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# Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Transfer Function
And
State-Space Models

## Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

Transfer Functions
x (t )

Chapter 4

X (s)

system

y (t )

Y (s)

x
y
input

output

forcing function

response

cause

effect

Chapter 4

## A transfer function (TF) relates one input and one output

through an algebraic expression.

x (t )

X (s)

system

y (t )

Y (s)

## Let G(s) denote the transfer function between an input, x, and an

output, y. Then, by definition
G (s)
where:

## Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

Y (s)

X (s)

Y ( s ) = L y ( t )
X ( s ) = L x ( t )

Chapter 4

## Figure 2.3 Stirred-tank heating process with constant holdup, V.

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

## Recall the previous dynamic model, assuming constant liquid

holdup and flow rates:

dT
= wC (Ti T ) + Q
V C
dt

(1)

Chapter 4

## Suppose the process is initially at steady state:

T ( 0 ) = T , Ti ( 0 ) = Ti , Q ( 0 ) = Q
where T

( 2)

## For steady-state conditions:

0 = wC (Ti T ) + Q

(3)

## Subtract (3) from (1):

dT
V C
= wC (Ti Ti ) (T T ) + ( Q Q )
dt
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

(4)
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But,

dT d (T T )
because T is a constant
=
dt
dt

(5)

Chapter 4

dT
V C
= wC (Ti T ) + Q
dt

(6)

## where we have introduced the following deviation variables,

also called perturbation variables:

T = T T , Ti = Ti Ti , Q = Q Q

(7)

Take L of (6):

V C sT ( s ) T ( t = 0 ) = wC Ti( s ) T ( s ) + Q ( s ) (8)
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

Evaluate T ( t = 0 ) .
By definition, T = T T .Thus at time, t = 0,

Chapter 4

T (0) = T (0) T

(9)

But since our assumed initial condition was that the process
was initially at steady state, i.e., T ( 0 ) = T it follows from (9)
that T ( 0 ) = 0.
Note: The advantage of using deviation variables is that the
initial condition term becomes zero. This simplifies the later
analysis.
Rearrange (8) to solve for T ( s ) :
K
1

T (s) =
Q (s) +
Ti ( s )
s +1
s +1
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

(10)
7

Chapter 4

1
and
wC

V
=
w

(11)

## Transfer Function Between Q and T

Suppose Ti is constant at the steady-state value. Then,

## Ti ( t ) = Ti Ti( t ) = 0 Ti( s ) = 0. Then we can substitute into

(10) and rearrange to get the desired TF:
T ( s)
K
=
Q ( s ) s + 1

(12)

## Transfer Function Between T and Ti :

Suppose that Q is constant at its steady-state value:

Chapter 4

Q ( t ) = Q Q ( t ) = 0 Q ( s ) = 0

Thus, rearranging

T ( s )
1
=
Ti( s ) s + 1

(13)

Comments:
1. The TFs in (12) and (13) show the individual effects of Q and Ti
on T. What about simultaneous changes in both Q and Ti ?

## Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

Chapter 4

Answer: See (10). The same TFs are valid for simultaneous
changes.
Note that (10) shows that the effects of changes in both Q
and Ti are additive. This always occurs for linear, dynamic
models (like TFs) because the Principle of Superposition is
valid.
2. The TF model enables us to determine the output response to
any change in an input.
3. Use deviation variables to eliminate initial conditions for TF
models.

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## Properties of Transfer Function Models

Chapter 4

1. Steady-State Gain

The steady-state of a TF can be used to calculate the steadystate change in an output due to a steady-state change in the
input. For example, suppose we know two steady states for an
input, u, and an output, y. Then we can calculate the steadystate gain, K, from:

y2 y1
K=
u2 u1

(4-38)

## For a linear system, K is a constant. But for a nonlinear

system, K will depend on the operating condition ( u , y ) .

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Chapter 4

K = lim G ( s )
s 0

(14)

## This important result is a consequence of the Final Value

Theorem
Note: Some TF models do not have a steady-state gain (e.g.,
integrating process in Ch. 5)

## Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

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2. Order of a TF Model

## Consider a general n-th order, linear ODE:

Chapter 4

an

dny
dt

+ an1

dy n1
dt n1

d m1u

dy
d mu
+ K a1 + a0 y = bm m +
dt
dt

du
(4-39)
+ b0u
m 1
dt
dt
Take L, assuming the initial conditions are all zero. Rearranging
m
gives the TF:
i
b
s

i
Y ( s ) i =0
G (s) =
= n
(4-40)
U (s)
i
a
s
i
bm1

+ K + b1

i =0

## The order of the TF is defined to be the order of the denominator

polynomial. Note: The order of the TF is equal to the order of the
ODE.
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

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3. Additive Property

Chapter 4

## Suppose that an output is influenced by two inputs and that

the transfer functions are known:

Y (s)

U1 ( s )

= G1 ( s ) and

Y (s)

U2 ( s)

= G2 ( s )

## Then the response to changes in both U1 and U 2 can be written

as:
Y ( s ) = G1 ( s )U1 ( s ) + G2 ( s )U 2 ( s )
The graphical representation (or block diagram) is:
U1(s)

G1(s)
Y (s )

U2(s)
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

G2(s)
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4. Multiplicative Property

Chapter 4

Suppose that,

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## Linearization of Nonlinear Models

So far, we have emphasized linear models which can be
transformed into TF models.

Chapter 4

## But most physical processes and physical models are nonlinear.

- But over a small range of operating conditions, the behavior
may be approximately linear.
- Conclude: Linear approximations can be useful, especially
for purpose of analysis.
Approximate linear models can be obtained analytically by a
method called linearization. It is based on a Taylor Series
Expansion of a nonlinear function about a specified operating
point.

