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History of architecture


modern materials of construction and
Iron and steel were two of them that brought
drastic change in there architectural style
Because of URBANIZATION, people
migrated to the cities in search of jobs and
better living condition and fast construction of
buildings became necessary

These new necessities of industry and cities

created a boom of construction of
infrastructures and facilities for transport
communications, such as bridges (SERVERN
structures ( KEW GARDENS) factories, rail

History of architecture

History of architecture

The history of the modern steel

industry began in the late 1850s, but since
then steel has been basic to the world's
industrial economy.

Before about 1860 steel was an expensive

product, made in small quantities and used
mostly for swords, tools and cutlery; all large
metal structures were made of wrought or
cast iron

History of architecture

The introduction of cheap steel was due to the Bessemer and

the open hearth processes, two technological advances
made in England. And even Electric Arc furnace.
In Bessemer process,
molten pig iron is
converted to steel by
blowing air through it
after it was removed
from the furnace

Open hearth process

allowed closer control
over the composition
of the steel; also, a
substantial quantity of
scrap could be included
in the charge.

By 1900 the electric arc

furnace was adapted to
steelmaking and by the
1920s, the falling cost
of electricity allowed it
to largely supplant the
crucible process for
specialty steels

History of architecture

REVOLUTION that started in Britain

in 1760, led to the main changes in architecture in

the second half of the 19th century. New materials
like iron, steel, concrete, glass started to be used
to build because they were more resistant that the
older ones


of these
materials are that they are more resistant and
easier to work with. Their main problems are
oxidation and they arent easy to cast with fire,
because steel loses its resistance with heat.

Many architects continued using traditional materials, because they didnt trust the
use of the new materials in architecture.

History of architecture



London bridge

The Crystal Palace in

London by Joseph Paxton

Oreal chambers in
Liverpool , UK

Kings cross station

The servern Bridge

Railway station- St. pancreas

The Eiffel Tower in

Paris by Gustavo Eiffel.

History of architecture

It is located on Water Street near to the town
hall in Liverpool, England
Oriel Chambers is the world's first building
featuring a metal framed glass curtain wall.
Designed by architect Peter Ellis

Comprises 4,000 m2 set over five floors



History of architecture


Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc was born in 1814.

Viollet-le-Duc was exposed to people who built or
preserved important structures and who wrote about
and discussed art and architecture.
These were people who shaped the culture of Paris, the
most prominent city in Europe.

"To restore an edifice means neither to maintain it, nor to repair it, nor to
rebuild it; it means to re-establish it in a finished state, which may in fact
never have actually existed at any given time."

History of architecture

History of architecture


First road bridge across the River Severn and

Wyes between England and Wales.

Designed and constructed by John Howard and

freeman in 1961-1964

Design- Suspension bridge of conventional design

(steel rope, multiple steel wire, steel cables)

Total length: 1.6km

Height: 445ft (136m)
Longest span: 324ft (988m)
clearance below: 154ft (47m)

History of architecture


First proposal for construction was give in 1824 by Thomas Telford.

To improve mail coach between London bridge and Wales at that time no action was
After some time railway became long distance travel between both the cities.
In 1946 again proposal came and in 1961 construction of the bridge is started and the
bridge was opened in 1964.

History of architecture

Suspension bridge of conventional design, with the deck supported by two main cables
slung between two steel towers.
The cables supporting bridge deck are of 29000km long.

The cables carrying the deck are not vertical, they are in zigzag shape.
this triangulation was attempt to reduce the vibration.

History of architecture

Spanned along the river Thames between the city of London and Southwark
Designed by the Architect Lord Holford
Design: Box girder bridge built from concrete and steel.
Total length- 269m
total width- 32m
Longest span- 104m
Clearance- 8.9m
Opened in 17th march 1973

History of architecture


Supported by 19 irregularly spaced stone arches.
In 1212 a fire hazard broke out both ends of the bridge, Buildings on the london bridge
were the major fire hazards.


Designed by John Rennie in 1799 with a conventional design of 5 stone arches.
In 1924 subsequent surveys shows it was sinking 4 inches every eight years.
The bridge was replaced by new design of architect Lord Holford in 1967.

History of architecture

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, usually referred to simply as Kew Gardens, are
121 hectares of gardens and botanical glasshouses between Richmond and Kew in
southwest London, England.

The Royal Botanic Gardens,

Kew is also the name of the
organization that runs Kew
Gardens and Wakehurst Place
gardens in Sussex.
It is an internationally important
botanical research and education
institution with 700 staff.
Created in 1759, the gardens
celebrated their 250th anniversary
in 2009.
Visitor attraction
almost 2 million visits in a year.


The living collections include more

than 30,000 different kinds of plants.

The worlds largest

collection of living plants.

History of architecture

Railhead-in the context of modern freight

term terminals, the word denotes a
terminus on a railway line which may
have interfaces with another transport

History of architecture


The construction began in 1876, Midland

Grand Hotel was popular, very modern and
convenient accommodation.
It is a central London railway terminus and
Grade I listed building located on Euston
Road in the St Pancras area of the London
Borough of Camden.
It was opened in 1868 by the Midland
Railway as the southern terminus of its
mainline which connected London with the East
Midlands and Yorkshire.
It stands between the British Library, King's
Cross station and the Regent's Canal and is a
structure widely known for its Victorian
When it opened, the arched Barlow train
shed was the largest single-span roof in the

Model of St.Pancras Station

and Kings Cross Station

History of architecture

St Pancras is often termed the "cathedral of

the railways", and includes two of the most
celebrated structures built in Britain in
the Victorian era. The train shed, completed
in 1868 by the engineer William Henry
Barlow, was the largest single-span
structure built up to that time

The frontage of the station is formed

by the former Midland Grand Hotel,
designed by George Gilbert Scott, an
example of Victorian
Gothic architecture, now occupied
by the five-star Renaissance London
Hotel and apartments

View from busy south Euston Road

History of architecture

The space between the columns

always is the multiple of the size of
the barrels of Burton beer.

The Midland Railway Company

wanted something grand and
representative and so their wish was
fulfilled both in the train shed as
well as the Midland Hotel.

The shape of roof is a reversed

trough or half-pipe, terminated
by two vertical glass screens.

History of architecture

the Barlow train shed is elevated

5 m (17 ft) above street level, with
the area below forming the
station undercroft.

The materials used were wrought

iron framework of lattice design,
with glass covering the middle half
and timber (inside)/slate (outside)
covering the outer quarters. The two
end screens were glazed in a
vertical rectangular grid pattern
with decorative timber cladding
around the edge and wrought
iron finials around the outer edge.

History of architecture


Also known as London King's Cross, is a central

London railway terminus opened in 1852. The station is
located on the edge of Central London, at the junction of
the A501 Euston Road and York Way, in the Kings
Cross district and within the London Borough of
Camden on the border of the London Borough of
Plans for the station were first made in December 1848
by and under the direction of George Turnbull, who was
the resident engineer for construction of the first 20
miles of the Great Northern Railway north out of
The detailed design, by Lewis Cubit, and construction
was in 18511852 on the site of a former fever and
smallpox hospital. The main part of the station, which
today includes platforms 1 to 8, was opened on 14
October 1852. It replaced a temporary terminus at
Maiden Lane that had opened on 7 August 1850.

History of architecture

The design is magnificent in its simplicity, being

based on two great arched train sheds, with a brick
structure at the south end designed to reflect the
main arches behind.

St.Pancras (Midland) and Kings Cross (Great

Northern) were constructed just a few yards
apart, as extraordinarily and specially as
possible, to be seen as a prestige object for the