V C

= wC (Ti Ti ) (T T ) + ( Q Q )

dt

(4)

4

But,

dT d (T T )

=

because T is a constant

dt

dt

(5)

Chapter 4

dT

V C

= wC (Ti T ) + Q

dt

(6)

also called perturbation variables:

T = T T , Ti = Ti Ti , Q = Q Q

(7)

Take L of (6):

V C sT ( s ) T ( t = 0 ) = wC Ti( s ) T ( s ) Q ( s ) (8)

5

Evaluate T ( t = 0 ) .

By definition, T = T T . Thus at time, t = 0,

Chapter 4

T (0) = T (0) T

(9)

But since our assumed initial condition was that the process

was initially at steady state, i.e., T ( 0 ) = T it follows from (9)

that T ( 0 ) = 0.

Note: The advantage of using deviation variables is that the

initial condition term becomes zero. This simplifies the later

analysis.

Rearrange (8) to solve for T ( s ) :

K

1

T ( s) =

Q ( s ) +

Ti( s )

s +1

s +1

(10)

6

=

1

and

wC

V

w

(11)

Chapter 4

Suppose Ti is constant at the steady-state value. Then,

(10) and rearrange to get the desired TF:

T ( s)

K

=

Q ( s ) s + 1

(12)

Suppose that Q is constant at its steady-state value:

Chapter 4

Q ( t ) = Q Q ( t ) = 0 Q ( s ) = 0

Thus, rearranging

T ( s )

1

=

Ti( s ) s + 1

(13)

Comments:

1. The TFs in (12) and (13) show the individual effects of Q and Ti

on T. What about simultaneous changes in both Q and Ti ?

Chapter 4

Answer: See (10). The same TFs are valid for simultaneous

changes.

and Ti are additive. This always occurs for linear, dynamic

models (like TFs) because the Principle of Superposition is

valid.

any change in an input.

3. Use deviation variables to eliminate initial conditions for TF

models.

Chapter 4

1. Steady-State Gain

The steady-state of a TF can be used to calculate the steadystate change in an output due to a steady-state change in the

input. For example, suppose we know two steady states for an

input, u, and an output, y. Then we can calculate the steadystate gain, K, from:

y2 y1

K=

u2 u1

(4-38)

system, K will depend on the operating condition ( u , y ) .

10

K = lim G ( s )

Chapter 4

s 0

(14)

Theorem

integrating process in Ch. 5)

11

2. Order of a TF Model

Chapter 4

an

dny

dt

+ an1

bm1

dy n1

dt n1

d m1u

m1

dy

d mu

+ K a1 + a0 y = bm m +

dt

dt

du

+ K + b1

+ b0u

dt

(4-39)

dt

Take L, assuming the initial conditions are all zero. Rearranging

m

gives the TF:

i

b

s

i

Y ( s ) i =0

G (s) =

= n

(4-40)

U (s)

i

a

s

i

i =0

polynomial. Note: The order of the TF is equal to the order of the

ODE.

12

3. Additive Property

the transfer functions are known:

Chapter 4

Y (s)

U1 ( s )

= G1 ( s ) and

Y (s)

U2 ( s)

= G2 ( s )

as:

Y ( s ) = G1 ( s )U1 ( s ) + G2 ( s )U 2 ( s )

The graphical representation (or block diagram) is:

U1(s)

G1(s)

Y (s )

U2(s)

G2(s)

14

4. Multiplicative Property

Suppose that,

Y (s)

Chapter 4

U2 ( s)

= G2 ( s ) and

U2 ( s)

U3 ( s )

= G3 ( s )

Then,

Y ( s ) = G2 ( s )U 2 ( s ) and U 2 ( s ) = G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )

Substitute,

Y ( s ) = G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )

Or,

Y (s)

U3 ( s )

= G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )

U3 ( s )

G2 ( s )

G3 ( s )

Y (s)

15

So far, we have emphasized linear models which can be

transformed into TF models.

Chapter 4

- But over a small range of operating conditions, the behavior

may be approximately linear.

