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BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Mitigation of Internal Corrosion


in Oilfield Water Pipeline
Systems
June 2009

2009-0010

2100, 350 7 Avenue S.W.


Calgary, Alberta
Canada T2P 3N9
Tel (403) 267-1100
Fax (403) 261-4622

403, 235 Water Street


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador
Canada A1C 1B6
Tel (709) 724-4200
Fax (709) 724-4225

www.capp.ca communication@capp.ca

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 130


companies that explore for, develop and produce more than 90 per cent of
Canadas natural gas and crude oil. CAPP also has 150 associate member
companies that provide a wide range of services that support the upstream oil and
natural gas industry. Together, these members and associate members are an
important part of a $120-billion-a-year national industry that affects the
livelihoods of more than half a million Canadians.

Review by July 2013

Disclaimer
This publication was prepared for the Canadian Association of Petroleum
Producers (CAPP). While it is believed that the information contained herein is
reliable under the conditions and subject to the limitations set out, CAPP does
not guarantee its accuracy. The use of this report or any information contained
will be at the users sole risk, regardless of any fault or negligence of CAPP or
its co-funders.

2100, 350 7 Avenue S.W.


Calgary, Alberta
Canada T2P 3N9
Tel (403) 267-1100
Fax (403) 261-4622

403, 235 Water Street


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador
Canada A1C 1B6
Tel (709) 724-4200
Fax (709) 724-4225

www.capp.ca communication@capp.ca

Contents
1

Overview.......................................................................................................................1

Failure Statistics ...........................................................................................................2

Corrosion Mechanisms and Mitigation.......................................................................3


3.1
3.2

Pitting Corrosion..............................................................................................3
Other Failure Mechanisms ..............................................................................3

Recommended Practices ..............................................................................................9

Corrosion Mitigation Techniques..............................................................................16

Corrosion Monitoring Techniques ............................................................................18

Corrosion Inspection Techniques..............................................................................20

Leak Detection Techniques .......................................................................................22

Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques......................................................................23

Figures
Figure 2-1: Natural Gas Pipeline Operating FailuresTotal Failures and Failure Frequency by
Reporting Year .................................................................................................................2
Figure 3-1: Internal Corrosion in a Water Injection Pipeline Prior to Grit Blast Cleaning .............4
Figure 3-2: Internal Corrosion in a Water Injection Pipeline After Grit Blast Cleaning.5

Tables
Table 3.1: Contributing Factors and Prevention of Internal Water injection Corrosion...............7-8
Table 3.2: Contributing Factors and Prevention of Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipelines.............9
Table 4.1: Recommended Practices - Design and Construction................................................ 10-11
Table 4.2: Recommended Practices - Operating Practices ........................................................ 12-15
Table 5.1: Corrosion Mitigation Techniques .............................................................................. 16-17
Table 6.1: Corrosion Monitoring Techniques............................................................................. 18-19
Table 7.1: Corrosion Inspection Techniques .............................................................................. 20-21
Table 8.1: Leak Detection Techniques........................................................................................ 22-23
Table 9.1: Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques....................................................................... 24-26

Overview
Corrosion is a dominant contributing factor to failures and leaks in pipelines. To
deal with this issue, the CAPP Pipeline Technical Committee has developed
industry recommended practices to improve and maintain the mechanical integrity
of upstream pipelines. They are intended to assist upstream oil and gas producers
in recognizing the conditions that contribute to pipeline corrosion incidents, and
identify effective measures that can be taken to reduce the likelihood of corrosion
incidents.
This documents addresses design, maintenance, and operating considerations for
the mitigation of internal corrosion in oilfield water handling systems. Within this
document, oilfield water pipelines are defined as those constructed with carbon
steel materials and transporting fresh or produced water. Typically, these would
be pipelines used to convey fresh source water, produced water for water flood
purposes, or water sent for disposal down disposal wells. This document does not
address the deterioration of aluminum and non-metallic pipelines.
This document is complementary to CSA Z662 and supports the development of
corrosion control practices within Pipeline Integrity Management Programs, as
required by CSA Z662 and the applicable regulatory agency. In the case of any
inconsistencies between the guidance provided in this document and either Z662
or regulatory requirements, the latter should be adhered to.
This document is intended for use by corrosion specialists involved with the
development and execution of corrosion mitigation programs, engineering teams
involved in the design of gathering systems, and operations personnel involved
with the implementation of corrosion mitigation programs and operation of wells
and pipelines in a safe and efficient manner. It contains a consolidation of key
industry experience and knowledge used to reduce oil effluent pipeline corrosion;
however it is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all practices.
Additional recommended practices developed by the CAPP Pipeline Technical
Committee are:

Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Sour Gas


Gathering Systems
Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Sweet Gas
Gathering Systems
Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent
Gathering Systems
Best Management Practice for Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried
Pipeline Systems

These documents are available free of charge on the CAPP website at


www.capp.ca.

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Failure Statistics

In 2008, oilfield water pipeline systems accounted for 22% of the total
pipeline incidents in Alberta.

In 2008, internal corrosion was the cause of approximately 35% of the 170
oilfield water pipeline incidents in Alberta. This is the largest of any
individual cause for oilfield water pipeline incidents.
80
70

500

460
425

419

438

378 379

400

365

350

315

49.3
42.0 40.8

40

45.1

284

30

300

259 254 264

40.1 39.1

214 205

31.2

20

212

201
178

26.0
22.4

185 185

180
161

159

153

170

250
200
150

19.8 18.318.2
14.1 12.9

10
0

450

Total WA Incidents

60
50

# WA Incidents / 1000km

10.8 9.4 10.0 10.8


8.3 9.0 8.9 7.1 7.7 9.6

19851986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

100
50
0

# WA Incidents / 1000km 49.3 42.0 40.8 45.1 40.1 39.1 31.2 26.0 22.4 19.8 18.3 18.2 14.1 12.9 10.8 9.4 10.0 10.8 8.3 9.0 8.9 7.1 7.7 9.6
Total WA Incidents

419 378 379 460 425 438 365 315 284 259 254 264 214 205 178 161 180 201 159 185 185 153 170 212

WA Length (1000's km)

8.5 9.0 9.3 10.2 10.6 11.2 11.7 12.1 12.7 13.1 13.9 14.5 15.2 15.9 16.5 17.1 18 18.6 19.1 20.5 20.9 21.7 22.1 22.1

Figure 2-1 Total Oilfield Water Pipeline Incidents and Oilfield Water Pipeline
Incidents/1000km by Year in Alberta (source: ERCB)
Figure 17b - Water Pipeline Incidents by Cause
Corrosion (Internal) (CI)

Corrosion (External) (CX)

All Other Causes

Construction Damage (CD)

Unknown (UN)

Mechanical Joint Failure (JF)

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Figure 2-2 Oilfield Water Pipeline Incidents by Cause in Alberta (source: ERCB)
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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Corrosion Mechanisms and Mitigation


3.1

Pitting Corrosion
Pitting corrosion along the bottom of the pipeline is the primary corrosion
mechanism leading to failures in uncoated carbon steel water pipelines. The
common features of this mechanism are:

3.2

the water contains any of the following; O2, CO2, H2S, bacteria, chlorides,
scale, or suspended solids
the presence of fluid traps where solids can accumulate

Other Failure Mechanisms


There are a number of other failure causes that occur commonly with water
pipelines. These include the following:
improper design or construction of internally coated pipeline systems (e.g.
poor coating application, uncoated risers, uncoated flange faces, use of
metallic gaskets, etc.)
damage resulting from improper installation of non-metallic piping systems
(e.g. rough handling)
the presence of deteriorated, damaged, or ineffective coatings, linings, or
joining systems

Figure 3-1: Internal Corrosion in a Water Injection Pipeline Prior to Grit Blast Cleaning

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Figure 3-2: Internal Corrosion in a Water Injection Pipeline After Grit Blast Cleaning (same
pipeline as above)

Figure 3-3: Internal Corrosion Under a Cracked Epoxy Coatings

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Figure 3-4: Internal Corrosion on Flange Face. Note Corrosion Caused by Use of Metallic
Rather than Non-Metallic Gasket.

