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Process Dynamics and Control : Chapter 4 Lectures 2015

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Chapter 4

Transfer Function

And

State-Space Models

Transfer Functions

x (t )

Chapter 4

X (s)

system

y (t )

Y (s)

x

y

input

output

forcing function

response

cause

effect

Chapter 4

through an algebraic expression.

x (t )

X (s)

system

y (t )

Y (s)

output, y. Then, by definition

G (s)

where:

Y (s)

X (s)

Y ( s ) = L y ( t )

X ( s ) = L x ( t )

Chapter 4

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

holdup and flow rates:

dT

= wC (Ti T ) + Q

V C

dt

(1)

Chapter 4

T ( 0 ) = T , Ti ( 0 ) = Ti , Q ( 0 ) = Q

where T

( 2)

0 = wC (Ti T ) + Q

(3)

dT

V C

= wC (Ti Ti ) (T T ) + ( Q Q )

dt

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

(4)

5

But,

dT d (T T )

because T is a constant

=

dt

dt

(5)

Chapter 4

dT

V C

= wC (Ti T ) + Q

dt

(6)

also called perturbation variables:

T = T T , Ti = Ti Ti , Q = Q Q

(7)

Take L of (6):

V C sT ( s ) T ( t = 0 ) = wC Ti( s ) T ( s ) + Q ( s ) (8)

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

Evaluate T ( t = 0 ) .

By definition, T = T T .Thus at time, t = 0,

Chapter 4

T (0) = T (0) T

(9)

But since our assumed initial condition was that the process

was initially at steady state, i.e., T ( 0 ) = T it follows from (9)

that T ( 0 ) = 0.

Note: The advantage of using deviation variables is that the

initial condition term becomes zero. This simplifies the later

analysis.

Rearrange (8) to solve for T ( s ) :

K

1

T (s) =

Q (s) +

Ti ( s )

s +1

s +1

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

(10)

7

Chapter 4

1

and

wC

V

=

w

(11)

Suppose Ti is constant at the steady-state value. Then,

(10) and rearrange to get the desired TF:

T ( s)

K

=

Q ( s ) s + 1

(12)

Suppose that Q is constant at its steady-state value:

Chapter 4

Q ( t ) = Q Q ( t ) = 0 Q ( s ) = 0

Thus, rearranging

T ( s )

1

=

Ti( s ) s + 1

(13)

Comments:

1. The TFs in (12) and (13) show the individual effects of Q and Ti

on T. What about simultaneous changes in both Q and Ti ?

Chapter 4

Answer: See (10). The same TFs are valid for simultaneous

changes.

Note that (10) shows that the effects of changes in both Q

and Ti are additive. This always occurs for linear, dynamic

models (like TFs) because the Principle of Superposition is

valid.

2. The TF model enables us to determine the output response to

any change in an input.

3. Use deviation variables to eliminate initial conditions for TF

models.

10

Chapter 4

1. Steady-State Gain

The steady-state of a TF can be used to calculate the steadystate change in an output due to a steady-state change in the

input. For example, suppose we know two steady states for an

input, u, and an output, y. Then we can calculate the steadystate gain, K, from:

y2 y1

K=

u2 u1

(4-38)

system, K will depend on the operating condition ( u , y ) .

11

Chapter 4

K = lim G ( s )

s 0

(14)

Theorem

Note: Some TF models do not have a steady-state gain (e.g.,

integrating process in Ch. 5)

12

2. Order of a TF Model

Chapter 4

an

dny

dt

+ an1

dy n1

dt n1

d m1u

dy

d mu

+ K a1 + a0 y = bm m +

dt

dt

du

(4-39)

+ b0u

m 1

dt

dt

Take L, assuming the initial conditions are all zero. Rearranging

m

gives the TF:

i

b

s

i

Y ( s ) i =0

G (s) =

= n

(4-40)

U (s)

i

a

s

i

bm1

+ K + b1

i =0

polynomial. Note: The order of the TF is equal to the order of the

ODE.

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

13

3. Additive Property

Chapter 4

the transfer functions are known:

Y (s)

U1 ( s )

= G1 ( s ) and

Y (s)

U2 ( s)

= G2 ( s )

as:

Y ( s ) = G1 ( s )U1 ( s ) + G2 ( s )U 2 ( s )

The graphical representation (or block diagram) is:

U1(s)

G1(s)

Y (s )

U2(s)

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

G2(s)

15

4. Multiplicative Property

Chapter 4

Suppose that,

16

So far, we have emphasized linear models which can be

transformed into TF models.

Chapter 4

- But over a small range of operating conditions, the behavior

may be approximately linear.

- Conclude: Linear approximations can be useful, especially

for purpose of analysis.

Approximate linear models can be obtained analytically by a

method called linearization. It is based on a Taylor Series

Expansion of a nonlinear function about a specified operating

point.

