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In aqueous solution nickel ion (Ni2+; Ni(II)) is surrounded by six water molecules

which are actually bonded to the central metal ion. This complex is called the
hexaquanickel(II) ion. When aqueous nickel chloride is precipitated from solution, the nickel
ions carry their six water molecules into the crystals and so solid nickel(II) chloride is
hydrated, has the formula [Ni(H2O)6]Cl2, and is more properly called hexaquanickel(II)
chloride. If ammonia is added to a solution of this salt, ammonia molecules compete with the
water in bonding Ni2+ and, because the ammonia forms a stronger bond than water, the
ammonia replaces the water according to:
Ni (H2O)6Cl2(aq) + 6 NH3 (aq)

[Ni(NH3)6]Cl2(aq) + 6H2O

The product [Ni(NH3)6]2+ is called hexamminenickel(II) ion. The


hexaammine nickel (II) ion
has six ammonia molecules
surrounding the central nickel 2+ ion in an octahedral
arrangement.The nickel ion has an oxidation state of 2+ and each of
the ammonia molecules is neutral, so the overall charge on the
complex ion is: 2+
Procedure:

Weigh anywhere from 200 to 400 mg of nickel chloride.


Dissolve your nickel chloride in roughly 2 mL of deionized water in a testtube.
Go to a fume hood for the next step. Do not smell or touch the aqueous ammonia
solution.
Slowly pour aqueous ammonia (about 5 mL) into testtube. Shake well, cool in an ice
bath.
Check that you have enough crystals formed.
Filter the crystals through filter paper in a Buchner funnel using a suction filtration
apparatus.
Wash the crystals in two stages, first with ice-cold aqueous ammonia, and then with
about 10 mL of ethanol.
Air-dry the crystals on the filter paper by continuing to draw air through them with
the vacuum for 15 minutes.

Table.1.
Mass of [Ni(H O) ]Cl
2

Mass of [Ni(NH3) ]Cl


6

2
2

Expected Mass of Ni(NH3) ]Cl


6

% Yeild

Characterisation by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy:


Procedure:

Dissolve ~ 40 mg of Hexamminenickel(II) Chloride in 5 ml water and record


the absorption spectra.
Dissolve ~ 40 mg of Hexaquanickel(II) Chloride in 5 ml water and record the
absorption spectra.
Dilute the sample by adding 20 ml water and record the spectra of the diluted
sample.
Collect data, analyse the spectra and interpret your results.
Fig.1 Absorption spectra of Hexaquanickel(II) Chloride
Fig.2 Absorption spectra of Hexamminenickel(II) Chloride
Fig.3 Absorption spectra of diluted Hexamminenickel(II) Chloride

Characterisation by FT-IR spectroscopy:


Record the IR-Spectra for well dried Hexamminenickel(II) Chloride and
Hexaquanickel(II) Chloride by preparing solid KBr pellets analyse the spectra and
interpret your results.

Fig.4 FT-IR spectra of Hexaquanickel(II) Chloride


Fig.5 -IR spectra of Hexamminenickel(II) Chloride
References:
Reactivity of nickel, James P. Birk , Martha Ronan , Imogene Bennett and Cheri
KinneyJ. Chem. Educ., 1991, 68 (1), p 48
Any general chemistry or Inorganic chemistry book chapters related to coordination chemistry