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Tables 3.1 and 3.2 describe the most common contributors, causes, and effects of internal
corrosion in oilfield water pipelines. The tables also contain corresponding mitigation measures
commonly used to reduce oilfield water pipeline corrosion. It is applicable to both internally bare
carbon steel pipeline systems and to coated or lined pipelines where deterioration or damage has
allowed water contact with the steel substrate.
3.1 Contributing Factors and Prevention of Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipelines Mechanisms
Contributor

Cause/Source

Effect

Mitigation

Oxygen

Ingress from vented


water storage tanks
or ineffective gas
blanketing systems

Oxygen can
accelerate pitting
corrosion at
concentrations as low
as 50 parts per billion

Use gas blanketing,


vacuum deaeration,
and oxygen
scavengers

Present in surface
source waters

Typical organic
inhibitor effectiveness
can be reduced by
the presence of
oxygen

CO2 dissolves in
water to form
carbonic acid

Effective pigging
and inhibition

Corrosion rates
increase with
increasing levels of
dissolved CO2

H2S dissolves in
water to form weak
acidic solution.

Effective pigging
and inhibition
programs

Corrosion rates
increase with
increasing H2S levels

Hydrogen sulphide
can form protective
iron sulphide (FeS)
scales

Small amounts of
H2S (less than 500
ppm) can be
beneficial as a
protective FeS film
can be established

Localized breakdown
of FeS scales results
in accelerated pitting

Carbon
Dioxide (CO2)

Hydrogen
Sulphide
(H2S)

Often present in
waters

CO2 concentration
can be increased
through miscible
floods (CO2 floods)

Sometimes present in
waters

H2S concentration
can be increased
through formation
souring
Can be generated by
sulfate reducing
bacteria

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Contributor

Cause/Source

Effect

Mitigation

Bacteria

Acid producing and


sulfate reducing
bacteria can lead to
localized pitting
attack

Effective pigging
program

Treat with inhibitors


and biocides

Solid deposits
provide an
environment for
growth of bacteria

Eliminate the
introduction of
bacteria (i.e. treat
the source of the
problem)

The deposited scale


may increase the
pitting rate by
creating localized
corrosion beneath
the deposit (i.e.
under deposit
corrosion)

Install pigging
facilities and
maintain an
effective pigging
program

Acid removal of
scale

Scale inhibitor
chemical
treatments

Install pigging
facilities and
maintain an
effective pigging
program

Control corrosion
through effective
inhibition

Scale
Deposition

Solid
Accumulations

Produced from the


reservoir or present
in surface source
waters
Contaminated
production equipment

Contaminated drilling
and completion fluids

Porous nonprotective scales can


adhere to pipe
surface

Scale can form due


to pressure and/or
temperature
changes, or from comingling waters

Mainly produced from


the formation, can
include sand or scale

May originate from


drilling fluids,
workover fluids, and
scaling waters

May include
corrosion products
from upstream
equipment

Low fluid velocity or


poor pigging
practices allow solids
to accumulate in the
pipeline

Accumulated solids
and debris may
increase the pitting
rate by creating
localized corrosion
beneath the deposit
(i.e. under deposit
corrosion)
Solids can reduce the
corrosion inhibitor
concentration
available to protect
the pipe

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

3.2 Contributing Factors and Prevention of Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipelines


Operating Practices
Contributor

Cause/Source

Effect

Mitigation

Detrimental
Operating
Practices

Ineffective pigging

Design pipeline to
be piggable

Ineffective inhibition

Inadequate pipeline
suspension

Design pipelines to
allow for effective
shut-in and
isolation

Commingling of
incompatible waters
(i.e. mixing waters
can create scale
problems)

Develop and
implement proper
suspension
procedures,
including pigging
and inhibition

Test for fluid


compatibilities

Limit operating
temperature

Implement an
effective MOC
process

Maintain integrity of
pipeline operation
and maintenance
history and records

Re-assess
corrosivity on a
periodic basis

Exceeding
Maximum
Operating
Temperature

Management
of Change
(MOC)

Change in operating
temperature

Change in production
characteristics or
operating practices

Well re-completions
and work overs

Lack of system
operating history and
practices

Accelerated
corrosion

Coating deterioration
and corrosion
damage

High temperatures
can damage both
internal and external
coatings

Unmanaged change
may result in gaps in
the effectiveness of
an Integrity
Management
Program

Changing personnel
and system
ownership

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Recommended Practices
Tables 4.1 describes the recommended practices for mitigation of internal corrosion in oil
field water pipelines during design and construction.
Tables 4.2 describes the recommended practices for mitigation of internal corrosion in oil
field water pipelines during operation.
Note:

The primary method for controlling corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline systems
is the use of properly installed coated, lined, or non-metallic pipelines.

