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Nursing Assessment of Spiritual Needs

1st step to planning spiritual care: NEEDS
ASSESSMENT
Through: formal (nursing research)
Informal (interaction with patient and
family
To be explored:
Level of spiritual development
Religious tradition and practice

Nursing assessment:
JCAHO mandate
“Spiritual assessment should, at a minimum,
determine the patient’s denomination, beliefs,
and what spiritual practices are important to the
patient. This information would assist in
determining the impact of spirituality, if any, on
the care/services being provided and will
identify if any further assessment is needed.
The standards require organizations to define
the content and scope of spiritual and other
assessments and the qualifications of the
individual(s) performing the assessment [with
many organizations requiring chaplains to be
board certified].”

Spiritual Development
Stages of Faith Development
 Spiritual Development
We grow spiritually, just like we grow
cognitively, physically, and morally.
 Review of Fowler’s Stages of Faith
(1984)
– Faith is defined as universal
human phenomenon that leads
persons to need and find
meaning and understanding of
themselves in relation to their
world
• Not necessarily tied to a
religion
7 Stages
 Undifferentiated (infant - toddler) love,
hope, trust courage

 Intuitive-projective (3-7) fantasy filled
– influenced by examples, moods,
actions and stories of the visible faith
of primarily related adults
– This is the stage of preschool children in
which fantasy and reality often get mixed
together. However, during this stage, our
most basic ideas about God are usually
picked up from our parents and/or society.

 Mythic-literal (up 12) sort out
fantasy/real
– When children become school-age, they
start understanding the world in more logical
ways. They generally accept the stories told
to them by their faith community but tend to
understand them in very literal ways. [A few
people remain in this stage through
adulthood.]

 Synthetic-conventional (adolescentadult) incongruities, experiences
– Most people move on to this stage as

teenagers. At this point, their life has grown
to include several different social circles and
there is a need to pull it all together. When
this happens, a person usually adopts some
sort of all-encompassing belief system.
However, at this stage, people tend to have
a hard time seeing outside their box and
don't recognize that they are "inside" a belief
system. At this stage, authority is usually
placed in individuals or groups that represent
one's beliefs. [This is the stage in which
many people remain.]

 Individual-reflective-examine owns
faith/beliefs apart from childhood
– This is the tough stage, often begun in young
adulthood, when people start seeing outside
the box and realizing that there are other
"boxes". They begin to critically examine
their beliefs on their own and often become
disillusioned with their former faith. Ironically,
the Stage 3 people usually think that Stage 4
people have become "backsliders" when in
reality they have actually moved forward.

 Conjunctive-appreciation for
past/value self
– It is rare for people to reach this stage before
mid-life. This is the point when people begin
to realize the limits of logic and start to
accept the paradoxes in life. They begin to
see life as a mystery and often return to
sacred stories and symbols but this time
without being stuck in a theological box.

 Universalizing-infrequently reached,
inclusive of all people/faiths,
unshackle society burdens.
– Few people reach this stage. Those who do
live their lives to the full in service of others
without any real worries or doubts.

 Spiritual Health
for Ourselves and Our Patients

etc. worship and serve. God/Life Force/Absolute—faith in the unseen. personal dignity. significance. . participant of a vital group. Spiritual Well-Being SAS Spiritual Pain: Questions: why me? Feelings: hopelessness. etc Others—meaning relationship with family. Spiritual pain is rooted in shame leading a patient to abandon hope in God’s love.Includes: Self—meaning & purpose. and guilt Religious pain is rooted in guilt leading towards punishment and experienced as fear. receive support and love. love and be loved. respect. friends. fellowship. etc Community—contribute. despair. fear. forgiveness. etc. cope with life.