- Conclude: Linear approximations can be useful, especially

for purpose of analysis.

Approximate linear models can be obtained analytically by a

method called linearization. It is based on a Taylor Series

Expansion of a nonlinear function about a specified operating

point.

16

Linearization (continued)

Chapter 4

variables, u and y:

dy

= f ( y, u )

dt

(4-60)

truncate after the first order terms,

f

f ( u, y ) = f ( u , y ) +

u

f

u +

y

s

(4-61)

state, ( u , y ) . Note that the partial derivative terms are actually

constants because they have been evaluated at the nominal

operating point, s.

17

Linearization (continued)

Substitute (4-61) into (4-60) gives:

Chapter 4

dy

f

= f (u , y ) +

dt

u

u +

s

f

y

(A)

f (u , y ) = 0

(B)

dy

dy

=

(C)

dt

dt

Substitute (B) and (C) into (A) gives the linearized model:

dy f

=

dt u

f

u +

y

s

(4-62)

s

18

qi

Mass balance:

Chapter 4

dh

A = qi q (1)

dt

q = Cv h

(2)

Valve relation:

A = area, Cv = constant

q

C

dh 1

= qi v

dt A

A

h = f (h, qi )

(3)

we can utilize (4-62) to linearize around h = h and qi =qi ,

f

dh f

= h +

qi

dt h s

qi s

(4)

19

Chapter 4

where:

Cv

f

=

h s

2A h

(5)

f 1

=

qi s A

(6)

Cv

dh 1

h

= qi

dt A

2A h

(7)

1

2 h

dh 1

= qi

h with R =

dt A

AR

Cv

(8)

(8)

20

Chapter 4

State-Space Models

Dynamic models derived from physical principles typically

consist of one or more ordinary differential equations (ODEs).

In this section, we consider a general class of ODE models

referred to as state-space models.

x& = Ax + Bu + Ed

(4-90)

y = Cx

(4-91)

21

Chapter 4

where:

x =

u =

control variables)

d =

y =

boldface symbols to denote vector and matrices, and

plain text to represent scalars.)

The elements of y are typically a subset of x, namely, the state

variables that are measured. In general, x, u, d, and y are

functions of time.

The time derivative of x is denoted by x& ( = dx / dt ) .

Matrices A, B, C, and E are constant matrices.

22

Consider the previous CSTR model. Assume that Tc can vary

with time while cAi, Ti , q and w are constant.

Chapter 4

Nonlinear

Model:

Linearized

Model:

where:

23

Example 4.9

Show that the linearized CSTR model of Example 4.8 can

be written in the state-space form of Eqs. 4-90 and 4-91.

Derive state-space models for two cases:

Chapter 4

(b) Only T is measured.

Solution

The linearized CSTR model in Eqs. 4-84 and 4-85 can be written

in vector-matrix form:

dcA a

dt 11

=

dT a

dt 21

a12 cA 0

+ T

c

a22 T b2

(4-92)

24

Chapter 4

and x&2 . Suppose that the coolant temperature Tc can be

manipulated. For this situation, there is a scalar control variable,

u Tc , and no modeled disturbance. Substituting these

definitions into (4-92) gives,

x&1 a11 a12 x1 0

+ u

x& = a

b2

21 a22 x2

2 14

{

243

B

A

(4-93)

which is in the form of Eq. 4-90 with x = col [x1, x2]. (The symbol

col denotes a column vector.)

25

Chapter 4

Eq. 4-91, where I denotes the 2x2 identity matrix. A and B are

defined in (4-93).

b) When only T is measured, output vector y is a scalar,

y = T and C is a row vector, C = [0,1].

Note that the state-space model for Example 4.9 has d = 0

because disturbance variables were not included in (4-92). By

contrast, suppose that the feed composition and feed temperature

are considered to be disturbance variables in the original

nonlinear CSTR model in Eqs. 2-60 and 2-64. Then the linearized

model would include two additional deviation variables, cAi

and Ti.

26

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