4.1: Recommended Practices - Design and Construction


Element

Recommended
Practice

Benefit

Comments

Materials of
Construction

Non-metallic
materials are
corrosion resistant

Properly coated or
lined steel pipelines
are corrosion
resistant

Consider use
corrosion resistant
materials nonmetallic materials as
per CSA Z662
Clause 13
Reinforced
composite,
thermoplastic-lined
and polyethylene
pipelines

Non-metallic
materials may be
used as a liner or a
free standing
pipeline depending
on the service
conditions

Consider use of
internally coated
carbon steel pipeline
systems (i.e. nylon
or epoxy coated)
with an engineered
joining system

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Element

Recommended
Practice

Benefit

Comments

Pipeline
Isolation

Removes potential
deadlegs from the
gathering system

Be aware of
creating deadlegs
between isolation
valve and mainline
at tie-in locations
(i.e. install 12
oclock tee tie-ins,
or above ground
riser tie-ins)

Develop shut-in
guidelines for the
timing of required
steps to isolate and
lay up pipelines in
each system

Multi-disc/cup pigs
have been found to
be more effective
than ball or foam
type pigs

Use pigs that are


properly over sized,
undamaged, and
not excessively
worn.

Receivers and
launchers can be
permanent or
mobile

Pigging
Capability

Install valves that


allow for effective
isolation of pipeline
segments from the
rest of the system

Allows the effective


suspension and
discontinuation of
pipeline segments

Install binds for


effective isolation of
in-active pipeline
segments

Install or provide
provisions for pig
launching and
receiving capabilities

Pigging is one of the


most effective
methods of internal
corrosion control

Use consistent line


diameter and wall
thickness

Pigging improves the


effectiveness of
corrosion inhibitor
treatments

Use piggable valves,


flanges, and fittings

Page 10

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Element

Recommended
Practice

Benefit

Comments

Inspection
Capability

Install or provide
capability for
inspection tool
launching and
receiving

Use consistent line


diameter and wall
thickness

Internal inspection
using inline
inspection
(intelligent pigging)
is the most effective
method for
confirming overall
pipeline integrity

Use piggable valves,


flanges, and fittings

Proper design allows


for pipeline
inspection without
costly modifications
or downtime

Consideration
should be given to
the design of
bends, tees, and
risers to allow for
navigation by the
inspection devices

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Table 4.2: Recommended Practices Operating Practices


Element

Recommended
Practice

Benefit

Comments

Corrosion
Assessment

Evaluate operating
conditions
(temperature,
pressure, water
quality) and prepare a
corrosion mitigation
program

Effective corrosion
management comes
from understanding
and documenting
design and operating
parameters

Refer to CSA Z662


Clause 9 Corrosion Control

Define acceptable
operating ranges
consistent with the
mitigation program

Consider the effects


of H2S, CO2,
Oxygen, chlorides,
bacteria, and solids

Communicate
corrosion assessment,
operating parameters,
and the mitigation
program to field
operations and
maintenance
personnel
Re-assess corrosivity
on a periodic basis
and subsequent to a
line failure

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Element

Recommended
Practice

Benefit

Comments

Corrosion
inhibition and
monitoring

Refer to Section 5
for Corrosion
Mitigation
Techniques

Refer to Section 6
for Corrosion
Monitoring
Techniques

Refer to CSA Z662


Clause 9 Corrosion Control

Number and
location of
monitoring devices
is dependent on the
predicted corrosivity
of the system

Consider provisions
for chemical
injection, monitoring
devices, and
sampling points

Develop and
communicate the
corrosion inhibition
and monitoring
program to field
operations and
maintenance
personnel

Allows for an
effective corrosion
mitigation program

NOTE: Ensure
personnel
understand their
responsibilities and
are accountable for
implementation and
maintenance of
corrosion
management
programs.

Inspection
Program

Develop suspension
and lay up
procedures for
inactive pipelines

Develop an
inspection program
or strategy

Communicate
inspection program
to field operations
and maintenance
personnel.