17

Chapter 4

variables, u and y:

dy

= f ( y, u )

(4-60)

dt

Perform a Taylor Series Expansion about u = u and y = y and

truncate after the first order terms,

f

f ( u, y ) = f ( u , y ) +

u

f

u +

y

s

(4-61)

state, ( u , y ) . Note that the partial derivative terms are actually

constants because they have been evaluated at the nominal

operating point, s.

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

18

Substitute (4-61) into (4-60) gives:

Chapter 4

dy

f

= f (u , y ) +

dt

u

u +

s

f

y

(A)

f (u , y ) = 0

(B)

dy

dy

=

(C)

dt

dt

Substitute (B) and (C) into (A) gives the linearized model:

dy f

=

dt u

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

f

u +

y

s

(4-62)

s

19

Mass balance:

dh

A = qi q (1)

dt

q = Cv h

(2)

Chapter 4

Valve relation:

A = area, Cv = constant

C

dh 1

= qi v

dt A

A

h = f (h, qi )

(3)

we can utilize (4-62) to linearize around h = h and qi =qi ,

f

dh f

= h +

qi

dt h s

qi s

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

(4)

20

Chapter 4

where:

Cv

f

=

h s

2A h

(5)

f 1

=

qi s A

(6)

Cv

dh 1

h

= qi

dt A

2A h

(7)

1

2 h

dh 1

= qi

h with R =

dt A

AR

Cv

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

(8)

(8)

21

Chapter 4

Two tanks in series:

1. Non-interactive

2. Interactive

22

Consider a process with several input variables and several

output variables. The process is said to be interacting if:

Chapter

Chapter64

or

- A change in one output affects the other outputs.

As an example, we will consider the two liquid-level storage

systems shown in Figs. 4.3 and 6.13.

In general, transfer functions for interacting processes are more

complicated than those for noninteracting processes.

23

Chapter

Chapter64

two surge tanks in series.

24

Example 4.4

Chapter

Chapter64

two surge tanks in series.

dh1

= qi q1

dt

Mass Balance:

A1

Valve Relation:

1

q1 = h1

R1

(4-48)

(4-49)

dh1

1

A1

= qi h1

dt

R1

(4-50)

25

Chapter 4

State-Space Models

Dynamic models derived from physical principles typically

consist of one or more ordinary differential equations (ODEs).

In this section, we consider a general class of ODE models

referred to as state-space models.

Consider standard form for a linear state-space model,

x& = Ax + Bu + Ed

(4-90)

y = Cx

(4-91)

where:

x =

the state vector

u =

the control vector of manipulated variables

d =

the disturbance vector

y =

the output vector of measured variables.

(We use boldface symbols to denote vector and matrices, and plain text to

represent scalars.)

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

26

State-Space Models

Chapter 4

The elements of y are typically a subset of x, namely, the state

variables that are measured. In general, x, u, d, and y are

functions of time.

The time derivative of x is denoted by x& ( = dx / dt ) .

Matrices A, B, C, and E are constant matrices.

x& = Ax + Bu + Ed

(4-90)

y = Cx

(4-91)

27

Consider the previous CSTR model. Assume that Tc can vary with time

while cAi, Ti , q and w are constant.

Chapter 4

Nonlinear

Model:

Linearized

Model:

where:

28

Example 4.9

Chapter 4

be written in the state-space form of Eqs. 4-90 and 4-91.

Derive state-space models for two cases:

(a) Both cA and T are measured.

(b) Only T is measured.

Solution

The linearized CSTR model in Eqs. 4-84 and 4-85 can be written

in vector-matrix form:

dcA a

dt 11

=

dT a

dt 21

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

a12 cA 0

+ T

c

a22 T b2

(4-92)

29

Chapter 4

and x&2 . Suppose that the coolant temperature Tc can be

manipulated. For this situation, there is a scalar control variable,

u Tc , and no modeled disturbance. Substituting these

definitions into (4-92) gives,

x&1 a11 a12 x1 0

+ u

x& = a

b2

21 a22 x2

2 14

{

243

B

A

(4-93)

which is in the form of Eq. 4-90 with x = col [x1, x2]. (The symbol

col denotes a column vector.)

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

30

Chapter 4

Eq. 4-91, where I denotes the 2x2 identity matrix. A and B are

defined in (4-93).

b) When only T is measured, output vector y is a scalar,

y = T and C is a row vector, C = [0,1].

Note that the state-space model for Example 4.9 has d = 0

because disturbance variables were not included in (4-92). By

contrast, suppose that the feed composition and feed temperature

are considered to be disturbance variables in the original

nonlinear CSTR model in Eqs. 2-60 and 2-64. Then the linearized

model would include two additional deviation variables, cAi

and Ti.

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury

31

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