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Chapter 4

## Consider a nonlinear, dynamic model relating two process

variables, u and y:
dy
= f ( y, u )
(4-60)
dt
Perform a Taylor Series Expansion about u = u and y = y and
truncate after the first order terms,

f
f ( u, y ) = f ( u , y ) +
u

f
u +
y
s

(4-61)

## where u = u u , y = y y , and subsrcipt s denotes the steady

state, ( u , y ) . Note that the partial derivative terms are actually
constants because they have been evaluated at the nominal
operating point, s.
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

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## Linearization of Nonlinear Models

Substitute (4-61) into (4-60) gives:

Chapter 4

dy
f
= f (u , y ) +
dt
u

u +
s

f
y

(A)

f (u , y ) = 0

(B)

## Also, because y = y - y, it follows that,

dy
dy
=
(C)
dt
dt
Substitute (B) and (C) into (A) gives the linearized model:
dy f
=
dt u
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

f
u +
y
s

(4-62)

s
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## Example: Liquid Storage System

Mass balance:

dh
A = qi q (1)
dt
q = Cv h
(2)

Chapter 4

Valve relation:
A = area, Cv = constant

C
dh 1
= qi v
dt A
A

h = f (h, qi )

(3)

## Eq. (3) is in the form of (4-60) with y = h and u = qi . Thus,

we can utilize (4-62) to linearize around h = h and qi =qi ,
f
dh f
= h +
qi
dt h s
qi s
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

(4)

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Chapter 4

where:
Cv
f
=

h s
2A h

(5)

f 1

=
qi s A

(6)

Cv
dh 1
h
= qi
dt A
2A h

(7)

## This model can be expressed in terms of a valve resistance, R

1
2 h
dh 1
= qi
h with R =
dt A
AR
Cv
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

(8)

(8)
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Chapter 4

## Two Tank System

Two tanks in series:
1. Non-interactive
2. Interactive

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## Interacting vs. Noninteracting Systems

Consider a process with several input variables and several
output variables. The process is said to be interacting if:

Chapter
Chapter64

## - Each input affects more than one output directly.

or
- A change in one output affects the other outputs.

## Otherwise, the process is called noninteracting.

As an example, we will consider the two liquid-level storage
systems shown in Figs. 4.3 and 6.13.
In general, transfer functions for interacting processes are more
complicated than those for noninteracting processes.

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Chapter
Chapter64

## Figure 4.3. A noninteracting system:

two surge tanks in series.

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Example 4.4

Chapter
Chapter64

## Figure 4.3. A noninteracting system:

two surge tanks in series.

dh1
= qi q1
dt

Mass Balance:

A1

Valve Relation:

1
q1 = h1
R1

(4-48)
(4-49)

## Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

dh1
1
A1
= qi h1
dt
R1

(4-50)
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Chapter 4

State-Space Models
Dynamic models derived from physical principles typically
consist of one or more ordinary differential equations (ODEs).
In this section, we consider a general class of ODE models
referred to as state-space models.
Consider standard form for a linear state-space model,

x& = Ax + Bu + Ed

(4-90)

y = Cx

(4-91)

where:
x =
the state vector
u =
the control vector of manipulated variables
d =
the disturbance vector
y =
the output vector of measured variables.
(We use boldface symbols to denote vector and matrices, and plain text to
represent scalars.)
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

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State-Space Models

Chapter 4

## The elements of x are referred to as state variables.

The elements of y are typically a subset of x, namely, the state
variables that are measured. In general, x, u, d, and y are
functions of time.
The time derivative of x is denoted by x& ( = dx / dt ) .
Matrices A, B, C, and E are constant matrices.
x& = Ax + Bu + Ed

(4-90)

y = Cx

(4-91)

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## Example: CSTR Model

Consider the previous CSTR model. Assume that Tc can vary with time
while cAi, Ti , q and w are constant.

Chapter 4

Nonlinear
Model:

Linearized
Model:
where:

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Example 4.9

Chapter 4

## Show that the linearized CSTR model of Example 4.8 can

be written in the state-space form of Eqs. 4-90 and 4-91.
Derive state-space models for two cases:
(a) Both cA and T are measured.
(b) Only T is measured.
Solution
The linearized CSTR model in Eqs. 4-84 and 4-85 can be written
in vector-matrix form:
dcA a
dt 11

=
dT a
dt 21
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

a12 cA 0
+ T
c
a22 T b2

(4-92)

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Chapter 4

## Let x1 cA and x2 T, and denote their time derivatives by x&1

and x&2 . Suppose that the coolant temperature Tc can be
manipulated. For this situation, there is a scalar control variable,
u Tc , and no modeled disturbance. Substituting these
definitions into (4-92) gives,
x&1 a11 a12 x1 0
+ u
x& = a

b2
21 a22 x2
2 14
{
243
B
A

(4-93)

which is in the form of Eq. 4-90 with x = col [x1, x2]. (The symbol
col denotes a column vector.)
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

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Chapter 4

## a) If both T and cA are measured, then y = x, and C = I in

Eq. 4-91, where I denotes the 2x2 identity matrix. A and B are
defined in (4-93).
b) When only T is measured, output vector y is a scalar,
y = T and C is a row vector, C = [0,1].
Note that the state-space model for Example 4.9 has d = 0
because disturbance variables were not included in (4-92). By
contrast, suppose that the feed composition and feed temperature
are considered to be disturbance variables in the original
nonlinear CSTR model in Eqs. 2-60 and 2-64. Then the linearized
model would include two additional deviation variables, cAi
and Ti.
Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

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