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3/12/2015

MUATAN LISTRIK
HUKUM COULOMB
Mata Kuliah
Fisika Dasar II
Jurusan Fisika FMIPA
Universitas Brawijaya

2015

LISTRIK

Petir
merupakan
salah satu
contoh
fenomena
yang
berkaitan
dengan listrik.

1

2 . Elektron bermuatan listrik negatif. Proton bermuatan listrik positif . Bagian nukleus : proton dan neutron. Neutron tidak bermuatan listrik.3/12/2015 MATERI & ATOM Padat Cairan Gas Semua materi terbentuk dari atom-atom STRUKTUR ATOM Electron Proton Neutron      Bagian atom : nukleus dan elektron.

benda akan bermuatan negatif (Q=-Ne). Nomor Masa Atom (A)  A=Z+N (Neutron).  Banyaknya proton=Z. Muatan elektron = -e = -1. Muatan proton = +e = 1. benda akan bermuatan positif (Q=+Ne). Muatan biasanya dibawa oleh elektron.  Saat kehilangan (kekurangan) elektron. MUATAN LISTRIK     Satuan muatan listrik (Q) adalah Coulomb. Macam muatan listrik : positif dan negatif.3/12/2015 STRUKTUR ATOM Nomor Atom (Z)  Banyaknya elektron= Z.  Saat mendapatkan (kelebihan) elektron.60 x 10-19 C.60 x 10-19 C.  Nukleus berat. elektron ringan. 3 . Ukuran  Diameter atom sekitar 10-10 m.  Keadaan normal atom adalah netral (tidak bermuatan).

 TONGKAT GELAS yang digosok dengan kain sutra akan menjadi bermuatan positif. MUATAN LISTRIK  TONGKAT PLASTIK yang digosok dengan kain wol atau bulu akan menjadi bermuatan negatif. 4 .3/12/2015 MUATAN LISTRIK Gaya pada muatan  Muatan sejenis tolak menolak.  Muatan tidak sejenis tarik menarik.

Muatan listrik dapat dipisahkan atau dipindahkan. semua muatan akan berada di bagian permukaan/luar (tidak ada yang berada di dalam). Jika isolator diberi muatan. muatan mungkin berada (atau tidak berada) di bagian dalam. maka setelah digosok: Muatanplastik= .3/12/2015 KEKEKALAN MUATAN LISTRIK   Muatan listrik tidak dapat diciptakan atau dimusnahkan. 5 . Contoh.Muatanwol. ISOLATOR dan KONDUKTOR Jika konduktor diberi muatan. Bila plastik dan wol (pada keadaan awal ) masing-masing tidak bermuatan.

ISOLATOR dan KONDUKTOR 6 .3/12/2015 ISOLATOR dan KONDUKTOR Conductors cannot be charged by friction. However. The charges arriving at the conductor stay on the outer surface and distribute themselves over that surface so that they are as far away from the forces of the other charges as possible. charge can be transferred to a conductor by contact with a charged object.

and are maleable (can be bent or shaped). but the electrons are rather like an electrically charged liquid. This iron atom (26 protons. the outer (valence) electrons of the atoms are only weakly bound and are free to move around in the solid. e. which can move from one iron atom to the next in a metal. Electrons are the “charge carriers”.3/12/2015 ISOLATOR dan KONDUKTOR In insulators. Path of electron in a metal 7 . the electrons are tightly bound in the atoms and are not free to move around. In solid metal conductors. patches of molecular ions are created on the surface. The conductor as a whole may be electrically neutral. tend to be shiny (if polished).) in which the charge carriers are not electrons.g. ionic liquids. by friction. but they are also good heat conductors. a “sea” of electrons within the material. 26 electrons) has two electrons in its outer shell. but these patches are immobile. When insulators are charged. There are other forms of conduction (in semiconductors. • These are all properties that come from the ability of electrons to move easily. LOGAM dan KONDUKSI • Notice that metals are not only good electrical conductors. etc.

3/12/2015 ELECTROSCOPE PELEPASAN MUATAN The human body. by rubber shoe soles).g. composed mainly of salty water.. a person touching a charged object will normally discharge the object. is a moderately good conductor. 8 . Where the charge goes next depends on the degree to which the person is insulated form ground (e. Therefore.

9 . it is possible to induce charge on an electrically neutral object. Example: Bring a charged rod near (but not touching) an electroscope and observe the effect on the leaves.3/12/2015 POLARISASI MUATAN MUATAN DAN INDUKSI By using charge polarization.

3/12/2015 MUATAN DAN GAYA SIFAT MUATAN 10 .

3/12/2015 HUKUM COULOMB HUKUM COULOMB 11 .

(However. Superposisi: 12 . can be superimposed.) 2. (This is particularly important because charge tends to move round on conductors. it is usually OK provided v<<c). Coulomb’s Law applies only to point charges. Coulomb’s Law applies only to electrostatics (non-moving charges). 3. like other forces. Strictly speaking. Electrostatic forces.3/12/2015 HUKUM COULOMB PENGGUNAAN HUKUM COULOMB 1.

3/12/2015 Force of One Charge on Another Resultant of Two Electric Forces on a Charge 13 .

3/12/2015 Resultant of Two Electric Forces on a Charge 14 .