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Analysis of an Airfoil

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ENGINEERING SCHOOL

BACHELORS DEGREE ON AEROSPACE ENGENEERING

FINAL REPORT

AIRFOIL PROJECT

ANALYSIS OF NACA 4421 AIRFOIL

Pablo Villanova Tamayo

Raphael Rubiano Vasco

Carlos Sans Ajo

Marcos Benedi

YEAR 2013-2014

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

ABSTRACT

Nowadays the interest in aerospace vehicles development is growing

and driving the need for an improved understanding of the relevant

aerodynamics. A reasonable starting point is the study of airfoil section

aerodynamics.

Performance of several geometry characteristics of two-dimensional

airfoils are study using different fluid analysis software to know its general

effects. Variations in the thickness, camber, and leading/trailing edge shape

are considered.

An analysis of NACA 4421 were being held the results obtained the

results obtained show how pressure distribution, lift-to-drag ratio and

velocity magnitude of fluid change with the Reynolds selected and the

different angles of attack in our case 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees were

evaluated.

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

CONTENTS

ABSTRACT.............................................................................................. 3

1

INTRODUCTION............................................................................... 5

1.1 Project objectives........................................................................5

BASIC CONCEPTS............................................................................5

2.1 Lift............................................................................................... 5

2.2 Drag............................................................................................ 6

3.1 Theoretical results of NACA 4421................................................7

3.2 Experimental results with ANSYS Workbench fluid flow software.

8

3.2.1 Velocity Magnitude................................................................9

3.2.2 Velocity Vector....................................................................10

3.2.3 Absolute Pressure................................................................12

3.2.4 Pressure Distribution...........................................................14

CONCLUSIONS.............................................................................. 17

REFERENCES................................................................................. 17

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

1 INTRODUCTION

The analysis performed under this study are intended to provide

theoretical predictions for comparison with experimental measurements.

The first step in airfoil analysis is choosing a method that has the

proper balance of fidelity and speed for the given application.

These range from linear methods, concerned with solving velocity

potential equation, to more complicated methods that involved solving the

Euler (inviscid) or Navier-stokes (viscous) equations at various points on and

around the airfoil to determine the nature of the flow.

The main objective of this project is to evaluate the NACA 4421 airfoil

with artificial compressibility methods offering a straightforward and

efficient means of preconditioning to allow for the solution of an

incompressible homogenous flow field.

The analyses make use of three assumptions about the flow field. The

flow is incompressible by the formulation of the flow solver, the flow is fully

laminar, and the flow field is steady.

2 BASIC CONCEPTS

2.1 Lift

An airfoil develops lift at positive angles of attack through lower

pressures over the top of the airfoil compared to pressures under the airfoil.

The lift and drag coefficients are strongly dependent on angle of attack

and less dependent on Reynolds number.

Reynolds number effects are particularly important in the region of

maximum lift coefficient just prior to stall.

The lift force can be found from the lift coefficient, CL, in the following

way:

1

2

L= A V Cl

2

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Where is the density of the fluid through which the airfoil moves, A is

the area equal to the span times the mean chord of the airfoil, V is the

undisturbed flow speed, CL is the lift coefficient, and L is the lift force.

The lift coefficient then expresses the ratio of the lift force to the force

produced by the dynamic pressure times the area.

moderate angles.

Cl increases as angle of attack increases smoothly until a

maximum value is reached (Cl max).

After that maximum value is reached, the airfoil is said to be

stalled.

Also, the lift to drag ratio is often of interest to the designer since it

represents a kind of aerodynamic efficiency-the most economical cruising

condition for an airplane is determined from the point of maximum lift to

drag ratio.

Delivering that lift with lower drag leads directly to:

Climb performance.

Glide ratio.

2.2 Drag

The force on an object that resists its motion through a fluid is called

drag. When the fluid is a gas like air, it is called aerodynamic drag. When the

fluid is a liquid like water it is called hydrodynamic drag.

Fluids are characterized by their ability to flow. In somewhat technical

language, a fluid is any material that can't resist a shear force for any

appreciable length of time. This makes them hard to hold but easy to pour,

stir, and spread.

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Drag depends on the density of the air, the square of the velocity, the

air's viscosity and compressibility, the size and shape of the body, and the

body's inclination to the flow. In general, the dependence on body shape,

inclination, air viscosity, and compressibility is very complex.

1

D= A V 2 Cd

2

The drag coefficient then expresses the ratio of the drag force to the

force produced by the dynamic pressure times the area. The drag coefficient

contains not only the complex dependencies of object shape and inclination,

but also the effects of air viscosity and compressibility.

3.1 Theoretical results of NACA 4421

Cl/Cd ratio on the four digit airfoil NACA 4421.

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

The curve represents the ratio of the lift coefficient to the drag

coefficient of NACA 4421. The rapid decline of the Cl/Cd ratio for high angles

of attack is clear.

Lift and drag coefficients against angle of attack for a NACA 4421

airfoil. As the angle of attack exceeds about 20 degrees, the lift drops off

while the drag begins to increase, so that understanding the rapid decline

but smoothly decreasing of the drag-to-lift ratio.

A higher ratio is typically one of the major goals in aircraft design.

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

software.

The analysis were made for different angles of attack at a velocity of

50 m/s, assuming the three assumptions mentioned before: incompressible

flow, laminar flow and steady state.

3.2.1 Velocity Magnitude

In the upper image we can see that a zero degrees, since the airfoil

NACA 4421 is almost symmetrical, the lift produced is very low but there still

exist life as we can see the velocity distribution is higher in the upper wall.

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

10

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

decreasing at the trailing edge, where we can see that it has been produced

separation of the fluid an so that vortex are being generated.

3.2.2 Velocity Vector

With the velocity vector we can see the direction of the fluid,

combining with the color of the velocity distribution magnitude for better

understanding.

In all below images we can see at the leading edge and their nearest

the stagnation point through concentration of vectors and low velocity. Also

at the trailing edge in blue we see the reduction of the fluid velocity and the

change in the direction due to the layer separation.

11

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

12

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

The absolute pressure is inverse to the velocity magnitude, it is due in

simple words for the Bernoulli theorem it means when the velocity increases

the pressure drops and when the velocity decreases the pressure increase.

13

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

14

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

In the below images we can see how the absolute pressure is being

distributed along the entire airfoil length.

We can see that there is always lower pressure in the upper wall of the

airfoils so that generating always lift for the angles of attack study in this

project.

15

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Also, as the angle of attack increases the magnitude of the pressure is

being reduce until the angle where better performances are achieved in this

case and according with theoretical results is at an angle of attack of 20

degrees, from this point pressure will increase in the upper face and the stall

will be produce.

16

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

17

RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

4 CONCLUSIONS

separation from trailing edge toward leading edge as the angle

is increased (Trailing Edge Stall).

maximum lift, soft stall.

o Effective airfoil shape produces high value of Cl max.

o Stalling speed of aircraft (take-off, landing).

o Improved maneuverability (turn radius, turn rate).

computational fluid dynamics, future efforts should focus on obtaining a

complete range of experimental data that will confirm the results.

5 REFERENCES

References used in this report:

1. Juan P. Murcia, Alvaro Pinilla. CFD Analysis of Blunt Trailing Edge

Airfoils. 2009.

2. Dam, K. J. Standish and C. P. Van. Experimental Research on

Blunt Trailing Edge Airfoils. 2003.

3. Drag and Lift coefficient. The Engineering Toolbox. [En lnea]

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/drag-coefficient-d_627.html.

4. Heffley, David. Baylor. [En lnea] January de 2007.

http://www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.php/41147.pdf.

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