Creates greater buy


in and awareness of
corrosion mitigation
program

Refer to Section 7
for Corrosion
Inspection
Techniques

Provides assurance
that the corrosion
mitigation program is
effective.

Refer to CSA Z662,


Clause 9 Corrosion Control

Risk assessments
should be used to
prioritize
inspections

Page 13

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Element

Recommended
Practice

Benefit

Comments

Failure
Analysis

Recovery of an
undisturbed sample
of the damaged
pipeline

Adjust the corrosion


mitigation program
based on the
results of the failure
analysis

Conduct thorough
failure analysis

Improved
understanding of
corrosion
mechanisms
detected during
inspections or as a
result of a failure

Use the results of


the failure analysis
to reassess the
corrosion mitigation
program

Allows for corrosion


mitigation program
adjustments in
response to
inspection results

Inspect to determine
extent and severity
of damage prior to
carrying out any
repair or
rehabilitation

Prevents multiple
failures on the same
pipeline

Refer to Section 7
for Corrosion
Inspection
Techniques

Prevents
reoccurrence of
problem

Refer to CSA Z662


Clause 10.10 for
repair requirements

Refer to Section 8
for Leak Detection
Techniques

Technique utilized
depends on access
and ground
conditions

Repair and
Rehabilitation

Leak
Detection

Based on inspection
results, use CSA
Clauses 10.9 and
10.10 to determine
extent and type of
repair required

Implement or make
modifications to
corrosion control
program after repairs

Develop a leak
detection strategy

Permits the
detection of leaks

Page 14

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Element

Recommended
Practice

Benefit

Comments

Management
of Change

Implement an
effective MOC
process

Maintain integrity of
pipeline operation
and maintenance
records

Ensures that change


does not impact the
integrity of the
pipeline system

Unmanaged
change may result
in accelerated
corrosion, using
inappropriate
mitigation strategy
for the conditions
(outside the
operating range)

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Corrosion Mitigation Techniques


Table 5.1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the mitigation of
internal corrosion in oilfield water pipelines.

Table 5.1: Corrosion Mitigation Techniques


Technique

Description

Comments

Oxygen
Control

Use gas blanketing, vacuum


deaeration, and oxygen
scavengers

The presence of small amounts


of oxygen (parts per billion) will
accelerate corrosion

Pigging

Periodic pigging of pipeline


segments to remove solids and
debris

Pigging is one of the most


effective methods of internal
corrosion control

Can be an effective method of


cleaning pipelines and reducing
potential for bacteria
colonization and under-deposit
corrosion

Selection of pig type and sizing


is important to ensure
effectiveness

Requires facilities for launching


and receiving pigs

Provides a barrier between


corrosive elements and the pipe
surface

Application procedure is
important in determining
effectiveness (i.e. volume of
chemical, diluent used, contact
time, and application interval).

Should be applied between two


pigs to effectively clean and lay
down inhibitor on the pipe.

Should be used in conjunction


with pigging to remove liquids
and solids (i.e. the inhibitor must
be applied to clean pipe to be
the most effective)

Batch
Corrosion
Inhibition

Periodic application of a batch


corrosion inhibitor to provide a
protective barrier on the instead of
the pipe.

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Technique

Description

Comments

Continuous
Corrosion
Inhibitor
Chemical
Treatment

Can be costly to treat high


volumes of water

Continuous injection may be


less effective at contacting full
pipe surface, especially in a dirty
system. Batch treatments may
be more effective

Chemical pump reliability is


important in determining
effectiveness

Assists in controlling bacterial


growth

Use in conjunction with pigging


(to clean the line) will enhance
effectiveness

Batch treatments are typically


the most effective

The use of improperly selected


biocides can create a foam that
can be a serious operational
issue

Biocide
Chemical
Treatments

Continuous injection of a corrosion


inhibitor to reduce the corrosivity
of the transported fluids or provide
a barrier film

Periodic application of a biocide to


kill bacteria in the pipeline system.

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Corrosion Monitoring Techniques


Table 6.1 describes the most common techniques for monitoring corrosion and operating
conditions associated with internal corrosion in oilfield water pipelines.

Table 6.1: Corrosion Monitoring Techniques


Technique

Description

Comments

Water Analysis

Ongoing monitoring of general


water chemistry, pH, chlorides,
dissolved metals, bacteria,
suspended solids, chlorine,
oxygen, and chemical residuals

Changes in water chemistry will


influence the corrosion potential

Trends in dissolved metal


concentration (i.e. Fe, Mn) can
indicate changes in corrosion
activity

Chemical residuals can be used


to confirm the level of application

Sampling location and proper


procedures are critical for
accurate results

Production
Monitoring

Ongoing monitoring of production


conditions such as pressure,
temperature and flow rates

Changes in operating conditions


will influence the corrosion
potential. Production information
can be used to assess corrosion
susceptibility based on fluid
velocity and corrosivity

Mitigation
Program
Compliance

Ongoing monitoring of mitigation


program implementation and
execution

Chemical pump reliability and


inhibitor inventory control is
critical where mitigation program
includes continuous chemical
injection

The corrosion mitigation program


must be properly implemented to
be effective

The impact of any noncompliance to the mitigation


program must be evaluated to
assess the effect on corrosion

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June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Technique

Description

Comments

Corrosion
Coupons

Used to indicate general corrosion


rates, pitting susceptibility, and
mitigation program effectiveness

Coupon type, placement, and


data interpretation are critical to
successful application of this
method

Coupons should be used in


conjunction with other monitoring
and inspection techniques

Bio-spool placement and data


interpretation are critical to
successful application of these
methods

Bio-spools should be used in


conjunction with other monitoring
and inspection techniques

Solids pigged out of pipelines (pig


yields) can be tested for bacteria
levels

Bacteria presence on surfaces is


considered a better way to
quantify type and numbers
present in the system

The device selection, placement,


and data interpretation are critical
to successful application of these
methods

Continuous or intermittent data


collection methods are used

Electrochemical monitoring
should be used in conjunction
with other monitoring and
inspection techniques

Bio-spools

Electrochemical
Monitoring

Used to monitor for bacteria


presence and mitigation program
effectiveness

There are a variety of methods


available such as electrochemical
noise, linear polarization, electrical
resistance, and field signature
method

Page 19

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Corrosion Inspection Techniques


Table 7.1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the detection of
internal corrosion in water injection pipelines.

Table 7.1: Corrosion Inspection Techniques


Options

Technique

Comments

Inline
Inspection

Magnetic flux leakage is the most


common technique

Effective method to accurately


determine location and severity
of corrosion

Inline inspection can find internal


and external corrosion defects

The tools are available as self


contained (free swimming) or
tethered

The pipeline must be designed


or modified to accommodate
inline inspection

To run a tethered tool inspection


it is often necessary to dig
bellholes and cut the pipeline

An evaluation must be done to


determine potential corrosion
sites prior to conducting NDE

The use of multi-film radiography


is an effective screening tool
prior to using ultrasonic testing

NDE is commonly used to verify


inline inspection results,
corrosion at excavation sites and
above ground piping

Practical limitations of NDE


methods and the factors
affecting accuracy must be
understood

NonDestructive
Examination
(NDE)

Ultrasonic inspection, radiography


or other NDE methods can be used
to locate metal loss in a localized
area

Page 20

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Options
Video Camera
/Boroscope

Destructive
Examinatio
n

Technique
A visual inspection tool to locate
internal corrosion

Physical cut out of sections from


the pipeline

Comments

Used to locate and determine


the presence of corrosion
damage, but it is difficult to
determine severity

This technique may be limited to


short inspection distances

Can not directly measure the


depth of corrosion pits

Consideration should be given to


locations where specific failure
modes are most likely to occur

Page 21

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Leak Detection Techniques


Table 8.1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the detection of
pipeline leaks caused by internal corrosion in oilfield water pipelines. Proactive leak
detection can be an effective method of finding small leaks and mitigating the
consequences of a major product release or spill.

Table 8.1: Leak Detection Techniques


Technique

Description

Comments

Production
Monitoring

Volume balancing or pressure


monitoring to look for indications of
leaks

Changes in volumes injected or


pressure can indicate a pipeline
failure

This is a more effective tool for


finding large leaks and ruptures

Accurate flow meters and specialized


software can be very effective for
liquid pipelines

Provides full time unmanned reaction


to possible leaks

Indications include water on surface,


soil subsidence or erosion, or
vegetation discoloration

Can be used in combination with


infrared thermography and flame
ionization surveys

Need sufficient volume of escaping


water to create an identifiable
temperature difference

Normally completed using aerial


techniques

Equipment is portable and very


sensitive, pipeline has to be displaced
to a combustible gas

Equipment may be hand held,


mounted on an ATV, or mounted to a
helicopter

Capable of detecting pinhole leaks


that may be otherwise non-detectable

Leak Detection
Systems

Right-of-Way
(ROW)
Surveillance

Infrared
Thermography

Flame
Ionization
Survey

Odor Detection

Sophisticated leak detection


systems using meters and SCADA
software can identify leaks and
automatically shut down pipelines

Visual inspection by ground access


or aerial surveillance to look for
indications of leaks

Thermal imaging is used to detect


temperature change on Right-ofWay due to escaping water

Electronic instrumentation used to


detect very low concentrations of
gas

Odorant detection using trained


animals and patented odorants

Page 22

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques


Table 9.1 describes common techniques used for repair and rehabilitation of pipelines
damaged by internal water injection pipeline corrosion.
Prior to the repair or rehabilitation of a pipeline the appropriate codes and guidelines
should be consulted, including:

CSA Z662, Clause 10.10, Permanent and Temporary Repair Methods


CSA Z662, Clause 10.11, Temporary Repair Methods
CSA Z662, Clause 13, Reinforced composite, thermoplastic-lined, and polyethylene
pipelines

Table 9.1: Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques


Technique

Description

Comments

Pipe Section
Replacements

When determining the quantity of


pipe to replace, consider the
extent of the corrosion and as well
as the extent and severity of
damage or degradation of any
internal coatings or linings along
with the condition of the remaining
pipeline

Impact on pigging capabilities


must be considered (use same
pipe diameter and similar wall
thickness)

The replaced pipe section should


be coated with corrosion inhibitor
prior to commissioning or coated
with an internal coating compatible
with the existing pipeline

Remove damaged section(s) and


replace

Page 23

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Technique

Description

Comments

Repair Sleeves

For internal corrosion it may be


possible in some circumstances
for the damaged section to remain
in the pipeline as per the
requirements in CSA Z662 Clause
10.10 along with proper corrosion
control practices to prevent further
deterioration

Different repair sleeves are


available including composite,
weld-on and bolt-on types. The
sleeves must meet the
requirements of CSA Z662 Clause
10.10

A variety of materials are available


with different temperature and
chemical resistance capabilities

Impact on pigging capabilities


must be considered

Polymer liners may eliminate the


need for internal corrosion
mitigation, corrosion monitoring
and inspection

Reduction of inhibition programs


may impact the integrity of
connecting headers and facilities
constructed from carbon steel

Polymer Liners

Reinforcement and pressurecontaining sleeves may be


acceptable for temporary or
permanent repairs of internal
corrosion as per the limitations
stated in CSA Z662

A polymer liner is inserted in the


steel pipeline

The steel pipe must provide the


pressure containment capability

Page 24

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems

Technique

Description

Composite or
Plastic Pipeline

Pipeline
Replacement

Comments

Freestanding composite or plastic


pipe can be either plowed-in for
new lines, or pulled through old
pipelines

This pipe must be designed to


provide full pressure containment

A variety of materials are available


with different temperature and
chemical resistance capabilities

Composite or plastic pipelines


may eliminate the need for internal
corrosion mitigation, corrosion
monitoring and inspection

Reduction of inhibition programs


may impact the integrity of
connecting headers and facilities
constructed of carbon steel

Must be pig and inspection tool


compatible

Refer to Section 4
Recommended Practices in this
document for details

Using internally coated steel


pipeline systems with an
engineered joining system should
also be considered

The alteration or replacement of


the pipeline allows for proper
mitigation and operating practices
to be implemented

Freestanding plastic pipelines may


be limited to low-pressure service
Impact on pigging capabilities
must be considered

Ensure that when replacements in


kind occur, the alteration or
replacement of the pipeline allows
for proper mitigation and operating
practices to be implemented

Page 25

June 2009
Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems