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PHOTOGRAPHY

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GENDER PERFORMANCE

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PHOTOGRAPHY

(A a C/VFV4& GENDER PERFORMANCE IN (A a )^/VM)6e PHOTOGRAPHY JENNIFER BLESSING JUDITH HALBERSTAM LYLE ASHTON HARRIS NANCY SPECTOR CAROLE-ANNE TYLER SARAH WILSON GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM .

Inc. New York January 17— April This exhibition the National 27. ca.2 x 101. NYC.8 back cover: Jimmy €)1997 9>s inches (30 Musee des Beaux Arts de Nantes 1997 New York and Courtesy of the artist Matthew Marks Gallery.Rrose is a Rrose a Rrose: is Gender Performance in front cover: Claude Cahun Photography Organized by Jennifer Blessing 1928 Self. 100 Fifth Avenue New York. New York 10128 Hardcover edition distributed by Harry N.6 cm) All rights reserved. x in part by tor the Arts The Solomon New York. R. Guggenheim Foundation. 30 x 40 inches (76. New York bathroom. Printed in Italy by Sfera cm) Nan Goldin Paulettc Cibachrome and Tabboo! in the print. ISBN 0-89207-185-0 x 23. Solomon R. New York 10011 Designed by Bethany Johns Design. 1991 . is supported Endowment 11 'X. Abrams. Gelatin-silver print.Portrait. Guggenheim Museum. ISBN 0-8109-6901-7 (hardcover) (softcover) Guggenheim Museum Publications 1071 Fifth Avenue New York.

KyMxUcuo&wuieS SARAH WILSON 156 c/ erfoymuiq me c/jodt/ im me J970s NANCY SPECTOR 176 ^ne S$r/ of ~&e#idew Bathrooms.Contents JENNIFER BLESSING xyVwMie is a c/\rose is Gender Performance a z/vxose in Photography JENNIFER BLESSING CAROLE-ANNE TYLER 134 id'emt nut files . AND 221 *jndex 0/ cyle/wt J. Butches. SUSAN CROSS. FIONA RAGHEB <///<//< as of Female Masculinity . and the Aesthetics JUDITH HALBERSTAM 190 f//a« waclna LYLE ASHTON HARRIS 204 Stfrtists ' iyjtoqra/inies TRACEY BASHKOFF. VIVIEN GREENE.

Swid Peter B. a /n Trustees in Perpetuity R. Koch Robert M.///. Perelman Robert M. Director Edward H. . Lewis Peter Littmann Wendy McNeil L-J. Guggenheim Thannhauser Peggy Guggenheim ^7'o((}i</<rfroM Trustees Giovanni Agnelli Jon Imanol Azua Edgar Bronfman. Raja Sidawi Trustee. Honorary Trustee Terry Semel Claude Pompidou James Sherwood B. /</<< tin Honorary Solomon Justin K. Rifkind Rover Denise Saul Rudolph Schulhof B. Meyer Thomas Krens Ronald O. Wadsworth. The Right Honorable Chairman Earl Castle Stewart Peter Lawson-Johnston Mary Sharp Cronson Carlo De Benedetti President Daniel Filipacchi Ronald O. McNeil Rolf-Dieter Leister Vice-President and Treasurer Stephen C. Swid John S. Richard A.. Jr. Director Emeritus Cornel West Thomas M. Gardiner Thomas Krens Wendy Peter Lawson-Johnston L-J. Perelman Frederick Reid Secretary Edward F. Messer Michael F. Gardiner Barbara Jonas Vice-Presidents David H. Officio Lennon Seymour Slive Stephen C. Wettach John Wilmerding William T Ylvisaker Jr.. Ex Jacques E.

Frankfurt REFCO Group. National Portrait Gallery.. New York Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Musee des Beaux.-Z. Berlin Bugdahn und Kaimer. Nan Goldin New York Fisher Stevens Howard Greenberg Gallery. A. Gallery. Anthony and Anne Fonds Albert-Birot. Sotheby's London Art. Paris VII . Centre Georges Pompidou. New York New York Wooster Gardens. Paris New York Horan Jedermann Collection. New York Jack Tilton Gallery.<'//f/r/'. Conn. Fisher Society. Projects. Los Angeles G. Gender. N. Holzer Vivian Francais. William Regen S. Ubu Gallery. New York Michael Senft. Ind. Milan M. Margo Leavin Inc. Galerie Diisseldorf New York London Newburg Michael James O'Brien Robert C. The Royal Photographic E. // New York The Museum of Modern Cecil Beaton Archive. and Reproduction. Rossi. New York Ronnie and Samuel Heyman. West Hollywood Museum of Art Christian Marclay Matthew Marks Gallery. Los Angeles County Bloomington. Paris Daniel Patrick Breen Galerie Nierendorf. Joan and Gerald Three lenders who wish to remain anonymous Kimmelman Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex. Ehrlich and Ruth Lloyds Alexandra Epps Ltd. New York Richard and Ronay Menschel Carol and Paul Meringoff Annette Messager The Metropolitan Museum of Art Robert Miller Gallery. California Parti The Detroit The Philadelphia Museum of Art Institute of Arts Communiste Deutsche Bank AG. Galerie Berggruen.. Bath Beverly and Harris Schoenfeld Paris Barry Friedman Ltd.j c j ////</ Yff ///< /( Timothy Baum.Arts de Nantes Musee National d'Art Moderne. Jane B.

REFCO Group. ed.2 cm). 45. x 30 inches (114. 1/10 . 19H2 Color photograph.' Ltd. #112.Cindy Sherman Untitled.9 x 76.

: — n 'cUmefiaA I ' like. Twombly. etc. too-cold cigars.Jp'<ume. Marc- Antoine Charpentier. Here begins the intimidation others to endure me of liberally. watches. evenings with people J/ li/oe. Havana slow walks. my body is not the Hence. I don'l like salad. the politico-sexual. colors. Bartok. J/ to anyone. it kill what bothers you. toast. pears. beer. desserts. all romantic music. Pollock. scenes. his trumpets and kettledrums. the harpsichord. has no meaning. tautologies. telephoning. the smell of new-cut hay (why doesn't someone with a "nose" make such a perfume). means: this is of apparently.Je. would have been out o/ am liberal in order not to be a killer. cheese. roses. spontaneity. Vivaldi. all this I don't know. Satie. had not I kill killed the pure liberalism: I it: you fly. all kinds of writing pens. (A If I fly bothers me. cherries. pimento. villas. trains. political convictions. geraniums. initiatives. peonies. coffee. Eisenstein. flat pillows. : in women in slacks. Miro. in this anarchic foam a kind no importance of listless blur. animated cartoons. same as of tastes and And yet yours. J/ cloot Y /(Arc at L. remain which obliges silent or rejections and which they do not share. having change. requiring complicity or irritation.'s house. Js Yi/ce. Burgundian branles and Renaissance dances. the mountains leaving Salamanca. marzipan. champagne. the piano. the bend of Adour seen from Doctor of the Brothers. Fourier.) —ROLAND BARTHES . Sartre. the organ. Chopin's concertos. white Pomeranians. walking sandals on the lanes southwest France. unrefined salt. aon Y Yi/ce : this. loosely held Glenn Gould. Brecht. the Marx seven in the morning etc. strawberries. Medoc wine. distastes. cinnamon. realistic novels. Arthur Rubinstein. Bouvard and Pecuchet. Verne. Handel. children's choruses. the afternoon. gradually appears the figure of a bodily enigma. white peaches. to by pleasures polite confronted the body. lavender. fidelity.

thus offering an additional medium to further the Guggenheim's mission of interpreting the museum the of a significant body of photographs and a Modern and contemporary photography. more exhibitions that attempt to synthesize the art and issues of the twentieth century are being organized. As we reach the end of this century. and for her diligence and commitment splendid realization.Xjrovetuwd THOMAS KRENS An important milestone in the history of the Guggenheim Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation made a combined gift Museum was reached in 1993. and Light. Center). Assistant Curator Jennifer Blessing proposed this exhibition several years thank her for suggesting finally. Through ject is become orientation has in several countries. Rrose an issue across the course of the twentieth century and examines traces could have been undertaken. In has offered a rich selection of photography exhibitions including monographic shows on Robert Mapplethorpe and Joel-Peter Witkin. it to institutions in the United its devel- through to who were who imprimatur. responding to changes in contemporary society brought about through advances in transportation and telecommunications. all created the works and of the individuals and . 1940 to the Present). 1919-1939 (J. artists My gratitude goes who to so generously contributed to the success of this project. such as Photography in Contemporary the Edge: organized by In/sight: African Photographers. the when art of this century. The institution has always been strongly linked to Europe. Museum). port of Rrose art It on premises its this innovative show. for whose work has not previously been exhibited has never before been ago. our audience will be permitted to enjoy the at museum the and. this it is its its early sup- unlikely that the research for this pro- support. photography sections within the context of other exhibitions (The Italian Metamorphosis. Guggenheim Museum's the and global. Without shown Guggenheim Museum I theoretical rather than first is a photography monographic or want in seeing And. a Federal agency. this the lenders its for the Arts. Rrose is a Rrose: Gender Performance in Photography exhibition to be based strictly historical. and German Art (Walker Art other institutions. Joseph Albers: Glass. art as The Guggenheim committed is to approaching an international and transhistorical phenomenon. permanent established photography as a significant part of the Guggenheim's gift collection. as well as exhibitions Twenty Photographers in Europe. exhibition would not be possible without the so considerate as to lend them. opment We that are thematic of most are is grateful to the National a Rrose many artists is Endowment a Rrose. Color. The supporting grant for the future acquisition of the past few years. States. now. and Paul Getty Women on Dieter Appelt (Art Institute of Chicago). in some cases. 1943-1968.

New York. County Museum of Art. Musee d'Art Moderne de Paris. Director. Tim Wride. Curator. the have accomplished one of the goals of the NEA. Director. I to their interests will it I am. deeply appreciative of the galleries from which we borrowed works. Bloomington. who private collectors museum. Of course. their directors and staff also provided important information and assistance. Society. The and their institutions Detroit Institute of Arts. On NEA behalf of everyone at the bition's lenders. Director. University. In 1993. the National Endowment for the Arts awarded a grant to its a Rrose: Gender Performance unknown ported the show are me. Jean Aubert. Innis Howe Shoemaker. Philippe de Curator. Curator in Charge. Curator of Collections and and Germano Celant.. to I wish I Photography. de Ville Museum Suzanne Page. I I pro- thank her for being a source of inspiration and a supportive comrade throughout this project. Associate Curator. the support of the reality. Alain Sayag. Centre de Creation Paris. to colleagues Director. Curator of Photographs Collection. Director. Robert Miller Gallery. is I is by standing on the shoulders of Giants. The Royal Photographic I am among Senior Curator. and Maria Morris Hambourg. London.JENNIFER BLESSING have seen further If I sued the topic. Picture Librarian. me over the years in the final analysis. Associate Curator of Photography. and Paul Cox. The Philadelphia Museum of Art. and Pam Roberts. Director. Los Angeles Montebello. feel that I that they felt I should also thank the the exhibition would speak exhibition has achieved that result. Viatte. Curator of Contemporary Exhibitions. grateful for his perspicacity Krens. without which am had the opportunity to present grateful to have might not have pur- I my initial ideas in graduate semi- nars conducted by Linda Nochlin and Robert Lubar at the Institute of Fine Arts. National Portrait Gallery. Germain Musee National d'Art Moderne. Director. Curator. Guggenheim Museum Associate Curator Nancy Spector my academic work in pose an exhibition related to first New York suggested that Surrealism and the theory of masquerade. I am la especially grateful for the efforts of Alexandra Rowley. and Jennifer Pearson Yamashiro. and concerns. Curator. At an early stage in Rrose is a Rrose is development. extend I my would heartfelt gratitude to the exhi- particularly like to thank the have so generously lent their important works. The Museum of Modern Art. as ever. Anne d'Harnoncourt. Musee des Beaux-Arts de Nantes. It is many our great good fortune that they were willing to share their pieces with our visitors. Beal. Frequently. Assistant Ind. and Inc. and Reproduction. and Gerard Audinet. without never have become a moments. Peter Study Center Supervisor. Director. Graham whose loans Institute for Research in Sex. Kinsey Gender. The Metropolitan of Art. This important grant provided the necessary impetus to propel the show from the drawing board to the implementation stage. I would like to are listed elsewhere in this catalogue. If. and Virginia Dodier. John Bancroft. Although the various parties in who sup- could personally thank each one. and Martha Chahroudi Mock. Georges Pompidou. Chief Curator. this exhibition and insight. and Industrielle au Centre Galassi. Robert Sobieszek. Bath. would I made also like to express this exhibition possible: Director. New . my appreciation Samuel Sachs II. Terence Pepper. Glenn Lowry. on behalf of the people who have told museum's Thomas director. would At crucial have relied on the support and advice of Lisa Dennison. NEWTON ISAAC This exhibition it the fruit of encouragement from colleagues. who Art.. they are also listed the lenders. New York. Curator.

I have benefited from the adept assistance of Lamoureux and Claudia Schmuckli. Michael and Many Guggenheim Museum tion. Peter Boswell. Russell Ferguson. Z. Assistant Curator. Gladstone Gallery. Curator. My research was assisted Director. Ltd. Berlinische Galerie. Matthew Marks New York. Chief Curator. Shaun Caley. and Philippe Garner and Lydia Cresswell-Jones at Sotheby's London. Gallery. Anne Radcliffe. and Fiona Ragheb. and Jacklyn Burns. and Julie Schieffelin. I am and Jack Tilton and Annabella Johnson. both formerly Walker Art Center. Mark Judy Brauner. Loan Coordinator. Paris. PaceWildensteinMacGill Gallery. Brussels New York. Rhona Rudolf Kicken. Paris. Curatorial Assistant. I must Paris. I Gallery. PaceWildensteinMacGill Gallery. Paul Getty Museum. Deutsche Bank AG. particularly thank Christian Bouqueret and Chantal Crousel. Gillian McMillan. James Crump. Heidi Weber. REFCO Group. wrote the bulk of the catalogue biographies. Other Exhibition Assistants Josette counsel are: Arlette Albert-Birot. Zabriskie Gallery. Parti Communiste Francais. Manager of Government Grants and Research. New York. Galerie Alain Paviot. Schwartz. and Nathalie Leleu. London. Wooster Gardens. J. Gilberte Brassai. Daniel B. curatorial colleagues have frequently depended upon include Assistant Curators Clare Bell. Adam Brooks. Christine also and dealers. Galerie Chantal Crousel. to Dana whom am I Friis-Hansen. Fletcher. Metro New York. I also thank Suzanne Ouigley. Arturo Schwarz.York. Brent Sikkema. Thomas members contributed enormously Other individuals who Wayne Baerwaldt. and Rochelle Steiner. Janet Walther. Eleanor Barefoot. New York and Marie-Claude Lebon. Rhona Hoffman and Kasmin. Beverly Hills. Regen Projects. Los Angeles. Georges Marchais and Jean-Louis Raach. Contemporary Arts Museum. Centre de Creation Industrielle au Centre Georges Pompidou. Didier Schulmann. Chicago. has been quite helpful on of Ariane Grigoteit. by various colleagues. Erna Haist. Cabinet Gallery. Galerie Nierendorf. New York. Santa Monica. Musee National d'Art Moderne. Jeffrey Pictures. Institut fur Auslandsbeziehungen. Associate Curator. Ben Barzune. Conservator. have provided important information and support Battaglioli. Janine Antoni's also grateful for the good offices assistant. Ubu process. Cologne. Aileen Rosenberg. Editor. and Jack Woody. especially grateful: Jorn Merkert. Manager of Foundation and Corporate Giving. Head Registrar for Collections and Exhibitions. Chief Curator of Collections. Galerie Christine et Martin McGeowin and Andrew Wheatley. Los Angeles. Sprengel Museum. and Vincent Fremont. Associate Curator/MSW. has ably handled the myriad complex arrangements for the loans to this exhibition. Galerie Peabody. to the success of this exhibi- have greatly relied on the astute aid of Vivien Greene. Paris. Paul Schimmel. Senior Curator. Ulrich Krempel. Rudolf Kicken. Berlin.. and Exhibition Coordinator Jon Ippolito. who also I J. and Paris. Director. formerly merly Metro Pictures. Cohen. Contemporary Art. for offering assistance at various moments. Rights and Reproductions Coordinator. both thoughtfully developed grant applications for this project. Matthew whose Drutt. New York. Isy Brachot. Jack Michael Joseph. Stuttgart. and also benefited from the expertise (and enthusiasm) of other Virginia Zabriskie. various occasions. Curatorial Assistant. Julian Cox. Museum of Chicago. for- Deborah Irmas. Boxer. Gagosian Gallery. Matthew Marks. Paris. Paul New York. Minneapolis. Andrew Gallery. Eileen Lehr. Galerie Bouqueret-Lebon. Paviot. New York. Houston. I staff Filipacchi. Hannover. Paris. and Connie Butler. Alain Tilton Gallery. New York. and Tom Heeman. Ealan Wingate. Assistant Registrar. Exclusive Agent. In the research most Hoffman Isy Brachot. At various times. The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts. New York. Paul Kasmin Gallery. Galerie 1900-2000. formerly Barbara Adam and Janelle Reiring Leslie. Gaia Frank Kolodny. Florian Karsch. Marcel and David Fleiss. has thought- .

Matt Schwede. These many interns interns include Ann Pomplas-Bruening. logic. and Jennifer Editor. Susan Cross. deftly orga- nized the overall installation arrangements. my colleagues I want to and Sarah Wilson in the curatorial thank Judith Halberstam. which superbly articulates the intentions of Rrose a Rrose is is a Rrose. and Kate Zamet. Jocelyn Brayshaw. and Bob Seng. and their thoughtful com- and look forward with anticipation their future endeavors. I and family. and am I Julia Caldwell. deepest thanks go to the artists whose creativity that has inspired also deeply appreciate department. would would I Mary Ann Hoag. Lyle Ashton Harris. Franziska Martin. Cardinali. Associate and Keith Mayerson provided invaluable assistance. issues. Without their expertise. Alison Engel. level defy any discourse from many of the ments. Groom. and heartfelt be for you in the future that which you have been for me. for their efforts on behalf of the show. Affairs. and contributed additional biographical entries on the Finally. tance. am I Jennifer Miller. who have meticulous- Knox White. deeply appreciative of the encouragement of Anthony Calnek. It is ultimately their it. and his skillful realization of this catalogue. grateful for their assis- fruition. because each oeuvre some J. carefully realized ingenious solutions to various framing Assistant Jaff. Jody Hanson. my My gratitude imagination. led a wonderful installation crew that included Jack Davidson. the exhibition presentation would have been diminished. for her sensitive editing of the essays in this profound. These authors have brought their unique vision and style to the material and immeasurably enhanced the final product. Museum this project and her contribution fortunate to have had the opportunity to work with Bethany is book greatly appreciated. Jr. my sincere gratitude and affection. Project Editor. who not only have home my actually enjoyed the ride. over the Pamela Burns. wish to . lent their editorial I helpful thank Scott Gutterman. who have that I may who Studying their work has been a tremendous pleasure for me. Peter Read. Spector. Tracey Bashkoff.fully considered the conditions of the works and how best to present them. Production Assistant. Drier. Nancy for their stimulating insights. Director of Publications. Production Services Manager/Exhibition Design Coordinator. To but my colleagues. Exhibition Technician. sensitively Coordinator. on myriad aspects of the show. Editor. Editor. Her expertise was essential for am most it is book's production. Jan-Philipp Friihsorge. She has created a beautiful book. no understatement I am to acumen Deborah to this project. without I am which I Rajendra Roy. efforts are a constant source of inspiration. James Lee who able to see this project to its work of catalogue contributors whose Raffaella McNamara. This project has been subsidized by the contribution of past few years. my and my efforts. who designed this catalogue as well as the exhibition graphics. to say that this book especially grateful for the talents of and Melissa Secondino. I give obsession with this project.. I which will always on have benefited enormously inquiries in this exhibition. Carole-Anne Tyler. Janice Yang. Exhibition Technician/ Administrative Technician. Jocelyn contributions to this project in the design stages. is and object has patient responses to work my numerous own its mine) that attempts to define to include their Fiona Ragheb. would not have been delighted to include the have worked. Edward Weisberger. Elizabeth Paper Preparator. Public Affairs likely Managing ly controlled the Lighting Technician. which included the services of Richard Gombar. is made numerous Assistant. friends. devised the lighting for the exhibition. I artists' am honored (like work in the exhibition. artists in the exhibition. Johns. Director of Public also like to Without him have remained a figment of Elizabeth Levy. also a great challenge.

8 . 1927 Gelatin-silver print. inches (21 x 14. Sotheby's London cm) . x 5 "„.5 Cecil Beaton Archive.Cecil Beaton ( ouiUca ( 'astegii.

these works.')( studies. Rather. the chain of postulates and which underlie develop. shape a narrative story of human of sorts. transgenderism. who sought is a may willful- who have never to met. Butler's 1990 book Gender Double: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity inspires subsequent research in a variety of disci- plines. films.7 x 8.. its coverings. Which is not to say that the selection is arbitrary. in and the construction of Trust Salle Charitable and the DeRoy Photographic Acquisition identity." the rehabilitation of bisexuality. including art history ments in the theoretical 2 Queer studies present some of the most stimulating develop- understanding of the formation of identity since the 1970s and 1 .Jw«?fc JENNIFER BLESSING This exhibition and book represent an argument.i&i/dnavu intersects with vi-tUrne popular interest in gender presentation and sexuality in the 1990s an explosion in the production of art that takes as it subject the body and Claude Cahun Self-Portrait. in all of group shows. reflect a existence in the twentieth century. achieve widely dis- parate goals are linked together despite their differences. and so on) proliferate. developments of and vestimentary codes Endowment Fund fore- or "gender trouble. Albert this decade. there works: artists lived at different times. articles. gathered together as they are. the 1990s. t much parts to herald an exponential expansion of which is in the growth of academic gay and lesbian influenced by the provocative new theoretical models of gender construction developed by philosopher Judith Butler. and 4 \ }''• inches various sexualities ("lesbian chic. looks like this: S$." /riV//<\. The Neo-Expressionist painting and language-based Conceptual art of the 1980s and Peggy de (11. Founders Society Purchase. feints and disguises seem The contradictory juxtapositions of body ground gender y y> Cindy Sherman's :> play. 1927 Gelatin-silver print. ness about the selection who premises that you. //te ( J. In skeletal form. the reader. In this light. by work that focuses on the body as a physical entity is followed. and web sites on cross-dressing. ). I the other contributions to this book. Books. They are based on a chain choose of interlocking As to follow or not.8 cm) Detroit Institute of Arts.

Furthermore. The phenomenon of "Sexual Liberation" manifested tion. These are the postulates that generate the patterns of Rrose in Photography:' In the following essay logical order. ulation of incongruity between the posing world without. in tech- . so that itself in cultural performance and body early 1970s resonate in of the art contemporary produc- art. real- allows the artic- assumed costume. Representing the physicality of the body in contemporary mediums such as film promote as well as to art. with frequent overlaps nique or method among such categories. The rise logical of mythologies of the self such as psychoanalysis and capitalism coincide with the techno- means to reflect each being unto itself. means of reproduction corresponds (not by technological inception of photographic The accident) with Cecil Beaton Archive. and photomontages created from found photographically based materials. The range of photographic representations includes documentary-style portraiture. in nor which will it it is be the issues of gen- der and sexuality hold a particular prominence. Cecil Beaton Gary Cooper.— 1980s work of theorists. clear that last. tens of investigation is widened beyond our contemporary preoccupations.5 x 22. Not only do aspects of European art production between the two world wars (notably Dada and its legacy in Surrealism) resemble certain fea- contemporary tures of art. 12 x 8 % inches (30. conversely. but rather four ways to look . but some of the psy- choanalytic roots of current gender theory date to the late 1920s and 1930s.7 cm) medium 0/ photography yields the perfect arena for the play of gender and sexuality. 1931 ^//ie ( lelatin-silver print. Hypotheses concerning the lacuna of the early —from postwar period 1945 to the mid-1960s remain to be analyzed. in roughly chrono- These are not the only stories that could be told. the works. it in the photography and other reproductive and video share with sculpture and performance notions of the Real. a sub- sequent continuum appears to begin in the late 1960s. or. Sotheby's London the nineteenth-century unfolding of the legacy of the Enlightenment's exaltation of the individual. and feminist psychoanalytic These conceptual tools enable film fruitful readings of contemporary cultural production —whether me ten fine art or mass media. theatrically constructed self-portraits. now historical not the is moment first. proceeding with greater or lesser vitality until the present. I is a Rrose is a Rrose: Gender Performance present four narratives that encompass. This exhibition examines the manner in body and its a special relationship with which photography's strong aura of ism and objectivity promotes a fantasy of total gender transformation.

enriching in meaningful ways. Each of my fellow authors elucidates their particular expertise. Boston. yet they should not be construed as indicating that the artists involved created / ( )avid at zo their works the art is to illustrate a theory. 1972 x in inches 1 50. 1 iallery. Rather.6 ourtes) of the artist and Matthew Marks New York motives and internal < ielatin -silver print. cm . yet with its own ( them through logic. diverging some of the from them same themes. providing historical evidence to support the theses.Nan Goldin at the assembled material. historical. or that the examined as a text. at times. and. among works themselves are reducible other texts to a single issue. (literary. They elaborate the premises listed above. theoretical). Wove Street.8 \ 40.

as a of the "new- the right to vote. Lacan maintained that the phallus Phallus. whose Claude Cahun - < </ role of Portrait. Psychoanalytic accounts of its the formation of gender identity (and here Sigmund Freud's texts are key) posited masculinity as normative. which led to ambiva- men (wearing their clothes.. an excess or inscrutable other. and domestic and public inferior legal status laws." lelatin silver print. the sci- ence of psychoanalysis. endangering that the analyst loan Riviere made appear imperiled. as the inches written by assimilation into their profession reflected wider changes in the not accidental that It is many is who women fear their prerogative constituted in dissembling or the masking of is women's masculin- of decoration. one sex being changed into the other sex." an essential part of her of his rereading of Freudian a signifier of power. that will reject with linguistics. as well as alterations in through "unnatural" intellectual pursuits.9 x 8. The identity. (//'<<//// 1/ he infer </ ////<<• j' tf >/ //< We may but not know we do know exactly what sex that with the possibility it of is is. in and inheritance and comportment. there arose the central concerned with the epistemology of the individual. and the women which women were becoming rise women demanded and professions." with her call for changes took on particular urgency in tions in marriage dress lence. the signifier of the desire of the Other. psychoanalysis had organized development of itself around body and issues of the sexual the behaviors in the mind. fear that in women's this period. By the end of the nineteenth century. ///)//'(/ n< /(/'. 1933 4 With the post-Enlightenment decline of such explanatory systems of human civilization as discipline monarchy and religion." published For Riviere. modifica- their reproductive capacities "Womanliness analysts. notably [lysis all its attributes "The Meaning of the paper. and so on). but rather constructs feminine identity as an alienated social performance. however. access to universities In each case. in which she posited that professional ultrafeminine attire in order to assuage their male colleagues. smoking. women women were drawn to the question of feminine very nature of femininity was part of a larger social debate. and that there are many stages between a complete male and a complete female. and femininity as a kind of enigma. ity Masquerade. ." The period between the two world wars witnessed a burst of publications examining the nature of feminine sexuality and identity. mutable.' . 1929 women in society. that the femininity./< . that its frontiers are often uncertain. sought to have equity with men. havelock ellis."" it is in In the context is which order to be the phallus. facques Lacan resuscitated Riviere's contains i a line that has since become work in a 1958 a dictum: "I would say to say. The Psychology of Sex.8 Museum Boymans I'm van uningen Rotterdam cm) woman. in roles. femininity by burying it beneath a veil It is in this context her contribution to the debate in the form of a paper entitled in 1929. that woman through masquerade. She makes no claims for an inherent femininity. 1 13.

Madame Yevonde Mrs." Vivex color print. ishs ' . 14 '„ x The Royal Photographic 11 X from the Goddesses inches (36. Bath cm) series. Edward Meyer as "Medusa.3 x 29.7 Society.

basically annexing "femininity" to figure of the as androgyne masculine precepts. absorbed Lacan's French critics first specifically 1970. theorists have ninity as ininity. Uranian. cultural studies. mentioned the simplified reading of Butler's work as indicating that "all When gender is an interviewer drag. in this exhibition exemplify. for the same person. and butch/femme aesthetics. a butch presentation may may involve conformity yield a forced self- consciousness in certain contexts because of a socially perceived enunciation of difference."" having evacuated these concepts of any essential biological determination. Like mythic construction that is fem- perpetuated through the performative repetition of stereotypes of behavior and dress. including feminist psychoanalysis. is impossible does not mean that each individual can always voluntarily choose to inhabit For example. iden- constructed diegetically in movies. while cross-dressing "There are no direct expressive or causal might seem perceived as and gender presentation correspond and oppositional when they tion. while. Lacanian constructions of femininity as masquerade have been many developed and contested in disciplines." "woman." In the 1990s. as well as in the condi- work tions of spectatorship. "Yet Gelatin-silver print. and where that's I have a certain sympathy Newburg with Lacanian discourse. accepted or manipulated. that becoming gendered involves impersonating an ideal that nobody actually inhabits. alternately. masquerade masculinity a is broadened the notion of femi- encompass any gender to 1 identity. sexual practice." namely female impersonation. invert."' Third-sex terms ." and "feminine" a position. Throughout history there have been attempts to transcend the notion of binary sexual and gender distinctions through "third sex" concepts such Eonist. British critics in 1975. crossdressing. gender. x 5X inches (21 x 14 Collection of Daniel cm) I accept the idea that gender is an impersonation.. gender presenta- sexuality. 9 engaged From into their own. become amorphous. Instead. The hyperbolic representation of gender seems lines between sex." "masculine. and delineates the range of gender positions Man Ray Cini-sketch: (as Adam and opposed to a strictly binary dichotomy) as well as their historical diversity." Gay and lesbian theorists have been especially con- cerned with the study of various sites in which performances cause "gender trouble." Butler 1924-25 responded.although each subject has a Symbolic relationship to the phallus in the form of "having" no one tity is it actually possesses or "appearing" as {beingthe phallus). and works is more easily performance. Eve. %'/. as the subjects." The nineteenth-century deny difference. it how Film theorists interested in it." 12 Accepting as a given that a fixed notion of the concepts "man. is drag? Hypermasculinity and hyperfemininity in a heterosexual situation essentially equivalent to their respective read as a purposeful (or conformist when as Butler asserts. and art criticism. 15 differ. or appeared to as the androgyne and neologisms such Amazon. myriad codes exist that are. the feminine masquerade of a female-born subject to social expectation. his reading of Riviere in the 1970s to the present. fantasy It male and female may be Which free-floating signifiers subject to arbitrarily assigned -meaning. sex artificial) they would that. This work convincingly exposes the heterosexist presumptions of earlier theoretically inspired studies. Yet. Sapphist.

as any student will change. So where does the pleasure come from? lover: "I don't troubled genders. iy32 Gelatin-silver print. David H. In other words. Roland Barthes posits a deceptively simple notion of self that is defined by the peculiar Art. the announces the juxtaposition know what I like. on the margins of the "master" binary logic. never invisible. 11 -xi). the more your tastes feel.2 cm) The Museum of Modern New York.'" And yet. you just want to tell it and nameable perfor- subject. which presupposes effects yielding indeterminability. a gender-ambiguous subject of codes in one is a kind of equal distribution of gender specific.Brassai "Bijou" o) Montmartre. more you learn. these ambiguous. In the epigraph that appears at the start of book. Mixing gender codes does not so uniform gender blurring.2 x 23." of that commonplace of the casual art Perhaps gender operates in the same way. readable. but I I am reminded this you. in that sometimes you don't want to know. know much about art. . Occasionally. these pleasures. yet they seem to be anything but. inches (30. but rather a variety of mances. Current theoretical conceptualizations of identity recognize both the inability to escape the binary system and the desire to corrupt are described as much result in it in a pleasurable way. McAlpin Fund fix a variety of subjectivities under one banner.

my taste.2 \ 19. I like women in slacks. In the course of developing which was modified the more quent junctures. too. Bloomington. Here a question. the more 1 questioned the apparent logic or arbitrariness of spoke. the more I an elaborate system of selection looked. the concatenation of and distinctions from others vidual can define itself by similarities to tastes. if Research in Sex. always be examined and My body more or is like/unlike his.George I Piatt Lynes accumulation of seemingly inconsequential 'ntitled.. 9% x ( 7/. the my criteria more choices. and Reproduction. ca. read. Each indibut unlike Gelatin-silver print. Gender. inches (23. Indiana thinks (consciously/unconsciously) one ought to look at a given greater or lesser extent. to a it is a confluence of factors- —environment. 1 " ("I like cherries. desire. Inc. wrote. of knowledge.4 cm) !ourtesy of the Kinsey Institute tui him. I I this exhibition. At fre- understood why I did not want to include any photographs that are voyeuristic or sensationalistic in a predatory kind 14 . which has been formed by moment.") The possible reasons for given tastes can you are so inclined. I I emerged. 1941 likes and dislikes. Perhaps one's gender presentation and responses to those of others are determined by how one less convincing explanations developed.

social images with a remote. any self-doubt.of way. at you. any sentimen- from emotion. in world where to perform Even when the address is is is an awkward —they represent the dream of and book its and your body total preserved on film. u>2s self- Photomontage. fixing film. is a who is which your a quotidian experience of the world. that is indicating any gap in the performance. for a tality. This be. your presence a is world in it by con- woman. Most of the photographs like a femme fatale in this exhibition figure looks directly at the camera. direct address a subject — "captured" on defines itself with a which you are who you acknowledged. to control. the classic phallic you with capturing you: you are sleeve. but this exclusion broadened to include intimate or sexualized nudity.7 cm Galerie Nierendorf. are characterized This is not through which It is not direct. forever. trol. instead. this is a subject vengeance. lapidary quality that exudes an exhibitionistic group of Hannah Hdch Training i Ertuchtigung). delight without. are images of fantasy the icy demeanor of mastery. The result a is highly artificed. The performer is will 11 \ - inches I 28 \ 18. face uncontrol- its stare. How different lably betrays every stranger. other. where your heart worn on your is These photographs. Berlin . moment.

. les . B. 1980). and James Mascarades" (Identities and masquerades). in and Routledge. 2. freudienne. The present exhibition focuses 6. . . Joan Riviere. apotheosis in metaphorical representations of a Formations of Fantasy (New York: Routledge. pp." from which all 9. photographic represen- like Butler Sex Changes Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical ture of gender theory. 2: example. the Subversion of Identity Mascarades. 255. that you. 47-82 (English-language abstract. proper reiterates to recall Marcel Sigmund Freud. 132-34). where the exhibition's premises were tations in and the catalogue in wall labels as a series of postulates. p. Exotism. Like the organizers of femininmasculin. and ations have erotic connotations that parallel la vie". Duchamp and on photographic represen- issues of "found" photo- tation. Yale University Press. There are those smirk always remains away (the moment a split-second who clown. imper- Meaning of the Phallus. Stein's cre- thoughtful critique of the heterosexist bias of its vol. Psychological Works of York: a Rrose: Gender Performance in inspired by the presentation of feminin- presented (New have frequently been asked to parse Rrose Rrose See. including "L'Autoportrait eds. Furthermore. pp. ed. a Rrose quoted p. 5-13. reprinted in Victor Burgin. pp. trans. p. are a Rrose. being developed. "Joan Riviere and the Masquerade." pp." in Burgin. See M. which 241-60. "Womanliness as eds. have the phallus that power. 1933). 57. "9- and Jacqueline Rose. differs a Rrose & my historically mind it of scholars and Eve Kosofsky title the alter ego. Formations of Fantasy. exh. "Femininity. yet a And after the shutter clicks). is "II Identites & Gallimard/F. presentation. for (1933). 58-59.. "Introduction-I. exh. Also. Self: Self-Portrait somewhat is Long and Richard Gubar.. . and desire. pp. For those familiar with the litera- Gertrude markedly. smiles and winks at you. in descriptive subtitle indicates which the gender of the subject Stein's New The Standard Edition of the Complete i953-i974)> vol. cat. Smith. 119-21. 5. (London: 1986). 1989). pp.. ed. My Jacques Lacan. it is dictum. pp. cites: "Morocco de Josef von Sternberg. execs pho- . and Kaplan. pp. no. in various Paul Willemen. literal phallic (1931). During the period in which this exhibition was pp. I would the rhetorical nature of I like to my Rrose is a Rrose is however. is present the picture of seriousness. Gilbert and Susan in No Man's (New Haven: Plymouth Arts Centre. Jacques Tourneur contexts and with diverse meanings. 3 Of course. Jacqueline Rose. W. 303-13. Fssai a Masquerade. Staging the National Portrait Gallery. and the theoretical is Standard Edition. and Cora Kaplan. xii-xiii. and focus on For W. pp. I'exotisme et 8. cat. For a Selavy is pronounced and poem like a Stein's line first biological reproduction. Rrose Selavy. Lingwood. sexuality.who playing to you. theme the masculin. 35-44- e'est in a sen- irrevocably tied to sexuality considered derivations. tional Mascarades" is highlighted. trans. 1995-February 1996). 1975)." in feminin- masculin: Le sexe de Pompidou. 12. Sigmund Freud. Gender Trouble: Feminism Land. eds. The references Paris. [Marie-Laure Bernadac]. see also a of the show. Diana Matias (London: British Film Institute. Lecture XXXIII. James Strachey (London: Hogarth "Female Sexuality" is famous motto with an addi- R intended feminine to calls to Introductory Lectures" Distinction between the Sexes" (1925). exclusively "Some Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the Duchamp's apparatus underpinning the show as well. but theirs sure and play pervades the exhibition. The flowery argument. pp. This promise of transcendence (not a there are others spirit of plea- a taunt). 1990). entitled "Identites . are not trapped in a body. approach to the material underscore The vol. Norton. to indi- eds. more is oriented than the "Identites trans. eds. the happy tions have influenced this project. 112-35. 7. in Juliet Mitchell Stein allude to the historical both Duchamp's and and Press. "Femininity and the Masquerade: Anne of the Indies." Cahiers du cinema. Essay on Identity. the gender premises of the exhibition: Rrose sual and vaginal imagery. vol. see Juliet Mitchell." Photographies 4 (April 1984). mise en scene ecole York: reprinted in Mitchell and Rose. too. work section of femininmasculin. England: similar to those of Rrose Ellis.. Judith Butler. 19. is Notes 1. Plymouth. Sexuality. i(S 4.lecta and Centre Georges form of 1995). Photography 1840S-1980S. and Claire Johnston. cate that sur l'identite. to my In the art-historical literature. and the .-L. "The reference to Stein Duchamp's gesture is not singular. 1996). 22. 1996)." basis of the exhibition in between-the-wars distinct ed. form of Duchamp's that there are different types of drag. "Eros. mind. Sandra M. R. )espite these similarities. pp. reprinted in Peter Baxter. Feminine confluence of meanings. the introductory exposition has been I is Photography. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh Film and Festival." Stephen Heath. Donald. Jean-Francois Chevrier and lean Sagne. or gender performance. 2off. that time can be stilled. my 3. too. 84. pp. Although gender can be conceived receive their Standard Edition. appeared other exhibitions and publica- as a and thus. The Psychology of Sex (New Havelock York: Ray Photographic Excesses.. femininmasculin. The premises of one of feminin- masculin S & five sections. the Centre Georges is Sternberg. holding a self-absorbed laughter. drag gesture has been canonized into an act (March review of the "great debate" over female International Journal of Psychoanalysis 10 dedicated to Emily Dickinson. 1986). subsequent masquerades are intended to complicate that reading. comme (New 1982). (Paris: I'art. in James Donald. no. including the use of graphic reproductions in collage. see the reviews by Juan Vicente Aliaga.. a possibility that you. "trench Lessons. Frieze 27 (March-April and Elisabeth Lebovici. which you may join if you wish. 21. (1929). 225 (November-December 1970). "Staging Pompidou the Self in Paris presented femininmasculin: Le sexe de Fart (October 24. 223-43. tographiques." in Claire Johnston sonation.34." Artforum 34. Sedgwick.

" ( the Seuil. pp." in Kate Linker. "The Body You Want. 1. Difference: 11. For Butler's articulation of the hyperbolic.. Masquerade: Masculinity and Representation. 1994). The ory field York: Routledge. African the Masquerade: Theorising the Female Spectator. through an inability Representation and Sexuality. . no. Mae Weems (New York: Routledge. 3-4 the changing connotations in the twenti- eth century for p. 1993). named for the eighteenth-century Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont. York: not a coincidence that the identifications of people derogatorily coded and to reinvest those words earliest in Mrs. "The Body Y'ou with Butleri. pp. Recent publications that examine constructions of masculinity encompassing manifestations include Helaine Posner. see "Critically Queer." Screen 23.25- "Eonist . eds. it implicit) logic. . for exam- i" . "Imitation and Gender Insubordination. was that by American Mary Ann Doane. ed. queer. example of the use of an art-historical context is Riviere's the- with positive meaning. or that the margin- alized should attempt to replace of Craig Owens. .acan I. "loan Riviere and the Masquerade. Difference (Charlottesville: University Press of Phallus. vetement le 34 1. Ellis's Theories term for the transvestite. pp. 11 (interview (November 1992). Artforum Want" }\.. or negro." [La Robe: Essai psychanalytique sur appears to account for their sexual practices. appears as femi- itselt Display [parade]. via Doane. Mass. 1991). and Simon Watson.most pp.. black." p. and created. 56." in Diana Fuss. Inside/Out: Lesbian Theories. gal. demand- of contested language. Sapphist and Amazon suggested the lesbian. exh. identity because (named or itself is Virginia. was the phal- have no need of leathers or the phallus. the subject. 36-44. Brian W'allis. in the sense that the contestation of names and their signi- fications are manifestations of a society's inability to agree on meaning.: Arts Center and MIT Berger. and Lemoine- analyst Eugenie masquerade. 1991)." in Butler. Matter: 14. September- ( girl. with picture essay by Carrie 199S 12. exh. ed. 1983]. 13." Butler. Perhaps the tion of Riviere's theory adop- influential ple. homosexual. cat. how they probably wouldn't be interested in ties no one has a flaw: "I'm not sure that anybody knows were able to account for their sexual practices. (Cambridge. Berkeley: University of California Press. artistic Andrew Perchuk and The Masculine eds. trans. Constructing Masculinity. p. cited resist See Kari Weil.. New > American. 1992). reprinted in Femmes l-atales: Psychoanalysis Doane.223-42. All of these neologisms indicate a disturbance in language. See her "Film and scholar October 1982).. ot "The Meaning of the The Lacanian men would or medals. PP. is Havelock "Uranian" and "invert" are late nineteenth-century terms indicating the used homosexual in literary circles. 15. the first second derived from the psychopathology of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and others. bv Heath. See Owens. 1 16. 116-17. "If the penis lus. Bodies that On the Discursive Limits oj "Sex" (New York: Routledge. Film Theory. Roland Barthes by Roland Barthcs Richard Howard ( (1975). Contemporary Art. Gay (New York: P." p. 74-97. Mil 1 ist Visual and Maurice Press." Routledge. notes that "virile display nine. Liz Kotz. 7-17./Miss/Ms. I.17-3210. 85. gay. nos. 199s). 86. It is names and Feminism. In words that are probably that "Posing. to On New New Museum cat. Androgyny and the Denial of iust like [Paris: Editions du to if they them anymore. Note. Marginalization manifested.uccioni explains. p. Butler.) 18. 8s. ing rights and political visibility inhabit this PP. thus betrays 17." name an a master 1984).

1920-21 lelatin-silver print. x The Philadelphia Vera White Collection 18 \ 6 Museum ' „ inches (21. Samuel 17.Man Ray Marcel ( Duchamp us Rrose Silavy. cm) White III and .3 S.6 x of Art.

is recollect is this. White feel thin. and she is not a she. Like the a typical Dadaist and product marketing.JENNIFER BLESSING Gender Performance 1. and "ugly" 1 and white. but rather an imposter. From words are not Life I collect black and black birds. is Loveliness extreme. Black when I am was using taste to get myself. too. From the standpoint the standpoint of black. Rrose Selavy What of "Next: Life and Letters of Marcel Duchamp." 1920 2 marcel duchamp. She. — Rose being the most the easy play on words That's it away from a little myself. How is letters of Marcel Gertrude stein." called Helen of Troy. Some European Photography Between Rose a rose is is a rose in Photography Two World Wars the a rose. she Euripides's account. in this case advertisements not Helen. which she "Belle Haleine. phantom Helen not the "real" Helen.' Shortly version of these photos was voilette. Loveliness extreme. 1962 4 Marcel Rigaud perfume bottle became the spokesperson and black. first a is recollect So not. is in as 19 ." in a playful delight in is all color handwritten note. Call name? change and Selavy sex of is is that tin-foil." 1913 culture. This gesture bubbles with double entendres and inside jokes. A packaging for a line of "eau de to the beautiful mass signed. undated' was always Man Ray photographed mounted on do I white Duchamp my personal marcel duchamp. black and white. manifesting For Rrose there interview. Black black. Extra gaiters. I black. this Helen is is life. though game between "I" knew I Duchamp as part of the punning reference for the Belle Haleine yet ironic disdain for not beautiful. easily I name intention I for thereafter. that white. perfectly well and "me. What I do is color. Rrose Selavy thus brand of perfume.Y. Gertrude stein. Birds Rrose Selavy born in 1920 in N." in drag as Rrose. Jewish My is is thin. White Silver "Sacred Emily. Sweetest ice-cream. White replace birds with appeared in 1920 as the author of various Dada artworks.

Renunciation" of flamboyance and ostentation in in the nineteenth century. Even (The Large Glass) (1915-23). Eau de Voilette. a scientific system of notation. New York ent thing from a glossy label. his — a keystone of is through are. but rather that of redefinition in relation to its one thing or one thing is opposites. bottle. arti- and using creates "real" technical diagrams of fantabulous machines. in a constant state The binary system the sexual one is for that matter binary dis- and naming.Man Ray Belle Haleine. charting the uncertain exchange between the two. intended to foster rise Lisa. New York Dada.O." most fascinated Duchamp (apart from the game of chess) was works such as The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors. by exten- 1921 (printed 1930s) sion. he created feminine and masculine spheres. not erased. by drawing a moustache and goatee on a reproduc- asserted that he had discovered the hidden sexual identity of the context that the gender bending of Rrose Selavy should be seen. Tristan Tzara facetiously pointed to the artificiality of Belle Haleine.H."" Or is it? Disputing the distinction between tinctions of any kind readymades fice. transformed into rue Larrey (1927). 4%> x 3% inches (11 x 8.5 cm) on its it parodied. the fashion system that Gelatin-silver print. in the journal Madam. which featured Belle Haleine dada product realize that a really is a differ- Collection of Michael Senft.O. —or is Duchamp's objects. are multivalent. it. in part. In L. (1919). responsible for the in favor The "Great Masculine of the standardization of a more sober and . and. another.'" It is in this Born in 1887. Like 11 Duchamp's reality illusion artistic practice: a process of selection Duchamp and defined by another and Which is not to say that difference that perhaps — male versus female. In though insistently devoid of art. Duchamp witnessed an explosive increase a legacy of the convulsive consumerism and the advertising growth of capitalism of capitalism and industrial rationalization was. ephemeral Eau de as the breath haleine) of the ( perfume and perfume as "faked" as the appropriated Voilette. be on your guard and cover: "Therefore. a door hinged between two entryways.Q. tion of the portrait Mona Duchamp sitter.

Q.H.O. Gift of Louis Communiste Aragon to 19 x 13 inches (48.Marcel Duchamp L.3 X33 Georges Marchais Francais. 1919/1930 Pencil on reproduction.O.. Paris cm) for the Parti .

1938 9% x 6X inches Musee d'Art Modernc de la Villc (23. Gelatin-silver print.Raoul Ubac Mannequin by Marcel Duchamp.2 de Paris cm) .2 x 17.

just as it Duchamp does in the drag performance of as Rrose. lion tamers. but his playful subversion we do not need would not work wearing women's clothes. Hoch creatures out of the "real" (photographs representing real objects While an implicit critique of the "normative" zines). Duchamp game is the keystone to refers to is a man Duchamp's work. she holds the fur collar up around her neck in a typically "female" coy gesture. Like carnival is this (tragediennes. Leonardo. while thereof. again. unfolding across on the Mona Lisa. a female drag. they permissible as long as in this period frequently refer to performers and mar- mutual ostracism due to lack of conformity to a — people who represent ambiguous jects present. by extension. which suggests Hoch's own pleasure made during sors include Antoine Watteau's players Picasso's created unnaturalistic. In one of pho- set tographs of Rrose Selavy. shattering the classically ordered.— circumspect form of male dress. Hannah Hoch. since we were not Everling. making "her" female mannequin is into a "him. 12 Certain stereotypical "ideals" of feminine and masculine dress were perpetuated in mass- media fashion magazines and advertisements. (In Germaine hands appear too small fact." cross-dressed in himself as "une primadonna a Yenvers" and signs himself "Sarah Bernhardt woman. work. if these clues. while recalling the artist's (a he represents himself as donna Lisa and. the sible angle to the body. engaging in artifice. one of the photomontage. Hoch's montage the unusual seems apparent rigidity of advertisements follows the traditional identification of artists with actors represent for category crossers and actual clippings from maga- and humor." circuit of identifications: own 15 Here. Here. The harshly drawn sexual distinctions of modern masculine and feminine attire— in which male clothing came to remained the domain of sensuality and sole consciousness about self-presentation. vagabonds. referring to an actress reverse" makes him a man in an unending famous for her alias Marcel Duchamp. strong Rose Period paintings).) This back-and-forth he "shaves" Duchamp's knowledge in reverse) letter. singers. also an undeniable playfulness is titles members of society ginalized dancers). clowns. Upon careful inspection. Duchamp. shares his identity with a similarly disposed actress. fantastical of any kind —which her hybrid sub- occupy the liminal space of the circumscribed." Mixing body parts and articles of clothing. who of the montages Hoch them It is and from the commedia titles it is dell'arte in her and men. a lover ol women. After drawing a moustache in 1965. reversing Rrose's male-to- performs textual cross-dressing Mona an impos- has never intended to pass in possession of the her. circus perform- norms society's (precur- and the saltimbanques of Pablo metaphorically indicate the social position of identities circus performers. which she recombined into strange and exotic hybrid personae." In the early line challenged social strictures by wearing men's clothing or elements presumably masculine men sports to smoking. conceives himself as a prima Duchamp inverted prima married woman. In a 1950 donna Duchamp at Rrose Selavy 's hands and hat belonged to a female acquaintance. — moral seriousness and feminine dress are both symptom and and the dividing cause of an increasing self- between the sexes. in 14 the juxtaposition of apparently disparate parts that causes the "gender trouble" in Hoch's photomontages. play reflect ranging from working outside the activities home to dressed in traditional women's wear in only the most limited circumstances. creating a reverse drag. 2* . own as a lover of men. ers. and are in relation to the face — in the bearded woman. the course of his lifetime. which freak. women twentieth century. a The "prima donna cross-dressed performances. integrated bodies represented in the magazines into fragments. Leonardo's possible hidden portrait of himself as a known that he clothes at the 1938 Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme. Similarly. there The practice. cruised popular magazines early exponents of Dada in the 1920s.

Rossi. Milan M (31. 1926 Photomontage.5 cm) .5 x 22. 12 s8 inches Collection of G.Hannah Hoch Vagabonds ( Vagabunden).

Hannah Hoch The Tragedienne (Die Tragoedin).. 4 \ 3 . 1924 Photomontage.8 x 12.Hannah Hoch Clown.5 x 90 cm New York Barry Friedman Ltd.8 Museum. Sprengel 6'- x 5 inches (16. inches ( 12. 1924 Photomontage. Hannover cm) 1 .

5 x 26 cm) . ( Photomontage.Hannah Hoch Tamer Dompteuse). 1930 inches (35. 14 x 10 /. Kunsthaus Zurich 26 ca.

Hannah Hoch The Strong Men (Die starken MShner). 13.5 Institut ftir 9 - x 5 „. Stuttgart . inches (24. 1931 Photomontage.5 x cm) Auslandsbeziehungen.

in which cross-dressing was exam- symptom of "psychopathology. 1922 Gelatin-silver print.'" In his own excellence: his fashion work. 1987 Man Ray participated in and pieces signed by many of these gender games with Duchamp. 4K x 3H inches (12. member. where the natural no longer has any value. was pro- context of a burgeoning literature on homosexuality." 20 The early twentieth century witnessed the flowering of the nineteenth century's seemingly insatiable interest in the sexual body: the psychomedical construction of identity (and its 28 commerce its disruption in madness). portraiture. In writing mances "ladies" in between-the-wars Paris. These a fetishistic pictures nude portrait of a of phallic —stand out lus and being the phallus his most sumptuous photographs in photographer of and more experimental images Employing the kind of puns favored by suggest the male a women Man woman — significantly feature female Duchamp and woman par Francis Picabia. are those of Barbette. his Dada friends he would create a female torso that resembled a minotaur."" 1 Barbette's both in the fame should be seen psychoanalytic literature. This circus performer. writing. photographing Rrose Selavy her. or penis. was one of the most beautiful appealing to Cocteau. Joyce and Robert Menschel Gift.Man Ray jean Cocteau. Joan Riviere's 1929 article on predicated on Freud's notion of the bisexual foundation of identity. with her head thrown back to with a printing-press handle as surrogate representations of literal Ray's lavish a women women and glamorous female having the phal- portraiture. magic Cocteau light drawn to the theme of metamorphosis was in his especially own work. and especially . both hetero and homo. New York.6 cm) The Metropolitan Museum of Art. as well as in feminine masquerade. 21 its sexual practices. subjects. the transvestite trapeze artist Among championed by Jean Cocteau and beloved by Surrealist Paris. Barbette's transformation who was about the trapeze as being "in that perennially artist.1 x 9. (prostitution). in that club of tricks where the truth no longer has currency. Man Ray became endeavors. duced in the ined as a in relation to a 1 '' contemporaneous more popular interest in gender identity. 17 refers to the liminal space of Barbette's public perfor- of the theater. born Vander Clyde in Texas. Purchase.

-.

Man Ray
Barbette, 1924

Gelatin-silver print, 7
(

ollection of Timothy

\ s

-

inches (20 x 14.9

cm)

Baum, New York
29

Man Ray
Barbette, ca. lyzos

Gelatin-silver print,

4X

x 3

inches (10.5

The Metropolitan Museum of
Gift ol Ford

30

Art,

x 7.5

New

Motor Company and Fohn

cm)

York, Ford
<-..

Motor Company

Waddell, 1987

Collection,

Brassai's

photographs of brothels, gay and lesbian clubs, and masked

document

balls

sexual activities of early 1930s Parisian nightlife, illustrating the intersection of scientific

he frequented,

interest. Like the Surrealists

Brassai'

who perambulates

of the journalistic voyeur-observer, the flaneur
process. First published in 1933, in his

the voyeur's delight in the unusual

photographs from

this period,

book

followed the nineteenth-century

and popular

realist tradition

gathering material in the

city,

Paris de twit, Brassai's photographs are characterized

and forbidden."

In the text

The Secret Paris of the

'30s,

accompanying

the transgressive pleasures his "outlaw" subjects enjoy

was not necessarily unsympathetic

by

his later edition of

Brassai's value-laden descriptions indicate

the disdain with which he approached these subjects. 23 While he

violence. Yet he

the

the

—he

drawn

is

in

by

"lesfleurs

du mar"

and

also underscores their dangerousness

They

to the people in his photographs.

are indi-

vidualized in tight close-ups and frequently look directly at the camera with a haughty disdain or

even a kind of patience, the

latter

In theatrical traditions

appeared as women, and
val

time and

masked

at

perhaps the result of the cooperation required to get the shot.

from the ancients

women

"normal" behavior were sanctioned

who determined

individuals

become

author O.
a

is

P.

Gilbert's studies

focus

human

that keep the

above."
the

2

number of books

on the

spawned English

in burlesque shows.

At carni-

above, these diversions from

at certain times. Yet

there

a history of

is

whenever they wanted, and whose

'

Clothes,

translations

role of clothing in the fixing (or

Two

male or female

it

imitators. ^ In

undoing) of gender
view of

articulates this

likeness, while

underneath the sex

years after the publication of Orlando, Virginia

which

while

and

all

acts

have

attire

texts in

for

women

to

it is

clothes,

s/he states, "In

only the clothes

the very opposite of what

is

it is

and Leonard Woolf 's Hogarth

London, released

wear men's

The narrator of

when

J.

Press,

C. Fliigel's study The Psychology of

identified the "Great Masculine Renunciation" of vestimentary finery.

was possible

The French

of these works

identity.

being a vacillation from one sex to the other takes place, and often

main publisher of psychoanalytic

that,

and

have frequently

collecting the stories of these figures were published.

Woolf 's 1928 novel Orlando: A Biography

Virginia

every

in certain spaces

to dress the part they chose

men

the stuff of historical accounts. In the period between the wars, apart from the psychomed-

ical literature, a

there

men

common. As mentioned

sex changes were

balls,

to Shakespeare to the circus,

often performed cross-dressed as

men

26

Flugel argued

could not breach the gender divide

without opprobrium.
Poets throughout history have conceived of social identity as a mask. Certainly, individuals

whose

lives specifically involve a daily

reveries.

Anyone who does not automatically

ety will understand the

who

decision about artifice might be especially disposed to such
fit

the expectations of

masquerade of conformity. So

have been schooled from childhood in the

arts of

it

(for gay or lesbian subjects,

who

as

no

makeup and

sen to examine gender identity in the twentieth century.

embodying "gender trouble" between

comes

Or

that

dominant (read

patriarchal) soci-

great surprise that

women,

graceful deportment, have cho-

some of the most

incisive

work

the wars was produced in the context of lesbian relationships

are put in the position of "passing" or

"coming

forced to confront their identity). These creations often functioned as love

out," are similarly

letters,

which indicates

the pleasures inherent in the production of the work. For example, Hoch's gender-blending pho-

tomontages were produced during her relationship with

Brugman);
a writer

2~

Orlando was created

as

an

Brugman Clown
(

act of love for Vita Sackville-West;

and photographer associated with the

Suzanne Malherbe.

Til

Surrealists, collaborated

is

a portrait

of

and Claude Cahun,

with her companion,

Brassai
Quarrel, 1932
(

ielatin-silver print, n

\ y

The Museum of Modern
David H. McAlpin Fund
32

,

Art,

inches (29.2 x 23. s

New York,

cm)

1932 Gelatin-silver print. 11 x 8 The Museum of Modern David H. cm) . McAlpin Fund < Art.Brassai Female Couple. inched (30.2 x 22.6 New York.

McAlpin Fund 34 Art. 12 x 9'A inches (30. cm) . New York.Brassai Woman at Le Monocle. 1933 Gelatin-silver print. Montparnasse.1 The Museum of Modern David H.5 x 24.

Brassai Homosexual Ball.cm) New York. . 9^ x The Museum of Modern Gift of Gilberte Brassai 11 - Art. 1933 Gelatin-silver print. inches (23.5 x 29.5.

lit o\ the lrmas Intervivos Trust of June 7. 1929-30 Gelatin-silver print. inches Museum ( 15.0. 19H2 .. 6 x Los Angeles County 4'/.. The Collection of Audrey and Sydney Irmas.. ca.9 x 8.SQTl^Amu £ Claude Cohnn Self-Portrait. 4X5 x Collection of Richard and y/. (Self-Pride).U.2 x 10.O. 1921 Gelatin-silver print. 1 36 . inches (10.2 cm) Ronay Menschel Claude Cahun I.3 cm) of Art.

That Cahun saw identity her self-portraits. Paris cm I . Claude. whether 3 x 2 ' inches (10 x _ . rise during her lifetime and to exploring questions of identity She was in the face of man fact. avenus is illustrated Moore/" In I. she continuing the literary legacy of Arthur Rimbaud and the Symbolists. Marcel Schwob. eleven heads. she admired and to their contemporary. including those in which she artists in this exhibition. with photomontages (Self-Pride) (1929-30). has frequently been presumed to be a Cahun was profoundly committed as artistic pursuits. as plate renowned examined the divided whom created with Malherbe. theatrical or strictly photographic. ca.s Galerie Ber»sruen. traits.U. 28 Self-Portrait. Cahun is the author of her self in these performances. consequential because the very nature of portraiture involves the subject's collaboration in its creation. In Cahun even today. her in French. Born Lucy Schwob. engage defense of Surrealist practice sexologist Havelock Ellis. were produced Aveux non who surrounded by the words. gender ambiguous is Claude Cahun and photographic cross-dressing. she often appears as a dandy in masculine attire and short hair. 1928 In her photographic self-por- Gelatin-silver print. in of which appear to be Claude."" Like of the is all self. in her prose on the evidence of her literary as well — and her well known Communist poem Aveux non for Les Pari* sont ouverts. The mask. whom she was linked through her uncle. own identity. she translated the avenus. Thus.O. involved with the theater. not. Cahun who was which was reproduced on one neck. however. her criticism. self-portraits Cahun was this as a literally mask another masquerade is wears a mask. "Beneath lifting off all these visages.Cahun performed both pseudonymous first textual name. I will resulting lingam shape never be done indicated by the artifice of all many clear which of her costumed The distinction is identified herself as X Aveux non avenus. as woman and as creative person. including that of a doll-like Sumerian-style goddess. it is not always in the context of theatrical productions. and.

1927 Gelatin-silver prim. 12 x 10 inches (30. 4 Courtesy of Robert Miller Gallery.5 \ 2s. 38 New York cm) .Cecil Beaton Portrait <»/ Stephen Tennant.

is mem- compare Beaton's double por- with a decidedly more casual photograph. when is a developed.World and all of these he brought the rarefied sensibility of the dandy. and because the book It is tempting to Is Stein's at the reveals Toklas. Yevonde's linked to recurrent feminist attempts to on "Heroines" to Sackville-West's biographies of of foremothers featured in The Dinner Party (1979 )- "»- is >9 . to mirror Dorothy Wilding Cecil Beaton. Yevonde did more than document worn by Lady Dorothy Warrender. was mythological goddesses. form Autobiography is same time. since the autobio- told through Toklas's "voice. that emphasized the artifice of his images and promoted the status of his sitters as for . women become delightfully kitsch. in which aristocratic sitters are allegorically equated with mythological figures. Cecil Beaton created a formal double portrait of Stein. presumably taken which B. the professional Her know me His professional endeavors were society portraiture. he kind that frequently seems indistinguishable from drag." devoted to own numerous iconography part of a tradition in British portraiture dating back at least to Joshua Reynolds. Stein's mature erotic." not contiguous. she advocated color portraiture as the Goddesses photographs heroize identify historic role models saints to Judy Chicago's modern women.'I-j~>) matriarch of expatriate Paris and modernist writing. theater Madame Yevonde. 'rt/>re<(((rf Gertrude y Z< ijh/. slightly out-of-focus. which made it possible to include himself in a portrait (hopefully. 1925. kinds —even costume All the Vogue. and self are is if to suggest that the Stein herself. London Olympian models divorced from pedestrian existence. pioneered a sensual literary style in meanings. like Beaton's. such as that Beaton's friend Oliver Messel.— . the position of Gertrude's alter ego. the (circa //</< // /. the gusto with which Yevonde describes this project in her autobiography suggests a more personal investment. his artifice — iJ designed sets and costumes. Yevonde talent for the nascent Vivex color process with a Surrealistically inspired that can. To the field of portraiture. was conscious of the masquerade traits indicate a particular entailed. for name of Yevonde Cumbers Middleton." trait reiterated as she published The Autobiography of Alice self. subverts this relationship graphical writer alter ego. Here Alice takes Alice Gertrude or Gertrude Alice? Beaton's double portrait of Stein recalls the frequent recourse. fashion photography.. in the proverbial wings."' Probably inspired by a costume pre. Cambridge Footlights revue glare National Portrait Gallery. Beaton represented a par ticularly exaggerated femininity. cross-dressed self-por- pleasure in constructing the self. her game that Stein initiated in 1933. often deeply which strangely juxtaposed words exude and gender ambiguity.'" An outspoken suffragist and supporter of women professional photography. the person which was written by Toklas's "autobiography." "I don't want people to am. which was designed by combined her film. As a society and fashion photographer. Like women blossomed a variety of celebrates sexual within the context of a lesbian relationship. and both work Cahun's. "but only as I'm trying to be. in his photographs. all best War II Paris work is a series of portraits of society ball. Toklas between author and subject." he writes in a diary. is the character is oir. Though I both of which he 35 a colleague in many Greek in fantastic outfits. in reflections. in which her substantial presence woman-behind-the-woman. In the mid-i930S. and may be — from Cahun's compendium series way of the in the field of future. Beaton continues the in which the author's whose subject. Stein. as in fields in the guise of of which there were and London. the Certainly. of This interest also seems to be linked to a delight in shimmering surfaces of all someone grand).tif /> : Stein.

6 x Beaton Archive. ( ecil 9 '„ kS'A inches (23. 1935 Airbrush on gelatin-silver prim. Sotheby's London 21 cm) .Cecil Beaton Gertrude Stein.

5 cm London 41 . Toklas. Sotheby's ( 22 x 18. 8 % B.) Cecil Beaton Gertrude Stem ami Alice Gelatin-silver print. 1^35 x 7 % inches Cecil Beaton Archive.

19 )o Gelatin-silver print. 13 ( 42 \ 11 I inches (33.5 x 28. New York cm) . ca.6 ourtesyoi Robert Miller Gallery.- Cecil Beaton / ady I avet y.

1 and Lady cm) Bridget Ponktu'1928 $ . Paul Gettv % x Wanda 13 % Baillie-Hatnilton inches (50. 19 The J. Malibu 35.3 x Museum.Baba Beaton. Gelatin-silver print.'< Cecil Beaton Debutantes .

Sotheby's 1 24. 9 e< il 1 \ 7 inc lies Hc.iton Archive. 1929 1 < 44 lelatin-silver print.Cecil Beaton Igor Markevitch. 8 cm) .8 London \ 19.

14% x 11 National Portrait Gallery. 1935 cm) London 45 .3 series.6 x 29. "Ariel. Richard Hart-Davis as Vivex color print." V from the Goddesses inches (36.s $ Madame Yevonde Mrs.

o z Madame Yevonde Lady Dorothy Warrender as "Ceres. 1935 . London 46 cm) series. inches (37.1 National Portrait Gallery." from the Goddesses Vivcx color print. 14 %x8 'X.6 x 22..

) Madame Yevonde Lady Bridgett Poulett Vivex color print. 1935 cm London 4- . 16 3 as "Arethusa." "/«. x 10 National Portrait Gallery. . from the Goddesses % inches ( 42 x 27. 5 scries.

1 ) '/. 1935 inches (37..3 x 27.9 Society. Goddesses series. x 10 The Royal Photographic 48 (Queen oj the Amazons). Bath cm) .Madame Yevonde Lady Milbanke from the ( as "Penthesilea" Vivex color print.

inches (34.1 scries. 22.2 x National Portrait Gallery. 1935 cm) London 4s> . as 13 % "Minerva."from the Gqddesses x 8 %.Madame Yevonde Lady Michael Balcon Vivex color print.

1970 ( lelatin-silver print. 50 ( lentre Georges Pompidou. Paris . ed.Pierre Molinier Effigy (Effigie).5 cm).5 x 14. 8 \ 5% inches (22. 3/6 Mnscc National d'Art Moderne.

" 1967 41 the speaking of a stranger through Bodies that Matter. Non force binary oppositions upon which the social order rests. an individual. the photograph's indexi- one time before the camera seems to strengthen the intensity of the " viewer's response. most intense way. no less profound Shortly before his death. away. undated this sentiment. . or grown Although. and other. the viewer. of many human beings than the need to of the to is Subjectivity. 40 always in some ways Imagination.2. reminders of oneself as sees itself looking at exceptional characteristic of the photograph is the power of direct the subject seems to be looking straight at you." 1988 is . An Interlude: Photographic Pleasure (The It no doubt through the mediation is meet the feminine in the of masks that the masculine Is interest of perversion extends upon gender. (become an image). to e create an identifiable and distinct subject. strips sexuality of all functionality." By the end of the century. Yet we cling to the replica as a sort of talisman: this person. are aroused by the dead." at us. "What It Work An literal one that frequently identity. of course. 1993 and as oneself. expressed (I by am 41 the other) under his a poet who was would become an emblem of the modern construction of this construction by providing multiple. judith butler. in which we 51 . psychotically tormented. je engraved portrait. conjure similar responses. yet the various forms they take coalesce structurally around the the photograph as icon. eeriness and nostalgia. 42 suis lesbien. frequent. susan sontag. if he was homosexual. The 4 pleasures of the photographic image are polymorphous. Gerard de Nerval wrote "Je suis I 'autre" another one. first is place now 4 " Powerful emotions. in 1855. ' when address in portraiture. paintings cal relation to a being who was at may older. thus enforcing the notion of a kind of split personality: the 4 is itself. "Masochism and Male The need Fulcrum) a Picture?" 1964* The theoretical Perversion also subverts of Pierre Molinier as most acute. This is the narcissistic pleasure of the mirror. Jacques lacan. when asked Photography fed it be a person. which brings to bear whether biological or social transcend "the personal" pierre molinier. whether dead. dialectic of reality — and fantasy The recognition of oneself in a the index of the photograph versus photograph can serve to define oneself. "The Pornographic Speaking and beyond the disruptive kaja Silverman. the other Nadar's image of "his mother (or of his — no one knows effigy of someone who unseeing in the looking for certain). is still before us. It is no accident that two of Roland Barthes's favorite photographs were intimate portraits of beloved women wife —one a childhood picture of his mother.

7 H x The Metropolitan Si Museum of Ait. 1948 . 5 inches (18. ca. iuss (printed 1940s) Gelatin silver print from glass negative.Pierre-Louis Pierson ( ountess de Castiglione.7 x 12. Gift cm) of George Davis.7 New York.

with the modern esteem 1 '' and The photographic which a subject performs writer. a desire for a I masochistic image that would please her lover. Or model the photograph might present a perfect enforce the psychic reconciliation of an untenable a truth. Its as superb an optimal means of obtaining portraits of ability to accurately and quickly document the individual virtually replaced the portrait miniature in the mid-nineteenth century. It reality effect its —the sensation and transfix. though from very photographs they commissioned interest in their self-portraits who wished to was flavored by " Before the sufficiently simplified to make it document themselves without to a studio or solicit Hannah Cullwick different social milieus. our mother's might show us It of disintegrated identity suggesting the blissful abandonment of subjectivity. that a fetish is a trace represents it promote fictions. There is to the a trajectory in the history of photography that encompasses semi-intimate self-portraiture. manner of work can be called that. —there if it all art. the photograph becomes guarding against the reiteration of unacceptable perceptions. for example. in Paris. The somewhat comparable overlap between autobiography and fiction in Marcel Proust. to a the dissemina- equipment and technological improvements has allowed photography widely practiced and to have a particular private. individuals investing in the necessary photographic photographer to de Castiglione realize their portraits. (m)other. why a is it tion of photographic it is compelling to look popular custom to create photographs. The fact that it 4 " The collapse into its ego ideal. an apparently personal fetishistic delight in her own body. this tradition. for the countess. the self. but which are now valued as for the camera. surreal or what makes the photograph an is icon as well. family. This rately yet frequently has an extra-personal. at. — and the elabo- the burning desire superceded by recurring desolation. when photographic technology was appealing to vast numbers of people. These women's erotic tastes — in Cullwick's case. From its inception. a and Contemporary appreciation of this type of photography for the sketch private tools of the artist self. more meaningful explanation for the sheer minute distinctions between each of them. which functions as a private pleasure. both of which were once considered modest one characterized by compulsive repetition Instead. Regarding the and. or index of something that was once there gives our self. to achieve an unattainable goal. photography public personages. and the circuit begins again. in the third quarter 5 in an itinerant London and the Countess both quite actively directed the of the nineteenth century. These aspects of photography may begin to suggest why lesser extent. also be a first reflection in Photographic fantasy can assuage the ache of remembrance.reassure ourselves of our existence. is the development of rolled film with its and consistent Not surprisingly. to its can help us to photograph fact that the photographic means can be employed to create fantastic illusions. between the public and private status of photography is a fine one. a personal tool of realizing the artistic significance as well. Thus. eyes. personal usage as well as line latter. of the loss of is reminder of the pain of separation." . of the loneliness that The mirror can our individuality. to create fetishes that are fixed lost image a delirious memory. Kodak era began in the 1890s. A momentary is volume of images of this compulsive motivation their frisson is type. and the journal. is independent works of history of the pieces in this exhibition encompasses ingly endless parade of images. and was perceived friends. social. in is never just one shot but rather always a seem- is only partly due to the technical possibilities of the medium: unfolding frames or the ability to repeatedly print an image. equipment might go For example. its be to public function.

Full Length with Fan. in which the women dressed as builder or housemaid. 8% x 6'A inches (22 x 16. 1892 Gelatin-silver print from glass negative. permitted the which anyone could indulge their desire for self-images. portraiture. garnering prizes for their enigmatic depictions." Or 15. in favored guises for personal delectation. development of the snapshot aesthetic.Alice Austen Self-Portrait. Experimentation and theatrical performance for the camera were fostered by the ease of pho- tographic production. 54 which anonymous photographers present themselves The in their aesthetic pretensions organizing these images vary. 1891 as a man and the legacy of allegorical portraiture could be traced through the worker-genre 1920s self-portraits of the Morter Sisters. Monday. September gth. Thus Alice Austen might photograph herself on October on September 9. Alice Austen Collection The relatively low cost of photographic. . not only for the formal portrait destined for posterity but also for more casual and playful representations. 1892 as a woman." Then there are the countless private albums.5 cm) Courtesy of Staten Island Historical Society. 1892. many now dispersed or lost. in as opposed to painted.

Alice Austen Julia Martin. 1891 Gelatin-silver print from glass negative. not asking to be photographed but your mother later telling you photographs that do not depict the past you wish to construct meet you destroy the negatives of images that do not represent you as you want a violent end: to be represented. which is now aided by photographs. conflating your mother photo- and high heels — however. mask. need to i$th. would be invigorated by the Polaroid innovations of the instant gratification as well as the ability to shoot images without the 1960s. Memory is a creative process. Alice Austin Collection at the neighborhood drugstore. perhaps what you remember it. which you are seen wearing it no doubt with later Similarly. you cut out the figure of a person you wish not to remember. October Nevertheless. For example. work of Cahun or should be situated Pierre Molinier. in a recall the claustrophobia of that plastic Halloween memories. such that difficult to it is discern which of your childhood recollections are "real" and which have been confused with photographs. and camera. photo taken clammy at Halloween when you were insisting that ideal of femininity. Photography. Julia Bredi and Dressed Up as Men. lipstick. the photographic manipulated self-portraits.5 x 21. which provided have them developed x 8 */» inches (16.8 cm) Courtesy of Staten Island Historical Society. as the record of a specific 55 . Or you "remember" graph you in your childish about you is memories sus- Superman four. It is 6'A a tradition that Sell pin. sporting curlers. Sensations generated by viewing a photograph might be entangled with tained from later years. an artist in relation to this tradition who created intricately of self-documentation. which maintains all it would be transformed by the proliferation of the video the benefits of the Polaroid camera plus the incorporation of time and movement. 1891. 4:40 Thursday.

ilibu . 1928 Gelatin silver print.6 Museum.4cm) M. Paul < letty ' x.Man Ray Barbette Making Up. 8 The 56 |. '« inches (21.9 x 16.

1981 Paris.Man Ray Kiki oj Montparnasse. 8 'A x 11 % indies (22. Centre Georges Pompidou. 1924 Gelatin-silver print. Lucien Treillard. .2 x 30 cm Musee National d'Art Moderne. Gift of M.

8 cm) . inches (30 Musee des Beaux-Arts de Nantes 58 x 23. 192X Gelatin-silver print. 11 %x 9/. ca.Claude Cahun Self-Portrait.

8 cm I Private collection. thereby. bears the phallus. in which the man "becomes" his mother and a penis. or obsessional attractions to specific articles of clothing or substitutes. must find to feel that they control their mother's sep- and intimacy. I will. East Sussex. and he develops various means through which he continually reassure himself of this "fact. body though thereby. itself. an amor- indistinct outline. Sexually fetishistic practices for encompass cross-dressing. anxieties that the tain. of indistinguishable boundaries. for a lost moment some photographs may that of childhood derive their power: images that present a dispersed phous and structurally is and memory. a cause for a is it is mourning/ Children must master a will see understand that separate and distinct being. that is More broadly. evil. is its in a child's desire to spin to way this loss. there is erotic pleasure in these practices. may be as well. indeed. therefore. 59 . recalling the euphoric experience of integration that a child with feels its mother. and pictures of otherworldly mannequins and dolls in photographic production can be explained. for er. which joy and also for is realities self. in part. means of organizing a which structures all including the ruin of one's youthful painful passage of time. in other words. This soon the child relatively short.* look their uncanniness signals photograph attempts to con- Claude Cahun These images embody the knowledge that the day at this picture of me. as the natural union of subject and structure. the and ultimately death Photographs thus become deny the losses fetishes that of existence." By denial. he (17. howev- into delirium. aration and return. self.5 x 12. Certainly. which always seem uneasily headed It is past. her distance Photographs seem to offer this original loss. that echoed out of itself. fantastic fetish objects for a fetishistic medium. reflection and begin out of control. 1928 Gelatin-silver print. is. doubled and multiple portraits. a that men woman with parts that act as phallic it is frequently laced with a shiver of anxiety." This is a pleasure of bodi- lessness. England mother. moment." wards off he Untitled.moment that is by definition related to nostalgia from home. will come when someone have become the one who does not other than I will 6x5 inches Freud conceived of fetishism as the process by which an adult manages his childhood fear that his mother was castrated insists that his may —and that. the fetish is a sort of charm enlisted to prevent feared outcomes. see. The prevalence of mirror images.

5 \ 11.2 cm) Musee National d'Art Moderne. 60 Paris .Man Ray \/i/(7/i7i. Centre Georges Pompidou. 5 % x 1 • inches ( 14. 1944 Gelatin-silver print.

3 x 25.4 cm). Holzer 6] . ed. 8 x 10 inches (20. 1980 Gelatin-silver print. #56. 1/10 Collection of lane B.Cindy Sherman Untitled Film Still.

a practice he continued until his process included taking photographs of himself.Born Pierre Molinier The Doll Id Poupee). creating elabo- Gelatin -silver print. his ironization of masculinity legs.inches 1 10. which might require several intermediate generations. Centre Pompidou. ( leorges death in 1976. His artistic animate and inanimate parts. in order to secure an impossible yet seemingly real features. and by the lavish delicacy with which he embellished his prints. The erotic pleasure of his process is graphically indicated by maquettes he created in which the photographic paper literally penetrates another sheet. persona this marking and eliminated the who was "documented" in the final photograph. the other fetishistic emphasis on dildo attachment. ettes He then cut out the silhou- of figures and body parts. Molinier shifted his painterly concerns to photography. Through and his appearance through the proliferation of phallic objects."* In the mid-1960s. stockings. as well as shots of friends. z 62 is his penis. Paris dressed in corsets. which he recomposed and combined with photographs of nequins to create fabricated portraits and fanciful collages. Through this process man- of cutting and recombination.8 \ 8 rate self-portraits constructed of cm) Musee National d'Art Moderne. 1970 in 1900. high-heeled shoes. i ca. x 3/. sometimes masked. and stiletto heels. Two key transformative procedures are reiterated in Molinier's self-portraits: one "becoming female" through the elimination of in lingerie. 4/. as well as to realize his sexual fantasies. Molinier accentuated and improved upon desirable unwanted. and especially his prized invention a his is his — the shoe with symbolic castration that announces the feminine and the assertion of a . Through and retouching. Molinier sought to achieve an ideal image of himself. Pierre Molinier trained as a painter whose taste ran to the sensual exoticism of Gustave Moreau. the addition of breasts.

6 (15. 1966-68 Gelatin-silver print.2 x 9. (16.Pierre Molinier Self-Portrait with Top Hat. late 1960s Gelatin-silver print.9 x 5. New York Pierre Molinier The Spur of Love (L'Eperon d'amour).4 '. X2S inches cm) Wooster Gardens. New York s 63 .5 6^x3^ inches cm) Courtesy of Ubu Gallery.

6 \ 6 Wboster 64 < ( < Irande Melie). New late inches York 1960s ( is.-? \ 17.Pierre Molinier i Wand Melee ( lelatin-silver print. lardens.5 cm 1 .

in which she argues that the masochist wants to replace the authority of the father with the phallic mother. He saw in Molinier's diverse attempts to transgress the confinement of bourgeois conformity surable disorientation of passion. when surrealiste. 6: Molinier participated in the later ventures. Peter Gorsen argues that "Molinier introduces himself in the pose of a shaman aesthetically amputating (retouching) his male genitals and replacing them with a godemiche nature ironize dominant male sexuality" it is useful to recall Kaja Silverman's 59 [dildo]. thereby denying the "law of the Father. to the late-i950s the first transcripts of "research" sessions were published in La Revolution and mid-1960s investigations of striptease and the nature of eros. Molinier's interactions with the last generation of Surrealists date Surrealism. this made and yet it is a realism means. to is binary oppositions into male/female. and his work was seen the concerns of Surrealism as articulated by Breton. and that you can make one no one ed Andre Breton and received an enthusiastic response. and the nature of 11 desire. sexuality." 60 Since "nature" frequently cited to lock individuals into socially predetermined roles. Molinier disrupts the codes of femininity and masculinity that would link bodily apparatus with gender definition. father/mother. Visions of phallic of sexualities and genders. unrepressed creative process that could be enhanced through the delirium induced by the folly of desire.' Breton conducted inquiries into sexual practices and subjects. work on male masochism. inception in the when he first contact- manifesto of an organized entity with Breton's death in 1966. the proliferation nominal end actually has the phallus. demonstrates that within Surrealism's purview. and other all aspects of the erotic were 64 Si a J - 65 . published by Breton in 1924. Surrealism was profoundly engaged in investigating the body. work among other things. ing to those stifled by its strictures. From its greatly appeal- fathers. mas- culine/feminine. Such images graphically argue that that the authority so subversion its mothers and castrated strict is as its from 1955. appeared The scope of entries in the catalogue for L'Exposition artists' and represent the plea- in the "Concise Lexicon of Erotism" that InteRnatiOnale du Surrealisme. for yourself. strange by its manifest in visual and textual representation. as early as 1928. tion.masculine presence through inorganic replicas. a prosthesis whose toy character and double To understand why Molinier's images are so compelling. in various Surrealist jour- nals. Surrealism reality made of the body." which is imbricated with the "law of nature. combat the repression of its power is a construction. articulation of mental experience. Breton advocated a stream-of-conscious. a 1959 exhibition (directed by Breton and Duchamp) that included Molinier. which privileged a search for transcendence 63 at that time as sympathetic with Unlike the legacy of twentieth-century abstrac- through harmonious spiritual sought transformation through disruption and was grounded in the material The name itself indicates a relationship to the real.

..Katharina Sieverding z transformer. each overall 59 120& inches (151 x Deutsche Bank AG. in five parts. x 24 inches (151 x 61 X305 cm) cm) . 1973-74 Photographs. Frankfurt 66 59/.

a mirror and a mirror looks if there to see? The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: B and Back Again. it is to not is me 5 purposes? 1970'"' and see nothing. and men wore the long clothing and hairstyles on to other hypertrophied sex hair. (it Introduction. that attempted to link manifestations of cross-dressing in popular music and contemporary a art. Unisex distinguishing male from female a difficult prospect. Narcissism: as such as cats us. Patrick Eudeline traces the "outrage of traditional masculinity" in ! ."" The popular models of masculinity and femininity promoted by Hollywood in the 1950s — the sultry Ur-sensuality of Marilyn Monroe and symbols. narrow bourgeois definitions of mas- culinity In his catalogue essay. In 1974. In a controversial 1965 article. sigmund freud. voiced a widespread alarm about the crisis in from the "The New Mutants. his self-sufficiency certain animals and and which seem not to inaccessibility. and the supermacho. just as concern themselves about Are these photos mick jagger.3." 1914* Turner in Performance. the Swiss curator Jean-Christophe Ammann organized an exhibition. People are always calling From A An for narcissistic or publicity I'm sure I'm going to look in the mirror Yet of the large beasts of prey. Camera JeAi/a/ ^iltem/w n wrul One XCftiaia Lucida. means of expressing 70 The exhibition was premised on the self as multiple. Some Photographic Work It seems very evident for 1970s of the that one person's narcissism who have renounced those others part of their has a great attraction own narcissism and are seeking after object-love. what andy wa rhol. and a conception of travesty as a creative a critique of act. "On into does the charm seems to 7 197s" me) by Painting that Photography touches Art. seemed to critic Leslie Fiedler masculinity evidenced by the ambisexual clothing and long hair of rock stars and hippies. roland barthes. caftans. and beads. 1980"* o^^yfumcuu^iilu The "Great Masculine Renunciation" of sartorial geoisie during the French Revolution to 1930. but by Theater. which was a turn- a source of anxiety for others. —gave way a short-haired. be challenged finery that Fliigel traced when he published The Psychology in the 1960s. the charm of a child lies to a great extent in his narcissism." rise of the bour- of Clothes. predatory playboys in perfectly cut suits in the 1960s and 1970s boyish type like for more androgynous ideals. "Transformer": Aspekte der Travestie. a mirror. some and made who chased them The fashionable woman became Twiggy or Edie Sedgwick.

68 .

1973 a Three color photographs. framed.Jiirgen Klauke Transformer. each 59 % x 53 % x 1 % inches (152 x 135 x 3 cm Courtesy of Galerie Bugdahn und Kaimer. Dusseldorf 69 .

7 ' Liithi work. Warhol's self-presentation. in Liithi in their and Sieverding produced Photograph on canvas. the influenced are characterized by a delight in high camp. in which the singer chronicled urban much as he had in the life songs he wrote in the 1960s for the Velvet Underground. was emanating from America. of the aspect of glitter rock. Be Your Mirror. was imported by German artists to Klauke used I'll this word European communicated young Swiss and describe the act of transcending binary gender definitions. suggested Warhol's position at the forefront of "gender fuck dressing. and Holly is Women in Revolt. Urs /'// its Urs pleasures. By referring to the title of Reed's acknowledging Reed's reputation album. As Susan Sontag defined "Being-as-Playing-a-Role. theses — phallic breasts and a strap-on vulva that he embellished with lipstick the artist tiple sexual younger persona. or confusion. stars in a series and the Paul Morrissey. theater. was conceived as an impersonation. the content of the band's songs. and. included with the artists. as the songwriter of Ammann was drag queens Transformer contained the hit drag anthem "Walk on the Wild Side. and Katharina Sieverding." in which identity. Woodlawn. Courtesy of photographic works in which they and their lovers appear almost identical. Ray's photograph of Duchamp as "Dame Ammann cites mit Hut" as a precursor. followed by sections on British artists engaged with issues of trans- and American rock performers and drag entertainers. The English word "transformer. and its performances in the Exploding Plastic Inevitable shows. a put-on. The exhibition borrowed its name from Reed's 1973 album Transformer (produced by Bowie). especially gender identity. David Bowie and Lou to the glitter rock of the early 1970s that included 71 Reed. vision of gender transformation via a popular culture influenced It a piece entitled appears that. in sensibility. Candy was only the most recent Girls (1966) and Heat Flesh (1968). However. 1972 union with a unified ambisexuality or realize a perfect their lover. Warhol's inspiration on the artist's 1972 film Darling. a which they would embody desire for a Utopian conception of androgyny. which for these these is artists. metaphor of life dandysme provocateur" and the challenge it rock he camp is as posed to . In a brief mention in his preface.directed These a German article were the drag queens lackie Curtis. Liithi made of a 1966 Velvet Underground song. a role. the antics depicted in his films. voiced. Molinier's photographic montages. Trash (1970)." 70 7 " The camp It is the farthest extension. Man 7' Reed's lyrics spoke for a generation fascinated by gender ambiguity. its " it glitter in 1964. 39 % x yj% inches (100 x 95 cm) Private collection.rock 'n' roll performance from Presley. Artists included in "Transformer" such as Liithi. were characterized And Klauke — created pros- that visualized a mul- work of these much pages of the catalogue as representing their creator's in the attempt to achieve the state of perfection exemplified by the androgyne. to the inception with Little Richard and Elvis its second generation antics of the Rolling Stones and the Kinks. by the republication of registered in "Transformer" films. Both Sieverding and as the title of Be Your Mirror. ultimately. also the the new works initiated in 1973. name 75 In 1972. movies that included The Chelsea Velvet whose it (1972)." The catalogue opens with documentation of the performance-based photo- graphic work of Continental European vestism. by Andy Warhol and his involvement with drag queens. and Jtirgen Klauke. of Warhol drag trilogy of along with Warhol's management of the Underground." Reed's motto.

each 3 Eudeline in his "Transformer" catalogue essay. his pose not clear which elements are counterfeit (in in a tie). x2 % inches (9. constructed and that they artificial. Centre Georges Pompidou. This challenge was rigidly defined significantly informed by '/. is itself). and in glitter as gay or bisexual idol. At a time when female impersonation in light of the Stonewall Riots in 1969. yet his attire which supports the deduction gender identity reading that is is But which part a forgery. by Polaroid photographs. in which he flanked the self-portrait in drag with a series of silk-screened dollar signs. Warhol subsequently incorporated a version of this photo into a centerfold project for Artforum magazine entitled Forged Image. and must be seen gay liberation movement. Although associa- contemporaneous in the context of the rock performance its 78 Rrose Selavy. gay-identified pleasurable but also a political act. rightly point out that the a marketing device. in 1974. in the 1960s and 1970s. is one reading of duplicitous? half-male and half. 1986 traditional masculinity through its derision of the sacrosanct masculine image was noted. Just as Rrose Selavy 's appearance on Belle Haleine suggests the deceitful replication of Helen of Troy (or the artifice of femininity Warhol's Forged Image implies that the Warhol's "altered image" makeup and It is a is artist's identity blond wig. evacuated or oblique He at best in fact.female: from the neck up he wears heavy "feminine" is "masculine". presumably because self-presentation of pop critics. Altered Image. mainstream." Warhol's activities and keted. The entry of the camp sensibility into the tion with the artifice of female impersonators. all Andy might in a is girlish. more normative than Andy be. the campy female impersonator was against the law homosexuals. In this way.2cm) Musee National d'Art Moderne. his also underscores the latent Duchamp's gesture. for made was perceived it an homage to Duchamp as even mar- as the domain of performance was not only a then and now. Warhol appeared in drag in a 1981 photograph by Christopher Makos. Camp was means through which a patriarchal roles could be challenged through ridicule. some American cities. Paris camp's relationship with flamboyant male homosexuality. wig is while his hands seem manly. a 1* %: $ 71 . image suggests that queer content in drag. simply stars was. most.Andy Warhol Self-Portraits in Drag. this campy does not totally negate the importance of the visibility of alternate gender presentations in mass culture.5x7. In visible.

You could buy a Blue Marilyn. photographic origins of the image. This slightly skewed registration. or Marilyn. not no gender identity. often Elvis. also suggest that can be a theatrically depict the self in strips in all identity is a performance and that anyone Warhol's portraits manifest a resolute disinterest in the notion that an introspective star. Desire is by definition unquenchable. through repetition. His use of found images. Gold Marilyn. Photography. series and the grid format. or Green Marilyn —but they are the same.While the content of Warhol's films indicates that gender identity and sexuality are more complex than artist's traditional Hollywood cinema has tended early 1960s silk-screen portraits. the all same "Marilyn. Mao. especially in the 1970s. and certainly from the point of view of the consumer. the artist focuses that public guise. . its day. These were pictures of "real" people. Warhol emphasized the reproductive. Warhol's 1963 silk-screen painting of multiple Mona Lisas is entitled Thirty Are Better Than One. the more you sustain the you are reaching satiation."" Warhol's photo-based to fix the elusive. which. who presented identity popular 1959 study The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. eyelids. Perhaps ic it is and serial portraits frequently. which conforms with a conception of identity as masquerade. tity is also must be even though you never do. then. a celebrity. Warhol also applied subsequent layers of color to highlight specific parts of the application of veils of paint a is mode face. — itself. The frequent misalignment in the registration of the various silk-screened applications of paint notifies the viewer of a gap in the disguise. that slippery quality concerned identity to insure that the self-portrait seems share with portrait photography in general an attempt to take mirror on the will not be blank status of star. later writes about the unfixity of gender: What the human provide and to nature of males and females really consists read depictions of masculinity schedule for presenting these pictures. and femininity and this capacity they well say there is is a capacity to learn to a willingness to adhere to a have by virtue of being persons. One might just as and of. in conjunction with the garish color- makes the portrait subject appear to be wearing makeup. for the camera. and commodification of identi- to create his paintings. on ready-made images Instead. The photo booth and the Polaroid camera allowed for the constant self-documentation of the sion of the cult of individuality. females or males. these movies. a super- of the photographic work of the 1970s explores this aspect of contemporary society through the 72 a fear an obsession. with promoting the fantasy that. entails the maintenance of reiterated in order to claim coherence. one that a Goffman. perfection can be achieved. Much Warhol voiced — that the photograph- "Me Generation. declare identity as manufactured. to be in drag. This of covering. but their commodity status and arti- emphasized by the variety of color backgrounds. but the more you have. the ficiality are photo quality is an assurance of that." representing the farthest exten- when each person becomes his or her own god. you can never have enough of anything. Sociologist Erving as a ritual of illusion that Gender iden- performance. in that it some performance in his potential for repetition. suggest the By applying a grainy their repetition black-and-white image to variously colored grounds. along with the artifice. There is only a schedule for the portrayal of gender." a construction of our expectations of celebrity. countenance represents the inner its life and reinforce its of a mug employed sense of sitter. conditioned by repetition. using found celebrity publicity pictures or photo-booth which the not-yet-famous in the silk-screen process he ty to represent. of obscuring and masking. emphasizing a disjunction between mask and ing of lips and whether be it face. plays to this illusion.

In a 1969 film entitled Later. in another he playing a grown-up artist — Samaras quite game of is a dress-up. blond wig. mother. in his Photo-Transformations (1973-76). Art. works. of fetishism Lucas Samaras created extensive series of Polaroid self-portraits in the late 1960s. 73 ." In tough guy dangling ing of the ic self. Samaras of them comically twisted. the exposed pictures fanning out around him on the pool table on which he lies. inches (202. of the in a grid format. New York.Andy Warhol Ethel Scull 36 Times. consists of eighteen prints arranged earliest one image the on various personae. try- deeply involved with the mechanics self-consciously explored the narcissism pursuing his investigations in a variety of media. actually image. in the process embodying early 1960s. defacing and embellishing and working on the photographic the urge to fix the image. and religious is An a long. he manipulated the wet emulsion of the Polaroid. the Wim eponymous Whitney Museum Wenders's 1977 film The American Friend. It also generally. The high theatricality of his photograph- works acknowledges him suggests the visceral Self. Ethel protagonist of the film. vene the "real" and bend it it. shoots himself Redner ot American Gift of Scull with a Polaroid over and over again. Samaras ate as a student of the Happenings of the late 1950s power of photographic and reproductive media photographs of his father. on canvas. to contra- into fantasy. and s: sister. sexual. — a cigarette all from artist his appears in makeup and mouth. Beginning and One portraits. Auto Polaroid (1969-71).9 cm) The anxiety behind the play is captured in a scene in when Dennis Hopper's troubled character.6x363. cultural. 1963 Synthetic polymer paint silk-screened 79 K x 143 '/.

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appropriated the stereotypic representations of women popular magazines and transformed them to her tampered with my own person for short experience of the sex) obedient. woman: to attractive to and experi- such as Eleanor Antin created both male Ballerina. what she wants it to. thus compelling to is who rummages through a impose its it to express homogenizing message on deadpan humor to Messager's the detritus of mass culture. Positive reproductions are housed nominally in the private space of the album." these graces. which they may women of these ego indicates the taxing social imposi- alter echoing Woolf 's Orlando and "Now have I shall are not (judging by my own exquisitely apparelled by nature. makeup. work. without to women volontaires). Messager. movement to assert identity. by. Lucy Lippard published an social construction of femininity. Messager has defiantly scribbled drawing moustaches and beards on the women and graffitilike accentuating the eyelashes and wall. who was probably championed the nascent gay implicit espousal of visibility as a the father of the artists liberation means same period documented by "Transformer" gender ambiguity. exhibition "Transformer" was exclusively concerned with male-to-female cross-dressing and conceived of the female impersonator male-born subject.*' which they were thrust Performance artists and female personae (Antin's repertory included The The Nurse). enjoy none of the delights of life. and subverting them. to Annette make themselves more Hoch. In another album-collection. "for chaste. exquisitely apparelled. scented. The et les Femmes-Hommes. she reflected. a It and in the exhibition. specifically. who seem to literalize works demonstrate the elaborate from man The King. which it shares with much of the post-Abstract Expressionist. Duchamp-inspired art that has flourished since the 1960s." each the inhabitant of different areas of her house. thereby making metaphorical husbands into wives and wives into husbands." The albumcollections are the product of the collector incorporating ply allowing it it There into her albums. Men- Messager playfully 1972). In 1975."" In her 1972 "album-collection" (Les own Hommes-Femmes ends. artifice masquerade of femininity and scented. This bifurcation of identity echoes Messager's self-defined personae. transformation after her women must to pay men. and of femininity described and metaphorized in the ritual of She remembered how.< Ammann's <///</ ///< t(<t:>a//c/'0((<' <•/ //'<•//>/ n/ ////// . she had insisted that Women and Many Star. as a young man. mented with socially determined roles into alternate possibilities. who include "Annette Messager Artiste" and 5 "Annette Messager Collectionneuse. The "construction chart" of Lynn Hershman's tion that the as female subjects article women compiling numerous examples of Conceptual and performance-based artworks in which examined the — again each image. Messager documents the myriad commercial methods available the in be obedient. They can only attain The Voluntary Tortures (Les Tortures like Women-Men socially those desires. it is not content simply to amuse but. while negative prints are exposed in the public domain of the enframed. however. The Black Movie Goffman's notion of identity as performance. rather than sim- her. And.//'ant ///:>/. Like the Dada and 76 Surrealist laughter that it frequently resembles. reemergent feminist movement a. lips fig- of the men. specifically that of men Yet during the was questioning the — in its for artistic explorations of was premised on the notion of masculinity as represented by the uptight and performers model as a it a revolt against traditional company man. entails. chaste. . by the most tedious discipline. defacements on the in in imposed gender definitions by inserting the images of male/female couples into other binary systems ures.

30 x 40 inches (76. artist The critical potential the definitions of femininity of wit and masculinity is its often engaged in in the 1970s.2 x 101. has more or less clear critical implications. 77 . become the — its 86 work of artists who explore clear. Laughter can be a disruptive your-face exuberance that only partially masks ridicule of play with and question gender identity often ming with glee at the refuse to conform. It is show literally subject.6 cm) Courtesy of the instead.-try7?? .. It is their 1970s that maker brim- these artists' pleasure to which repressive conventions are over- here that the political implications of camp. expressing an in- The works of the — or metaphorically mockery she has made of traditional expectations./€W-P*v> /* Lynn Hershman Roberta's Construction Chart. turned. one in act. 1975 C-print. and to imagine another reality. as a rejection of a set of rules and replacement with alternate conceptions.

it (installation detail). and one album Collection of the 78 x . u album photographs). Album-collection No. (details of 1972 Nineteen photographs under glass and one album lollection ( <>t the artist facing page: Annette Messager The Men-Women and Annette Messager Femmes et les I ( the Women Men. Album collection No.Annette Messager I he Men -Women and Women- the Men. Annette Messager Collector (Les Hommes-Femmes el la Femmes-Hommes. 1972 Nineteen photographs under each ( maximum l8 x is j'At 5/. artist glass. Annette Messager Collectionneuse). 'ollector ( les Hommes emmes Hommes. Annette Messager ( ollei tionneuse). inches em).

.

mil Ronnie lievman. 10 x 8 inches (25. 1977 print. 3/10 New York . 80 cm). #6.4 x 20.3 Collection of Samuel . ed.Cindy Sherman ( 'ntitled Gelatin Film silvei Still.

this is There the seems out of Or place. Boy George. There clothes and poses depicted B-movie whose starlet in these images. the damsel ninity in is whose representation makeup. This photographic expressed in the frequent doubling. work back They tend one has the sensation something of pause. Sherman's pictures are frozen in the extreme. f/<jif/c/' 'An 1 /a :. in distress who that preposterous cinematic female victim-to-be is is She constructed through the is fixes her is sion. a - • ' 81 . always something wrong. Film been captured enough an enactment. You Must Be Awfully Secure in Your Masculinity!'" 1995 There is a sense nan goldin. a theater within a theater in pare for her rescuer. and the repetition of poses between various images. both within individual pictures. intensifying by those disjunctions unassimilable to an anxiety fed by the our expectations. not so slightly is there are giveaways like a visible shutter-release cord or the reflection movie or production pictures taken on the moment of someone's fun and games. films we cannot and recall. about the Untitled Film quality. which inform the viewer that this loft artifice are brilliantly manipulated in Sherman's work. is is Stills. of freedom in The Other s7 having a desire that has never been labeled. something vaguely ominous. sprinkler system.''' There camera angle too extreme. a to is the work of a something troubling. and distracted facial expressions. the accumulated impact of the includes sixty-nine pictures. Yet quality of the image suggests the quiet before the storm.— 4. something is a furnishing or accessory It is still which the not to say they are transparent replicas that could ever be confused with the Hollywood ver- which of a film which a familiar figure of spectacular femi- perfectly cognizant she who some series. produced between 1977 and 1980. skewed uncanniness is its artifice: be distracting. for a moment. Side. about the picture. She is presumably to pre- hair. Some Contemporary Photographic Work Not only are some people more masculine or more feminine than others. instead of trying to escape the trauma that The conventions of the cinematic are looking at However. forces the realization that this performer a deceptive nostalgic quality to the is much can be shots from a moment in the way but may show the action has about to happen. is is also is due to reading Sherman's as that later set. This stills to represent a fixed action. into these earlier photographs. "'Gosh. of anticipation. 1993 s" 1/ In her Untitled Film Stills. we presume we wigs. that highlights slightly too eccentric. or already has. arguable that this some is off. The fetishistically exaggerated. both. but some people are just plain more gender-y than others whether the gender they manifest be masculine. costume. is trickster. or "still" makeup and about to is being watched. Cindy Sherman appropriated the format of black-and-white Hollywood publicity photographs. is a mannequin sans visage melodrama. befall her. through the many mirror reflections and planted framed portraits. or "and them some. feminine." eve kosofsky sedgwick. .

#14. ed. 10 x 8 inches (25. 8/10 .4 x 20. 1978 Gelatin silver print.3 Collection of Carol and Paul Meringoff 82 cm).Cindy Sherman I 'ntitled Film Still.

! Cindy Sherman Untitled Film Still. 1978 Gelatin-silver print. ed. 3/10 Collection of M. Fisher 83 . 8 x 10 inches (20. Anthony and Anne E. #11.4 cm).3 x 25.

i Collection of Beverly and Harris Schoenfeld 84 cm). 52 \ 3s inches ( 134.Cindy Sherman Untitled. 4/6 . #201. 19X9 ( olor photograph. ed.3 x yi.

5 cm). ed.~»- Cindy Sherman Untitled. 5/6 ( Ehrlich and Ruth Lloyds . x 41 % V inches 124.1 x 106. 48 • Collection of William S. 1989 Color photograph. #193.

Through the juxtaposition of hands and arms of different colors. including Morimura's double of Duchamp. Cremaster 4 86 is (1994). (1863). In 1988. Doublonnage (Marcel). or practicing blocking in drag. while also magnifies the binary logic inherent to it Duchamp's piece. are Morimura and eth- of the piece. suggests a variety of duplications. in The purposefully faked which any liberty so prominently silks aspects of Sherman's pictures point to the might be taken to flatter a sitter. While writing himself into ry. involves 1 an elaborate never finally resolved into complete Duchamp's The Large Glass metamorphosed Disneyesque walk-in storybook. mining ideal of femininity). Morimura Western culture and the way way in Western Modernist histo- which race and ethnicity Examining the marginalized often reveals the logic forces the margins to the center. the fine tapestries and displayed in the period's portraits.In the History Portraits she began Sherman in 1988. thetic The protagonists of body parts along with and the prostheses take In the series are male and female. Sherman's until. the body manner in of hands) to reen- as all of recreated Rrose beyond the original which these terms are summons uncanny the nature of fetishism. the second film made Barney presents color-coded masculine and feminine symbols of bodily organs. His enigmatic work presents various images of masculinity. The first It is as if movie produced. who it integrates recorded artist reconstructs. and most of the more conventional props. Duchamp's binary Morimura's insistent use of doubling (two hats. The title the ancient historical convention equating whiteness with an signals the implication of sexuality in the constructs of race as well as a sense of the diffusion of "dubbed" into other contexts. 92 his projected five-part cycle. in the process multiplying sexualized." The environments within which these events occur are frequently linked to ritualized contests of masculine endurance such as the race course and the football Barney has finished two videos of muscle that retracts the testicles. in which multiplication signals a preventative repetition to ward against castration and death. In Cremaster 4 and Cremaster series. of dominant ideologies. whether rappelling along the walls of a gallery. two sets Morimura distinctions include ethnic and cultural dimensions and the axis. the subsumed or taken for granted in these works. performance and sculptural objects in his multime- dia installations. Morimura nicity. Often he portrays an apparently male protagonist involved in a quest. enduring repeated punches. after the exploration of the binary logic of sexual differentiation. into a fantastical (1995). but they also suggest a personal pleasure in the willfulness of their perverse disruption of the models from which they derive. tap dancing into oblivion. artifice of painting painters of sensual itself. also exhibits production photographs in "self-lubricating" plastic frames as indepen- dent artifacts from his videos. in portraits include proslater 1985. which difference or unity. inserting himself in drag the figures in paintings such as Edouard Manet's Olympia Selavy in living color. particularly as represented in the arduous athleticism of professional sports. but including the realm of myth. to lost is over. entitled Cremaster. field. in the as well as pro- . is makeup this exclusively also heightens the latent content in the original. frequently drawing on the created tableau vivant reenactments of work of eighteenth-century —the of wigs and the powdery white makeup worn by both men and women — such as Francois Boucher. masterpieces of art history. and the obviousness of heavy white (also exaggerated in Duchamp. mixed-media photographic tableaux dating from male/female work. in the process compelling the viewer to acknowledge the ideological positions that inform the image that the Matthew Barney."" In these images she plays with the leisure elaborate hairstyles as the trappings artifice of period dress as well of wealth that were an indicator of status. Yasumasa Morimura began and disguise vision various masterpieces of Modernist art history.

60 x 48 inches (152. N.4 x 121.A. 87 .9 cm Jedermann Collection.) Yasumasa Morimura Doublonnage (Marcel). 1988 Color photograph.

x \ r inches w. < ! 17 ' \ \i one piece 27 :'. 1994 /.8 inches (70 x 84. AP 1I1 .*—_»_-•_ Matthew Barney ( I R each Faerie Fie/d.5 x 32.4 x 3. ed.5 Courtesy of Midi. our prints in self-lubricating plastic frames. x 3.w (44.8 cm). three pieces.icl lames O'Brien 88 cm).

6/6 Private collection.5 x 53.- I Matthew Barney CR 4: Loughton Manual 1994 C-print in self-lubricating plastic frame.3 x 3. 21 x 1 ! inches $ New York 89 . 25 x (63. ed.8 cm).

an integration of art with "real these artists' work of the late is life. The settings and characters in these videos are surreally is Body makeup and saturated with color and unusually costumed. the Hollywood dream factory. creating hybrid covers. fields concerned engaged for example): they are each with the fashion system. Marclay's work mines this technique in numerous ways. ephemeral and the ethics of the into another world. body art. question to the nth-dimension — characters like the three faeries prosthetics take the "Is she a he?" who accompany Candidate in Cremaster 4 and the satyrs in Drawing Restraint 7 have a beings are not male. in the process investigating marketing by the music industry. covers). not female. especially female. most extreme indicators of "absolute" nullified. and Warhol. both formances. The resulting disclosures may be compared learning another language or living in another culture. four years before the former published his first manifesto of Surrealism. in the manner in which it juxtaposes prose fragments. the its sells. finally. in these as well as the Surrealist works and his employment of mixing of music in his per- the found object (album new and surprising meanings. Marclay 's raw mate- The same shots of are featured ad infinitum. in which strange figures were photomontage of forged through a process in which each participant added to a drawing without knowledge of what had come before. recall the game of Exquisite Corpse. is and artists like rooted in Dada and Surrealist practice. gets its title by Breton and the poet Philippe Soupault. Morimura. For visages out of multiple overlapping parts. and Barney. and round buttocks Marclay 's strategy of conjoining the disparate figures and whole graphically underscores of advertising. in the process purposefully subverting and happily perverting the traditional definition of gender while crossing the imaginary divide between high with theatrical and low. combining seemingly disparate objects. . and video of a generation earlier is apparent in works such as these by Sherman. His their juxtaposition to create Hoch. that of fantasy. Marclay its rial. characteristically fetishizes the exotic other visualization. transitory. and their integration and transmutation into art. to expose tropes that are often taken for granted. images. modus operandi the album 94 Viewing these series as a headless torsos. of what distinctions between 90 we took for granted. performance." and an moving highly aestheticized. is it is to the insights we experience when by comparing the difference in the way conducted that we become aware of what we never The tropes Marclay engages are the socially constructed male and female. sound and sight.tagonists whose gender not clearly denned." 3 Christian Marclay works with music and representations of music Masks and (1992) series. summarized in the familiar adage "sex body media Body Mix (1991-92) and his sewed found record album covers together. All of these artists artifice (as did work in and against commercial Duchamp. Marclay 's engagement with montage. and sounds. black and white. a complex piece in the Body Mix series. an aspect highlighted by parts. Beaton. long legs. a thought is expressed or a social interaction questioned. But while their precursors were interested in real time. these figures are so elaborately constructed that the gender identification are The legacy of literal the second Loughton These skin. 9 Marclay's Magnetic ' from a text written Fields." parts. suggest masculinity or femininity. past and present. This technique also calls attention to the —represented by brown bodies and "ethnic" costumes — is called upon way to feed the trope of music as sensual stimulation and particularly sensuality as the province of the ethnic and sexual other."" Soupault and Breton's text forecasts Surrealist practice. elements of dress or makeup may but. The works 1980s and 1990s often cite popular film and high-art sources.

'> g Christian Marclay Magnetic Fields. 1991 27X x 24X inches (69.2 cm) Kimmelman 91 .2 x 62.- Collection of loan and Gerald series. from the Body Mix Record covers and cotton thread.

it also demonstrates the meanings that already reside the individual album covers. Conventions of advertising that bright shadowless lighting to suggest "realness" or the wholesome. who It is which is in found wanting. David Bowie (1991) includes the singer's album cover depict- ing Aladdin Sane. from Lou Reed. The moral of the ing of any characteristic socially contingent Christian Marclay \ m niches (74. are mysteriously and deceptively unreal. there can be no "normative" model without comparison to a socially constructed notion of an other. in his early 1970s packaging. 97 The Jackson. van Lamsweerde has elaborately parts.The hybrid masculine and feminine tures that Marclay fabricates in his series recall the sexual often used to market crea- Body Mix and gender ambiguity pop music. be considered contemporary human standards while the "normal" medical staff would be strous freaks. expresses desperate hope that her plastic surgery has been successful. Van Lamsweerde plays with the codes of perfection manipulated by the fashion advertising industry. whose name employs a Duchampian pun. In other words. series. from the Body Mix is story: the mon- The use of montage to create uncanny hybrids is facilitated by new technology in Inez van cm) Lamsweerde's recent work. to Michael Madonna. 19 historically mean- abstract law of "nature. and intriguing interplay of Marclay's combinations. swathed in face bandages.7 Collection of the artist and and not determined by some standards for noses." are utilize employed . an industry that spurred the development of the paintbox computer technology she uses. In various posed models and recombined their perfectly real beings who series produced since 1993. one of Bowie's gender-bending personae of the early 1970s. a nose. while creates impossible. 1991 Record covers and cotton thread. for example. like that old Twilight Zone episode in a post-operative woman. The ban- dages are removed. but in constructed David Bowie. Other works emphasize the conjunction of gender play and its appeal by incorporating album covers by stars who seem to shamanistically represent this realm of transformation to their fans." Beauty does not reside in a feature. in the process creating photographically seamless images. humorous monsters. and as she and the doctor and nurses lament the horrible failure of the procedure. for the that the "hideous" beautiful by woman would first time. Prince.9 x 33. 92 and hence "truth. the audience sees.

5: a j 93 . works "make strange" images whose very their ubiquity enables them to be taken for granted. er. Contemporary "mainstream" interest in "gender trouble" —which is manifested in Hollywood movies. 1992 Record covers and cotton thread.*' accounting from the series. howev- take perversion to be a pathology but rather a fasci- nation with possibilities that tions of conformity. perverse those I do not. and sitcoms to name just three popular arenas — over- laps with the widespread production of art that plays with gender. there is the assertion of visibility the socially acceptable categories delimited by dominant on the part of subjects culture. van lip gloss.3 cm Collection of the artist as well for the neat resolution of al homosocial subtexts in big-budget movies into absolute heterosexu- masculinity and femininity. Body Mix the instability of sexual and gender assignments.) by van Lamsweerde The reality.'" This interest seems to be diversely motivated. and lie outside social expecta- a desire to disrupt rigidly defined roles for pleasurable ends. collaboration with artist. the artists show how images actually Cremaster 1 are. Lamsweerde has mixed and matched female and male The bodies. of fascination with gender as a site of potential and creativity. series in the presentation ecstatic reclining The Forest close inspection men in her four-piece (1995) are puzzlingly strange. where she men feminine pose of self-absorbed rapture in the classically —precursors range from Renaissance paintings of Danae's Golden Shower to ing starlets whose Hollywood — publicity photographs of loung- as well as aggressively gigantic stature dwarfs their surroundings. watching Barney's — which the synchronized movie peculiar (or arbitrary) the "original" elicits earlier films recalls a swimming Busby Berkeley musical or in an Esther Williams how the realization of were and what that might suggest about the society from which they emerged. — For example. 27 x 13 '/• inches (68. in Matadin. Today. who do not "fit" finally. also works is known Vinoodh in the fashion industry and advertising work that sub- for editorial She presents verts expected codes. And. This fear probably underlies the daily barrage of jokes ridiculing people who incorrectly read the gender and sexual identities of others. There is Christian Marclay a sense of curiosity. And then there is anxiety about the implications of Slide Easy In. national magazines.6 x 34. it becomes apparent parts are not scaled to the figure. many artists mass culture and the way While macho women engage the visual tropes of in which gender is marketed. ject of an alternate wears nail polish and some body that and Upon that a "male" sub- In fact.

Rob. 53% x 70 X inches (135 Courtesy of Matthew Marks Gallery. 1995 C-print in pcrspex. New York x 180 cm) Lamsweerde Forest. Marcel. New York x 180 cm) . 53 X x 70% inches (135 Courtesy of Matthew Marks Gallery.I Inez van The Lamsweerde Inez van The Forest. 1995 C-print in perspex.

New York 95 . Lamsweerde Inez van Andy./ Inez van The Forest. 1995 The C-print in perspex. Klaus. 53 X x 70 X inches (135 Courtesy of Matthew Marks Gallery. 1995 x 180 cm) C-print in perspex. 53% x 70 % inches (135 Courtesy of Matthew Marks Gallery. New York x 180 cm) Lamsweerde Forest.

" 1 "2 Goldin's photographs and those of other "Boston School" artists such as Philip-Lorca diCorcia and Shellburne Thurber are shot almost exclusively on-site. to most of all. Drag queens have been the subject of many twentieth-century photographers. Typically. fix identity. others "The —by race." They tend to indicate moments caught amid daily life and activities. and men is instead . hopefully for more than fifteen minutes. "Is it really a These photographs feed the voyeur's yearning. This is view of their sexuality and gender presentation as pathological. designed to humanize them. 1 "4 drag entitled Being and Having.^///<( J' //\<<t/l/l/ In the early 1970s. for In 1991. "The personal pictures in this on way they when in the spirit of they can't categorize in her preface to The Other Side. Lisette Model. identified with the social from the distinguishes Goldin's photographs images earlier is her relationship with her subjects as well as their self-presentation. and minimal distracting announce a glistening perfection. and Diane Arbus. is it a trick?" not necessarily a predatory phenomenon. example.'"" like painters before them. in which the female most commonly presumed 96 to "be" the phallus. book is is and nothing more. by gender. Their fiat backgrounds. iconic on the subject. are more frequently consciously contrived studio portraits. Goldin's pictures differ in the family album. asserting the "realness" of the never-before-seen or the unimaginable. and. in a way that is completely contrary to the moralizing implications of the "reality effect" that characterizes the gritty pictures of. while they similarly document his friends and lovers. and a struggle with which the viewer move away from the almost nihilistic insistence Goldin's documentation of her subjects' lives refute the traditional the feminist adage. in the environments of the 11 people documented. Like Molinier's. who hung out Nan Goldin began taking photographs of drag queens and pre-op transsexuals Boston bar called The Other at a Side. This age. The legacy of Warhol's Factory lurks in the constant self-documentation. by euphoria. These are public pictures but also intimate ones. the result of time spent together. including Brassai. His images demonstrate the high value he placed on formal aesthetics. Mapplethorpe's style of portraiture glorifies its subjects. knew they were being since the subjects in photographs like these are performers. and allowing the viewer to stare. who you want be to be. Mapplethorpe's pictures centrality. in which the drag queen presented as a is debased theatrical personality alongside aging strippers and denizens of carnival sideshows. 1 '" are not of people suffering gender dysphoria but rather expressing gender about new possibilities and transcendence. What or exist. a photographer Gatherine Opie exhibited a series of portraits of friends in like Weegee. or at least photographed." "Most people is in is a Warhol's work. His portraits suggest the conventions of celebrity advertisements. to get scared most of all. Weegee. to represent the desire of the male." Goldin writes suggest a asked to empathize. on the other hand." but. hold up a mirror image be sure you to exist. Robert Mapplethorpe's pictures. this work characterized by is its voyeurism. Pictures like these play into the realm of photography that delights in the documentation of the unusual. — including her own — the political. a community. to be a star. book surface. to be "real. and clearly person it. to ponder without shame. alienation of their subjects. tight cropping. they aesthetically exalt pleasure. which is man? Does this many look quite pleased about Arguably some of these photographers. While the self- conscious ambition behind making the private public indicates the Warholian desire for celebrity. his detail focus all attention images of sex acts are gorgeously beautiful. that repetition suggesting an attempt to of the to self. a witty send-up of Lacan's theory of Symbolic sexual differentiation.

20 x 16 inches (50. New York 97 .cm) Courtesy of the artist and Matthew Marks Gallery.8 x 40. Boston. 1973 Gelatin-silver print.§ Nan Goldin Ivy with Marilyn.6.

1973 Gelatin-silver print.Nan Goldin Pat and Denine in the Profile Room.8 x 40. 20 x 16 inches (50. New York . Boston.6 Courtesy of the 98 artist cm) and Matthew Marks Gallery.

20 x 16 inches (50. Boston.< Nan Goldin Marlene. Courtesy of the artist and Matthew Marks v cm) Gallery.6. 1973 Gelatin-silver print. New York 99 .8 x 40. Colette and Naomi on the street.

2 Pride Parade. 1991 cm) Gallery.6 and Matthew Marks NYC.Nan Goldin David ami Mistiest lamina ( i libachrome print. 30 curtesy of the artist x Gay at the 40 inches ( 76. x 101. New York .

6. NYC.cm) and Matthew Marks Gallery. New York . 30 x Courtesy of the artist in the bathroom.2 x ioi. 1991 $ 40 inches (76.$ Nan Goldin Jimmy Paillette Cibachrome and Tabbool print.

The Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation cm). ed.6 Solomon (lilt. 20 x 16 inches (50. Guggenheim Museum. New York.8 x 40. AP 3/3 . 1980 ( lelatin-silver print.Robert Mapplethorpe Self-Portrait. R.

1980 Gelatin-silver print.v Robert Mopplethorpe Self-Portmit. ed. Solomon Gift.6 cm). 20 x 16 inches (50.8 x 40. Guggenheim Museum. New York> AP 2/3 1 The Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation 103 . R.

17 1991 x 22 inches (43.9 ourtesy of Regen Projects. framed.Catherine Opie ( < < 104 hief. 2/8 Courtesy of Regen Projects. Ihromogenic Catherine Opie print. 17 x 22 inches (43. Los Angeles .9 cm). framed. 1991 cm).2 x 55. Collection of Fisher Stevens.2 x 55. ed. ed. 3/8 from the Being and Having series. Chromogenic ( print. from the Being and Having series. Los Angeles Jake.

ed. from the Being and Having Chromogenic print. 1991 print. ed. I v us Angeles 10s . 3/8 Courtesy of Regen Projects.9 cm).! $ Catherine Opie Catherine Opie Papa Bear.2 x =55. framed. 1991 x 22 inches (43. Los Angeles Chicken. 17 series.2 x 55:9 cm). from the Being Chromogenic and Having series. framed. Courtesy of Regen Projects. 17 x 22 inches (43. 2/8 Collection of Patrick Breen.

x 14 inches (46.H Horan '. .4 x 35. 1994 Chromogenic print Collection of Vivian ( Kktacolor).Catherine Opie Mitch.9 cm) .

thus impersonating both gender and race. In her portraits of friends in the lesbian. kinship and Taken sexuality. incidentally (perhaps) ay a site of personal intervention. lipstick. richly their aesthetic male throwaway gender. as cultural caused by the social dislocations of nineteenth-century critic Kobena Mercer persona "performs a version of black masculinity that minstrel mask ty as spectacle. which are variable and dependent upon looking and constructing a subject through that look. (FTM) and advertisements. in Sisterhood. highlighting the way in which constructs of gender and sexuality are bound up with caricatured African race. not destiny but. feminist artists investigated Opie's roles. entitled The Americas.a to "have" the phallus. these are images of desirable subjects —but to whom? These women perform their "masculinity. signify identity and as are the mascara. often also cross-dressed as women. In close-ups and glowing color. Opie's series contests a logic that Looking at the thirteen a is much men cross-dressed as such a deadpan visages women commonly appear in Drag queens have almost become films. gender-crossing? Is it problematic for a female-born subject to take on overt signs of masculinity than on femininity? Could subject to take extraneous otherness tampered with? — is it — be that femininity the available for play. television. pleasures.'"" work of the 1990s examines gender dignified individuals pose in clear. 107 and does so They signifies upon the grotesque pathos of the such a way as to simultaneously evoke the masquerade of feminini- His white makeup yet they are not. and white makeup. while masculinity. minstrel players frequently ridiculed both abolition and women's rights. are the phallus as well. middle-class. as neatly resolving into a female/male duality of heterosexual impersonation gender tight who but invisible to "mainstream" society. Their pierced. is in suggests. identification. have been see "being in this series also spurs the realization that rarer sight than the opposite. Thus. wearing a blond wig. and gender. which are named on metal plaques on the frames. Through "n men They these imper- sonations and the skits they performed. these images disrupt traditional conceptions of race gilt throne Ude fit present a for royalty. specifically. suggesting the anxiety American society. with recalls the nationalist flag Improvement Association (UNIA). In the 1970s. In nineteenth-century minstrelsy. . Harris's gender-bending whiteface is a mask. in nude. Harris and Ike dandy's archetype of feminine masculinity. appearing before a carved together. the female-born subjects in these pictures pose as their masculine personae. and blond wig he wears. Against a tricolor Universal Negro tive visions 1994. portraying individuals fully crafted all there and S/M communities." and who . would — mutually exclusive. Harris reimagines a vision of background that community and nation family: European-descended. biology body male impersonation in the context Why is somehow more it is for a male-born and sexual as they questioned of sexuality and. quietly hued backdrops. which symbolizes power. In 1987 and which he appears 1988. Opie's care- images assert the viability of the subjects they represent. Sporting theatrical moustaches and goatees. Lyle partially Ashton Harris created a series of self-portraits. transgender. a boater hat. . For example.4 children. a raw material with which is and cliche. cannot be light against simple. instead. white American subjects by wearing exaggerated black burnt-cork makeup. but they also represent the desire of an other female other —thus they and having" as desire. where culture subsumes we do what we will. various couples of Marcus Garvey's iconically exemplify transforma- of contemporary kinship. warm and shaved bodies announce reinforcing a conception of the nature. dearth of popular images of female-to-male tattooed. that inscrutable lesbian desire. - X 107 ." they have the phallus. In collaborative that contests the works dating from mythology of the bourgeois nuclear 2. His whiteface persona inverts the blackface performance of minstrel shows.

West Hollywood Ciallcry. 1994 Polaroid photograph. Courtesy of lack Tilton and Margo Leavin Gallery.8 Collection oi cm) Alexandra Epps. 24 x 20 inches (61 x 50.Lyle Ashton Harris and Alexandra Epps Alex ami I yle. New York. .

8 Collection of Robert W.Lyle Ashton Harris and Ike Ude Sisterhood. cm) California loy . 1994 Polaroid photograph. 24 x 20 inches "(61 x 50. Conn.

and Renee Cox u)94 Polaroid photograph. 24 x 20 inches (6i ( lourtesy oi fack Tilton Gallery. West Hollywood .Lyle Ashton Harris The ( luhl.cavin Gallery. New x 50.x York. and cm) Margo I.

5: S . Three pho- as themselves and made up as each other. Thomas a way of UNIA and feminists institutions. entitled states: expanding the notion of who can lay claim flag. In this way. march and other black is is envisioned in the are challenging a construction of African nationalism that positions queers outside of the black family.""' another type of family portrait. the Million who Allen Harris. Whether self. Harris This collaboration with Thomas We — using masquerade as our mode of transgression to the liberatory potential — Janine Antoni's 1993 triptych Mom Man and Dad who appear both tographs document her parents. Antoni. male/female. confounds the gender distinctions of her parents. Crossroads and Etcetera.Referring to a related collaboration with his brother. in into We It is with our parents that our see the reflection of ourselves experiences of through the eyes of our parents. taking on the question of gender roles sexuality at the site at and gender are and construct ourselves do not divide neatly which they are formed. Ultimately. and against those images. we each seek the reflection of our ideal to be. who. filmmaker Brotherhood. applied the makeup." reflected in the gaze Antoni's triptych are the artist's we attempt to reinhabit the space in emanating from our parents' parents. Antoni's piece some first indicates that these conceptions "natural" dichotomy of paternal/maternal. the self in the we wish mirror or in the image of the other. sat for their felt ourselves what we see daughter and in who stare lovingly at her. apparently. masculine/feminine. at us. willingly which we eyes. located." to "have. to "be. or hetero/homo.

ed in various media and venues. have been refined temporary notions of gender and sexuality distinction between the constantly shifting. decade or in the last related terms are Rrose — "gender performance in through which the objects described herein have been myself have engaged in my own Utopian project of unification under the sign of difference. a con- fixed.(roHCf/dfott This exhibition and essay are informed by theories of gender and sexuality that. As author. rather. live in an age in Why are which individual identity reflects interests that are extensively represent- these questions about identity so motivating is widely conceived as an artificial glomeration of signs through which we are (not necessarily willingly) tics" 112 — shared by others like us. Yet. we of "identity poli- mind-body dilemma. We are caught in a new — the version of the old We performance. lens of quite recent origin: in is a Rrose is a so. So photography" — viewed. though developed throughout the course of the twentieth century. at the claim these socially imposed identities in order to unite under a banner now? flag same time. its is a words presently it is exists. in fact. We . Yet my position is not self-invented but. Our con- some languages no and the connotations of these and that the pretext of Rrose contemporary I are.

it. voice person and represent their bodies. In various themselves in the first fields after a much-touted death. each photograph 24 x 20 inches want our body to "be" and yet we are not. The "author" has been resurrected out authority. Perhaps selves.Anloni Jctnino Mom and Dad. a certain logical elegance. and is insist that these representations not. but simply to identify ourself as one individual and. idea that we are fixed in language which we are circumscribed However. and we turn — in is that we perform according dread of being caught subjectivity what — true." like a fly in this to the dictates of a system it is lost all to the self not to determine it. it seems that the shifting sand that is the self is the only thing of. The in assert the priority of the spirit (or language) over real. makeup. one's self-presentation. 1993 Mother. New York. not to extrapolate our experience to others. thereby. this is an author with- of literary and visual production. authors look to themselves. One is. without on declaring our- which we have and the notion of objectivity to locate a corner of the universe that Gift. $ The notion of v- v 113 . insist we can be upon sure its existence. our bodies. In an era insist in we can attempt free will. it is to combat by defining our what is (61 x 50. — itself to describe. yet do not are necessarily identical to themselves. International Director's Council compelling sense of "truth. Guggenheim Museum. Today. a the ability to determine oneself. father. without dread that we identity. amber.8 cm) Solomon R. there also lurks —has a secret on underlining our belief in absolutes that we are. however.

context to indulge an escapist impulse is if use the truly pathetic holding to is of technological rationalization and the gigantic To focus on the body to multinationals. as attempts to form of the very this critique critical discourse. that there should be Other there is first person and do not only one way to be. to the realization that Nor is my pleasure." " this (cynical) level. is artists like Warhol. through their specific no master. perceived as misguided and as impossible a counter to capitalistic enization as the smashing of machines by the Luddites. may. and yearn for a return to the godlike authority of the omniscient narrator and the "objective" reportorial voice. Academic historians include first- person accounts in order to assert rather than obscure the motivation of their readings. but 2 something valid to mechanisms. Instead. The Dada-inspired works of another master 1 is homog- that a love/hate relationship underlies the production its Pop as well as of manage anxiety about However. Henri Matisse would be "something is like a good arm- cited with approval by some said to encapsulate the function of the art in this exhibition. pretend to speak for everyone. — is to create a mysterious and holy biological site in this — in a des- perate attempt to counter the impersonality of modernity and the vision of self as an inconsequential cog in a great mechanical combine. privilege aspired to create for the "businessman or writer" an art that chair in which to rest from physical and censured by others.authorial objectivity not believed possible and is is not a goal. than the right) argue that what critics (of the left rather any notion of individuality and free will in the face from governments corporate entities. show. special. and the line between fiction and memoir is willfully breached."" which presumes that there it is one are retrograde. There reading. to speak as voices. "narcissistic" authors. underlying correct exotic. documentary filmmakers show the trappings of the camera and the ways their presence changes the environment they record. on some mediums from which and works that do not logic. which not what does this art do. the presentation of of much such as art argument can be made concerned with mass media and Duchamp and Hoch. Certainly. "my . artists be understood imagery has been culled. thereby wishing to ally the author's who voice with the voice of the master. the an unusual. may be crucial question Which body 114 is is now brings us back fatigue. who is it doing it for —who is in that armchair? Barthes's assertion of identity as taste. In strange. 1 "1 ' Critics charge the authors of these trends with "pathetic" narcissism. Yet the full circle to not the same as yours!'" their This comment. that rule us. or different self is this critique.

) loan Riviere. illustrates that and I. singer Maud indebted to the carnival. "Marcel men officer of the his wife's le Boston: G. francaise article Glarke. 1992]. Richard Miller Press. performed lumiere magique du theatre. p. in ibid. ). Hall." in Pietz. Fetishism. Rrose I 22. 23. "Rrose Selavy nee en 1920 a N. p. 1. p. Sarah Bernhardt used Schwob's translation for her Hamlet." in Art/Fashion. end he conclud- Grotesques: Carnival and Theory. as Cultural Discourse (Ithaca: Cornell "It ed that no price would be enough for the Amelia photomontage Emily Apter and William some morning." (Cited in Fred Davis.Y. exh. explanations for the in his preface. ( approximately what was adequate compensation for wearing \el Marcel Duchamp: Motes in Raul Matisse. Else (Paris: Jose Corti. 1986). 196H). trans. ( The Cahun. En-Gendering of Marcel Duchamp. 4. 1985). Corti. p. p. by Paul Morand Brassai. Identity [Chicago: Weimar Photomontages as the 1920).. eds. Paris de nuit. vol. New York Dada ( 1921 diss.Notes 1. Hannah Hoch (New of Robert English as Paris by Night. These circumstances included theatrical comedy and gay bars or clubs. September 18. see Conspiratorial previously published as appendix Hand-Painted Pop: Women in Men's Guise. 20. he said. tive for pour mon gout personnel/et Selavy de mots facile/C'est /en book demonstrates 1937 405-06. Francis Steegmuller's "A Visit to Barbette. Mary Garden. Mary reproduced Letter Klein Dawn especially. A Nimarkoh. James Donald. In 1921. Gilbert and in Jones. and Fashion.. p. 1933). Symbolist critic 1930). 1994). 1993).) Studies (Bloomington: Indiana University 15. first much to be as responsibility again. 213-29. Studies in Entertainment (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Flugel. 5. pp. 1 1 14. This Brown. Culture. "Fragments of a Fashionable Discourse. Orlando: Contemporary Cocteau revised version of Steegmuller's article in Mysteries of Sex: Man Ray 1980). and the Theory of Perversion. forthcoming 1997). Claude Cahun's biographer Francois Leperlier notes Cahun's other pseudonyms such A XIV Leperlier. hold a position offinancial to University of Chicago Press. [texte notes E." See Silver. University Press. "Claude Cahun. photographies (Los Angeles: New York: Postmodernism and the Marcel Duchamp." "-- ed." in Teresa Fashion. Disclosure: and the Rise of Pop and Paul Schimmel. to cross-dress: hat would have (interview). as he could expect to prestige entailed. Stein. 1913-1921.D. 12. 239. Ray. "Female Feminist Studies/Critical ed. reprinted Man Duchamp (New York: Abrams. ( the Duchamp. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 10 "Sous erai ce masque un autre masque.. Cut with the Kitchen Knife: The copyright holder of Fresh which of his 1882-1935. Barbette. never expect Gambridge York: ( it earn the York: Postmodernism and the En-Gendering [ones. see Duchamp's 1991. 1937). Biography Boston: is as Claude Courlis and Daniel Douglas. pp. arguments regarding the liberating space of p. 24. 1974). cat. door need not be either opened or may be both. of 1419). cette boite a malice oil le vrai n'a plus cours./nom juij? Duchamp. See in also includes 1970). (Milan: Skira. 477. Arts. [avec un Little. published in For a germane analysis of Mikhail Bakhtin's de Lauretis. no." Then. 121. Steegmuller's Cocteau: Schwarz.. 1987). A Bird. 1 rest Women.' Donna De Postmodernism American Art and 10. 1969. 108. of Contemporary Art. 17. 1934). pp. 35-44. 30. Zabriskie Gallery. trans. trans. trans. another context. Gertrude and Geography Stein. ing study. oil "Great Masculine Renunciation. see Kaja Silverman. For a summary of causal 1969). 1956). 1950)." — Rose etani nam le — la vie . 26. The Complete Works of Marcel u. ed.. e'est la vie': is in the Haven: Yale University Press. 9. "Sacred Emily. 8. Institute of Lavin. Formations of Fantasy (New York: Routledge. Mercure de France." in in Ades. The S. p. cette It's sociale. 9-10). those of the writer J. The Psychology of Clothes (1930. 1976). B. signature of Rrose Selavy appeared on Francis sections 3 since afterward he could life. "Womanliness as a Masquerade. Men Gilbert. 187. Lewis Women Who p. C. For Posed as par] Francis Steegmuller (Paris: Jacques Museum Rizzoli. Angel. Marcel (Paris: Schwob and friend of Oscar Wilde. p. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ( New Marcel 1962).. and Photography). Cahun which she in 1900. 189. 41." in Mise en Scene: Claude Cahun. Man Ray. O. Femme Schwob L'Hygiene dans la societe. Aveux non avenus a (Paris: du Carrefour. cat. trans. inedites. London: Reaktion Books. New York: collaborations. Mason on Barbette. 1995)." .. 23. 1994). p. 21. pp. this Flower. "'a It n rue Larrey. 16. of Psycho-Analysis. 28. The Portrait in Photography. of the 1921). exh. 130-43. University. 303-13. dans Paris sont ouverts (Paris: Jose [sic] was An (London: Institute of Lucie Editions a 27. K. 169. Tacita Dean. History of Sexuality. cited in Duchamp New Hannah Hoch tled 6. Kenneth In that in Russo.. 138-52. Laughtcr/A Friendship: Northwestern P. Man Ray and exh. as well as small portions of 7." {Le N[umer]o coined the phrase. 286. (1929). "Masquerading Pathologized Men: Cross-Dressing. Secret Paris of the '30s. Le Cocur de Pic naturel n'a plus aucune valeur. quoted "Duchamp's Masquerades. see modified exh. Cut with the Kitchen Knife. the opera "New York Dada and and 1978). Le N[umer]o Barbette: 1992). appear in label." in New York: Something Plays (1922. Note Duchamp's comments. in The Artist's Seventeen Artists a answered. New York: Causeway Books. (Paris: Arts et Metiers. C. 1986).. present discussion. Francis Duchamp in the United and Marcel States. 32." 31. Art. the strong disincen- over for a moment. Fetishism as Cultural Discourse (Surrealism. 111. May (London: Bodley Head. for example. "Fifty thousand dollars. created a Da Dandy Rose (with one"r") Selavy Duchamp 13." in discussed on a useful essai "Modes of The Construction of Gay For Damase. 523-29." the Arts: New in Havelock 1: La Ellis. Evanston. "Next: Life 3. Thompson. Men and Men Who Impersonated Women (1938. who figured on the See Nancy Ring. 100. and Cahun. text (New York: Pantheon Books. cited in Jones. 1929). Federal Reserve Bank. Fetishism University Press. Thompson thanks See Cocteau's July 1926 Nouvelle Revue for Identity Women's Gilbert. after Marcel Duchamp. also not am see chapters 4 attributed to her." Salvo Guise. M. states that "Onward and Upward with Arturo M. p. cat. Flugel.. 183. (New York: Random House/ En-Gendering and the Grisis of Masculinity: Picabia. 1986). asked to the office See Jann Matlock. vol. 1932). pas de soulever tons Ic n'en fin- ces visages. also illustrated a nominal children's book with photographs of whimsical tableaux of objects: Lise Deharme. "'Eros. Silver Duchamp 1926). Graham in Douglas (London: Bodley Head. Man Ray and in Transition 1955-62. pp. who him (pp. 128. changemeni del sexe plus 'laid' An contemporaneous anecdote drawn from Press. pp. reprinted in Victor Burgin. an example of Gilbert's influence." including J. The Hurley (New York: Pantheon Books. 154. enti- emerged first Widow Picabia's L'Oeil Cacodylate form and Michel Foucault. eds. Biography (1928. C. See. pp. quoted in Katherine Kuh. London: Hogarth Press and par] Jean Cocteau. p. and Cora Kaplan. p. 31-61. review of made photos of Barbette's "metamorphosis" closed. For interesting insights on Gecil Beaton's use of mirrors and reflection. cat. quoted 25." Ph. p. and Letters of Marcel 2.4)! Reproduced Duchamp" Voice: Talks with thinking & Harper Row. Yorker. Gilbert Stuart loss of Lavin's ground-break- trans. ed. sec David Alan - V 115 . 16. bottle's original The Brassai. en travesti. 1993). with essay by (New York: J. pp. 27. A book "Dans le 19." in Tania Modleski. Parts and 4 below. Pantheon Books. the in Jennifer Blessing. Robert 6. Virginia 29. Dowie Virginia Woolf. 1992). eds.. 83.

American Original/Alice Austen.: I "The Diaries and Photographs Writings of Pierce. ed. 1996). exh. 1991 I imits oj "Sex" Routledge. pp. on the caption Ibid. the careers of the cunning dissociation of consciousness from of "Yevonde: Gradus and Parnassum. see Saint loan of Arc 51. older examples of the kind ot enjoyment of the family and I [owever. 207. and Wang. in exhibited in The 1. cat. The Portrait in Photography. ed. with University of California in association photographic means of household employments she could imagine VAmour fou: of Art and Cultural Center including the daguerreotype The terms "index" and "icon" describe types Pierce in Chicago's Dinner Party in Feminist Art History. 38. is work of art (see. see Nadar. in historical New in the Service ol (Old Greenwich. Doran. see Pierce. at Sotheby's 44. "Nightwalkers. 232 Hill the tion of individual shots as "masterpieces. pp. as Formative of the I" (1949). (New York: Dover. DC: Alice's an exh. Beaton. "Photography and Fetish. Beauty]. St. causes. of his 53. in memory Centre. quoted in Terence Pepper.Mellor. "Instead of the production of goods. Salome]. 107.. (London: National Portrait Gallery. photography with reference to Susan Sontag.. pp. 70. ( Alan Sheridan (New York: W. How Do I ed. 242. Staging the Photography uyos-iySos. This interesting subject. often associated with theatrical roles. the Countess. p. (or wife).Y. 43. cat."The Pornographic Sontag. 1995). 165. different" version appears in Hannah her house on her hands and knees). Photography and Surrealism. Beaton. "Molinier. Subjectivity." nineteenth-century photographers in Furthermore. Conn. (London: National Portrait Gallery. For Alice Austen. "Reviewing Authorised Biography' by number of people who viewed an album was in et Roger Cardinal. C. am I lated in Pierre Molinier. 41. whose ot the distur- new Julia Margaret Cameron and Lady Hawarden. 1993). mother figure. like 36. —The Camera 252 (December often quite large. dandies. put forward performance and the especially Gibson's essay 40. exh. Camera Lucida: Woman's Book Club.1928. "Heroines" [including Margaretha Howard (New York: Richard commanded which encourages the disassembling of albums." in Krauss Judy am tographed performing the most degrading Surrealist Doubleday. Male had tographic portraiture. pp. pp. Fantasy 39. 33. Le Journal teraire. "Beaton's Beauties. 46. power Imagination. pp. See Lacan. Cecil Beaton: Photographs in A Selection. 12. England: Plymouth Arts best at describ- is ot photographs. p. scrubbing the exterior see Krauss. 39 (winter 1986). 70. Hugo Vickers. 1995).. 31-40. 34. "What Is a Picture?" in Lacan. 55. Helen of Troy.: Amelia Jones. 6. no. at the (September 23-November 1985). "So Abbeville Press. "The Legs of pp. Sappho. 1918." Nadar's of signs in the semiotic system developed by exh. with intro- Doubleday. in only relatively recently that it is kind of prices that have led to the presenta- the advent of myself as other: a exhibition of the charismatic Judith of Holofernes. (New York: 1955)." 37. exh. 52-53. of Art. trans. artist's Hambourg ff. see Heather Dawkins." 1981). changing Judith Butler. Pierce. 42. 1993). 1993). exh. "The Mirror Stage Function of the work presently under discussion were frequently mounted This description of the child's development of identity conceptions ot the status friends of the photographer. see (spring 1981). W. cat. France. (Paris: d'Art Moderne. ot Solomon-Godeau. Ernestine. trans. and Plymouth. identity". Maria Morris Metropolitan "Heroines" [Sophie. lesbian. 1986). On (New York: the The photographs Look? Women Camera. The Theory of Signs. W. Museum Surrealism. discussed in Susan Butler. pp. tographer's bedridden wife. "Nadar and the Photographic Portrait in the Reviews of 'Cecil Beaton make "lesbienne" to self-portraits in his which are now located quoted homme Molinier has modified the French noun Beaton also preserved numerous cross-dressed archives. Though most "No Jacques Donguy. pp. 1992). femme. in Routledge. ( Faust February 28. cat. N. Mercure de ). Norton. ( (tor erotics of class work no. ed.. 81-90. & Stewart. Norton. pho- herself while related to the theme of this exhibition." Canal 32 (October 1979). For the Photography (1980). 34 17 (1988). Squiers. see self. "Beaton's Beauties. (Garden Musee For examples of the Dove: A Study in ( ontrasts: St." Art Journal 41 tography 1969." in Philippe Garner and Mellor. for example. 15-42. (London: Nineteenth-Century France. cited in Cahun Photographe. want I did not pre- it clude a reading of the photograph as a masculine. cat. For a comparison of the fetishism of ol the Ha ursive 1976). Therese of Lisieux et al. For Cullwick. photograph has traditionally been identified Eve. Note that p.S66-1952 Before and Behind the Self: Self-Portrait mother. earlier generation of Looking. Barthes. 1936). 11-12. 52. assert that and medieval manuscripts were as in the rubric of ambiguous way. 49." Art History 10 (June 1987). Delilah. on the Goddesses. Metz. reprinted in Carol The — Self Sisters Mesdames Morter: Houk Friedman definition ot private versus public pho- albums illustrated here are James Lingwood. not photographic medium. ^y. the is derived from Lacan. and 4S. in Ecrits: Alan Sheridan (New York: 1977). ed. p. An earlier ver- sion of this paper appeared in The International journal oj Psychoanalysis 18 . 154-87. a "slightly represents the pho- Rosalind Krauss introduces Pierce's ing the fetishistic 1973). Styles of Radical Will outside the scope of the present essay. Oscar Wilde and an tographs trans- p. see Christian Critical linage (Seattle: Bay 54. Tabori Cabinet Gallery.: Chatham Press. Sexual Politics: ( Los Angeles: Hammer Museum UCLA at the Armand Press. Cahun. it while the album was a format considered 13. 47." I of and Jane Livingston." "Masochism and Male Camera Obscura Subjei tivity til Margins (New York: the New York: Camera York: I (oubleday. Creative 35. exh. ). Krauss also discusses "Photography stairs to The masquerade often inform pho- World: The Life and Photography is in example. necessarily to a female subject. In Madame Roberts. selected and ed.Y. indicating that the pho- Clarke. 1995). Photographs by the Morter photography Poses (fall in relation to film. 34. 8-58. 1990). 639 (February 1925)." pp. Cullwick. p. p. 4." Pierre Molinier. cat.. 53 and 73. 1944)." October." October. note p. 116 a History mounted prints were photographic prints have action Roland Barthes. Teresa of (Garden City. lit- Victoria [Vita) Sackville-West's biographies." Corcoran Gallery Lucida. Jacques Lacan. 1990). Gallery. in this much carved up in the past. am referring here to a New York 6. (Washington. pp. 1-7. appropriate to photography.. p. For instance. (New York: 1920-19/0 Chang. Bodies that Matter: Ann Novotny. p. p. no one has thought that held had a public status. Doran. "Nadar: the Camera (London: 1940). p. 33-38. N. it Hannah pp. and Myth. 68 reads. Reflections on (Mellor. W. duction by Justus Buchler City. 1985). London. for the Countess de Castiglione. "Logic as Semiotic: S. Pam See Robin Gibson and [Madame] Yevonde. and The Eagle and Avila. it bance (to civilization) which this 1985). For Judy Chicago. 65-108. 50. "Odd Photograph Yevonde: Colour. Also. 155-64. 1925.) albums)." pp. Press. [acqucs-Alain Miller. Cullwick in Philosophical terms that resonate with the L981). mother pp. is her essay on Brassai's photographs. Kaja Silverman. no. greatly complicated by rapidly for the I were Striking Portraits. cat." Claude Here. reproduction. The lour Fundamental Concepts ofPsychoAnalysis see Abigail of Art. trans. 185-213." 45.

(Berlin: 1986). "Andy Warhol. Travestiti e travestimenti pub- books like inks. 1986). no. Androgyne: Reconciliation of Male and Female 1975)." in 66." to "Gardner.. cannot be 1927 this logic. movement: am N. Contemporaneous publications on female impersonation include Gillo Dorfles Gli uni & gli altri: nell'arte. Gerard Legrand. of a detail "aphrodisiac" and "ardor. for no. that in Jose Pierre. "Corpus 72. "Le dans la Rock Music." To become new men. nel cabaret e nella vita quotidiana Arcana Editrice. 1971). Gypsy Rose. York: Verso. 58 sum "woman. lean ( (New America" (1966). Press/Doubleday. in but which race it is is gender-coded as masculine or feminine. exh." in [. was then included artist L'Exposition InteRnatiOnale ( sion of Surrealist photography. Masochism: vol. Duchamp. with in Art. i99ff. Review in her An ( oldness McNeil 1 and Cruelty New The anxiety white rock York: George Braziller. lui-mimc: Essay iiberden surrealistis- the United States to assimilate rejected psychic elements Imrie. ed. "On From A Discourse. Patrick Eudeline." La breche.: and Androgyn: Sehnsucht nacht Androgyny and bands emulating black troubling one in the face of the 1924)." Narcissism: and artist is Pierre Molinier. 1953—1974). 46-56.. 1973). 'n' roll performers in Sontag. I which was dilles Larrain. For Deleuze's account. and "Lee. the entry become more Black than White but more female an illustration and a response by Molinier (pp.— i lanuary 1937) as "The Looking-Glass Phase. le mime 4 strip-tease. Straus. 219-52. with lames Fox quoted best English-language reference Molinier: 62. 67. see 1 uss. see "auxgrandes etonnees/M. "Lesbian Fetishism?" in Apter Pietz. 280." trans. trans.Y'. for Performance (1970). Standard Edition. 65- pp. action tique. see of Sexuality (Garden City. December tion "Fashion and the Homospectatorial Look. 17. Plug In Editions. Molinier also responded la representation ero- (p. male becoming Negro. includes in and 62). trans. eds. pp.256. 193-204. and Anita Pallenberg as his Freud. Vollkommenheil. cat. cat. ly: pp. He another illustration appears seem In the "Transformer" catalogue. See also text "The New Mutants. His position's ambi- saloon" (following "Le Striptease: Fin de l'en- on Gorsen. 94. "Fetishism" Katharina Sieverding's portfolio of photographic self-portraits." in it However. 1914 to "voluptuousness. secretary/lover. nel teatro. Real Text (Vienna: Ritter Klagenfurt. Paris exhibi- Breton's Galerie L'Etoile Scellee. 61. 1982). in Manifestoes ot Surrealism. Phenomene du in travesti "Transformer. in at pp. pp. Malcolm I heirs ot the Renaissance of the future T Surrealisme. 713-3756. exh. in Sontag. see.: Mil Press. June Singer. "Manifesto of Surrealism" 1 York: Stein Fiedler expresses concerning the feminization of the "Pygmalion and Elemire 1. see Kari Weil. in in the (Cambridge. "The 'Uncanny"' Complete Psychological Works I rend.ritual (1919 64. cat. Robert Surrealism and contemporary responding to Chas's The to Theory that deal with notions of androgyny. 63. women fetishists. ( 38-45 (also 1975). lagger as has-been rock star 14 request to take Polaroid photos of him. exh." (November of Artforum are two other articles Reversed. reprinted P. p. ucida. 70. in the "Transformer" catalogue. Styles of contemporary male England and PP. journal of Eroticism in art. 2 10." pp. directed by Donald Mick New Anchor "The Myth of the Androgyne." of Leslie Fiedler. in seen as a symptom. His lanuary 1956. in 1. 57-100. Molinier. Silverman's sympathetic Subjectivity. Examples of entries Duchamp's work appears again Elant Donnes See also Hal Foster. York: Crossroad/Thames and Hudson." Knott. Against Technological Paranoia. 1969). p. see Krauss. eds. respective- Whitney Chadwick. 30-37 Whiting. exh. 152-57. 58. ed. 77. 60.'. Sontag's response in "What's "Masochism and Male 56ft". 31. Kunstmuseum. York: Farrar. 1992). Against Interpretation and Other Essays (1966. 140.'Exposition InteRnatiOnale 70." Elizabeth Grosz. Through vol. 144-69. p. cat. relies substantially from male. Self. Reimer Verlag.. decadent or perverse when goes on to discuss "the non-or anti- exh. 1992). vol. 1971). Dawn Ades New ot the effort of selves into) that otherness. 1. 89. 1 on the 1. see Deleu/e." superficial to scholarly. Georg Schollhammer in and Christian Kravagna. 101-15. on Pierre impersonation continued to be denigrated as guities are (spring 1959). "L ne enquete sur 74. 379-400. For Freud's articulation of the significance of the uncanny. Investigating Sex: Surrealist with an afterword bv thinking the Denial of Difference 1992). quoted ehen Hermaphroditen (Munich: Rogner sexual or both" (p. engagements with the concept of androgyny." pp. The quote The Peter ( iorsen. (Paris: Galerie Daniel Cordier. 14. net cinema. is including 1970s positions. I Surrealist Cult of 1981). New total of have identified with these children they must not only Sontag. Giroux. Press." For a useful examination ot Lacan's theory relation to fashion photography. 1993). Partisan Day. reprinted in Collected Essays 1. In this regard. 1974). ton. is 75. by Esther . 59. Hofstra University. is in the "Strip-tease" entry in "Lexique succinct de l'erotisme. "Notes on 'Camp'" (1964). du Surrealisme. p. Androgyny: Toward a Freud. British film Public Star and the Private Winnipeg: androgyny vol. 1 which in reproduced with the caption is "Lexique succinct de l'erotisme" range from Turner. See. especially pp." Kozloff. An Harcourt Brace (ovanovich. 69. to p. Bernhard. See "Transformer": Aspekte der Travestie. 1993 61. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. see Freud. 1959). 391). in 76. the 'amera Barthes." le Molinier than male. mime 5 Molinier's 1958 response p. civil rights / Dietrich cat. 21.1-47- into themselves tor even to assimilate collected and translated Research 1928-1932. Compulsive Beauty 57. 1972). p. For a critique of twentieth-century feminist Happening Richard Seaver and Helen R. trans. B and Back Again (New York: Leslie Fiedler. Ava" as Chas.. 1976). Popular interest sonation in theatrical in the early 1970s female imper- was manifested in gamut a spate of publications that ran the who is most likely "impotent or homo- beyond the scope of important to note the way this essay. "Eros or Thanatos (New Oxford Art 1987).Y'." unpaginated. female was not per- formed by an ostensibly heterosexual subject. pp. For an examination of the uncanny dimen- VAmour Delicti. 7 1964). pp. The phenomenon of Interpretation of The Zolla. first subsequent Surrealist exhibitions. young men Arbor: University ot Michigan Press. pp. in Cecile example. 1 < art. 121-42. Mass. pp. Le Surrealisme. picture and the highly et al. Fetishism as Cultural For a 1970s Jungian view of androgyny. "L ne enquete sur . 19931. which the middle-class to feel. (Lucerne: 71. nella musica." Le 1 spring 1958). was surrealiste. in And) Warhol. "La Philosophie dans quete" ). The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: 68." 73. them- 1 p. Cammell and Nicholas Roeg. and a is Androgyny by Gail Gelburd (Hempstead. example. 7. the pp. dis- 1967). Idols (New York: influential study 1 Rome: also lished in a French edition. 2 Love Reexamined. Hogarth and oj Sigmund lames Strachey (London: trans. from the is N. See also Susan cussion of Gilles Deleuze's conception of masochism. Radical Will. "Hans Bellmer An \rchaeology — Pierre Artforum in this issue Turner is Michael Robinson.: For contemporaneous investigations of Introduction" Standard Edition. 1976). pp. The Standard Edition of the in 1. Lane (Ann This research and complicated by his anxiety about the white Andre Breton. in the context of du Surrealisme. ( Diana (summer Inquiry 18 (. 1965 fall and Max Emily Lowe Gallery. 391) & Jiirgen Klauke also titled a work Ziggy Stardust (1974).

Mass. Barney's Cremaster 4 (1994) and Cremaster published in (New The works Modern 1971). 91. and Simon Watson. and ongoing). 1968). 1993). inserted into what appears . exclusively with the History Portraits that "Gender An Michael Performing Arts (London: in the Erving Goffman. Charles Simic. p. as Julia Epstein Body Guards: and Kristina Straub. For example. 1976). 19 (in the chapter entitled "Performances"). 1976). d'Harnoncourt and Kynaston McShine. 1993). ed. Jonathan David. 1993). in his columnar and cruciform Body Mix iconically Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick. Boy George. Lesley Ferris." that is mistake. interesting essay work. and of Self in Everyday Life (Garden City. Sedgwick's provocative discussion of the genesis of shame and its relationship to perfor- . (Cambridge. middle- aged bureaucrat until he refers to his "hus- as well as production photographs Wayne Koestcnbaum's this In a watching national television. in this regard.) For more or "Transformation Art. See also "For Rrose Selavy and Belle Constructing eds. 16. at least one art critic is kind of costume and black wig. Nevertheless. 16-mm film was created For examples of each artist's engagement with David King. Cindy Sherman: History be a group of drag queens. sentence begins. with picture essay by Carrie Subkultur. on . York: Routledge. For an example of Formprinzip als Gorsen asthetisches Verhalten. Your and related sculptural constructions such as Skin 98. cross-dressed cited in note 24 above was and Theory. Museum cat." in Lippard. of Art. New French eds. 1930]. p. 85. pp. to note work on the carniva- Stills. and Gender Philadelphia: University of Doubleday. 4 (October 1975).Playing and Art see. Mother Camp: Female Impersonators in America (Engiewood Hall. York: (1995)93. exh. "Corpse on a Pink Record Dancing Upside Down. pp. ( referred to are. and Holly Devor. and Nan Richardson. in this Jackson. Christian Marclay ironizes the notion Feminisms: a revised version of meduse. which was process of trying to identify itself in a is a "Le Rire de 97. work reception of this masquerade) of transvestites. Note." seem innumerable. second Weems (New like — New York. the Center: Feminist Essays eds. 7. 101-08. 1994). Whitney of American Art and Pace Editions. Illustrated and Catherine Chermayeff. 1965). reprinted in Elaine cul- from the "authen- ture's pseudo-transvestites tic" transvestite pop and Mary Ann Caws Schaffner.8 (in the chapter entitled F. worthwhile Le Crawford. while for the authentic transvestite 86. For Gorsen. "'Gosh.: Harvard University Press. exh. Transformation in Women's (1991). rev. 1991). de Courtivron. is "Making Up: Role. Woolf. with texts by Ingrid "Female Grotesques: Carnival in For contemporary examples of the Exquisite Corpse game. Bullough and L. depict female subjects. The album collections were Limits of Duality (Bloominglon: Indiana in her Collectionneuse. first cat. ed. 1993). N. In this regard. in in See on ( lover random sample during a single night I counted one joke per show. Masculinity. 18. (Rome: Valentina Moncada.. in this regard. N. 1995). Art. compendium the 1930s Cliffs. exh. Pareil. Gender Blending: Confronting the and Barney's use of designer Sherman's Untitled Film on Women's Blending Genders: Social (New Sister ences to Hollywood. for photos Ms. 1976). with Morimura's 1994 Madonna and Michael of rock star as shaman or godlike figure pieces (1975). p. Drag: Impersonation p. who 78. Joe. refer- from the video. work of Francois lesque in the Prentice- Thompson's The Mysteries of Sex.93-137- Bonnie The Interests: Cross- & Cultural Anxiety New York: ( B. Sex." pp. Aspects of Cross-Dressing Sang d'un Levin." trans. Orlando. 99.Newton. ( Helene Iswolsky (Cambridge. Cindy Sherman's Untitled. 213-29. Cremaster 4 (1994). see Helene Keith positive (New Cixous. Mae p. pp. ranging from man a of at least trying Morimura's to convince his son to trade in his Barbie for a which he emu- GI ('remaster 1. Marcel Duchamp. Russo summarizes the feminist Press. . in their titles example. 1973). "Die commercial 83. Drawing Center. Museum eds. The Presentation (1991)." The Self & Others. books and articles with the word (New 8. -minute. note p. and Vern referred to are. unpaginated. See also Gorsen. with the had dressed up and a final revelation that the as a girl woman who when he was tries to seduce band of many years. ed. Richard Ekins and fashion. 95. see Sherman's Fashion series (1983-84. (New York: cat. Vested Display"). 1995). Radial Drill (1991). Gender Advertisements i979)> P. Rabelais: Bakhtin. "Introduction. 33-39. for example." in 88. (New York: Routledge. Warhol's contribution to this catalogue con- of a photograph of the sists barker's artist in a to compared Television: York: Scalo Cassell. 156-57.: Jim Otto Suite (1990).: McFarland. P. Goffman's influence by Kirk Varnedoe. 1992). (summer Signs Marks and Anthology (New York: Schocken Books.C.. 1972). trans." which elicits ence's laughter (October 9. Rabelais and His World of historical figures Geschlechterentspannung 79.: the cooptation of intersexual subcultures (that 80. 1989). pp. and Barney's Busby Berkeley references produced \ movie goddesses from Marilyn Monroe to loan bedroom by "Annette Messager it poete. 1993). Haleine 1973. See also the Marjorie Garber. The Cultural of Gender Ambiguity. 39-54. Pennsylvania Press. with Kim Lucy R.. 1996. 84. Crossing the Stage: Controversies on Cross- Schneider deals Dressing. exh. this "One implication of work Sandra Bern's Publishers. 87. 118 la is You Must Be Awfully Secure fashion.. 94. The Other Side (New Sherman (New York: 90." interests. the pop transvestite manifestation Champs magnetique Les Cohen and Paula Cohen. cyoss Dressing. respectively.." is his exhibitions ol Bakhtin's influential which Barbette less obvious University Press. 245-64. World History (Jefferson. (New York: E. It is the audi- NBC). a polemical text of the 1970s that engages the criticizes Exquis. respectively. Schirmer/Mosel. Actress lates Dutton. gays. 227. in the 96. "The Laugh of the Medusa. and transsexuals) by 82. Drag to Boucher's Longue and Roger Baker." LArc Compare Psychoborg series on Isabelle Au Sans Paris: ( Mix I (1990). 1920).. Matthew Barney's Blind Perineum Goffman. in photographs (1996). books about drag: for a psychological ideal. Drag! Male and Female Impersonators und "Intersexualismus Matthes." in Masks. Jean Cocteau's film The Blood of a Poet and Sex-Changing York: Routledge. pp. Brian Wallis. cat. this 1981). See also History of Female Diaries (San Francisco: Chronicle Books.. see. & Rogner Bernhard. in is cited 92. The Auto Polaroids were Samaras Album. this book Cindy Rizzoli. p.J. the recent explosion of cross-dressing represents a higher aspiration Masculinity!'" in Maurice Berger. A made Madame tions Boucher on (Munich: Portraits scholarly contribu- on cross-dressing such eds. Portraits: York: Wildenstein. 1972. Mass. Lippard.Y. a man a child. Andre Breton and Philippe Soupault. Ait rather than the traditionally negative way. Anne Museum of Modern Philadelphia 89. reprinted From "gender" 1 clothes in his videos (an interesting precursor This 22 as Today. more 1995). und 81. N. 1996). 1994). York: feminist implications of laughter. Nan Goldin. Yasumasa Morimura's wears Chanel.. MIT 1992). cat." in Axel Maskulin-Feminin (Munich: 1975). interesting to note. Bullough. 1959). Moore. exh. 17. xxv. (New York: (1743) in Christa Schneider. see The Return of the Cadavre on (as well as Riviere's In his "Transformer" catalogue essay. #193 a Chaise Stage. as Krauss notes in her and Philadelphia: Art. reprinted in 1974. Politics Routledge. distinguishing community. Screen for example.: 100. Dressing The works Routledge. pp..

like a like from physical 112. Storytelling: p. al cat. Adam of literary criticism. exh. Flill: I and scremtv devoid of troubling or depressing Show Press. quoted in Michael Cohen. Theories of Modern Art: 111. Allen. anxiety about advances in computer technolo- eds. 1995). in Vested Interests. (London: of Contemporary Arts. Pacific A Source Book by Artists and Critics Berkeley: Flenri Matisse. "The Age of the Literary Memoir New Is Now: Confessing for Voyeurs. 109. "Busy Wretched Phantasia. mechanism of The New ( York: Hill and Wang. Museum and Press. 1968). dis- see. 107. among others. and Robert C. For a journalistic account of the autobio- graphical aspects of current academic writing in the field ple." The York Times Magazine special issue. the late 1860s. refer loosely here to Barthes's articulation of I 1996. journal of Lesbian and spersed with family snapshots). ol purity an art which might be for every writer. James Atlas. (Boston: Institute of Contemporary Art. See Lia Gangitano. ( What an appeasing something University of African American performers began an art p. 0993)." with portraits by Goldin. 1996. 267-303. information on the minstrel shows. see North Carolina A films such as 2001: Herschel B. Berkeley. i. this attention. Goldin. See the epigraph at the start of this book." in rise Howard Note Nayland Blake's distinctions between the use of drag Narrative Suddenly So Yorker. "The I's Have It. In a Different Light: Visual Culture. pp. 163-78. pp. Difference Institute I and in the in Ruins of Mirage: Enigmas of Desire. 116-17. 101. "The Seductions of Bill Why Popular?" The K12. for examBegley. with corpore- Odyssey (Stanley Kubrick. S ( "True Confessions: The Age of the Literary ^ 119 .. 54-59- On the contemporary breakdown of the tinction between fiction and memoir. as evidenced in con- in Bowie's in real Nayland found Robert C. 103. p. Buford. exh.. is Sew machine could be equated with the defense "The Rustle of Language. pp. in Barthes. cat. eventually tor black audiences. ed. A complicated cir- which started with whites constructing cuit. 141-4X. her essay "Queer Performativity: Henry James's The Art of the Novel? GLQ: A and Catherine Opie. The "Curating Blake. like mental soother. Harris. The Other Side. p. trans. and the pro- Film Archive." Linguafranca 4 (March-April 1994). black characters by shoehorning elements of black American slave culture into European minority stereotypes. 11-12. University of California Press. Richard Howard (Berkeley: University of California Press. 1968). Queer Practice. Warhol's professed desire to be a the reality effect in literature.1-16. 110. Kobena Mercer. thank Lyle Ashton Harris for bringing my essay to 108. Richard 105. Harris. American Culture (Chapel its Scholder. See they also wore blackface. 107. see. 106. from Roland Barthes by Roland Barthes trans. and inter- May ( 1975 1. 8. Gay Studies no. artist's temporaneous (San Francisco: City Lights Books. and Toll.. 1995). PP." When many such as Major Tom. 135: of balance. Horrible Prettiness: Burlesque to lyrics. In this light. 1995). be he businessman or and and White TV: Cross- form minstrel companies dream subject matter. 1994). might be viewed as a reaction to Sexual Identity. 1974). p. Chipp. See his essay Reality Effect" (1968). exh. for example. 104. 1 pp. 1991). pp. is influence.mance. Berkeley: University Art June 24 and July of performance and body emphasis on and the present in a Different Light. in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: also Garber. of David at Blacking Up: The Minstrel Dressing the Color Line. For 1. 25-27. presence. "Black fear manifested in Space "Notes of a Painter" (1908). 6. 19X6 |. a good armchair in which to rest fatigue. Ibid. in o) mental worker. pp. University of California Oxford University art. identifying with the enemy. cat. pp. and Amy pp. in the 1970s Lawrence Rinder. in Memoir." Race. 32. 12. "Lyle Ashton Harris." Flash Art 29 (May-June 1996). 31-33. time and the gy and space exploration. Boston School. came to be reclaimed by blacks who redeployed the minstrel conven- tions.

resin. <>l \ k-. $3 \ 21 Deste Foundation. Courtesy 120 . cm) London . and paint.Dinos and Jake / in kfat e I Chapman win. inches (8s Victoria Miro \ 54 x 67 Gallery. 1995 Fiberglass. Athens.

mannequin we imagine ties it) in and ours? that We gaze at "back to the future" fixes us? . a double we would Nan deny. Yale University. or the masquerading self-portraits of Claude Cahun. future where identities as cut up. Rrose Selavy. as Orlan demonstrates in the surgical reconstructions of herself she stages in m operating rooms (fittingly termed "theatres" in British usage. zygotic acceleration. (and perhaps their other) faces as class might take shape when the chemistry of desire identity. Identity ^••%* have been. unlike McFly. Gertrude Stein's famous letterhead (detail). a defensive edit- and cosmetic moment. . to us justice our figures of ourselves because identity when it has forgotten our future from the right. . and Cindy Sherman. Marty McFly Can we them? What do we wondering what up line. New Yale Collection of We figure ourselves out of no name can do us remember comes it.KA Queer photography. like the exhibition itself. sometimes beautiful combinations. ing of the past (even the past of the come out is body with the proper ending artist — and is in transsexual for that what will American Literature never can retroactive. performance always under (re)construction. desires incompatible with gender make of these queer beings Cunt-chops sculptures sprouting adult penises. indeed. As literary book on time and narrative." or far indeed from that of Gertrude from Marcel Duchamp's feminine Stein's alter ego. theirs (as these pictures as into a developing tray. which seems to acknowledge the common Q presence of observers at medical spectacles). or still Chapman's "Siamese Twat . CAROLE-ANNE TYLER Hannah Hoch's man-woman rec- Tamer. in unusual. offering an image of ourselves Liithi's alternative past or and collaged anew sometimes grotesque and frightening. McFly moves a rose and tensions of identi- ever secure a comfortable Robert Zemeckis's series of films about the oedipal adventures of masculinity him. Are these the faces of desires from which our legs. these pictures of an underworld or another world. point to through representation. / Dinos and Jake a rose might seem very in : is a rose. it. and vaginas arms. Fuckface Twin / Two-faced Cunt biogenetic de-sublimated hbidinal model. . Only the end of life Kermode reminds us in a itself provides closure for this process. As biographers and autobiographers know. desire take us. — and. Beinecke Rare Book and the muse for this exhibition together with Stein's rose. every identity future. we must torsos. Yet the necessity and impossibility of fixing identity all three. get own — or race or — custom — and what does make of Where might shield us. an we know them have been burlesqued. numbers. rather than the past. as if . is so complex. along with extra heads. The all circle is more — the hero played by Michael Fox — do? Like J. Urs ognize. is strives to identity in those paradoxes of time travel that make insoluble than the film suggests." child anuses. Robert Mapplethorpe. however often we repeat Manuscript Collection. we knew as it. and combinations. and in surprising places. we would not cross-dressed self-portrait promises us.d. n. surgeries) to "I" will be another all make it all too soon. like Goldin's drag queens. is it Haven. death is what critic Frank gives us the sense of '* V V an ending: 1 121 . Perhaps more disturbing are Jiirgen Klauke's cyborg bodies with penis nipples.zDealA <yftcM/c. Be Your Minor Ill (1972). "Rose cross the tenses aporias life itself.

which he articulates to account for the finish us off to represent us in that and embalms who a definite shape. In other do not stop imitating myself. it is the point of view of the makes us human subjects. "The nature of the character is "meaning of life. Yet believe portraits to find the essence of these athletes. sit still "The photograph represents the very subtle moment when. and to lives to poems. and to such as give meaning make own made Stein once "but . neither subject nor object but a subject ence a micro-version of death (of parenthesis): I who am feels truly he is becoming an becoming 1 a specter. . like death. after the act of appropriation. they also die in sense of their span they need fictive concords with origins intermediary preoccupations." a photos of 1996 Olympians. it is something with are subjected to what have we been for that other us. aggression that exceeds the pleasure and reality principles and am a history. murderous of "identity"? The gaze of the other still-life does the photographer. into another kind of time — unlike cinema. is or from beyond our grave. the story of our it ends. will reflect their irreducibly realizing the existence of living beings actually existing did not have in are past revising and deaths." trophy or a taxidermist's triumph." projecting themselves into images of an am. as Death it. asserting that "the snapshot. the one 1 want others to think am. as who sees us it: Who fundamentally masochistic. who makes our death mask. according to Roland Barthes. in an 7 ideal. the revealed only in his death. know truth."' object: I to tell for the then experi- Film theorist Christian Metz also affirms a connection between death and photography." to "Vogue. beings from — as the significance of looks ahead." this facet of portraiture when he I argues that "Rembrandt must have . is an instantaneous abduction of the object out of the world into another world.Men. "In writing a story one had Walter Benjamin claims that all storytelling in a novel cannot be presented any better than ing' of his life is But is done experience of death: actual one. the final period that if the language that makes of each which to human would represent a "period. and yet we collaborate with places theory of a death drive. need be their figurative death and end from which identity emerges we even End 5 The stream of life and who must so."^ Identity end only with the death of revised by others in a process that can it. middle. echo Barthes draws our atten- for others: I think I am. no matter what. to be as in the novels. done such an obituary." it is any element of is finalized when we and actually written which says that the 'mean- whom he derives the advance that he in will share their — but end of the novel the preferably their in his We punctuated by some other." in medias res. They fear figure for their when they rush "into the middest. as far we can a similar observation. it all. The End they imagine and it. ." she writes. which life. see have always and have become our obituary. as they "strike a pose. and the one he makes use of to exhibit his art. in this statement." Her gaze Madonna's phrase tion to this /// in fixes them show us as Time magazine editor mimicry through which we express ourselves front of the lens. the reader of a novel actually does look for meaning of life." Therefore he must. life Sigmund Freud emphasizes I is remembering.' remembering so the time of existing was not the same kills arc horn. the one the photographer thinks 122 replaces the object. mediis rebus. I am at the same words a strange action: Richard Avedon remarks on 1 time: the one I we in a "natural really are: "Leibovitz asserts of Annie Leibovitz's in heroic impostures. which unfolding time similar to that of Each shot makes us into pose" as what was able we life. a beginning. like poets." he writes. catching us a hunter's we are "supposed" to be.

123 . reflect.been acting when he made just making faces. The isman or medium portrait artist in any is condemned to the cliche of the "lifelike" as a kind of tal- 24 x 20 inches (61 x 50. sociologist Pierre Bourdieu draws attention to photography's performativity. tangible.. working Rembrandt " . a terrorist with a machine gun in 1983. Courtesy of The Robert rapher. Not ." Barthes describes his performances for the eyes of the other." 1 life.. as in turn as a we scru- "lifelike" sim- solicit a female imper- sonator in 1980. while his disembodied face Mapplethorpe already is death within his grasp what Is this really is? in otherwise velvety in the blackness of the image. as Barthes notes of the photog- fetish 1988 Gelatin-silver print. soliciting the other's gaze as confirmation of We desire the our contours are consolidated." 1 ' 1 >. the soft focus suggests he fading. as aristocrats did. gathering the rifts that precede group together and succeed it. I am all —perhaps something reiterates. They the poses we hope to is no Jacques Lacan.8 cm) with prophylactic powers against the threat of death. he masquerades ilar scrutiny. he for photographed" according to exhibitionists. throughout his in the full tradition of performance. there who a other's desire. to drawn from the aesthetic as stereotype. he writes. whatever the it depicts. Furthermore. impostures about the man. the contortions Barthes describes are not those of the photogra- pher but of the model the others for different —of whom who responds to the demands of the photographer. we (into being) which can stand in for our existence. they quite identity without that mortifying gaze "through 14 make something impose on them. duped by their tinize for clues Robert Mapplethorpe's self-portraits qualities. Without You I'm Nothing." as literally make him. who. Self. "[T]hey make me. as art critic Rosalind Krauss says everyday as a 11 produce life. disappearing. performs was through the taking of a bourgeois subject occurred. New York also in the theater of suggested by Barthes's use of quotation marks to signal the artifice of the "lifelike" time-worn pose. creates the family unity snapshot. Barthes and the rest of us posture. and finally death between 1988 photo that invites a comparison itself in a his face and the skull crowning the walking he grips. even if they could not sit for a portrait in oils. as is a i: museum —but keep the of gestures." quently nothing but the reproduction of the image that a group produces of he asserts. what it seems to are. as the title of We are all .. displays not the essence but the appearance. . photograph that the making of duced the and indeed. his own self-portraits. its own "is most fre- integration. Sandra Bernhard's 1990 film of cross-rnce and cross-gender performances declares. but always. Photography represented and repro- status of those with the status to be photographed: they could afford to pay for the privi- lege. stick literally his It is "lifelike" (solid-seeming.. unlike the lower orders. the death masks that disguise the desires of the living being.Portrait. and support and more "realistic") than the Robert Mapplethorpe face dissolving into darkness. preserved Mapplethorpe Foundation. He argues that it to be preserved forever in the family "Photography itself. must resort to "contortions to Photograph from becoming Death." Like Tagg. with his or her gaze framing This is and caressing the generative dimension of photography: Art historian John Tagg notes that it it us." in art — They are gestures effects that are 'lifelike' . Only the small skull and ground the middle ground is luminous in the photo's fore- fist are in sharp focus.

What

else

the "being" of the Diane Arbus photo

is

not a performance for a gaze that

(1968)

if

"him"

to "her," with

passes for

organ that

trated, stripped of the

man

doubleness. As a "naked

This

is

itself.

a

to

what

is

is

make of him. The

woman" he

a

man

is

shutter

whose

trace

the

is

naked

actually being a

slice like knives;

tailor's, as
is

me

"Commemorativo"

an image that does not quite

to "me,"

one of the

Buffalo

Bill,

why he

tries to seize

the skins of "real girls"

man

orgasmic pleasure in the

woman

theft.

possible. For him, a

cut. If his

mad basement

because fetishism

ships

insistence

on

woman

being a

cas-

is

his

for

signs.

its

it

fit,

like the

me down

to size,

emperor's

new

and

is

fits

me

clothes.

Mastery

The Silence of the Lambs (Jonathan Demme,

killers in

for himself.

A

to a

1991),

would-be self-made woman, he repeatedly

steals

transsexual slang) in which to dress himself. Psychoanalyst Eugenie

("r.g.'s" in

of fetishism, in which the

it is

he

performing the same

tequila,

Lemoine-Luccioni points out that kleptomania frequently has been described

is

own

title's

not even there in the picture except as a suspicious rereading of

"She's a He," proclaims a recent ad for Sauza

knows, which

thing

transforms

second castration, one that deprives the would-be deceiver of the power of masquerade

pattern, stitches

the

in the act that

and the frame

double gesture of un/veiling the female impersonator. The other cuts

is

woman, New York City

being a

the very figure of self-revelation), the subject

signifies his pretense,

being

naked

an imposture? Caught

nothing to hide (since nudity

what the other helps

that gaze that sees

fixes

A

make up

for

Like every fetishist, Buffalo

Bill

takes things to

woman's

skin

is

what she

"lacks,"

l7

"feminine form"

experiencing an

believes that with the right outfit, any-

the finest fabric, and there

burlesque involves cutting up the

as the

woman

to

is

the added pleasure of the

mock

her as well as mimic her,

characterized by a double attitude. As Freud explains, the fetishist both wor-

knows and ignores

castrates his fetish object,

the fact that

eyes only.'" Buffalo Bill can never be the master tailor, the

one who

its

magic properties are

in his

fixes these properties so all

may

witness them; even a night-blinded female detective can see to that, sewing up the case with a shot
that

makes him the picture of the pervert

The law

is

the master

who

an image of myself with which

I

as sociopathic criminal.

coauthors

am

me

by authorizing "me," providing

urged to identify from the

the mirror and told to see the pretty baby, the one
sents me. Mastery

the one

whose wish

erally subjects us,

that of the other

is

that

but

it

we

subjects

me,

imitate a particular object

also belongs to that object

master's desire, having captivated
it,

who

who

it.

overcoming our difference from

If

it,

we could

if

is

first

we

moment am

not quite "me" but

alienates

me

held up in front of

who

nonetheless repre-

take as the law of our

own

to

whom we

It

belongs to

desire,

alienates us

imitate this alter ego well enough,

we can dupe,

name and

I

me, and constitutes me.

we mimic, whose mastery

only for those

with a

which

lit-

from the

we might become

have implicitly

assigned the power to judge.

That

is

the tragicomic message of Paris

about African American and Latino voguers
ideals touted

Is

who

women

—whom he models

poise.

tive to

impersonate the primarily white and feminine

a

modeling school

for the very

himself. "I'm trying to bring their femininity back

You know, whether they become models or not,

to those ideals.

But

it's

nice to

women

after

—and

and bring some grace

know because

it's

more

attrac-

men," he explains. This statement might be taken as evidence for the assertion of perfor-

mance-studies scholar Peggy Phelan that
that femininity ...

124

documentary

1991), a

they teach to emulate them: Willie Ninja, one of the

"mothers" or heads of a house of voguers, runs

and

(

by our media culture and judge each other's "realness" with respect

they also judge the realness of the real

before

Burning Jennie Livingston,

is

if

these gay

thoroughly masculine,"

1

"

men

valorize femininity, "the architecture of

operating in the service of patriarchy and capitalism

(the

women

are commodities, deeply identified with the clothing

ing style that they

consume

men who

for the

for a California clothing-store chain offers

will

and other accoutrements of

"consume" them).

women

A

recent television commercial

viewers a transvestite role model with

can compete through commodity consumption. Proclaiming "If Clothestime can make
this

good, imagine what we can do for you," the commercial implicitly levels the

everyone a gender "player," rather than the
ty as fetish

and

a pleas-

field

whom

they

Mark look

by making

investment in the commodi-

real thing, soliciting a serious

prosthesis.

American-literature historian Eric Lott outlines the double of such scenarios in his book on
blackface minstrelsy. "I take as normative a long, conflicted history of racial exchange that significantly 'blackened'

makes

American culture

creolized African cultural imports, a history that in

it

about expropriation

difficult to talk

it

as

Black performance

.

.

The

result

.

.

was

sometimes developed

.

"racially

he writes.

was precisely "performative" a cultural invention, not some precious

.

and for

essence installed in black bodies,

cation

at all,"

one sense

mixed forms

.

.

it

tandem with white

in

.

better or worse

that both did

was often a product of self-commodifispectators.

and did not read

2"

as 'black.'"

21

As Lott explains, one

black Shakespearean, Ira Aldridge, incorporated into his act an imitation of a white minstrel's imita-

him because

tion of

it

sold well," while the dances of the black blackface minstrel Juba included imi-

own famous

tations not only of other minstrels' dances but even of his
Willis.

23

In a similar gesture during the

1987, Dolly Parton

Which

is

announced

that

the master or original

which race and gender are

if

first

dance, according to Susan

broadcast of her short-lived weekly

TV variety show

in

she had been born a man, she would be a female impersonator.

and which the copy

mobius movements of simulation,

in these

in

joint productions, imitations of others' imitations of oneself, veering in

the direction of self-parody? Paris

Is

Burning

invites just

scenes of "real people" and their impersonators until

we

such reflection by cross-cutting between
are

no longer

certain

which

is

which. The

Cheryl Lynn song to which the soundtrack compulsively returns, "Got to Be Real," becomes an ironic

commentary on an impossible demand.
Yet

it is

one with which every American

The European immigrant

to

were the

who

Irish

immigrants

America

taxed, as political scientist Michael

is

"synecdochal for Hollywood," Rogin argues;
in

imaginary harmony before the Civil

—or Cinderella—

burnt cork of blackface, and
mobility by changing one
scripted by others

were caught.

We

are

self.

it

the

is

mask

racial difference split

immigrant

for another. If

"gives

rises

it.

earlier

America

and

from the

ashes, leaving

its

a host

moment

America into quarrelsome

of

fac-

behind the

American culture of upward

Americans are self-made,

them from an

24

reborn into that mythic

assimilated into an implicitly white

condemned

of identity that construe
given or essential

is

a role that frees
all

War when

it

Holiday Inn, Swanee River, and Dixie"

of other films. Through blackface the immigrant and minstrel

phoenix

sees

transformed into a white American through imposture, as

— self-making through role-playing—

tions. Like the

Rogin

constituted a large percentage of the original blackface minstrels in

the nineteenth century. Blackface

meaning

is

is

it is

when they

("un-American") image

to such mimicry, according to psychoanalysis

as a performative social construction rather

in

play a role

whose

grip they

and other theories

than an expression of a pre-

"Performatives are forms of authoritative speech: most performatives ... are

statements that, in the uttering, also perform a certain action and exercise a binding power," Judith
Butler explains, giving as an example of this "the promise,"
identities of

both the speaker and auditor.

25

whose words change the

relationship

and

All discourses are finally performative like promises;

1
1
§

125

they produce what they name, including the subject

who

named

is

he or she

"I" in the statements that

utters. Paradoxically, Butler writes, "the discursive

condition of social recognition precedes and conditions the

formation of the subject: recognition

conferred on a subject, but forms that

A

person

is

not

is

subject."''

the impersonation an other recognizes

as the self; there

nothing more genuine behind

is

that mask, as there

in the sociological theory

is

of role-playing developed by Talcott Parsons, in

which the subject

beyond the

role.

That the

assumed

is

and

to exist before

27

self actually

a

is

mask

is

implicit in

the Freudian notion of the ego as a projection of the
surface of the

body the

subject recognizes in the

mirror or in others with

whom

he or she

encour-

is

aged to imagine a resemblance (such as those of the

"same"

or gender).

class, race,

my self and

tions as

imprint of

my

original, like a

I

imitate such projec-

thereby shape

my

self.

I

am

an

mirror image, a copy without an

photograph. There

is

no ego before

such mimicry, no original given to "self-expression,"
like the

Barbara Kruger
'milled

(

i

Your gaze

I'hotogr.iph, 55 x 41 inches

1

1

J9.7 \ 104.1

Courtesy of

New

York

in the first of the

breathes

life

"Theses on the Philosophy of History,"

2

inside Benjamin's chess-playing

or the

"

artist

whose genius

hits the side

of my face), 1981

1

machine

hunchback

and "soul" into the formulae of

to the captivating

image

I

appropriate as

it

genre painting. The violence of the gaze that pins

a

expropriates

me

(or, rather,

me

whatever there was before the

cm)

Mary Boone

Gallery,

picture that represents "me")
face) (1981), a

"Your gaze
(and

caught by Barbara Kruger

is

photomontage of

hits the side

of

a

stone bust of a

my face." The woman

in Untitled

woman upon which

"makes up" her

face, a

which her

we

self

is

hits the side

of my

Kruger has collaged the words

nine masquerade" psychoanalysts such as Joan Riviere and Lacan

read this addressee as a male

some Pygmalion. She

projected for

mask of cosmetics and expressions she dons

feminists have linked to an alienating sexual

Your gaze

has been petrified by the other she would please

in a patriarchal society that takes heterosexuality for granted,

spectator), turned into the statue in

(

29

as a lure

and

literally

a shield in the "femi-

have discussed and that

and commodity fetishism assigned

to

many

women. The

woman

disappears into the props and prostheses through which she exhibits herself as the "good

object."

They

are an integral part of the orthopedic armature that

any other) ego, for they have entered into her dreams and
age

in

young amputees;

as Elaine Scarry explains, the

is

the substance of her (and

fantasies, a process therapists also

amputees are advised

encour-

to sleep with their

artificial limbs."'

Yet the failure of such prophylactics

make

visible)

become

is

the stuff of nightmares.

the phobic object in her recent

work with the

always imminent, as they (and the

woman

they help

Cindy Sherman explores the reversion of the

fetish to

detritus of femininity (dropped compacts, half-eaten

candy, oozing makeup), monstrous hybrid figures with snouts and other grotesqueries, and feminine

126

J

Cindy Sherman
Untitled, $175, 1987

Color photograph,
47 'A x

puppets and rubber body parts,

all

of which substitute for the

woman

whom

to

who

they allude,

otherwise absent. The feminine roles or poses Sherman performs in her earlier Untitled Film
(1977-80) function similarly. There
their familiarity.

The woman

is

;<

inches (120.7 x 181.6

Metro

New York

Pictures,

cm)

and

artist

is

Stills

something uncanny about them, not despite but because of

is

own double and

her

71

Courtesy of the

ours, at once a lifeless

automaton compelled

who

mechanically repeat a feminine gesture or stereotype and a living being

represents

"all

to

our sup-

pressed acts of volition which nourish in us the illusion of Free Will," as Freud says of the doppelganger."
all

What

desires

do her

cliches conceal or,

more

terrible

still,

express? These masquerades evoke

moment

the ambivalence a fetish does because they function as such, especially in the stolen

photograph. As Metz explains, photography
theft of life itself

from

tures, "smallness [of
bilize

its

movement

temporal

predisposed to function

is

and of time, which

in

is

i:

Photographs frame and immo-

something we want to see that blocks out something we are afraid to

ment, as the mark of time and
wallets to screen us

difference

all

from what we

we

for which, in fact,

life,

might

reveal.

fear: the

We keep

see,

something any move-

the photographic image in our hearts

we

death and destruction toward which

also wish, the loss of the

whole and wholly lovable

self that

are

and

headed and

woman's feminine

too often signifies in a sexist culture.

Racial difference, too, signifies ambiguously, even in the minstrel performance
tures are intended to annul the threat an oppressed

ed group kept

its

mocked

distance and

performance for whites."

33

its

whose

group might represent. According

minstrelsy, "Black mimicry, black performance, the black mask, the technique

face

its

suggested by the photo's two key fea-

of a lingering look."

size], possibility

because of

fetishistically

of a

carica-

to Rogin, in

by which the subjugat-

oppressor, was itself expropriated and

made

into a black-

Yet minstrelsy, like assimilation, could never finally secure white

mastery because in both the identity of the performer and the spectator remains in question. In the
phrase of postcolonial-studies scholar

Homi

of colonial mimicry. In such mimicry there

menaces the

colonizer's identity.

are they playing at

when they

they are "passed" by those
are? In

My

who

to

do

at

is

How secure

fail

Bhabha, they are "not quite/not white," 3

is

once

a

are fooled

1

like the subjects

resemblance and a difference, each of which

"whiteness"

so? Conversely,

'

if

if

others can perform

it

well

minstrels can pass for what they are not,

by their performances, are they

really

woman who

puts

men

first,

if

what they think they

Geisha (Jack Cardiff, 1962), Shirley MacLaine becomes what she believes she

tending to be, a submissive

—and what
is

only pre-

through her performance of a stereotype of

127

in seems we cannot are abducted resist all as which we are seen our We serve different identities are revised in a different light. or serve as another currency altogether. She was able to Association and the Duvalier nodded and as a as a in the U. which she male dupes and the Who "real" geishas. Women's Tennis Association and also compete border. another obituary. we suspect he or she who the in/sincerest form of flattery). "For every image of the past that make something of ners arc neither is 128 necessarily as such. it steals the very . Freud him he is I most female can never be because contrary to the are not taken in his friend has told really me not quite not Platonic dictum. that's the Just as a define white in black. Blackface "wigger" the white parents of TV talk is shows not only racist caricature but hip-hop identification. my country. as did transsexual Renee Richards."' ers as they is equivalents. counterfeited. they cannot be safeguarded. die again into a our agency we woman so denied permission to play in the masters in different times and places. if illustrates this the other paradox going to Cracow so he 35 Because identities are performative social constructions. since the part- these appropriations. Eddie Murphy. silenced by the obituary in which the other's redemption. among Whoopi Goldberg." Benjamin writes of the "Theses on the Philosophy of History. whose style as is much a rebuke to adult values as was that of the hipster (Norman Mailer's "white negro") of an earlier generation. and Nella Larsen. appearances are not sufficiently deceiving. Burning." It picture. Whiteface both the passing of the tragic mulatta and mulatto is cled by William Faulkner."'" possible to be black in one country it is crossing define black in your country?" Receiving the explanation that in anyone with any black blood was considered way we the question new in this? We did not "do. assimilating mas- in these querades prompted by cross-cultural exchanges? At once parody and imitation they threaten the racial difference they constitute. Tennis women's Open. is ourselves through what bilateral The violence of The gaze of the other appears in the fifth we make of oth- but not reciprocal. to rob us of our self-image. which makes tricksters of us is change sex by man by Border crossings skew identity and the laws that would determine them. We all make us in a relationship that complements nor felt not recognized by the concerns threatens to disappear irretrievably.Japanese feminine passivity. The nifiers sig- of race or gender can be stolen. Yet being shot and framed for something and alienated from ourselves by the and where — or someone other's mastery. and some impersonators poke fun certain of the at is is up man who wonders why with the joke about the will think the destination is Lemberg when it We something to like offstage. we said. American finally asked Duvalier: "How do you define white?" Duvalier answered the with a question: "How do you the United States "Well. who is whom. to which the death drive submits us. Is and deaths chroni- and the parodies of others). is Cracow. the journalist was very surprised to learn percent and repeated the question to be certain Duvalier had heard it American what proportion of the it was as high as ninety-eight correctly. European tennis tournaments during the same period she was defined U. the fear their teenager is becoming. Fannie Hurst. of the voguers of Paris what they love (camp (their lives by them. is at stake as present as one of our its life is own chronicled. Inquiring Haitian population was white. is meaning of the mimicry of the other who puts on a good show.S. "Struggling to make sense of this incredible piece of information. imitated to confirm her superiority over both her initially is fooling whom. however mutual." Fields writes.S. as histo- rian Barbara Fields reveals in a probably apocryphal but nevertheless telling story about an journalist's interview with the late Papa Doc Duvalier of Haiti. rather than our own. and white one can in another.

As Willis and many other cultural theorists see ego represents. screens us from difference. like masks. the star and no the source of the star's brilliance. love deprives the star of the "aura" had before they were subject it creates. binary commodified contemporary example of this than always dying into the another." 4 " really the is Instead. . However. demand and Perhaps there belongs to his fans. "The how to play with the "art" human mask ambiguity of the Jackson video. and all is boundless. Willis closes to the trickster self. because alter through dis- dueling dance of Jackson represen- trademark Jackson "look" and the disguise that according to Willis fetish. and even the gesture of defiance modern update of is mask he dons that by refiguring to escape it. his multi- actually Brer Rabbit. Willis herself Having begun with the assumption is as a undermining the authen- Demon. its whose worship the star and his or her fans. and in order to rekin- a deadly attraction then morphs into several other figures (something Jackson has done in "real tations: the as are stars trademark fans both "new and improved" as once burning out. identity. of Jackson himself. show to the other. ple surgeries) before finally having a 38 com- the it. negating the explosive potential inherent in transformation. and other by escaping it would identity tear off all the masks and and representation altogether. as the other finds us "wanting" (in both senses of the word). Willis's gesture denies the modity fetishes — including Lacan explains. both the other's infinite seriality. such a desire that motivates Jackson's surgical reconstructions. while the drive resolve the differences it is is is 4.soul we discover only in reflection. which are merely incorporated into its not get another mechanical reproduction who us a "difference" that sells same. . for he no more authentically black than the Jackson image ticity she has assigned lized in it."" Willis argues that in "all Speed moments and modes Demon we do of a slightly "new and improved" Jackson minstrel figure goes. Jackson's Brer Rabbit of the Uncle audiences. subject. blackface alter ego. lifeless companions exerting Demon (1989) reveals." He in his him wherever he life" our double or is sexual fetish. folksy. the subject of the desire that as that beyond which there portion of the death drive unsatisfied by whatever relationship in which something is between Willis argues that just it is self the gaze" we see in or the essence of man as a cause of desire. and of —which are sites of struggle over meaning. The commodity fetish splits into the black is which "Michael Jackson" is a image and transferring alienation as his "self" if none are finally authentic? trademark in which symptomatic of her desire both are cultural "moonwalk" dance 41 for an authentic a black man to mask. for her. the minstrel merely moves from mask In Speed —but which forms Bugs Bunny and the was an imitation of white imitations of his). that a reversal one existing before or beyond the commodity and the gaze of the paying spectator. com- desire. Paradoxically. immobi- vernacular and mass-mediated alienated. Brer Rabbit fig- ures the resistance to the black commodification that began with slavery and included minstrelsy. Identities are limited. It ." is is. As knows which makes is that for a always lacking. Jackson's "exaggerated. In who would trap who him it. modity a trademark "image. like the on one [ackson declares war on aggressively stalk showdown with himself in a trickster figure of black folk culture. the spectacle staged for a price: the is the minstrel's (as Juba's later says the rabbit also minstrelsy commodifications of black culture for white tales. none of them. The rabbit is trickster Remus is actually another trademark. He is raor- 129 . as Michael Jackson's music video Speed the better must be continually reinvented reject. guises himself in a rabbit outfit to escape his admirers. according to other mass-produced commodities. their is dle the flames of devotion that are the star's Stars is to mechanical reproduction. and our own. that The star is self that "unique phenomenon of life itself their fans are alter egos. a distance" things Benjamin.

In Spurs: Nietzsche's Style." feminist philosopher Elizabeth Grosz and a it. the nineteenth-century French medical curiosity whose case he published. including the truth of gender. playful and fun. often onto feminism or the / female body. for It is 45 is in Hannibal and gay Lecter's view. Bill." unlivable (s/he eventually committed 4 " which suicide). Foucault discovers and celebrates "the happy limbo of a non-identity. in relation to In the process. as transsexuals do. and the operations of misogyny disappear from view. "toujours ailleurs" (always somewhere psychoanalyst else)." We see a similar wish to escape the limitations of having an identity in Marjorie Garber's assertion that the transvestite a third is term beyond sexual difference as a binary construct. Critics of queer theory undoes fied. Truth man woman's instead in style is which hides nothing. perpetually in disguise. constraint. lesbian. female body appears to become its own trap. beneath which there itself. similar complaint about the "queer. As racial differences that are a source Willis explains. Jackson being reduced to a "single color" or is sex. 4 ' and African in Americanist scholar Michael Awkward's praise of Michael Jackson for the androgynous beige morphing that troubles Willis. performative. Jackson resolves these conflicts through the "magical erasure" he performs a quasi-Hegelian synthesis that seems effect. or subjection onto a fixed ground. According to vestite who resists Awkward. and changing. 53 Butler shares in . amorphous They gression. Derrida hermaphroditic spur {eperon) of a phallus" 50 would "invaginate" that itself for "becoming woman. nor anticastration. to itself. and associate with identities would their trans- neither homosexual nor transsexual but instead desires to escape gender alto- be "horsexe" (outside Catherine Millot claims all camp of the agents in the who. given the fantasies she finds they share of being secret other. In Herculine Barbin.phing into something amorphous. In "queer" update of the "melting pot" like a quality of the "queer" to are critical of a subject like Buffalo which many feminist. for Barbin identity. When queer theory and queer and the comple- subjects represent themselves in terms of a liberating transcendence of confinement tion of more limited critical identities and projects (such as feminism). both 47 a "transracial" hybrid 46 and a trans- Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault also share this desire for a reification and personification of what Garber has termed "category crisis" and offer the hermaphrodite as their counterpart to the transvestite and 48 transracial hybrid. queer theory that posits gender as stable and uni- ambiguous. queers cannot do justice to homosexual 130 specificity. while it and identity They have decried resist these Utopian impulses to "fix" a self-difference that in particular a celebrates sexuality as queer. sex). at once both sexes and neither." who plays with Truth. something whose androgynous and "beige" qualities homogenize and the gender of social tension in the United States today. which Grosz and Bersani define as same-sex object choice. they replicate the masculin- ism and sexism they would supercede." Martin emphasizes that unmasking gender performativity does not do away with which sexuality displaces gender cannot account for the enduring power of gender. veil. Feminist theorist Biddy Martin expresses her concern about such queer vanguardism: am worried about the occasions when antifoundationalist celebrations of queerness rely on their own projections offixity. is proved dreams of "the the Neitzschean as a fetish like a proof neither of castration. metaphor just this scholars object. the which queer sexualitics become figural. Buffalo Bill gether. 52 queer theory Articulating a literary theorist Leo Bersani note that unless they work with a concept of sexual difference. beyond the boundaries and border crossings we posit a self of difference America.

an aim or action to relieve object choice that facilitates that aim. . which The death at it "no" even preserves for once masks and expresses drive has no authentic face. New York being the aggressive is directed against those we not just those we hate. masks the it might also signify the living essence of the beyond the narcissism "I" assumes. "the desire structured through fantasy defence against . including sex and transsexuals/ "Implicit in these constructions of queerness. it aggressively dissolves. fi the rending and rendering of the face of desire that Eros assumes.these reservations."' impulse in any desire. the fantasmatic and the moi but determining vision of each. it. is a trans-phantasmatic 1 131 . the "you. 111 when we identities are in love done with trying to be (we make ourselves and when we are over what the other wanted). Like the vampire. a has transcended identity queer is Hegel's of any imaginary demands for love. For. an energy energy captivated by the image we love as ourselves ized. Courtesy of Mary Boone Gallerv. the libidinal to who sublimating the dross of particular objects whose fascinations impede the death drive's liberated workers 4 human meat signify either the less than to which the "I" has been reduced by Barbara Kruger the other. all It is betrayed by drive its psyche the subject has neither identi- [the ego] together work '• x in 'A inches (283. what a pressure or tension in an eroto- signifies it: genic zone. having purged love. however. it: own life itself. by you?" asks Kruger's photomontage Heart (Do I have The question appears over an extreme close-up of myocar- be loved by you?) (1988). is is its vinyl."* Thanatos detection unless presence its The death alloyed with eros. Paradoxically. Death must appear which we only know through through a living desire. to self- ego as a projection of the body. . the queer has no reflection.'"' Martin writes. and the inhuman chemistry that ultimately drives "Do give up me dial tissue. self that in desire that has attached us to the is behind all the human form we Heart (Do to I have to give up me be loved by you?). without bodies or psyches. love. ization. "Although at the deepest recesses of ty nor nameable desire." However. a death mask.2 x 283. queer desire becomes pure Thanatos. In saying no. Thanatos affirms something a future negation. "Desire itself is a defence against desire" Slavoj Zizek explains. 1988 Photographic silkscreen on receive from the other. according to Freud: mythic "It escapes Landau. me have to give up I to be loved self-real- which might When is the death drive is real- released into entropic decay desire. that lovable self in which our love alienates us. I fear. including the from the Such self. is the lure of an existence without limit. as feminist film scholar Kaja Silverman observes. this 'pure'. all and an of which fig- ure in fantasy as the figure or representation of desire. the death drive's negativity also to its queers its is identity.2 cm) Collection of Emily Fisher to articulate a always fused with Eros. destroying and renewing and relationships over both it. Beyond love and it which erotic ties that bind. no alter ego as a love object mirroring a lovable "Absolute Spirit" of desire. reminding us that a theory of sexuality without gender cannot account for the practices of some of the sexual minorities queer studies would wish to address.

" Stein writes." 59 as Barthes explains of the noise of the camera. the repeated R of Stein's The sound of this R breaks through repeated roses in her circular rose poem. as Derrida argues in his speech act theory: not what Austin excludes as anomalous. the determined modification of a general citationality — or rather. a citation or represen- promises to create. "the mortiferous layer of the pose. The latex and foam "pours" of Lynda in Benglis in the late 1960s and early 1970s constitute one such effort of pure performativity. There to there would not even be a inevitable consequence —a word that Austin use the successful performative will employ later is nec- on when he rec- no "pure" performative. life Duchamp something Marcel as their disruption. a general iterability mative? Such that essarily are all —a paradoxical. a "continuous present" that lifeless framing an incantation. would charm the thing out of the nothing they shape. is no pure performative L. cophagi in which the performative becomes a pale reflection of tation of "I the being of things." that is citation (on the stage. through them its Duchamp 58 Desire is alienated in la vie" (eros that is life). The in our self-images and the voices of the dead speak through us. is for a godlike originality in which the art artist creatively of gestures transcends the an act of authentic self-expression. or in a soliloquy). too. in a poem." desire that conveys when he renames him- not quite visible is yet only in him as or even in his transvestic feminine alter ego. striving codes of the think that in that line the rose years. The and representation."" she asserts."' is at once self-expression and self-alienation love objects that help define them. the death we mask with 132 "successful" perfor- life and its roles and fetishes. Stein would refuse the simulations and sarits own doing.desire exists self the 'death drive' in (i. That zero renews the mystery of being: red for the a rose. Painters and sculptors too have dreamed of an purged of representation. the noise of the apparatus of representation resurrects the thing entombed in the dead sign. but an "impure" performative. exceptional. finally.e. Rrose Selavy. like a rose is first time in English poetry for a hundred without the nouns that stifle of pure being rather than the what it medium is Seeking a language of verbs would be the language posturing of signs. is that is not always already a citation. "non-serious. or the difference between them. . ognizes that there We — without which is minstrels. or "eros cest Marcel pure form). a hole with the edges of the letters whose "Rose is a rose repetitions. Austin's For. expresses itself as the extra "r" that transforms Rose into "eros" (pronounced "R-rose" in French). cracking its fetishistic carapace. the other figure or face he assumes. But there critique of J. For Stein. which is We are condemned to figured as the sense of something behind our masks. use their words to represent the desire that we are.

Willis. 14. p. Brunswick. "Portraits Press. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. "The Meaning of the Phallus" 1980). 181. Butler. p. eds. Freud. Judith Butler. Oxford: 4. Jacques Derrida." Trouble. 1982). Photography (1980). Unconscious (1905). Bay 31. ed." p.. p. 190. P72. Wang. Blackface. Patricia 1982). Want Willis. Benjamin Nelson. The Social System (Glencoe. 1993). Y'ork: History. Ibid. Benjamin. Roland Barthes. "Borrowed Dogs. John Tagg. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. and More Elizabeth Grosz. Michael Awkward. la trans. Michael Rogin. 117. Harry Zohn 46. p. in Freud.. p. p. Peggy Phelan. Elaine Scarry. p. American Working Class (Oxford: Oxford University University Press. special issue of differences 6. On Homi Bhabha. p. 45. 61. 1968). Richard Howard 9. 1994). on the Brink: Ideologies of Technology 13. p. Norton. 48. 1967). (1927). nos. 5. Illuminations. 8. Alan Bass (Chicago: University of Press. P-95- The Sublime Object of Ideology Benjamin. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis. and 58. 15. p. Unmarked: The and Honor ofC. Norton. oncepts of Psycho-Analysis (1973). 225. 2-3 1981)." p. 14. p. 1989). 18. 115. p. Jokes and Their Relation to the p. p. 225-46. W. Derrida. ed. Homos 1985). Margins (New York: Routledge. 28 (spring 1984). 34. Biddy Martin. in New ( York: Schocken 7. the Beginning of Civil Juliet 1990).. trans. "Theses on the Philosophy of trans. 13. 158. 16-17. Martin." freudienne. 16.J. 58- (New Rogin. ed.. p.. Lacan. 7. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Carol Squiers. Want p. Catherine Millot. Free Press. 187. 155. p. 2-3 (summer-fall 1994). Garber. 1958). "Experimental Desire: Culture Psychology of Art. 8. Parsons. 24. p. (1936). 14." p. Books. p. 7. p.: 28. 111. Bodies that Matter: 8." in Press. a 1993). pp. Kaja Silverman. pp. French Hermaphrodite (1978). p. p. Richard McDougall (New York: Pantheon Books. Norton. Illuminations. 1965).. trans. 14. ed. Image: Essays on ritical ( I Bay Seattle: Camera Essa\s from A Portfolio by 30. on the Works of Nikolai Leskov" A Culture?" in Willis. trans. "I Commodity 1996). Vann Benjamin. "Ideology and Race in James McPherson. Bender and Timothy Druckrey." (1966). 51. 79." 35. in Freud. Random York: There Is Rights. Joan (Cambridge. 1994). p. Illuminations. 132. 1982). and the Politics of Positionality Primer for 26. Morgan Kousser and Woodward (Oxford: Oxford photographic (Paris: Editions de Minuit. Discursive Limits of Sex in Stein. 47. 1983).. 146. p. Love." Representations 46 (spring 1994). Seuil. Chicago Benjamin." p.. "Theses on the Philosophy of 39. 104. Norton. 225-26. 44. Richard Avedon. Talcott Walter Benjamin. 100-01. ed. Barbara Fields. I ucida. Christian Metz. trans. 16. 123. 1951). Essays on Photographies "Against Proper Objects. Religion. Stein. "A Note on Photography and Image. in Street ( New Lucida. 1981 Lectures in America House. Literature. The eds. Civilization and no. Barthes. 129. Sigmund Freud. 186. 6. July 22. 325. 1992). 1963). 1989). Critical Camera Lucida. xiii. 1991). 11. p. Male Subjectivity at the (New York: W. in New York: Studies in the Theory of Fiction (1967. (19:3)." in J. Ambivalence of Colonial Discourse. the Black One. Alix Strachey in Supposing the Subject (London: ed. pp. p. Meyrowitz (London: Owen. Press. Verso. 38. 81. 32. trans. 253. 1993). and 15. Slavoj Zizek. 1988). "Introduction. Gertrude Something 3. Emily" Stein. (London: Verso." October." (summer-fall 1994). Negotiating Difference: Race. "Extraordinary Homosexuals." Time." in Derrida. Ibid. Frank Kermode. Lectures 1911-1945. les Freud. Horsexe: Essai sur le transsex- ualisme (Paris: Point Hors Ligne. Herculine Discovered Memoirs of a Nineteenth-Century Routledge. 12. On Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the ecole Leibovit/. "I and Camera 40. "Signature Event Context. 126. 123. 37. and Leo Bersani. "Extraordinary Homosexuals. The Burden 54. pp. 48... "The 'Uncanny'" (1919). Press. 5-6. W. (New York: W. p. Ibid. W. Philip 20. 222. "Of Mimicry and Man: The p. 61. p. and Repetition. 46. p. 22. in diacritics 24. ed. the Black One. Herculine Barbin: Being the Recently Gender Trouble: Feminism Meets Queer Theory." in The ed. W. ). the Simulacral. 120. Discontents (1930). Marjorie Garber. "Fetishism" 59. Gretchen Freud. Ibid. 39. Creativity Performance and Reality: Grand Camera Barthes. 95. the Psychology of Love. Region. Strachey p. 14. 48. Metz. Jacques Lacan. 42.: Harvard University the Unconscious: Papers on the trans. Politics of Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy Ibid. 60.. W. p. 53." 56. (New York: Collier p. "Gallery of Glory: Sonnenberg. Willis. Vested Interests. p. Margins of Philosophy (1972). p. I'n Art moyen: Essai sur 57. 1935). Ben 52. Harlow (Chicago: University of Press. Chapmanworld ( London: Institute of Contemporary 23. 1996." in Squiers. 1969). 16. "Sexualities without Genders and Other Queer Utopias. Barbara History" Chicago 1940. The Four Fundamental ( of Representation: and 36. the (New Barthes. pp. 3 > 133 . Lucida. Copjec. ( in Barbin. 219. p. American Histories More Gender 55. 255. 50. "Sacred Geography and Plays (1922. History. Race. Annie Rutgers University Press. 107. p. Writings Reconstruction: Essays in usages sociaux de and Its James Strachey (New W. p. ( New 25. published 1950). chanalytique sur Ic vetement Paris: Editions du ( Sexuality and Rieff.Notes 1. 1995). 17. "Photography and Fetish. 118. and trans. Contemporary Photography 11. Michel Foucault. "Photography and Fetish. Eric Lott. nos." (Seattle: 33. Lacan. '"Democracy and Burnt Cork': 27. "The Storyteller: Reflections trans. La Robe: Essai psy- the 1963). James 1978). Benjamin. Books. Martin.: Mitchell and Jacqueline Rose. in Benjamin. 22. The End of 29. Ibid. Hannah Arendt. York: Harper Torchbooks. 21. Gender. "The 43. pp. Performance (New York: Routledge." the Black One: Daily Life (London: Routledge. Eugenie Lemoine-Luccioni. (New York: 49. 1983). N. 1992). Susan Place for Afro-American Culture in Arts. trans. Alan Sheridan Rethinking Queer Subjectivity. ed. Mass. The Sense of an Ending: Oxford University Stein." 19. pp. 142. 1979). Interests: Cross- & Cultural Anxiety (New York: Routledge. Joan Riviere Barthes. Spurs: Nietzsche's Style (1978). p. Else Press. Pierre Bourdieu. p. Vested Dressing p. "The Merging of Bodies and Artifacts in the Social Contract. p. Work of Art in the Age of Want in p. '"Democracy and Burnt Cork'. p. Mechanical Reproduction" (1936). p. Press. Love eds. 1961). ed. 34-59. 104. 101-02. "I 41. Rosalind Krauss. p. Dinos and Jake Chapman. Jacqueline Rose (NewY'ork: York: Hill and 10.

Arturo Schwarz Collection. 1928 Photomontage of twenty vintage photographs.Man Ray Surrealist Chessboard I'Fxhiquier ( surrialiste).2 cm) . Milan 134 18 X x 11 X inches (46 x 30.

^/(xi6M/ue4WMie& The time may have come to valorize women's ideas at the whose bankruptcy has achieved a tumultuous climax andre breton." 5 Likewise.*J. e'est moi"). hermaphrodite? derivative "baedling" may be defined as "effeminate fellow. transsexual 1 stories go back to Joan of Arc. 1966) Bad a histo- is origins begin neither in our century nor in the age of chivalry but in fantasy as the after- existed. a tradition ratified academy and salon as well as the "professions" of model and prostitute for is the artist's capacity for Bovaryisme (Gustave Flaubert's an identification with that flesh. Yet implicit in his fessionalism artist. a "Madame by the (Edouard Manet's Olympia. "Femininity. presents certain female secondary sexual characteristics. even before mythology. alternatively. a vision of a female eternal sex war represented In etymology. it indicated the political but. womanish man. which entered the French language in 1837. Golden 4 evil: on the written "Honi soi qui mal y pense" (Evil to the motto of the Order of the Garter. To those of you of men's. All 2 The against a legendary matriarchy. too. subject of the male artist has been the female nude.") teenth century that the French The primordial institutions of word artiste It was not until the late nine- acquired a possible resonance for either sex. ( expense SARAH WILSON women this will not apply —you are yourselves the problem. and that its is a less glorious tale. who including enfranchisement. Honore de Balzac's Belle Noiseuse). a woman. man-maid of Orleans. and are reincarnated in the present in the per- formance artist their being ture." ry "One whose Orlan. /irr/e Orlando. Virginia Woolf ' s transsexual heroine. at least. 1944 who are sigmund freud. terrains whose paths under the aegis of patriarchy and the is cross: sexual difference." as Simone de Beauvoir wrote. in art and woman literature evil thinks). today. Girls tells us that the is has been placed on the side of garter of Niki de Saint-Phalle's Hon/Elle {Hon/She." a state thought to be especially dangerous for the male intellectual or (So Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal becomes Les Fleurs du male. stands at a temporal and cultural crossroads — she looks back in her various guises to the past." him who have conflict of essence versus existence.ewi4miwUie&> ." 1933 iff //'in -(/<-. cultural difference. had a disturbing twin meaning: on the one hand. own pro- Bovary. There. Arcane ly (Quebec). Emile Zola's Nana. "nature or nur- not born but rather becomes. she anticipates our future. penetrating of that female anatomy. feminisme. in order to understand 135 . This math of the revolution Age Two The catalogue for the London exhibition Middle English word "baeddel" means "homo utriusque. it movement to acquire rights for defined "the aspect of a male individual women. In France.

to their reflections in new realms of photography and world of gender indeterminacy that has found work of Marcel Duchamp or Woolf. garde" first. earnest sexologists subsumed Vanity lair. on transfixed. then Darwinian thought. D.C. Gelatin-silver print Such Courtesy of the Library of Congress. Femme (1859). literary." But if literal gynecide was unthinkable. but also in the popular culture of today. medical. is its origins impact on contemporane- its Anonymous 1920 is constructions of patriarchy. Victor/Victoria (Blake Edwards." on of 7 masculinity. Friedrich reflected in the writings of Otto Weiniger theorists who came both the grand Freudian narrative of The "psychological its this after first and the succession of him. For both sexes within prioritized as the site of masquerade. Beyond or beneath der indeterminacy and its patriarchy. The body and the mask that Judith Butler. softness. Next symbolizing his hermaphroditic self-sufficiency. Janus-like. in the found 1891). La Rebours (both 1884). 1 " to the perhaps. their researches were. nascent psychoanalytic.from within its contours. both political and intellectual. a defined as a melancholic structure. 1920 ( ."' 2 facilitated this event irrevocably . the individual and mass psychotic structures that York qualify 136 came Sigmund Freud's oedipal paradigms and his "norms. explored through the expanding field of gender precursor: on the threshold of a new century our gaze The proliferation of publications in this field today finds both reflection in the explosion of nineteenth-century sexology and ous criminal. the taking attributes of the object/Other that studies. of Schopenhauerian pessimism and Max 8 1983). and india ink. I 1 ' illei New 1 inches (15 x 10. century and. a Gender Trouble. Yet our fin-de- the past as well as the future. Oscar Wilde's The Gynandre (both Symbolist and decadent painting and sculpture and. is and pornographic discourses — the very matrices of the birth of modernism. the feminine and disguises. polished Princesse wherein gender his prowess. hate. alas. 1982). of Pygmalion: the artist's kiss of life X (1916) complex affair. texts as Balzac's Sarrazine (1830). the racial theories of fas- 'gynecide' advocated by the turn of the century male intellectual avant- gouache.5 cm) mil of Morris Philipson. to the perfect exemplar. many masks. His love of and desire for this female created object none other than an extension of himself and a sign. subsequently. of gen- that lies at the core of this exhibition. 1982). its cin- response not only in the Roland Barthes's S/Z (1970) or Michel Foucault's study of in Herculine Barbin (1978). Looking back again Cartesian. Rachilde's Monsieur Venus Picture of Dorian Gray. one gestation of the rights of is the erotic or the pornographic. ema. (1835). it only took a few decades for genocide to be industrialized. Washington. may be visage of woman describes. rephrasing Lacan.igc with photograph. becomes (in the the problem of differentiation. including such films as Tootsie (Sydney Pollack. guillotined for promoting the woman?"). dealing with serious issues modern it is womb of — love. Sexual cross-identification is created by the male artist as a mask. where loss is a consequence of a refusal of love. And beyond Olympe de Gouges. in misogyny was and degeneracy aftermath. in is itself lost. and Bovaryisme stands the myth as "part of the incorporative strategy of melancholy. cism. These 1851). what has been called "gender trouble" started to perturb the linearity of Nietzsche's profound Ernst personal guises and death. Theophile Gautier's Mademoiselle de Maupin Arthur Schopenhauer's Uber die Weiber (Of woman. and Joris-Karl and Josephin Huysmans's Peladin's Le texts posit a A and Jules Michelet's later. thoughts. and Yentl (Barbra Streisand.oll. Constantin Brancusi's phallic. is The constructs and masks of now qualify mirrors siecle its all its 77ie Mrt« with the Diamond Dress.

Guillaume Apollinaire's music-hall 1917).' //> //j«f Cubism only tentatively restored the empiricism of the grid. in 1909.. at a under the sexually inscrutable time when Parisian analyses of conflating the "scientific" with the frankly pornographic. ses organcs. M sapphism. Mamelles de Tiresias a character in (The breasts of Tiresias. glamorous. Neither is it a "The 'Nude man. In 1 not follow the mistress/prostitute/model paradigm. carrying them more powerfully into the twentieth century. ses aptitudes phisme. sexual inversion. her attrac- tions. ses aberrations sexuelles. clitorisme. was American powerful. son la scs seductions. nymphomanie. "her husband in the role of slave-banker. etc. woman. nymphomania. 1904)."" declared Duchamp.— Marlow Moss Courtesy of Courtauld Institute of Art Witt Library. quavering gaze of Pablo Picasso's Michaelangelesque demoiselles d'Avignon. son a I'amour.. ( l 27 •//<//<////<<." Duchamp and girls 1 " who drove Francis Picabia into the melancholic trope of the "machine cclibataire" (bachelor machine)." Such was Dr. her physical and moral development. with New York Dada. her seductive features. her les corps. perturbations in love.. demonstrated a profound malaise. Caufeynon's Histoire de et p. morphosed farce Les as the The androgyne entered Cubism with Marc Chagall and meta- double figure of Terence/Therese. . His publication anticipated the translations Sexual Inversion (1909) and. It New York. pronatalist topicality. her propensities for love. clitorism. organs. (History of etc. did not yet neglected for know the more fantasmatic images of the great (patriotic) mother. au moral femme. in 1918. The insatiate vaginae dentatae of Picabia's protestant "Young American Girls" were depicted = ^ 137 . her sexual aberrations.< ji. no. ses developpement au physique of Havelock etc./. elevating the genre to the avant-garde with a piquant. World War I —whose mechanization of battle brought shell men shock and mass death for created a polarization of sexual roles in Europe. inversion sexuelle. (February 1946). in France. not a woman." "new woman". etc. sap- desequilibres de I'qmour.. Hirschfeld's Sexualpathologie (1917-20). ses attraits. descending a Stairway' woman is in the studio did Woman. as the "the who stayed at home" were France. contained additional transsexual/transvestite case histories. of Ellis's Magnus Hirschfeld's Die Transvestiten (1910). Yet this polarization only ratified fearful nineteenth- century stereotypes. her body. enfranchised. vices. the problem of the crossing of sexual difference with cultural difference registered at the very outset. her vices. London Hans Anton Prinner Reproduced in View 6. in 1910. translated in 1918. woman.

Eileen Vezelay. Gertrude Stein." in speak- who would . behind the story of each war widow. aviators. look like "Women was now chic.five percent of the adult decade is spanned between La Garconne and Colette's Ces Plaisirs (1932): "Eleanor Butler would curse as she jacked up the car and would have her breasts amputated. Both literary intellectual Orlando: A <(. France. one year Woolf 's after Biography. and French poiht (soldier's helmet)." Duchamp's retreat from painting and his philosophy of "delay" was not only antiretinal and onanistic but also photographic." Referring (1927). patterns found their echo in the women in 1925. the elegant Joan Riviere. the ((<t. of course. and to Leo Ferenczi's theories of compensatory behavior (homosexual exaggerating their heterosexuality). London and the British Psychoanalytic Society were dependent on strong. Lesbians. translinguistic. doctrine of France. Picabia encountered not only young girls but also powerful von Freytag-Loringhoven." will a at first to now celebrated text "Womanliness as a Ernest Jones's article "The Early Development of Female Sexuality" which claimed an inherent bisexuality in each person and heterosexual and homosexual types of female development. In 1929. in the boys and by night they "A word on feminism: with intellectual pretensions." " Overt bisexuality or homosexuality sumption. Paule "Amazons" or "Americaines" (>tll<( /I /ni<\. Everything within the employment disfranchised will instance. court gravitates form of superior conspicuous con- have looked the same for two years. Woolf's Bloomsbury contemporary. a university lecturer in an abstruse subject. published the Masquerade. Jane Heap." published analyzed "Christianity. extravagant eccentrics such "artistic" clothes. a moralizing tale of France's sold 20. normal constitution of woman the thousands of spinsters created as a result of the male casualties of in New The and. cinematic.000 copies in French population. and. Jean last Even Yorker. black lipstick. Lee Miller. broken engagement.iott<'j'<t(/<' . . Rrose Selavy was representative of a new metropolitan subjectivity. Marlow Moss.. The amazon laws. . widows. Montrevel of course. Agar. . four days and was read by twelve to twenty. artistic women. syphilis. its life.. chivalry. around one central function: the reproduction of the Individual tragedy like morale sexuelle en France." 21 World War I. masked balls were 2 " Marxists took note: in "Notes sur Janet Flanner wrote la from with an exemplary class-consciousness predilection of lazy women and physiology always impose Paris for — until his envoi: lay. By day they look female impersonators. is always be an exception Americaines: Djuna Barnes.via imagery of their Duchamp and cars. the year of the second Surrealist manifesto.i and o species. Far from being an exception. which consisted principally "wife and mother. Victor Margueritte's La Gargonne (1922). transsexual. photogra- —the terms were almost identical. The jazz-society stereotypes and music-hall caricatures of the gargonne turned dour as the decade progressed. painters. Riviere progressed to the notion of "womanliness" men itself as a mas- querade adopted "to avert anxiety and the feared retribution from men. and their English phers. A its first Back in new boyish woman. writers. capitalism" this Nancy Cunard. Resulting changes moves toward emancipation voiced by the still- And with the low franc came the so-called sisters. the translator into English of Freud and Melanie Klein." discussing the cases of "an American woman ing and writing" i3 8 engaged and a in a work of a propagandist nature. with her as the Baronesss Elsa wooden birdcage round her neck (with live canary). in 1926. monarchy.

Was apparently little-known in France. Horace. which has been so and gender games in the same is not. Masson discussed the cultural nature of sexuality: homosexuality in Ancient Greece. King Henri II. sixty-two out of sixty-seven were translations from other sources. Riviere used psycho- were devastating: "Womanliness could therefore be assumed and worn both to hide the possession of masculinity and to avert the reprisals expected :4 possess it. "My suggestion superficial."' is any such difference." she whether radical or This 1929 ship.address her male colleagues in particularly feminine clothes. land of the Abbe de Choisy. characterized War I. is embrace of the and strictures of her discipline its great fathers accounts for her evident neglect of both the necessary social negotiations of these emancipated."" She of those who immortalized moved impressively through the list transvestism by description or in practice: Plato. Yet the contemporary "epidemic" of transvestite novels. Virgil. however. Freud's protector and Marie Bonaparte shared translator. protectionism. however. replied. she dated to the aftermath of World called "virile women" and Russian (femmes-viriles). . Aged 40. desire." "women who ("renonciatrices. and "women who take "women who deny" from history: mere their revenge" ("revendicatrices"). quite feminine.: In each case. Nero. . Her conclu- feelings of identification with her subjects. fictitious Gautier's Mademoiselle de XV (secret agent of Louis in the English George Sand or Sarah Bernhardt. 25 Riviere's is that the "seized by horrible dread" and. they are the text. . first Masson had the intelligence chapter of her book on transvestism. for example. Did Bonaparte choose to ignore Riviere's revolutionary defi- masquerade because it Sexuality (1931) used terms subsequently reformulated by Bonaparte as "true (" acceptatrices" accept" spinsters) children replace penis envy). spectator- United States and Great Britain since the 1970s. courts). as a she was found to Furthermore. Freud himself called Bonaparte "quite outstanding. to hide the irony of her text's autobiographical dimensions. :s compounding the cli- Another woman. or merely redundancy in the light of contemporaneous Surrealist explorations? Riviere's equivalent in France. While in her writing to see women. devoting the Ellis. now generating work this a case of ignorance." Bonaparte's translations of Freud circulated widely in interwar Paris. Lucien. on "the masculine masquerade. boy by an the emergence of so- and the current popularization of sex and psychoanalysis. Succubus [sits on top] 09 . fearing retribution. Juvenal."" crucial for developing theories of sexuality. mate of "delirium" On Female upset Freud's very basic categorizations? Freud's and beyond. Theocritus. that there is thing. the Amazons. Anticipating Foucault." if mask. Catullus. Of -^ Masson's subsequent case histories. the Cynedes. Riviere's per- sonal problems of self-definition within the context of strict Freudian orthodoxy. "Observation 26 (Hirschfeld)": "Artist. nonetheless. a more than operations on her nition of female clitoris is just half masculine female" (her obsession with notorious). Tiresias. to the age-old cultural origins of this behavior: "in history. arriving finally in transvestites: the and the Chevalier d'Eon la douce France. "scientific" any possible tone of her male counterparts. literature. Caligula. ethnography. should one ask where to draw the line between "genuine womanliness" and the "masquerade. not forgetting . Le Travestissement: Essai de psychopathologie sexuelle (1935). must be rescued a faithful disciple of Havelock beyond the merely pathological. Xenophon. Achilles. and dis- Rabelais's situation. the conclusion woman who wishes to possess the father's penis offers herself sexually as propitiation. "page-girls" to the moving from Francois works of Balzac and Rachilde. the Scythians. in Surrealist circles Agnes Masson. the trope of cross-dressing guise central to Renaissance literature (William Shakespeare). Heliogabalus Pope Joan and a bevy of colorful Maupin. achieving women and Adopting the scrupulously analysis as a masquerade sions.

who Max detailed his love of "nocturnal boys" in Surrealism equals pederasty. above his virulent homophobia. 1928). from Kiki de Montparnasse to Gala. Masson's work participated on in the interwar discourse within which the Surrealist - Surrealist (mad foil loss all. 1933 The Phenomenon of Ecstasy (Le Phenomene de must be read Fextase. its may be It conceptualized literary nature constantly . and. Sixteen pairs of male eyes are closed (in intellectual withdrawal or masturbatory fantasy?) [Woman] Hidden in the Forest {Je ne vois pas in Rene Magritte's painting [femme] cachee dans la conjunction with the famous Surrealist survey "Recherches sur la investigation. writers Paul Claudel. / Do Not which may be read la foret)." Think Ernst/Paul Eluard relationship. in stunning instance of purported textual "openness" actually revealing closure: the Stalinist model of the criticism. of the repressed. or the twenty illuminated the portrait of the assassin Germaine Berton and penetrating glances of the men in Man Ray's Surrealist Cliessboard (L'Echiquier surrealiste. sexualite" (1928).| Despite the proclaimed desire for revolution. Indeed. The ecstatic female women as a return. they Woman in a through war competition with the "phallogocularcentric.5 Isidore Ducasse Fine Arts cm) concealing the hysterical Compare (a man (note the frantic. downcast eyes prelude the sexually ecstatic. the most compliant Americaines (Lee Miller). was in itself a . fetishism. stabbing pattern of repetition in the collage). of Dali and Federico Garcia Lorca. preferring their muses. the all. the twenty-eight Surrealist photomontage of men who surround 1924). Sartre. Salvador Salvador Dali The Phenomenon I Le Dali's of Ecstasy Phinomene de Fextase). but. emancipation. homosexual "leader" Achille Berton (Breton's frantically near the surface. 1933) female masquerade. self- a classic case of it is become explicit. /ic<t:J <t ueA transvestite Paris itself constituted as a series of in movement must be love). with his parody of Breton Homosexual panic was and knowing male exegete of 140 cell. masks and gazes. exhibitionism. published in the journal La Revolution surrealiste. in \ 7 inches ( 27 x 18. constitute a Photomontage. and movement.during coitus. this equation was Achilles heel?). Vamour cult of sadomasochism — was thus formed and an immense melancholy. exclusion extending to the refusal of See the as the made by corps (1925). Ilya Ehrenburg." Moreover. and only whose modest. the Amazone or the garconne.J the link between what is all "abnormalities. mon homo- He Man Ray was illustrated Breton's the most brilliant concept of cxplosante- . via mask of displacement. Surrealist doublespeak. above lesbian and masquerade r <•/(> The transsexuality resoundingly rejected the threatening New of Paris." Surrealists' || resituated. with its no homosexuality woman."" Ludicrous as may sound 1 this to late twentieth-century sensibilities. the suicide of the Moi et Andre Breton's generally "seductive" behavior toward men despite and Jean-Paul This frank fashionably called "homosociality" (boy talk) and "homosexual panic" the potential fear that suppressed homoerotic/homosexual relations will sexual Rene Crevel. free love.

sophistry: as a figure or potentate offalsehood. taken debased and despised. then. Woman as as a solarized nude for Man Ray photograph is Do Not See the in the Forest (Je of behind the wheel of the an allegory of truth / played off against [Woman] Hidden ne vois pas [femme] cachee dans from La Revolution la hi foret). up to this point as nontruth. is is it. its metaphysics she offers truth and is accused here by the his phallus as his own . and Picabia is indisputable."" boundaries between a case in art The indeterminate and fashion in Surrealism. operating through reversal and perversion rather than complicity with fashion magazine notions of beauty. that far surpasses Riviere's analysis in 1. even as she refuses guile the to believe in and naivety (and Iter guile economy of truth's system. woman In her nudity. manipulating woman.fixe as a flurry of Lo'ie Fuller-like veils how woman's itself." The Surrealist mannequins exhibited at the Galerie des Beaux-Arts in 1938 were inspired by Robert Couturier's disturbing. In the credulous man 2." masking of femininity which "the the condi- slips irresistibly into tions of male spectatorship. too. woman is censured. for example. as if own it were a advantage. name of truth and who. In the guise of the Christian. phallicism — but he knew would symbolically So. The idealized woman participated Rene Magritte might be displayed with open eyes Harper's Bazaar or with the downcast eyes of modesty. The woman. Duchamp. surrealiste. its penetration of the worlds of Elsa Schiaparelli and Vogue and Harper's Bazaar is precisely because of the role played by dress and disguise in Surrealist masquerade. Tristan Tzara's text automatisme du gout" (On was taste. twice castration: once as truth and once . . or else she continues to play with it. 1933). hiding symbolically besmirches her. as Oppenheim it Veiled Erotic (Erotique voilee. 1933) a certain by illustrated Man reassert "D'un certain automatism of Ray's portraits of metonymically vaginal/phallic hats on invisible women: "It's the hat that makes the man. inherited by the Surrealists. fetish. . The woman. no. philosophical being she either identifies with the truth. 12 (1929) an allegory of "deception" (hence truth equals deception: the abolition of philosophy Together with the sociological evidence of the sex war of the 1920s and 1930s and the idealiz- ing structures of the Surrealists' residual Catholicism. proper credentials. finds herself censured. only in this case it is as the figure or potentate of truth. the Nietzschean input as regards the Surrealist intellectuals Georges Bataille. to her it at a distance. The . Surrealist in a in tailored game of truth. Behind the extravagance of Nietzsche's misogynistic statements. . debased and despised. as in the well-known the naked Meret printing press as "woman" itself). remains nonetheless within in the phallogocentric space. Whichever. through her always contaminated by naivety). draped precursors in the Pavilion de l'Elegance at the Paris World Fair of 1937. in support of his testimony. Duchamp's jacket is severe "virilized mannequin" a case in point. *l i|i . Jacques Derrida has analyzed an appalling triple bind.

She affirms herself. her look reinstated. the double negation of the first two. 1929). the fetishization of female body parts no look — from Woman The Wavering Ernst's pioneering (La Femme a severed Max that Ernst yet unsevered head. . these creative masqueraders) caused problems aspiration for the role of fetish women tor the Surrealists. woman. a dissimulatress. metamorphic most Histoire de Voeil even Duchamp's Etant Donnes (1946-66). does not in condemned woman only Derrida posits the problem of theorizing revolution posited by a dionysiac. 3. man who that the proliferation of is no is it overthrown. and the collage-novel La Femme 100 chancelante.d. Agar. in take place."" The teste tout Andre Breton solution? Gynecide en est surely knew: — bon" (A headless "An effective Muse Arcane in 27. on the attack. Magritte's apotropaic desire for self-protection paradoxicalh creates Surrealism's (Story of the eye. (Nietzsche's third category. woman Woman (La Femme tetes sciee. n. which man an artist.. if these to the female good)" runs the French proverb and dead. on canvas. would argue are attempting to to the that longer so long as she was. one confronts a double bind: the invitation to rape turns into the phallic powerful image of the Medusa or Gorgonic gaze."' Surrealism hacked-up or blinded nudes —above all. isH4 as Beyond . The muses — were. blatant replacement at downcast eves by which Breton employed metonymically on the cover of Qu'est-ce que le surrealisme? (What is body parts Surrealism?) in 1934. — so often com- While Agar's Angel . is Oppenheim. from the two reactive positions. to the obscene The Sawed-up no face. and affirms her. an affirmative power. nonetheless. supplicant reasserts Bataille's dolls. Basel Rene Magritte The Rape Le I lol \ .I ANDRE BRETON QU'EST-CE QUE LE SURREALISME? Marc Eemans The Sawed-up La Oil Femme Woman sciee)." up of images of woman. n. still terrifyinglv itself. her power to be both powerful eyes. Hans Bellmer's dismembered the gaze masquerading as vagina. in L'Elephant Celebes (1921). which was celebrated in the highly unanalytic exhibition catalogue La Femme et le Magritte's The itself in surrealisme/ The most Rape Le Viol) of I reproducing it 1934. sans not once. "Femme and is organized around endless decapitations. so long as in its turn theories its the metaphoric chopping women And no and affirmed around the "heterogeneity of style itself female representations and styles in Surrealism. three types of statement are to form an exhaustive code. cover of Andre Breton's Qu'est-ce-que le surrealisme? Brussels: 1 Rene Henriquez. here again. Valentine Penrose. And answered sfie to anti-feminism. I is a is all Muse is from Vamour do foil killed.) by the second-rate Marc Eemans. 1928). just this. but over and over again. [and] of herself.. Riviere's categor) o( plicil in their 142 With in to define Surrealism Again.. Castration.. Miller. and is recognized is man. 1923). present and absent. (The hundred-headless woman. and sugar pink or displaced and sealed.d. 36 92 \ 73 \ 2S inches cm Collection of Carl Laszlo.

27% x "11 cm) x 30. the blue. remarkable. the aviator (parodying Breton).Eileen Agar Angel o) Anarchy second version).5 Tate Gallery. the Nazis. . the me. Claude Cahun was a pioneering code-scrambler. both for SHEREVEALSIT? (Pic's retained the traditional artist/model paradigm. The "exhaus- to be a codes" are more complex than Riviere imagined." Two and an . her tract on the role of poetry. . Cahun's intervention its intellectual incisiveness SHEKEEPSIT? dilemma with in the medium that records Breton/Aragon clarity and its surtitles at the heads of pages. and terror devastated her 45 life. her downcast eyes invite us to contemplate the mystery of her unshared subjec- woman tivity as a creative tive poet." the Deharme's son. tion in his sexual choices (Nadja. silks. carnival- grotesque aspects of "femininity as masquerade. Pic. With perverse delight. muse. brutality. the butterfly- shaded eyes have been imposed by her husband. sportswoman with her slogan. however." This act of seduction or compensation was not. the dream versus ceived the the ( self-referential: . Yet if we identify with Valentine as subject. structuring grand narratives. Paris sous la botte des nazis Paris: Editions Raymond 1946). the narcissist. Valentine's idea. she played with a a Surrealist woman who was never a range of masks in her self-reflexive photographs: the poet (her profile portrait so close to that of her uncle. identifying with Lise in training. Jacqueline romantic but his mind and his love. I'm heart. of Anarchy 1940) feminized and masked her husband's bust in furs. reproduced no. 1940 Plaster cast covered with media. the pseudo-infant. political revolution. with her friend until war.5 x 30. feathers. which are evidently kiss blond.4 ier. parodying the seriousness of an essentially competitive male squabble. Schall. Cahun per- ironic wealth of reference. were at stake. Les Paris sont ouverts Place your bets. Suzanne Malherbe. Images from Jean Epar\ . Roland Penrose's Winged Domino shows the ( (Portrait of Valentine) (1937) \ 17 % inches x45 cm) (59. in the in 1937. 1 ( in View p. Breton preferred "objective chance. February 1946). 44 . 1937). Aryan maiden. She reads as fetishized object. the critic Marcel Schwob). Breton's brief acknowledgment of her writing cially political "POETRYREVEALSHERSECRETKEEPSHERSECRET Freudianism and Marxism. . retreated to Jersey. on the contrary. the masking gesture. the lesbian. "Don't is espe- sont ouverts— pen —was part of the double-edged when one considers that the intellectuality of Les Paris Cahun's means of attracting not just doomed his attention strategy of her unrequited love. . reversability. Cahun Lambda). becomes for Communism. 9 M3 . photography of black/white inversion.5 England and diamante. . of course. something that Penrose found stumbling block. is photographs for Deharme's children's book Le Coeur de Pic Man Ray medium —and its . mixed 12 x 12 inches London Roland Penrose Winged Domino (Portrait of valentine)." madness. in her While technically the the "exhaustive code" debate on 1934). dead skin. Cahun itself. masquerading. finding creative peace — Channel Islands. 6. SHHHE. theatrical. 1937 Oil on canvas. as and domina- monogamous. 23 Private collection.

" all played their role reborn Frenchwoman. she appropriates Sartre's 1 is challenge the pseudo-objectivity of the male philosophical voice. marking the inscription of the terrible caesura of World War II — massacre overwhelming masquerade: "Ugliness. into desire ing woman. followed by his Nudes (Nus) in 1955."" De Beauvoir's Le Deuxieme Sexe (The second (ugly) means in Les Temps modernes from May 1948 and published "to scholarly tour-de-force: 22. expresses a sado- artist's stylized economy of bourgeois marriage heads their an expression of the humiliation of the French male during the War. in a period when who had contrasted strikingly with the savage treatment of female "collaborators. its first was —she is the Other. (In 1948.000 copies were sold in in 1949. he own is the vocabulary to The impact of Le with that of the Kinsey reports on male and female .( He //)<'<<! /HCJ Enfranchised Man" fitf/J/<///. the "Miss Tabou" beauty contests in Saint-Germain-des Pres. sex). The excess of femininity in these masquerades contrasted in characterizing the acutely with the game fair Hans Anton Prinner Despite state closure of the brothels in 1946. Deuxieme Sexe coincided. scratched surfaces of Germaine Richier's bronzes. The froufrou of Look."' ' We are reminded that laedere. French society Christian Dior's was another It a tribunal recalling the trial of Joan of Arc. 1 not to say flayed. mothers of Niki is beautiful. the histori- in the theaters and the cinema. the taste for a "Fantastic 40s. 90 V. made by embodied "cogito" but an archetypal enunci- also to Jean-Paul Sartre. fetishized. masochistic rage echoed in the —Whore! — Carcass! cal New costume dramas for a 1946 New York. the Subject. functioned on a sexual still versus the "seduction" of mistresses and prostitutes. one possible root wound. ')<<(// iter i' womanhood went '/</<<'/'/ j' 1 to the polls in 1945. as an inscription of time worn. Jean Fautrier's scarred and iridescent Hostages {Otages). The impact of her erotic beauty. of the brothels. aggressive rage in the Ladies' Bodies. asserts itself doubtlessly as a 'surface." To desire a is Desire — or an infantile. Here.' (> French at last. masquerade. "We must Paume museum with 1960s.000 after the official closure mock insouciance." Woman. 144 in France."' Ironically. 600. in 1940. because contingent and most absurd. withered. in a chapter in L'Imaginaire on the work of art: "The real is artist never beautiful. "The in — Dungheap! — Shaved February 1945. serialized a sociological week of de Beauvoir redefined Sartre's fluctuatingly sexed "Other": "He Absolute for the French laid and publication.t ( 230 x 110 Courtesy of the cm dissolution not only to Maurice Merleau-Ponty's ation." —spreads out contiguously with humor and 4" painterly matter terror the devouring mother: his Nanas of the cie Saint. "dames" — now irradiated new ugliness in the art displaced the cult of female beauty. The Surrealists saw the appalling photographs as issue of the journal View." shaved and were tarred and paraded publicly during the post-Occupation purge. the "Rights of new cult of ugliness in art: the awkward. in Disgusting! — Pile of shit! engravings." a echoed the Look poem which was published by Charles Henri Ford written by the female transsexual sculptor litany of insults: at her!" 4 '1 " — Slut! The poem's form. despite their Ladies' Bodies {Corps des dames) series. in the heart of a picture. 1962/72 Paint and mixed media. it. "a carnival of uglies.' eroded.' They correspond 7 ) These are violent and in their interiority La Mart du patriarche). two years and misogynistic works.Phalle's — the "female gorilla" as she was called in 1865 Manet's Olympia the Jeu de what is attempting to obliterate the subject-ground relationship by engulf- Dubuffet invokes with both are the forget that she a plunge into the heart of existence. and Jean Dubuffet's hideous Olympic! of the Niki do Saint-Phalle The Death of the Patriarch ( "ladies" were working in Paris. this time forced.6 x 43 V.

colonialism." theme of guilt" and woman. i960) could do nothing to stop the distraction from colonial war dark 1958. a creative intelligence making went consumption into explicit the links far who a terrifying interiority."" The next Exposition InteRnatiOnale du Surrealisme. woman could take and transform the masquerade of female deco- metaphor beyond Betty Friedan's analyses De as androgynous sculpture The Death of die Patriarch (La Mort du contrast. in 1955. and intonations. Jean Paulhan. contrasted the in Algeria/ existentialist 4 Man rise of the new child-woman even the spirit. in an exasperated expose. it is demon- dolls. taken with an automatic timer. produced transvestite image: 59 a volte-face in In a reversal of became transformed into photographs of the 1960s and 1970s. a wel- Ray. 'Hit. de Saint-Phalle's ration as Oppenheim's transformation of her own food-bedecked body let alone the deep embraced with dazzling extravagance the of female movie stars and transvestites. for the war-scarred toys. Mallarmean prose poem. whose position was shown to falter with her half- hearted critique of the Marquis de Sade (a hero for Bataille. who. hoaxed.„</. which was devoted to Eros. and sexual deviance. gestures that "inversion ironically. For France. however. These photos may be compared."' which had supplanted de Beauvoir. <. ///. In to and dismembered missiles. in postwar austerity. preposterous vision of "pederasty" as vengeance by reappearing inside him. sex in is them [women] washed. Happy Housewife Syndrome. the choly anticipates our own. play Molinier as both dominatrix and succuba. suddenly riddled. It own has been argued. "existential" sympathy with mascara. The following r becomes unreal. published in waif (Greco) with the blond Marilyn Monroe. the Pygmalion myth. and the Surrealists). 1962/72). quoting Dior's ads and Paulhan's preface to Pauline Reage's Histoire d'O (1954): "All lipstick — Bardot They must be continually fed. of be devoured. she The Feminine Mystique whose femininity was governed by a climate of world of flowers. of sensuality. signaled the continu- woman ing fascination with as fetish/' into a cannibalistic feast at the opening was the embodiment of Eros Arcimboldesque landscape of planes. however. structures of feminine masquerade. a suicidal. intellectual competitiveness. is surely the a passionate exegesis of self-willed." to human in riposte to Sartre's he experiences his "The homosexual" he state as "a writes. an equally strated. sequestered. patriarche." of 1954. rape. Pierre Klossowski. Jean Genet.and the new expressions of the feminine embodied sexuality gaminelike singer-actress in the Juliette Greco. strangely.< J. Genet most moving testimony homosexuality insists that in a solitary state. and cannon fodder. Pierre Molinier's meeting with Breton heralded. had little camp and hideous body of France. (1963). and between women. at last. through ou r day: our body. the female figures in Molinier's Surrealist paintings own It is 58 the Surrealist's previously hostile stance toward transsexuality his in mid-century. putting him into a dangerous Banished. in dis- both terms of the *B MS . They is lived wreaks her call us effeminate. the child-woman Brigitte Bardot. silks. painted with makeup and beaten. and Her book the Lolita come Brigitte Bardot on syndrome de le Lolita (published in English as Brigitte Syndrome. and novels such as Francoise Sagan's Bonjour Tristesse (1955). Genet's "Fragments. in 1959. seeks and finds the //frr- year. that Sartre's female 1 horror of the "viscous" nature of the biological penetrated the writings of de Beauvoir. Beauvoir's Le with description of "the its Deuxieme Sexe. "rejects sexuality Woman. His melan- the transgressive sexuality of Genet and of Antonin Artaud that gen- erated the deconstructive vision of gender today. fix.

Anything can be a woman: a Spiritualized. During the world marked by an explosion of confessional self-representations. . inkwell. in United States. author of Emmanuelle. the woman remained embedded in woman. In his tableaux. That his work had a direct influence on the Americans. Molinier accentuated his izing dildo fetishes. intertwined Communion muses. As long as 146 is it . with By virtue of being false." a photo series. American publication of Genet's The Maids and Deathwatch. such as Girl-Phallus (Fille. a cipher. flower. bisexual.Phallus. is not doubt. in France. But the climate of in ual explicitness in the United States at the time of Genet's "arrival" the significant. his autosodom- photographing himself against the patterned de Jouy wallpaper of his studio-boudoir. an offemininity. its The year by sex- 1954 saw Sartre: texture and purified. it camp and growing . May 30. his derealization: a falsification a preface acquires a poetic density.""" Besides the Surrealists. androgyne. in 1974. these . In 1964. this world became new a bridge to a wrote. Such is the initial direction of women who are fake men. a trans- undercurrent was growing pour un on 1968). which evoked the ambience of a its intimacies. for Molinier's photograph (Communion d'amour.Performance of Jean Genet's The Blacks Les Negres). These fake . work of Bellmer. Shorn of femininity becomes a heraldic sign. ." 1 And. and Urs Liithi's concerns of Andy Warhol and his fellow "he" and artists in the : Genet's role as precursor in the articulation of 1960s homosexual concerns should not be underestimated. that generation fascinated. with "the desire to be doubled. 1968). who lived in Paris during the 1950s. eighteenth-century cheap one toile hotel. as we may experience the sexual ecstasies of the other. an animal. such as filmmaker Kenneth Anger. was natural. Revealing critic its handmade time than Bellmer's waspish accessories. 1970) arrived and posed. Hanel Koeck and Maryat (Emmanuelle Arsan. of Love the future painter Luciano Castelli collaborated with Molinier 1970s. ( Royal Court Theatre. well-known transvestites. homosexuals. and transsexuals who were part of the Paris revue scene flocked to see him. to the later and gender confusion (Molinier used female masks and. 1961 Roger Blin Archives "anagrammatic" principle of their poses eventually. London. his female rubber masks. as lesbian Germany to — — Michel Freud Journiac's (Hommage parallel to the two 1972 series Trap for a Transvestite {Piege a Freud). a period in the art vestite travesti) and Homage "she" personae. the feminine blazon becomes a category of the imagination. female models). . although Molinier's concern with pornographic realism was more of gentlemen's erotica.

Warhola and the vast majority of American women. and Susan Sontag's "Notes on 'Camp. in or the Erotic Art Gallery. the heroic period of Abstract Expressionism was drawing to a rise consumer opulence. New York < 14- . or Judy Chicago's Construct #10. contem- porary with Diane Arbus's hermaphrodites and with Warhol's photographic self- portraits in drag.'" of 1964 ("Dandyism Modernism had been age of mass culture" in the short-circuited. Frank O'Hara. 72 \ 36 inches (182. containing such works as Wesselmann's Bedroom Painting No. male with the transitional work of Jasper Johns and the high tic Two Balls (i960). art Only recently has the world. the bronze-painted Ballantine Ale cans of i960. Hon. as a "counter-castration" He camp of Warhol: Johns's tributes to the artists"" "painting with balls" versus analyzed this painting's gesturalism and described worlds of has compared "the master equation of Abstract — "tough. in 1969. of Roy Lichtenstein's comic-strip females may be high "camp" attitude read as the precursor. but tion of New York and of Pop art been seen not merely as a figurative and popular celebra- burgeoning gay identity as "closely allied with London. Charles Demuth. to Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film 1970s and early 1980s. It anticipated a cultural climate that allowed the First International Exhibition of Erotic Art. female viewers in may be com- writing on feminist art in the 1970s.? Discussions shifted from overtly "feminist" —the sexualized flowers of Georgia O'Keeffe. These photographic masquerades are. at the Moderna Museet. 1989 classic Dinner Party (1979) works that were both more violent and more gender-sophisticated. In fact. Silver art" made by "rough hewn. which were visited by over 250. De Saint-Phalle's film Daddy (1972). was shown in the early 1970s. Stockholm. women and men who never or cleaning were sent to the Stable Gallery and Leo Castelli's to buy Brillo. are and of the latter this perpetual challenging of masculinity by a symbolic by the secret femininity which the truth of all masculinity. non-literary serious Expressionism" Johns's Painting with in the art mummified in encaus- homosexual poets and painters Hart Crane. to and the Second Internationa! Exhibition of Erotic Art."" Kenneth E. which is who now remembers Ithaca. in Sweden in 1968. is arc only the faked groundwork. Yet. just like Mrs. and Walt Whitman." They were also previous or subsequent museum designed to appeal more explicit show.""" In the time between Clement Greenberg's notorious "Avant-garde and Kitsch. the 1972 Festival of Women in the Arts at Cornell University. Back in in Europe.""* ). Marsden Hartley. in New York."" The sense of urgency conveyed by these shows pared to that revealed Denmark tax-supported museums. invited the public joyously and transgressively to explore the body of Nana a giant via a vagina and enter into a huge womb of delights. be held in public." of 1939. with Warhol's "outrageously female" Campbell's Soup cans: "In a did their own shopping Campbell's and Duchampian transference. "close in spirit (and possibly intention). creations to in much American than any Tom dominated by an enormous dark brown phallus.000 people. the tongue-in-cheek. 20 (1969). He compared Johns's masquerade of masculinity. New York." Lyle Ashlon Harris Black-and-white mural silver print. These celebratory shows were naive tion.— women-men who femininity men-women. New York In the close.9 x 9i-4 cm) in Louise Bourgeois's semi-abstract Trani Episode (1971-72) was exhibited Courtesy of Jack Tilton Gallery. de Saint-Phalle's 1966 show. with New York its incest theme and scenes of women masturbating or being masturbated. Stills from the late of course. spontaneous. were invited to be voyeurs if optimistic in their concep- at a spectacle "not only to the gonads but to the mind.

Henceforth. and black power movements clashed with the in the 1970s. he a largely black audience: who imagine stereotype Niggers." 7 " Lorraine O'Grady's contacts with Piper and Surrealism engendered her 1980 performances as "Mile. where more black actors imagining caricature Whites love. a body fear. 72 years later. which was performed an off-Broadway record." As Genet would say to a few surgical adjust- change of syntax. Bourgeois's phallic white marble Cumulus No. fear and indifference she experienced as a radicalized male subject.Lorraine O'Grady Nefertiti/Devonia Evangeline. rule in the in Paris. bottoms. Un Captif Genet refused categorically to speak about the civil rights his theater work. color and colonialism became issues inextricably linked with sex and power." 7 '' New York. O'Grady paraded in a tiara and ball . after a twenty-year gap. Bourgeoise Noire" a perfect response. reimagined in its 1973 New York Frantz Fanon's virulent Peau 1952. in frenzied scenes New York. must be context of Metaphorical Cunts and Measured Cocks. Nevertheless. however. to Genet's 148 The Blacks. dark sunglasses. The macho dimension of feminism )."" Her photo-offset posters declared: (inversely): ments: it "I embody everything you most hate and "Changing sex doesn't consist merely means teaching the in subjecting one's whole world. stunning and delighting amoureux [Prisoner of Two reportage of a black African ritual and transsexual parody of colonialist direct inspiration for Genet's play Les Negres Once now (1962). (The Blacks). Parisian audience with set 1 artist series. forcing upon it.400 performances between 1961 and 1964 involvement with Angela Davis and the Black Panthers (recalled 7 spittle. despite "the by the mid-1970s. the rise overwhelmingly male focus of black American Adrian Piper was doing performances on the masquerade was drag: an Afro wig. than 1. white masks) was published in Paris in in 1959. and blood. Jean Rouche's film Les Maitres fous (The its skin. an Oldenburgian pie with meringue-peak nipples. climaxing and subsequently mad masters) profoundly shocked a select in of possession. 71 masques blancs (Black noir. 1981 (first performed October 1980) Courtesy of the artist with Marge Helenchild's Vulva Hammock and Shelly Lowell's Slice of Life. the 7 seems a precursor. 1986] again. bell streets of of art." In the 1975 woman Mythic Being in his 74 ' The in Paris film was a and London "White Genet imagines At the height of his posthumous work. Piper recorded the "animosity. Gold Coast.

Hence. and Clarence Thomas. and hence Guerrilla Girls Confessions of the Guerrilla Girls. encounters. in today's era of constant sexual exposure and pseudo-celebration." impinges directly on the art world. one enters into simulation. alternative "realities. into a universe of The substitution of "porn for sex and sex simulation. almost a decade later. with Harris's generation. she continued the extension of work on femininity and beyond gender to issues of race and masquerade the history. and of the Senate testimony of Anita defining a territory for "the culture of the this shift reality as "simulation. and a corresponding s: ) is and cinema. and has been transformed."" Yet Genet's notion of a change." In this context. The equation of the as early as i860 by Theodore Tildon to the hypermasculinization of black culture in rap. by gauze tutu and curly blond wig. Male. implies an underlying signification beyond transsexualism: with the reversibility of display. for porn" implies the breakdown of the polarity of active/passive "and with no longer any it the hetero-homo distinction since there reality In the chapter "A Impersonators. to "live the 1 1995 whose very raison simulation. sentations. of O. into absolute manipulation. The d'etre is to provide fantasy repre- Courtesy of the Guerrilla Girls sexual tantalizations of reversability as an ethos have supplanted a pornography of arousal based on a promise of "real" sex: Robert Man Mapplethorpe's (decapitated) Lyle Ashton Harris's black male black male with the feminine in a Polyester Suit (1980) as ballerina in (made reversibility Museum displaced. at the same time.gown. how possible are calls for a new authenticity? 85 1 149 . with which she whipped herself as she declaimed a liberation manifesto for black artists. of 'sex' itself to World of Penises" Mark Simpson be compared with. and the blurred. the documentary. with the incorporation within the evidently the corollary J. at the Whitney is of American Art. sports. a s fundamental "detournenient" of syntax.'" The 1994 exhibition Black demonstrated both move toward toward star Hill The system became show of videos of the beating of Rodney King." networks. to conflate boundaries. Genet experienced as personal tragedy was leavened. New York. the personal resonance of allusions to the tragic death of her sister tion of preserved the performance from the banaliza- much of the "post-postmodern. With her performance Nefertiti/Devonia Evangeline (1980). Simpson. popular culture."" This tendency to abolish polarities." boundaries between the museum."" in his recent book Male cites Jean Baudrillard: the distinction between poles can is "Where no longer be maintained. the possible abolition of the "reality" of sex altogether. the impossibility of museum. holding a cat-o'-nine-tails in her begloved hands. York." in what has been categorized by Arthur and Marilouise Kroker as a "panic exhibition" within the "fuzzy set" of the simulacra of American 4 culture. by the ironic transposition of cultural What in New and sexual codes.

"" Guerrilla action 1969 by Monique 7 iniscent. now 1 in the past. alas. women born are (Orlan avant Sainte-Orlan)." its yet to visit Paris./'/'<• /jt — Helene Cixous. of a rather intuitive kind. of 169 and mere artists. Gertrude Stein. in Paris. 118 V. as art and popular culture Genet so well understood. Oslo. the artist/ whore becomes the . is in the statistics are dark of night of Sculpture..' "A World of Penises" foresting the jungles of both exclusivity. The masculine masquerade. a and called for as long ago as too rem- text. 1988. of Pierre Louys's exoticism frenzy. canonic vision dominates. The American the real game: "Facts.* a pioneering upon predicated. a patriarchal. Luce from idolized ( /'/</ji In the ancient /<> //<" . Basel. Graz. her own woman-to-woman 150 is — transsexualism: "This 1 woman Madonna is madonna reveals a breast." " refiguration. she modern preceding her have pro- art like a blithe spirit.' /(/< / ////</ f/l //)'. as 1 if Where were she were picking flowers in a beautiful garden. photograph by It's cm The philosopher Yves Michaud recently outlined the cultural broken the eternal London-Paris-New York love nism had triangle. know Guerrilla Girls. she borrows from them." The Guerrilla Girls have traveled to Barcelona. With innocence. This "' is certainly not true of Orlan's current reputation in the United States. and Vienna. the breast of the a transvestite. Tina Modotti. Ulm. with impunity. in Orlan Before Saint-Orlan in which. /(i7/< j: Irigaray. the antifeminist at the position of the 1970s generation persists in France. par- ticularly with regard to the marginalized "spectacle" of charismatic women who writing are far . As Lee Krasner declared: "We secretly suspect that all has Frida Kahlo. He They have and moment. seeks ultimately was ceaselessly to obliterate the always-recurring feminine. but in continental Europe. Helsinki. "feminism" or "feminist" are experienced as a The very words form of bad taste. to engulf and poetic sapphic Wittig." None thirteen were mask of her assumed persona: Romaine Brooks. which appeared Centre Georges Pompidou in 1995. fake fur. x 78 . in her novel Les Guerillieres. Julia Kristeva' Derision the mask of insularity." An New York. which is have political shifts that described the French version of femi- something that has as a battle lost: the "impression of deja-vu. Berlin. her tells own us that the Beneath baroque draperies. an exhibition at the women. on canvas. Thus the 1993 catalogue for de Saint-Phalle's retrospective in declare: "Through a knowledge that looks at what the great artists of duced. Dublin. executed by Publidecor. tutu/ 1/1 and Catholic country of France. is Bonn could." " Guerrilla Girls when the they were most needed? Despite the definitive survey exhibition femininmasculin. Orlan blasphemously manages her own metamorphosis. moments of erotic its and that politics They materialized "mysteriously International Survey of Painting ever revealed the identity behind the Orlan and ultimately unconvincing masked and metropolitan. perhaps." in Museum humor and outraged response to of Modern Art. 1988 Acrylic Guerrilla Girls. Joel Nicolas inches (300 x 200 Courtesy of the artist just a question of helping them discover 89 it.

. There but is I am a to the rule because I I am am white." 9 virtual reality. Venus..6 cm) artist Sinclair's extravagant of the exhibition Amazon. to Robert Gober's munity of transvestites and transsexuals photographed by Nan Goldin — as the mystic related to the knife. 1993) I For Orlan. a black skin but no exception (Her synonymous with has pointed out the transsexuality of saints and thus the sacred as well as the profane aspects of transsexuality: an angel's skin but am to "give entirely with the soiled sheets of her repudiated trousseau. 9 " shows how "the universe penetrates us through the rents in our body. a "I have woman's skin but never what I have. it's Love. puppy. art 99 Does Goldin's Kim transgressed: each in Brighton. who came Fetishism .) Orlan's canvas is has it lost. in evening dress (Radial Drill. and. beyond the mythical feminine stereotypes of Europa. male Hairshirt is (1993).Nicholas Sinclair Fabian. in an age of HIV/AIDS. The Other Side summons the beyond. with Eugenie Lemoine-Luccioni. comSide in Rhinestones. and Jana Sterback to become from their soft-porn fellows only belong to the annual Parisian Salon of Eroticism or to the fauna. beyond the masculine or the feminine masquerade (1993) to the 91* And. 1990). each man in a diamond dress. the worldwide by the (1991) 7 100 Simone Weil wrote. broadcast worldwide sacrifices of serial plastic surgery.""' 151 . On the threshold of the year 2000. desire series the Freud's Medusa. Psyche." 94 man. She who nude x 35. Orlan version of the Pygmalion strips finally to the myth can dispense back to the nude the sexual charge redundant male works with canonic texts — artist. Orlan's tage. and the polyvalence of masquerade fuses with the pathos of endless quotation: "Exhibitionism? Narcissism? Sport? Theater? Deviation? Inversion? Infantilism? Competitiveness? Pride? Sincerity? Imposture? Doubtless. beyond even the transgressive.6 Courtesy of the single breast of the Amazon. into realms of genetic manipulation. Reciprocally. (1989) or bisexual torso-vest ( from Matthew Barney are differentiated Untitled. 14 x 14 inches (35. anamorphic via satellite TV. a crocodile's skin never have the skin of what I I am. and As the boundaries of the museum celebrates a passing beauty as well as the in which the computer mon- virtuality of the image is glitter to collapse. Paris museum? And what of Nicholas animate the opening. Mona Lisa. rings. ing — This aesthetic vision of opening wounds. 1995 Gelatin-silver print. gender itself. masquerade the only immortality. art "clothes" are extend- —the extended "family" of her book The Other artist's eye. in her Wedding transsexual prosthetics. the transience of a sadder bohemia. a I am a jackal.. in the flesh with leather. work develops beyond gender questions and Gown The Re-incarnation of Saint-Orlan (La Re-incarnation de Sainte-Orlan. nostalgically. 1991). meanwhile." 95 now reaches beyond skin-deep masquerade.

9. including Histoire de the Routledge. p. April et E. 15." in Judith and Joan W. Stephen Conway. which 3. thesis." Art History Theorising the Female Spectator. 1989). Virginia Woolf. 1995). Let us remember. Riviere. Female Sexuality. Llangollen. positive. New in Amelia Cambridge 284. (New the garden of the Fresnes prison in 1946. Naumann. pp. 5. The International journal with "the antifeminist manifesto of the century. Michel. ed. p. (Paris: A. See also. no. 24. Jones. 15. p. 3 FauconneyJ wrote over 100 works from 1901 Gender Trouble: Feminism and Subversion 16.A. sexe et l'intcrsexualite. Butler. at the time. Le Fiminisme Bailey. In speaking of Eleanor Butler. Psychoanalysis (New Haven: Press. demoiselles. 21. cat. appear until 1951 (Amer. I in France. 261). (M. violently attacked by Francois Rabelais in Women. 1850-1930. Marcel Duchamp. Laura Mulvey. ed. inter- famous nine- teenth-century Welsh lesbian couple. see See Johann Joachim Bachofen. hissing d." Screen Naomi Definition quoted in and George Sand: Butler Schor. 1993). and Sarah Ponsonby. and quoted note Butler's 1992). which leans heavily and 1930s bibliography. Butler York: Oxford University Press. trans. Colette suggests Charles Penwarden and Marie-Noelle Ryan. 22. 1992).291-311. History. 106. especially mediate between male and eunuch. H. ironic. the conclusion. 1509. ed." in Avril de Sainte-Croix. 6-18. Floods. Fantasies. Riviere. the quoted of course on "Feminite" appeared and was included in Nouvelles Conferences sur analyse (1932). 26. Scott. (Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou and Gallimard/Electa. Much work was done following the reappear- Polity Press. The Pure (1941). pp. whole is Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa's (New Dubourg Denvy (Paris: Male context. pp.. 159. Third Gender: 19. also cites Natalie Barney's festivals in the Formations of Fantasy (New York: Routledge. reprinted in Victor Burgin. (1904. Postmodernism in 1914-24" Institute of Art. "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. of Contemporary Arts. 424-46. "What's So Bad About Freud's normative paradigms (p. University of Minnesota Press. Screen 1993)." Mutterrecht (Stuttgart: Krais 4. 1985). 329-48. for (p. did not ed. p. 1994). desfemmes (written Geschlechter: 1986). Ibid. . and Female College and University example. p." and Chris Turner. anticonservative. translated by in 1936. Ces Plaisirs was republished in 1941 as Le d'images de Thomosexualite (Paris: siecle described as feminine. and 1934. exh. Briffault Anna Chave. Ibid. Parshley (New York: Alfred A. and for Ruitenbeek. (London: Institute Girls. see Lisa La Sexualite de on an interview with Nixola Francis a 1920s la (New trans. 1990). cat. For the gynecide-to-genocide progression. and the Strategies of Cote Caufeynon (Jean Editions.. the so-called Ladies of Un Feminine that produces this creature. Orlando: 2. exh. p. B. Berty Albrecht. 1993). exh. pp. Greeley-Smith. 1979). in Beyond Sexual Dimorphism A substantially was different version of this essay femininmasculin. and Women (London: Weidenfeld and "A Time of Transition: Courtauld 23.. Janet Planner. 13. Hallier. femme . p. 12. Nicholson. See "] Olympe de Gouges's >eclaration ties droits de la femme ( Paris: V. 23. et York: Farrar. Knopf. Das ite 7." oj Psychoanalysis 10 (1929). 1907). M. of 17. see Klaus Theweleit. Straus and Giroux. M. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Women. 77-84. 6. central to the serological aspects ol thesis. For the twentieth-century proto-Nazi Pur Impure Constantin Brancusi: Shifting the Bases of Art who pub- and whose mutilated body was found the pp.. York: and the surprisingly German pp. New published as "Feminites-Mascarades. in Gender Trouble. Em?" the Freudian taboo in Bad DuMont. For Riviere and Marie Bonaparte. trans. 1984). extended bibliography. Male Bodies: in collabora- (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 353-65. 400-01.. Bonaparte 4. (Cologne: 10. all from the French are by the translations (New History York Dada. Basil Blackwell." pp. Ibid. pp. La Guerre des sexes Erica Carter and Der Kampfder tion with Stephen Der neue Mythos Heap in "Temple d'Amitie" and male drag party in at a Jean Montrevel. For subsequent iconography. 43-57. Duchamp. "Feminism (September Lettres a Marcie. Dr. See vol. and Oxford: 2: Henna Brancusi's studio. 3 (1975). called. and Oxford: in der Kunst. 1995 PP.Notes Inversion in Nineteenth-Century Sexology. Appignanesi and John Forrester. 1. concentrate artistically on While the psychoanalytic story story" my a is New is York." in 18. Vienna. Laura Cottingham. 1986). 213). 213-39. Great Britain. in Butler. London. "Notes sur morale sexuelle la p. See Marjorie Garber. )> author. published 1529). 1989). See. 20." For a discussion of the androgyny of the David Lomas. 1994). 25. Simone de Beauvoir. p. 1916. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of emblematically. Conway Yale University Press. for Theweleit's critique of ance of Riviere's article in Hendrik M. "Lacan." In 1932. en France. and the United States. l68ff. New would have been familiar with Richard Goldschmidt's December York: Harry N. 1991). Deformity: Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and Ann Doane. civilization 1851). Unless otherwise noted. 152 Evil in Fin-de-Siede Culture lished in the journal Le Probleme sexuel in is & Hoffmann. 1: trans. and Cora Kaplan. Stir la superior- vol." trans. Feminists Theorize the Political ( 14. "'A Male Body': Sexual Inversion Female Soul as Gender in Miii eel 18. 38. 303-13. quoted in (New Haven: Floods. Butler. 281: "It as a 11. James Donald. eds. 1931 lectures at the Faculte des Sciences. . Naumann. 27. pp.Cultural Anxiety no. Paris: 0] Identity ( New York: to 1950. Histoire de la Femmes London: Routledge. in York Dada: 1915-192} France. . Marie Bonaparte's femme. pp. 3-4 (1982). ( Culture and in Zone Books. and Duchamp (New University Press. 102. a Parisian reincarnation of the 1994). pp. eds. Thonime New and Anna York: Routledge. his Le Tiers-livre (1546). cat. pp. 73 (1925). treatment in on involving the Sexuality patient's ed. Briere. p. 74-84. 1975). Joan Riviere. 1953]). The Evening World. 16. complex repertoire of idealized and for the denigrated images relating war and ( "Film and the Masquerade: Masquerade. 59. 1966). In this essay. "Le Determinisme du an interview September in 12. emphasis of Guy Hocquenghem's Race d'Ep! Bram 1956). victim of Nazi genocide. humorous. 41. nos. 1992). 48. History (1977). 35-44. Bodies. See Theweleit. 1987). Livres. pp. ed. 4-9. 191s. Dijkstra. 37. See Colette. Giard 16. Beaumont-Maillet. Jane in and Chris Turner (Minneapolis: Erica Carter Chave Sapphic German in collaboration Tunpur. see Laure Psychoanalyzing the White Terror (1978). et la citoyenne. 114-29. "A Canon of and Mary Dionysiac. Vested Interests: CrossI no. la psvcli- Anne Berman. 24-25. the a tale Abrams. mean Cottingham's uses "bad" to note body 2. a was 8. Freud's dis- York En-Gendering the York: p. Third Sex. "German See Gerf Hekma. (1948). John Redker [New York: International Universities Press. Physical Anthropology.. 1993). see and so on. "Womanliness as a Masquerade. Tribune. Bodies." Clarte. A Biography 1928. Paris. The Second Sex New York: and trans. Female Representation tragically unrealized (1903).. Gilbert Herdt. Freud's women.

Clothes Ambivalence" (discussing polyphallic etc. vetement Beauvoir. 1982). 45. Comme je exh. Molinier subsequently contributed to See Francois Leperlier. fetish envy. etre. the Body. international exhibitions of Surrealism in 1959 whose true sexual du Galerie Daniel logue. circa 1660. Cordier. trans. 1983). Norton. in the journal Paris-Medical in 1919. p. and carnaval moche 1965. Brigitte Bardot 55. in -I ^ 153 . in La Sexualite de 1954. mime. i960). nos. 1 See Exposition InteRnatiOnale du Surrealisme New York: and (p.) 1983). 57. Vested Interests. "Molinier. is Une francaise sexuel: Gina Lombroso. precedes Riviere's 1929 article Cahun La Femme tondue.. 1920 (Paris: Editions 29. on female French in Fashion Institute of Technology and Rizzoli. pp. Claude sculptor. pp. in Dorothy Disfiguring Poetic Language (Baltimore: Johns his thesis. 1947). he Travestissetnent: Essai de 1935). la laideur: at Paris. the Hoax. Levinas in Le Temps et I'autre: Fashion and Surrealism. p. symptoms of virilism. 51. "The Artist's extase. Interests. 205-17. 1931). today. p. Maranon." sexuality (1953) less - "Otherness reaches 1983). The Denigration of Vision in Max La Ernst's Femme Downcast Eyes: Twentieth- February-March le Lilar. pp. Switzerland. ( Emmanuel psychopathologie sexuelle (Paris: Hippocrate. pp. West Germany. p. Bonaparte's Ibid. Flugel's article "Clothes to Betty Friedan. and Bochum. Straus See also Eugenie Lemoine-Luccioni.11 Femme et le surrealisme. 372-73. p. Stefano Agosti. This must have been sexes. 1959). Jean Genet." Yale University Press.000 since the in identity (Paris: Manya. pp. 1992). Kempf's J. (London: Cabinet Gallery. C. Laignel-Lavaltine. Roland Barthes's essay 49. in 1974. 46. p. 8. a response to Molinier's retrospective De quoted 32. From the De Beauvoir. 291. to the study of the the Sainte- "more or among developed lack of polarization" patients — that is. See Agnes Masson. ed. le De ing Editions du Seuil. cat." see Garber. Paris: Vallon. 4 (October 1979). A World (Paris: The impact of Payot. France's cat. 77. represented as a decapitation is the generic source for la another dimension. "D'un certain automatisme Minotaure 3-4 of is Jose Corti.. (New York: Symbolism and 47. For "homosexual panic. woman's point of view. thanks to the writing of Eve Kosofsky gout. of S/Z. was the prelude to his Systeme de la was 1993). quoted To decapitate exh. 1994). The Body Imaged J. 1956 41. pp. the report Choisy 33. cat. The Second Sex. see Barthes. "Traductions des in 1967. at hospital. La Robe: 1 Seuil." see Martin an anonymous copper engraving. "Existentialisme ou feminisme?" Press. 481-83. 212). 65. Constantin Brancusi. 59 (1989). p. subsequently devoting himself. Fetishism. pp. of the viscous and neant (1943) was challenged by Century French Thought (Berkeley: University The "Recherches a la 1958). p. and Richard Martin. 10-11 (1928). currency Sedgwick. 1953). cat. trans. at was arranged by the preface to the cata- Jean-Paul Sartre. and Syndrome. 34. L'Imaginaire (Paris: Champ show Gerard Durozoi. The 600. p. 1993). Surrealist art refutes sur A propos (Paris: Grasset. 61..000 Combat. War and Un Hans meme and the Galerie de exhibited at the 1946). 30. Arcane 39. 1986): and are collected is the Lolita Ray. xvi. Sexuality its 44. Spurs: Nietzsche's Styles Mon (1978). "De special example. I'amour Sartre. see also tusked Gorgon nally published in La Revolution surrealiste. in Z. no. 38. 12. vol. Sexual Personae (New Haven: 43. p. 99. Barbara repond au questionnaire Kinsey Harlow (Chicago: University of Chicago Editions Jean Froissart. Kinsey's report on male sexuality was pub- femme appeared Jacques Derrida. 311-20. 50. "Masculin-Feminin-Neutre. etc. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 10 (1929). trans. 31. p. (1933). Evolution de La Guerre des WO 40. published on the femininity of the Abbe de 32. See Elisabeth Roudinesco. Breton. 1931). "Des chats et des magnolias." Les Temps modernes Paris: in the art world. eds. 137. De Andre Breton. or ( 53. The proverb pluralite sexuelle (Paris. Centre Georges Pompidou. "The Man Le Surrealisme. entre I'amour mort. (figures Editions 50. Desiring Gaze on Objects of laid (1978. lished in France in 1948. functions." in Kathleen Adler Cambridge University and many Prinner." Cliches. Sartre's characterization Suzanne of Difference: Lausanne. "Pierre Molinier: Gallimard. Eskimos. also." Canal illustrated APR. (Paris: l'Etoile Scellee. 203. 1967). in 1951. Hans Anton Prinner was unknown analysis by Briony Fer. on female fetishism Claude Cahun. in For a discussion of the notion of "phallogocularcentrism. Farrar. the "The Hat. Investigating Sex: Surrealist Research 1928-1932. The Feminine Mystique (1963. Jay. see. Fascination de et la no. which was at the Kunstmuseum in Lucerne. and Peter Gorsen. Anne 35. See with eight engravings Press. who wrote Le Surrealisme. 1993).28. Masson's professor. (EROS). in la photographie du comme no. 1993). They Imrie (New York: term which precludes her" Malcolm Garber. sexualite" were origi- et MacCall." in Histoire de la psychanalyse en France. 54-59. See Tristan Tzara. p. 259. 1990). L'Ame de ethnographic craze had also comportement la Moreau. Austria. in and Tahitians. Barbara Johnson. P. ed. the abundance the of bearded women. discussing Edward coinage of the term in 1920 and See Jacqueline Rose. 42. 161-73. 37. 126-27. cited in Rene Colla. Camille Paglia." in Pierre Molinier: Murielle Gagnebin. femme Lombroso. 54. special issue Chave. and traveled to Graz. Le Travestissemeni habitucl (Paris: Edition de medicine de Paris. Roland d'Eck. 1983). "Fragments. Les Paris sont ouverts (1958). taken to desire herself but only through the reprinted in Jose Pierre.. Vested and Verso." Etre et (Lausanne: Musee cantonal des Beaux-Arts ). Les Tondues: (Paris: Editions W W. and [a October Press. 1934). in 1956. (August 1954).97- reflection in Masson's account of the ritual its (New York: 37. 200. (New York: La Bataille de cent cms: et 1940. the eye which eats'' See Vision (London: Verso. September The 48. Freud. for la feminine "revenge of the en-sou expressed tetes. intro. 60. and Gregorio sexualite la 17 (1944). la de Sartre Hopkins University of California Press. 58 Jean-Michel Place. exh. de Essai psychanalvtique sur Paris: The preface was written by Rene who 36." an early version mode. to castrate. Bernard Frechtman (New York: Reynal & Company. challeng- feminine. faculte de 1987). homosexual. pp. reprinted in Beaumont-Maillet. Anton and Marcia Pointon. ( 7. 1947). 1992). 1940). The Fashion System. character of castration. Matthew Ward and Richard Howard Gorsen points to the important show "Transformer": Aspekte der Travestie. voudrais Ibid. des etats et intersexueh (Paris. L'en deca psychanaltytique the See Jean-Louis Poitevin. and Giroux. number of L'Ecran la (Paris: vamp femme. See came out 1979).. 1987). written from 1957 to 1963 and published Pierre Molinier's solo (Paris: prostitutes indicated an increase of 200. according to is of Obliques (1979). symbolism and female exhibitionism. exh. oeuvres de Freud en langue francaise entre trans." in the Field "Woman 56. Ibid. 59 a female transvestite Alain Brossat. 114. See Isabelle film other practices by Native Americans. endocrine mal- flowering in the its full 52.

p. Martin's Press." 84. 48. W. which opened Beitchman Philip De und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik in ibid. 1-20.. could York Film Festival. Bernard 76. and included four tradictory assertion: "Deconstruction Liberation. 13. "Aspects of Performance Women from May See the Guerrilla Girls. ( in the 95. 92. 1989). before Pop?" in Hand-Painted Pop. p. trans. part of the Rc-incariialion de Siiinle-Orlan series (1993). MIT in collabora- for the Lemoine-Luccioni. pp. Cinema 91. p. for a tainly not feminist.See also Pierre Petit. K. The Maids and Deathwatch: Two Plays. take Derrida's self-con- tion with I at discussion of this marginalization. Molinier: d'enfer Paris: Editions 1 I ne vie r 74. PP. Aspects of Performance. exh. 199s). of the Cabala.isen. and Semiotext(e). 1987)." in 66. Severo Sarduy. eleventh New Mainstream Female Art Movement. Paul Patton. 95. I'Autieei le sacrd: Surrialisme. 234. l. pp. cat. Subsequently. Harmattan. Black Skin. 1986). December the Pleasure. Gilbert Laporte. Against Interpretation and syntaxique" Other Essays (New York: Farrar. Disclosure: Pop Rise of 77- Hand-Painted Pop: Art. pp. Rene and [ngrid eds."Orlan. For the concept of "panic" and and "Theses on the Disappearing Body York: G. Lea Lublin/Orlan: Histoires example root of the of this "framing" ol new (ibid. the Raven. Criticism. preface to Genet. imagery. on France. as a key hompson. Andrew Perchuck and exemplary exploration Hubert Besacier. Marilouise Kroker. Masquerade: Masculinity and Representation. 86. 1955—1962. and Middletown. 67-88. 1985). 82. Genet.mil- installed lennial survey of twentieth-century art. 62. 65. Confessions States. 181. Mark Simpson. a film its links with a 94. in Iconographie de exh. and Frueh. ethnologic in see bell hook's 1992 essay "Reconstructing Helaine Posner. Knopf." in was performed on July 11.. "Notes on 'Camp'" (1964)." . Predal. Deutschland Bonn. Edmund pp. See the reprint of the catalogues to both exhibitions. 1994L by Black American in Transition. no. The Complete Book of Erotic Art. saints. 1994). "black male. Universite de France.. Prisoner Monique David Le Vay (New York: Viking. the exhibition Douze England. 154 The p. above Hulten's quasi. p. "Les See. 12-13. 20-34. Sex Seuil. in C. is 79- Laura Mulvey. Langer. 71." see Arthur and (New 71. see pp. Routledge." 1995).." in ights Books. 30. Hall. see ibid. 28ff. Artists." Last. Feminist Art of Contemporary Art. 57. York: 1969). Arthur and its Body Invaders: Panic St. 1952). 1959). (Male Impersonators. 178-203. 1967).: impli- ). problem. "Mesonges" Joanna Frueh. 1993). The Palais. 64. For example. Lowery Stokes Sims. 150. Cassandra anger." in Barbara Bray. 44-47. Paris: Editions I eds. The Construction of Gay Identity and the American Art of Wittig. 88. Rosie Arts. for of Obliques (1989). Mass. Ramsay/Jean Jacques Travestis: Kallima sur un French reception of Genet's m '97 1 Desk homosexuel 63. "Another Cuntree: At Men revelation of the hidden feminine. For the transsexuality of mythicizing of gender differentiation The Masculine Press. Omnipresence. a off our Territorium Artis. 1993). and Genet's "obligatoire detournement reprinted in Sontag.: (New "Modes of E.490-508. Mailer's very disturbing polemic I cations. "Panic Sex in America.. 68. ( Tarlcs 1 am Markmann Jrove Press. 106 men. included two female artists and seventy men.. Lisa (Los Angeles: Dick Hebidge.. Male (New 70. at the (Stuttgart: Hatje. Tickner and Griselda Pollock (Paris: Ecole nationale show was Sims. vous design" (so the world can pp. pp. p. com- more complex 80.. at September to Chadwick (New York: HarperCollins. 17 (winter 1985 its 93. See also Guy Hocquenghem . 122-23. Press." Frantz Fanon. at Hammer 83. does not translate "afin 67.\nc\ in 1992. cin&ma. 1992). 48-50. 1959). York: Alfred A. ( New York: Norman < Marilouise Kroker. is jous. masques blancs (Paris: Editions du While Miisks. pp. The While Negro (1957. While The Masculine Masquerade p. trans. and ed." in ibid.1974-75. Masculinity and Psychoanalysis culture of "simulacra." Art Press. Raven. pp. dciict. corps: Toile. 1995). Love (1986). "A une See Orlan's "Citations-situation. fruitfully Maryse Holder. See Black Male: Representations of Masculinity in 1983). Lecuyer. cat. 90. 21. "A Phantasmagoria of the See texts by Marcia Tucker on the United (the pioneer of British feminist art history). art et histoue 1994). qu'il classify you). 81. reprinted in Arlene eds.. See Dominique amazone .10-15- Kenneth White. also of the Whitney Michaud. 75. "L'Histoire d'O: Sacred and .142- Foss. 133-45. the revised version in April 1973. 116. San Francisco: City / 1'> in is unpaginated. symposium (1979). Ibid. translator. to display in the p. Jean Baudrillard. eds." in Critical Exchange. Paris. 209. p. cat. 32." no. 188 ( July-August 1991 69. (perverse) than Impersonators: dc Part superieure des Beaux Pontus Hulten. 1994. male masquerade surely dates back Jean Decock. America (New York: Black Masculinity. 1971). Monies I cer- saintes de Part (Cergy: Lacertide. For a (New York: now riticism: ( An Anthology Simpson's devastating analysis of football w 'th no. Conn. Peau uoir. 1994). p. Museum New York: Rizzoli. Revolutionnaire. ).H. "Les Negres et au-dela. astonishing in ed. ( ans d'art contemporain en France. for Decock's entire article.. quoted hacks (September 1973)." ibid." be extended into the arena of the Hyper-Modern Condition. Performing Masculinity (London: Cassell. Wesleyan University Frechtman (New York: Grove Weidenfeld. subse- quently. 136-51. Britain. Compare 85. PP. New Left Review.: University Press of Paris: Editions ( 87. p. The next operation will be done in Japan. Genet. 1993. 1972.. pp. New and Race d'Ep! Sartre. p.. 197. is the at the Old Testament Genesis and." in Niki dc Saint-Phalle. Orlan's seventh operation. Straus and "change of syntax. 96. Simulations. trans. see "men's hut" and the very origins of andocracy. 1992). contextualized by Paul Stoller. 69-93).. see See Elisabeth Lebovici. with an essay by Whitney Museum of American and Giroux. Maurice play." where her source Fan is Louis Reau. Feminist Art 72. on Canada. "Les Negres aux U. special issue Pauvert. 10-19. the Kunst- dated example. "A quel debat 'Black New York?" Saint-Phalle's Stephen Frosh. Prisoner of Love. and Eberhard Kronhausen Daddy was shown in London November in was shown. For example. idole. trans. pp. pp. 20 (September-October 1975). p. 215. Female Body: The Work of Cindy Sherman. Chr-itien (Paris: Presse Of course. Silver. Nicole Dubreuil-Blondin. (Cambridge. 89. Art. p. Bray (Hanover. Les Guerillieres Europe. 1987). Susan Sontag. P. "Fabulous Confusion: Pop situation has not been any better in Guerrilla Girls. trans. 10-11.. he published Le (New Jean Genet founded the Front Homosexuel d'Action Universitaires. "Working with Fury and with women and Male' s'expose-t-il a York: Bell Publishing. See Sarah Wilson. in Yves 1993). exh. on Great Ibid.A. N. Paul (New York: piled by Phyllis Huhn. brochure and exh. La Robe.) literature is an and see also Chapter XI. 1983). 1972). Barbara Contemporary Art. Feminisine. see Grand 1972.S. cat.

See also Nicholas Chameleon Body: Photographs ( Sinclair. Parveen Adams. p. 98. exh. no. 7-1797. with texts by David Alan Mellor and Anthony Sheldon Lund Humphries. pp. Salzburger Kunstverein. quoted Gina Pane. 2 (February 1993). Creatures (Nyons: Le Club du Livre Secret. see Michael Bracewell. 1 155 . and the Transgressive Act. 82-87. Power and Brighton ed. cat. cat. 1990)." Art in no. preface to Andre Berg's book of soft-porn transvestite photographs. Fetishism: Visualising Desire." in Sarah Wilson et i Orlan al.. and. "Is It Art? Orlan America 81. yy. exh. Simone Weil.C. Walerian Borowczyk. cat. 38. (Salzburg: pp. Barbara Rose. by Marisa Vescovo. oiitemporary Fetishism. PP." Frieze. Museum and exhibition. The of ( London: 1996). included a foyer show of Nicholas Sinclair's photographs. 101.R. for a psychoanalytic interpretation. "Making Up Is Hard to Do. 12 (1993)." in — Phantasmen der Vollkommenheit. which ran ( Brighton: Art Gallery. (Pays de See Les Vingt Ans de pub la in Loire: de cine de Sainte- et Orlan.32-37100. 1982). exh. 1994). 1991). Anthony Sheldon. cat. PP. from April I he to July 1995. and Paris: Pink Star.Profane. On Nan (joldin. exh. 1996).A. London: Black Dog Publishing. "This Suture Is My Body. 48-56. F. (Basse-Normandie: Centre d'Art Contemporain. 19951..

'I !' i • i 1 1 1 -" *" I '1 i . II 1 11 11 mmm 1 »1 II 11 If I fl I 1 1 /« f V 111 31 1. jp * ^K II 7 kIWI r 1 1 1 Si . 1 91 i 1 1 ^^^^^K ! M>V/C^fc *_ III itJ mi 3 n^EHu %1 fMV^^^^Hi ./*' Mick • I ondon • i L w ^ . Sotheby's 156 1 III IL . IJ) j| ^9E - i ( % HI ^ |^^^B jil/Fit i ifi fl ^^\S • Hi ^v Cecil Beaton Jagger on the set ol Performance. iy68 Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Archive.

and Robert Morris. on Jones Beach for five seven-hour performance. its — it to exist as in which he dismissed an artwork.' in 1971.22-caliber a razor blade. mick [agger // r< /< (f//c: ////(• L((f<tcif < "Rebel. albeit negative. for their preoccupation with time. 'cause she's Not sure if you're a boy or a girl Hey babe. valued to the specificities of own medium. understanding of the phenomenological nature of «§ Minimalism was overlooked during the 1970s by critics eager to link the new body-related art to pres- f. among acolyte of Greenbergian Modernism. in from cut roses into each for acute catatonia and schizophrenia 6 Fried's prophetic. an the absolute "presentness" of an art Inadvertently. a mess is could they know? I love you so! You've got your mother in a whirl. transformation. and. 1970 //(//<////// In 1967. in 1970. For hours to induce a second-degree shoot him in the arm with a . stay out tonight let's david bowie. you've torn your dress Rebel. Rebel." Minimalist sculpture as overtly theatrical because. Dennis Oppenheim burn." 1974 everything Turner as J _/ is permitted. in order for presence of a viewer over a period of time was required. and the body. in Performance. your hair's alright Hey babe. the physical The corporeal implications of work by Carl others of that generation. 157 . forcing thorns Marina Abramovic ingested medications artistic 4 rifle. disrupted what Fried. how Hot tramp. Chris 1973. Burden invited slept a colleague to Gina Pane slashed her forearm with 5 wound. Nothing is real. Donald Judd.' Andre.e&f&wvniwa zs m& z/6<>du tat th& 497Ob NANCY SPECTOR Rebel. as part of a in 1974. The decade witnessed the emergence of 2 models that were recognized instance. Michael Fried published his now famous essay "Art and Objecthood. your face Rebel. Fried's critique of theater as that which "lies between the form that adheres arts" presaged the emergence of radically new forms during the 1970s that emphatically defied categorization by medi- um and dramatically engaged the temporal process.

and not so a complete change in identity. the Duchamp had then only paradigm a new body for art. 158 and visual pleasure —both then and now. his religious affiliation to adopt. to the refers. new work and the and analogies were con- that of Marcel were made to Tonsure ( Tonsure head into his both French and English. video. with Rrose Selavy. one might Duchamp was image sequentially male to female. in In (1919/21)." And thus was born secret cult of transvestism. Courtesy of Howard Greenberg self-conscious artist's Gelatin-silver print. and/or acts of self-transformation.tigious historical sources. Beyond identifying art- and gender representation in the 1970s — the —which is real challenge lies in determining what these examples might reveal about subjectivity. 1921 I \ 3 inches x 9 (12. but rather that performed expressly to be documented either female to male. historical instances of this to retroactive relationship with art of the 1970s. However. desire." constructed an image with and on work was espoused key predecessor to con- as a temporary work involving performances conducted in private or for the public. the wonder which it cult have been that age-old : through which to contemplate the surviving documentation. Private collection. in Tonsure. . Duchamp time conceived this particular presentation of Gallery. gender division. At the an inductee into an unspecified fashionable flapper Rrose Selavy. the photographic. First. two different photographs of his star-shaped bald spot 9 devised the camera. Together. Could These interpretive roles — intersect in the three motifs body all art details forms of body-related its art." he mused. emblematic alteration to Man Ray Duchamp critical aspects his coiffure strictly for the ond. or cinematic means vestism from Christian tantalizing elision of binary thought?' a provocative theoretical constellation of this period and Thinking back — the performative. Thus. sexual difference. Instead. the piece in which Duchamp shaved the hair on the back of shape.1 cm) New York metamorphosis into "cult" object:"' the dual versions of the and conceptually bracket Duchamp's unveiling.) This precocious art world's marginally burgeoning "star system" was considered the conflation of self and object intrinsic to the Because. whether by photographic. of his not change sex? It names self feminine — as alter ego. In light of these recollections. a star ritualistic practice of shaving the heads of those entering ecclesiastical orders or parody of the religious cults. its — not particularly difficult. two art were not discussed Tonsured of the piece relevant to 1970s body Duchamp had in this context. his female other. and the inversion of gender and around Tonsure and compose its sect. his own person." Duchamp. he —he was ruminating about had considered switching said that he Jewish but had not found any enticing Jewish "Why in 1920. whether religious or secular on the period. And sec- —dated 1919 and 1921 —document the (by Georges de Zayas). acts of self-mutilation. he opted to swap genders: was much simpler. references soirees were cited. This conceptual matrix does not encompass however. early artistic prototypes such as and Dada Futurist theater drawn between tinually particular. or —and that somewhere convergence between embodied given the plethora of such work art which entailed some form of trans- in between. preparing himself for with his star-shaped tonsure.

long marginalized within the art-historical hierarchy. Oppenheim." the of much artfully constructed mise-en-scene conceptually oriented photographic work of the 1970s parodies photography's romance with reportage and reportage's claims to truth.')/(. Process art. Adrian Lucas Samaras. self in their terms. performing some predetermined and photographic task. This distinction is constituting the being emphasized here in order to foreground the particular historical matrix in question: the collusion during the 1970s. Rebecca Horn. and a mythology of What materials. Antin.." artists of the 1970s photojournalism as a model for their analytic endeav- ors (even though. —genres that each contained the seeds of institutional critique museum and on Earth art. Variations /. a otherwise ephemeral work." Formulated through what A. The gallery system. compelled to discover new ways to supplant the autonomous commodification by the dispersal that . Coleman has called the "directorial mode. Dan Graham. and gender performance 2" 1 - v 159 . Bruce Nauman. Postminimalism." mimetic capabilities offered artists a Its mechanical reproducibili- more or less debased vehicle without necessarily creating aestheticized objects. Nauman. either physically altering their bodies. itself Jonas. In a static by the photographic freeze-frame. D. though and was thus well suited "(photo)documentation" of performative exercises.— c l /< < \ . or acting the part of a fictional character. among body art." Many of the artists who employed this "directorial" strate- —Vito Acconci. which. and Carolee Schneemann — and the purposely choreographed publicly for an audience Ulay./ ( wake of Pop and Minimalism In the tion" 1/ : and its artists felt tf////<///(///( // a. Conceptualism." In reassessing photo-based body it is essential to differentiate were often work by Acconci.//-/ . In order to convey and preserve the notion of time in such work. Eleanor Antin. linguistic analysis. theatrical events staged Burden. medium linked these dissimilar that served to chronicle As a medium low cultural through which and display this practices was photography. introducing to the vocabulary of visual art processes of distribution. and Arte Povera evolved in both the United States and Europe. as in from photography. Rachel Rosenthal. by the 1960s. multiple images and descriptive number of cases. shares its mimetic faculties film. as the transgressive and its to transmit ideas medium par excellence. photography was embraced during the 1970s ty. photography.''</ /// in the in body art strategies of "dematerializa- response to this challenge were numerous art." Because fine-art photography had joined the cultural canon of Modernism by the 1920s and was thus enshrined collections of such venerable institutions as were more inclined New York's Museum to expropriate the style of was itself considered art photography). Joan Paul — examples include work by Abramovic and McCarthy. its and seemingly incongruous status. private performances were recorded on videotape or Super-8 structurally different texts between the photographic documentation of for the art of the 1970s. elements of time and corporeality. but also Art. construction of self (or selves) for the camera alone. which was rendered used. among them — structured work around the presentation of gy Jlirgen Piper. particularly those executed as preconceived episodes or as performances in the privacy of the studio. photojournalism ally aestheticized Modern of in the by those who artists co-opted and instantaneousness to record events enacted primarily its wishing to bypass conventionrepresentational codes of for the camera. 16 The documentary photograph was adapted not only by "verite" mimetic systems. emerged by the end of the 1960s disparate. Pane. Klauke. with the photograph core of the artwork. ( T />// </<<//<///// // many contemporaneous and object and _. and William Wegman.

Martin Luther King. Kennedy. and the gay and lesbian rights introduced burning questions about And. During the ensuing decade. butch dykes. rock Utopian ideals civil rights in various stages of formation. as involvement something was It a — the women's movement were social. replete with drag queens. with it When in — Jimi from Southeast Asia turned Kent State University in 1970. of drugs and rock music. '((. ///< to construct. first over. the movement. the emancipatory inclinations that defined and eventually dated the 1960s continued throughout the 1970s. women's the X and Malcolm —the decade ended on New York's Greenwich Village Woodstock Music liberation movement was escalation of and the assassinations of President Kennedy. The United States Food and Drug Administration's approval of the birth control over their own pill in bodies and helped to usher in a new i960 granted women unprecedented control age of sexual freedom. the triumphed Festival solidified across the a relatively optimistic note.S. Its — advocated. that paean to androgyny as a Utopian state of bisexed being. Previously peaceful year of the decade. racial. sexual subculture of the preceding decade. What was essentially . albeit with a slightly ironic edge. — namely. through mind-expanding drugs.. and and military passivism living to ecological awareness union between and Furthermore. a politics of pleasure emerged that endorsed sexual indulgence as a force to counter domi- nant modes of oppression. reconstruct. however. Articulated by the social theoretician Herbert Marcuse as early as libidinal economy argued for a desublimation of instinctive energies as "anything goes" sensibility of the 1960s. and country through "consciousness raising" groups. however naive found desire for social change. Robert American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin made the "Stonewall" rebellion in rights Jr. This belief was even reflected in fashion with the emergence of "unisex" dressing. and decon- the borders between self and movement.')/(. the 1960s counterculture had passionately finally. even transcendence. and grass-roots politics. issue of self self and all and other into a politi- nationalistic differ- embraced the concept of personal 'n' roll. least on the — from communal surface." ' The in a pro- criteria for cultural renewal. and/or sexual equality as was rooted 1955. The dawn of the Cambodia during the 1970s was anything but auspicious.. the battle for civil rights. military intervention bloody when the National Guard opened Youth culture." Despite the acute social and political upheavals of 1960s America the Vietnam War. the United transformation. walk on the moon. this ills. crept into the popular imagination through mainstream films 160 The and transsexuals. community-based education. and rock music. unless that other free sex. the liberation Vietnam War forced the in the when which oppositions were premised on perceived ideological and cized arena in ences. — scrutiny during the 1970s. other were under interrogation from within States' controversial ( ////// /<////(/ was considered other.. one that upheld racial it may seem an antidote to social in retrospect. /./</ < ///////'<'/( <///<</>: not by coincidence that the concept of It is struct —came under such self movement. modern-day gay and as three days of peace lesbian and harmony. In 1969. These episodes were not exactly sobering.)/< rni// ' (/. at to be part of the "establishment. their historic initiated the F. encountered cultural icons far Hendrix and Janis Joplin a harsh —died from drug overdoses. reality its became apparent that the fire on students protesting faith in the liberatory excesses check the same year when two of its at the United States invaded Vietnam War was demonstrations against U. time and sexual identity.

" By the roles it time Tim Curry appeared mad as the scientist sporting a red corset and fishnet stockings in Rocky Horror and Chris Sarandon wore a white in gown and veil as a "bride" Dog Day Afternoon. bration of transvestism and polymorphous sexuality was erotically explicit. complete with eye makeup. the 1970s. man. audiences had grown more accustomed ality. and cross-dressing. and Jim Sharman's Rocky Horror Picture Show Granted. while self-representations. in in drag by Robert appearance to "pass" as a coolness. Nicholas CammeH's Performance Roeg and Donald (1970). 5 8< I 16] . it was rare to encounter the female-to-male version in The only example Mapplethorpe that comes mind to is Patti for the cover of her Horses Smith. fetishistic Courtesy of Anthology Film Archives. but the film's confiscation had more police to do with the instability by the of gender portrayed than with any frontal nudity. Smith's unabashed cele- (1975). In work by male and female 4 Starr the true for visual artists working with the free to possess their roles. their male-to-female travesty seductive. rise and Iggy Pop. if proved that the Marcusean principle of sexual desublimation was a highly marketable strategy. and ences. visibility. and it was not entirely relatively unthreatening. did not alienate their presumably largely heterosexual audi- the contrary. Mick Jagger. for example the censorship of independent filmmaker Jack Smith's Flaming Creatures (1962) —was embraced during Myra the 1970s in such movies as Michael Same's Breckinridge (1970). still from Flaming Creatures. pop comfortably within the social codes that determine cultural The same double standard held the easily accepted as a and playing criticized. whose theatrical personae embodied genlipstick. altering appearances at will dismissed. While the feminized male was did not (and still does not) fit men were with gender women who own masculine or "phallic" female body during experimented with similar strategies were more often artists who fact.outlawed in 1960s cinematic representation — take. a statement against the marketing of female rock stars as sex symbols. ' platform heels. who was photographed in 1975. the der indeterminacy. The 1970s witnessed the Brian Eno. for self-indulgent or narcissistic behavior. Too feminine punk perfect disheveled hair. 1962 Rock musicians had long embraced mode travesty as a of performance. and pale complexion made 'n' roll. On New York Dolls. given their commercial success. her wrinkled white shirt. to on-screen references to homosexu- Jack Smith Film gender mutability. Despite the popularity of androgynous rock however. album tie. if not the contradictory critical responses to dealt with photographic representations of gender and its inherent mutability are quite telling in their division along gender lines and the suppositions they reveal about "artistic" uses of the body. but more as a means to signify (and package) social transgression than to express the radical implications of true sexual and gender ambiguity. Smith played the part of the androgyne with open black New York of such enigmatic pop stars as David Bowie. costumes. Their performances as feminized males. Sidney Lumet's Dog Day Afternoon (1975). mainstream contemporary music.

were also using their bodies artists ~ 7 this explanation. divides body-related that these women artists in to avoid competi- later." tion in the more profitable areas of painting and 1 sculpture. — including Acconci. It such as Suzanne Lacy and Faith Wilding created their artists said. of the by gender. is explicitly recognize the subjective. are male. and so artistic subjectivity he discusses artists Oppenheim — women artist and Schneemann. by its it may women from also have very nature. eroticism and sexual identity. Betty Dodson." of the work far out- or the presence of psychological content in the work. Barry Le Va. if as cut. Yayoi Kasuma. Fox. to jump. the magazine he founded with Liza Bear in 1970 to cover recent contemporary developments in parameters of this aesthetic practice. Nevertheless. In his analysis of the topic. not may have been motivated by territory — been a to mention 162 se is anatomical aspects." including work by Lynda Benglis. In contrast to Sharp's pragmatic including and formalist groupings. 1960s.//)(</!/ ////(</!</ "!/(//</</> ///< The concept of "body art" was first ///l/c " articulated (as "body work") by Willoughby Sharp artist/critic in the premiere issue of Avalanche. and Piper. Horn." insists that the physicality weighed any expressive or autobiographical content it to walk. of the Feminist Art Program Fresno State College. Pane. these classifications — "Vaginal Iconography. and Hannah Wilke ical facets of body-related art by Sharp's exclusion of ic practice. her. as as place. and to explain this segregation in their art at this time. In 1974. psychological. to skip. performance work by the "male establishment. But that. Jonas. feminist own Lucy Lippard devoted an critic America to an overview of performance work by women. feels body artist's has always been presupposed. and Miriam Schapiro. sculptural material. by Judy Chicago. and "Parody: Self as Object. unless stated otherwise. Lippard also notes that Europe (such perfor- first without overgeneralizing." work by Chicago. his roster of avant-garde a desire to colonize "body" crit- artists mining new aesthet- an already occupied realm of artistic function of a subconscious attempt to neutralize an art form inextricably linked to issues of the not as important as what is human body and its representation — emphasis on formal concerns "In body works done with body"" — would have been more namely. Terry though he certainly And by Sharp no need effectively dismisses the possibility all for instance. as bodies without also using their Abramovic. British art women's body work and to utilize their physical who wished Four years arti- which she discusses the in were impossible to divorce from gender identification. Furthermore." "body as backdrop. "Transformations and Processes. He considered the nothing more than a vehicle to perform the action of intransitive verbs: to own body art and historian and its sexual into separate categories in order to encompass the range of conceptual strategies in practice during the decade.- " feminist Lisa Tickner wrote another essay dealing exclusively with which politics. a culture of feminist performance art emerged in Southern California with the establishment. body art prevailed cle in Art through much of the decade. Richard Long. Identifying and "body as which he defines simply Sharp attempts to delineate the as the "use of the artist's — "body four subcategories of the genre prop" — Sharp as tool. Schneemann. like Sharp before on selves. where mance pieces. had been producing body-based performance work since the mid- the beginning of the 1970s." 25 culture. maleness of the on* With "body might have. women. Sharp's body per its and 3" the the difficult to . that a "universalizing" single-sex discourse around impossibility of female artists using their selves at s can be in of Nauman." including work by Antin. to gag. to run. The many not before. however. in she. and Pane) were encouraged early beings in ephemeral.

Compare it to I as Following Piece (1969) had a very "neutralized presence. like —through the brush stroke or language still is) itself. Throughout the if tory of Western identification." mention and sexu- number of equally important women 38 What he fails to artists evocatively transposing themselves by imitating the male gender. in one invective against body go halfway. Acconci questioned this approach to the presentation of self / his- mine a very generalized like seems a is really specific a general abstract almost grandiose self* Formalizing discourse aside. asserting that "in that art area where sexual and political art. critic is the other side of the coin: the Max Kozloff does neuroses masquerade. and as self. visual appearance." works such my 34 had time of any references to individual subjectivity. a "theatrical" con- struction sustained by repetitive demonstration. private performances recorded on Super-8 film and in is pho- ^ > v 163 . In an interview always wonder about my body in I In retrospect. a highly critical. In thinking together the long-segregated body down al modes of male and female body — art in the 1970s and its representations of the binary model of gender. ori- both male and female put in motion potentially disruptive play. much oriented to defining an alternate ground to the page ground body he displayed that the in self. the most revealing images or presences are of males transposing themselves into females. while underscoring the oppressive reality of always already existing gender roles. And a space. In contrast. act. connotatively loaded. he says that began making ground ing a art." in self-consciously performative situations. The piece that best demonstrates the interrogation of gender binarism in Acconci's oeuvre Conversions (Parts I-III) (summer 1971). any representation of the to cultural female form was (and as the object of desire." may be — informed by its socially prescribed. see a lot of some of my It's it seems always seemed A generalized my god. However. embodied It did not occur to any of the American art at the and provocative critics it is possible to detect a subtle break- who were analyzing and/or attacking time to read male and female practices simultaneously as being complementary in their fusion. assumptions of male-gendered spectatorship. a site for scopophilic gesture of painting or sculpting has been considered. In a 1972 interview in Avalanche. —the mark desiring (traditionally. When observed from the theoretical vantage point of today and feminist concepts of subjectivity may practice be regarded as own he performed his it — introduced the away as provisional. praxis that who were artists. there are elements in Acconci's performative work from the early 1970s that actually problematize the presentation of the masculine subject as an ontologically coherent being. work by women dealing with and stuff kind of male abstracting notion. Very recently when self. art that involved sexual travesty orientation. in makes manifest it body has been rendered and ideologically transparent. it poststructuralist gendered identity might be contingent. even casting component of Acconci's considered in tandem with coterminous projects by feminist body performing their gins. 33 Due seem. "the initial attempts were very for myself. the female The very male) gaze." his experiments with body-related work advanced the kind of when he depersonalized rhetoric expounded by Sharp. it if he points out 35 his avoidance at the he admits: in 1977. find- as a poet. for art. with its coercive codes of behavior. by overemphasizing own sexual identity to question By acting out sexual difference artists and estranged The embodied or casting And it is this it —Acconci's pieces in which into doubt." use of self in earlier pieces. sexually ambivalent.— convey he had included contemporaneous women's body art in his discussion. masculinity — either possibility that deconstructive venture. similarly purportedly "biological. like. representations of the male body universalizing comments about Acconci's early chisel a libidinous itself.

Vito

Acconci

Conversions (Part

I:

Light, Reflection, Self-control),

summer

1971

Black-and-white print from Super-8 film

Courtesy of Barbara Gladstone Gallery,

New York

Vito
Vito

Acconci

Conversions (Part

Acconci

Conversions (Part
III:

Association, Assistance, Dependence),

summer

summer

1971

Black-and-white print from Super-8 film

Courtesy of Barbara Gladstone Gallery,

II:

Insistence,

Adaptation, Groundwork, Display),

1971

Black-and-white print from Super-8 film

New York

Courtesy of Barbara Gladstone Gallery,

New York

tographic/text panels, in which the artist attempted to feminize his unquestionably male body. In the
first

sequence of the film, Acconci spends forty-eight grueling minutes burning off the hair around

each of his nipples, which he then pulls and massages in a

next section shows the artist performing simple calisthenic exercises

bending, squatting,
castrated.'"

etc.

—with

his penis tucked

But the charade of transsexuality

Acconci's purposefully handicapped
tasks perfectly, Acconci ends

is

between

always apparent.

his penis as

much

a

—walking, running

hidden from

his legs,

body only approximates

up revealing

female breasts."* The

futile effort to create

The

sight,

visible triangle

metaphorically

of pubic hair on

woman's; unable to accomplish

as concealing

it.

In the third

section of Conversions, Acconci tries to hide his penis once again, but this time in the

woman

explains, "the
out."

41

woman

disappears behind

me and

While Acconci's alleged negation of

been interpreted
lacking)

art

I

"When

have no penis,

his female partner,

as a classic illustration of the

woman, other

male embodied

Ifi.)

Kathy Dillon) kneeling behind him.

(his girlfriend

in place,

I

and

all

his

final

mouth of the

I'm seen from the front," he

become

who he

the

woman

I've

canceled

claimed to have become, has

Lacanian phallus inscribing

itself

over the effaced (and

readings are viable. 42 As Amelia Jones points out in her significant study of

from the 1970s, Acconci's willingness to

efface his

own

masculinity, while simulta-

Viio

Acconci

Trappings, October 14, 1971

Performance/installation

photograph
Courtesy of Barbara Gladstone
Gallery,

New York

neously enacting the cancellation of his partner's femininity, foregrounds our understanding of the
ontological instability of
In

all

sexual identities.

1

another body work dating from 1971 entitled Trappings (which

Acconci played out and parodied,

in

is

recorded in photographs),

an emphatically self-deprecating manner, the sacrosanct and

overdetermined connection between masculinity, the penis, and the phallus. Sitting naked in a closet
filled

with items associated with femininity and childhood

artist

dressed up his penis in doll's clothes and talked to

as if

it

a "location for regressive activity"
it

were

The

a playmate.

—the

calculated

absurdity of the situation allowed Acconci to disrupt the seamless integration of masculinity and
phallic privilege.

construct

it

is/

While
identity

No

longer veiled, the penis/phallus was shown, in masquerade, as the psychosocial

1

it

was not yet theorized during the early

may be

1970s, the notion that subjectivity

and sexual

performative rather than substantive found expression in Acconci's work, even

intuitively. In 1971, the year

he completed

work on Conversions and

his

I'm using art as a means of changing myself, as a means of breaking out of a category.
gorized as male.

Now I'm

trying to change that category, [to] open

female. There are structures that limit
possibilities that these structures

these structures. That's
correct, to

open myself up,

to

make

want

to build

.

.

work

The goal

up an idea of life

have

to

be limited by

I

am

cate-

is

to

as a

to

and examine

break through

means

to

improve,

to

break out of spiritual and

the idea that people can change

roles,

they don't have to be rigidly

45

givings about visual pleasure,

qualms that were expressed

embodied work by women

real identification

.

to see

an instrument

stressing the idea of an art

Acconci's flagrant libidinalization of performative

critiques of

I use art as

only

up the possibility of being

work might be a means

art

myself vulnerable.

role to another. People don't

enclosed in categories.

An

have eliminated. So

why I'm always

social confines as well. ... 7

from one

tilings.

if

Trappings, Acconci claimed:

artists.

4

"

work brought
far

more

to the fore art criticism's mis-

aggressively in

Condemned by both Modernism's

and feminism's suspicions of the desiring male gaze,

contemporaneous
disdain for corpo-

art that alluded to the plea-

SS

165

was often marginalized, and then overlooked,

sures of the flesh

in

ensuing histories of postwar

art.

4'

—which

Because visual pleasure has been such a taboo subject, specific aspects of Acconci's work
is

being considered here as a case study

are simply not discussed in the critical literature. For

instance, the

scheme he devised

cannot

be thought separately from the heterosexual eroticism

really

in Conversions to hide his penis in the

mouth of a female accomplice
suggests. Also, the kind of self-

it

effacement he enacts cannot be theorized without considering the masochistic side of eroticism
invokes.

The question can thus be posed: why should

across the physical

body

investigations of sexual identity, played out

as a site of shifting, performative personae, not

And, furthermore, why should the gesture of demystifying supposedly
gender not be pleasurable for

artist

and viewer

tivity to

it.

The

artists

who

complicity in

early photographic self-constructions of the

Swiss artist Urs Liithi reveal both
their cameras.

artist's

men

Klauke 's photographic

be libidinal in orientation?

fixed, ontological constructs

of

alike?

Other examples of embodied work by male
such queries about visual pleasure, the

it

its

flaunted gender indeterminacy

elicit

production, and the audience's recep-

German

artist Jiirgen

Klauke and the

independently exploring polymorphous sexual identities for

series

Physiognomies {Physiognornien, 1972-73) shows the

artist

posing in various theatrical guises, which range from intensely female to questionably male, in an
of normative gendered behavior. "The never-ending search for

effort to dislodge accepted ideas

my/our

identity

an underlying theme here," he explains

is

in a recent interview.

4

"

According to

Klauke, his goal at the time was "to lustfully claim female identity or any form of 'otherness,' and
therefore question 'eternal masculinity'

limited views of

how

and

'eternal femininity';

i.e.

to break

through conventional,

1

things should be."' Similarly, Liithi deployed travesty in his performative
'

photographs

as a strategy to

portrait" as a

woman

symbolize the transgressive potential of self-transformation. In a

(or highly feminized male), entitled

I'll

Be Your Mirror

"self-

(1972), the artist directly

implicates the viewer in his transposition of genders, suggesting that the fluid state

depicted

may

reflect the

ambivalence

at

the core of

all

subjectivities.

While not

as

works

aggressive or farcical as Acconci's play with masculinity, Klauke 's

and

problematize gender binarism with equal passion. The

elements employed

in the

photographs

— from

veils

and flowers

to

makeup

fetishistic

Luthi's

are seductive tools used to

The

lure the viewer into identification with (or desire for) the figures portrayed.

pleasure offered
seen,

and what

is

located in the dizzying gaps between what

efforts to

is

emulate the feminine other in order

to create a truly liberatory art reflect theories of transvestism

Marjorie Garber in her 1992 book, Vested

which she

represented, what

known.

is

Both Klauke 's and Luthi's early

in

is

visual

Interests: Cross

advanced by author

Dressing

states, rather idealistically, that cross-dressing

& Cultural Anxiety,

can actually abolish the

binarism behind cultural representation by causing a "category

crisis"

through

its

disruption of established gender boundaries. Transvestism, in Garber's view,
introduces into the system the prospect of a "third term," which, as a
lation," creates a

Urs
/'//

refuses to

He Your Minor, 1972

\

(7

inches

(

Private collection,
the artist

Id 6

of possibility." " Accordingly, the cross-dressed body

Liithi

Photograph on canvas,
(V

new "space

"mode of articu-

Kin

-,

conform

social resistance
9

,

1

111

to the social dictate of either/or,

through the confusion

it

man

woman, and

thus acts as a

site

of

causes. In Garber's view, the visual codes of gender differ-

1

ence are thereby obscured and frustrated. However, there
<

or

is

a fine line

between subversion and

oui tesy oi

reinvestment. Transvestism

lately

appropriated by the fashion industry as

a titillating, yet

marginal,

Jiirgen

Klauke

Physiognomies Physiognomien
(

)

19/2-73
Eight gelatin-silver prints,

each 23 % x 19
(60 x 50

% inches

cm)

Courtesy of Galerie Rudolf
Kicken, Cologne

*
*
^
&

-

167

Portrait of the Artist fixed in on the in composed wavy for hair In place of her —which she repeatedly exploited —her attention to woman-as- (an attribute she often flaunted in her "feminine" guise) clipped back. The title camera-cum-viewer and parody femininity to the point of tie —her long. the New York some feminist critics found that supporting work equivocated between being celebration of female sexuality. 52 a parodic critique of sexual objectification representation. Wilke staged a measured and deliberately slow striptease (The Large Glass) (1915-23) is behind the Wearing the signature vest. 197ft Film siilK from a performance Philadelphia ' I 168 Museum of Art ourtesy of Ronald Feldman ine Ails. also utilized the codes of drag to further gender difference. shows Wilke dressed as a difficult and an the patriarchal construct of who performed was art The conundrum they encountered was whether disengage the actual. self-contained." white fedora. and —the silk scarf infinitely attire of a gentleman dandy artist visually identified herself —white suit with with both the productive "bachelor machine" in the lower realm of The Large Glass and the ever-virginal bride in the upper. physical body of a 55 women's embodied to obscure art journal she holds His Studio (1971). 1971 cases when the presentation —even 51 female-authored displays of the feminine body transgendered is —were in particularly threatening to the (male) art estab- Performalist self-portrait with lishment. 54 is of the photograph. particularly the if she women in the process." which displays a self the camera.11 . New York .mode of countercultural defiance —simply recirculates and reinstates pregiven signs. For instance. distinctively seductive gaze at the "essentialist" power structure inherent and patterned when was conceivable it "performalist self-portraits. In 1976. out of sight." Presented the Philadelphia Museum of Art. an woman from artist caricature. Even housed." Portrait of the Artist in His Studio. indicates that Wilke. postmodern what Jones glass "painting. Because have been traditionally inscribed as objects-to-be-seen. One of her initial her comment on own the man in black shirt the difference between complicity in her hands. and libidinal when identification in art intensified during the 1970s work in question was exploited her made by own body a woman. Hannah Wilke "unrepresentable except as representation. at this formative stage in her career. The polemics of pleasure. and white onanistic. Wilke. Wilke crossed genders again to tackle called "the construction of a highly invested 'father' figure of Duchamp at — in a practice" — Marcel performance and subsequent film entitled Through the Large Glass. Even Claes Oldenburg Courtesy of Ronald Feldman Fine Arts. where Duchamp's The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors. fully intended to claim for herself the artistic authority so indelibly linked to masculine privilege. desire. Filmed directly through the glass panes of the Hannah Wilke Through the Large Glass.

while for a which featured her own constructed photographic tion she reproduced a childhood snapshot of herself wearing a traditional male military warming up art world. Betty Grable cheesecake pose —with her nude arms folded behind her head. California. in which she posed in for an exhibition at the Paula Cooper Gallery. Wilke's striptease to alluring woman —can be read and eroticized joining of the forever separated domains of bachelor and marriage ceremony symbolically reclaimed for by male women the rite as a metaphoric Her bride. Benglis placed a series of self-produced These ads followed announcements. the and The Clocktower. Raising issues of originality gesture that would rock the and in a tradition in overtly invitations to three one-person Jack Glenn Gallery in taped to a blank video monitor and retraces. across the bottom of the monitor's macho shows at Corona Del Mar. stating that the ad was an "object of extreme vulgarity" and a * 169 . A Benglis's advertisement (November is indicative of — including both mainstream and feminist group of Artforum editors thought it in Artforum 13 1974) how profoundly writers —was about necessary to publish a letter express-I ing their chagrin over Benglis's gesture. The cs culmination of the "sexual mockeries" was an advertisement run in the showed Benglis November entirely oiled 1974 Artforum. jeans down around star system/ Posed and aviator sunglasses Porsche with close-cropped hair and Annie Leibovitz self- today appears quite feminine. artists which she posing for their exhibition first parodied in 1973 in her own the Portland Center for the Visual Arts." which were intended to investigate gender ambiguity lampooning the art-world jeans. in New York. albeit an exceptionally fake one." which save for a gigantic. complete with white leggings and attire that advertisements of mostly male scenarios. which she then traces screen. Benglis's New York. In Document. face that photograph her a smirk. often is entitlement here. in Oregon. each of portrait. she was only artistic for one-person gallery exhibitions. — Benglis is in quintessentially shown leaning butch and sexual attire against an old For the invitation to this show. self-satisfying bachelor machine/" The media outrage generated by defensive the critical attacks on its community authority. On Greek evzone each invita- outfit. Her brazen expropriation of the penis. claiming for herself the authorial rights Advertisement enacted by the self-enclosed. recuperation of this photo. a pair of glamour-girl sunglasses and 1 plastic dildo held at genital level.* Sculptor and video Lynda Benglis artist employed transgender codes also to challenge the equation between masculinist authority and creative agency. reveals an interest in gender masquerade. served to ironically deflate the organ's alleged alignment with the "phallus"'" and her access to masculinist authority and the agency associated with it. In 1974. man's shirt. striptease-as- of (pro) creativity long appropriated artists. up and naked. Benglis appears in this photograph as a Lynda Benglis metaphoric fusion of the Duchampian bride and bachelor. to back to the viewer.— — from dapper man work. black jacket. to grant artistic Hermaphrodite par excellence. Benglis draws a moustache on a photograph of her and writes copyright notices. Her ensuing advertisement role playing. and her high-heeled ankles. in skirt. Benglis commissioned in a classic. a video from 1972. inaugurated the series labeled "sexual mockeries.

x 24 inches x 61 cm). convey the arbitrary division between any "roles. 59 1- x 120 'L inches x 305 cm) overall Deutsche Bank AG." she explains. In addition to Wilke and own instance. Benglis who became with phallus. repressions . Benglis. The . each 59 ( 151 (151 in five parts. as well as in a series of videos Approaching both the objectivity of history and the used her fictional characters to Conceptual artist comment on —whose obsessional autobi- and antique-seeming photo albums. gender boundaries were completely blurred by the artist. and self-extension. "takes place in oneself. She is still only how dangerous was comments.""' as desirable body. As Jones woman but she . which she deployed during the early 1970s to disrupt cultural stereotypes of both sexual and 1970. S&M overtones. explored transgen- as a strategy to symbolically invert sexual binarism the heart of gendered identity." as a resulting "portraits" both genders may be means of "communication" that could "The conquest of another gender. dramatically altering her by wearing stench-ridden clothes and assuming other codes 170 number of formerly with Sergey Diaghilev's Ballet Russe."'" Beginning in 1973. Frankfurt "shabby mockery of the aims" of the women's liberation movement. cost) herself doubly tantalizing to —both derogatory and supportive—proved be seen: be The German photographic self-portrait to create series artist upon and to Katharina Sieverding. in the 1970s. the Conceptual artist Eleanor Antin created a dramatis personae ic — including a black ballerina live. and other.' 11 And Cindy Nemser attacked Benglis in an issue of The Feminist Art Journal. a hero- nurse from the Crimean War. the female image intimates the male. In Transformer (1973-74)."' the territory that Benglis defiantly explored in this series of self-portraits.Katharino Sieverding Transformer. solarized images. suggesting that approached transvestism individual. other women "that woman artists which should not as self-producer. she executed a series of performance works." those who like their sex served up with The numerous other responses saying "Fuck you" men to the and thereby making constructed herself as "an active female subject in wild abandon" woman in control of the critical gaze. 1973-74 Photographs. Her image it is still —smack on tough and forbidding but look where she places it may page (and at her own the first of the most establishment of art magazines thus making a frantic bid for male attention. used her with penis. and a seventeenth-century bearded king ographies she performed present in for the economically person downtrodden. who manipulated photographs of herself and her partner so that one cannot be distinguished from the other. may convince herself and other naives that she is using her lovely woman's body to say "Fuck me." Adrian Piper also created transgendered performative personae. at . work der themes in their performative expose the masquerade woman woman many just . masklike. Antin the provisional (and gendered) nature of "reality. In Catalysis. . for series of large-scale. declaring that her gesture was anything but liberatory: True her organ may be the most majestic in size but only plastic. she . infallibility of identity as myths to debunk. entitled racial difference."' Sieverding expose self and the male the female.

shifting identities. its emphasis on time. 1975 Courtesy of John Weber Gallery. "self-portraiture" in the 1970s anticipated the critical impulse. not. Gender like. stable. parody. acts proceed. if that decade art criticism."" on the self-conscious and subversive —the use of mimicry. a performative accomplish- ment which the mundane is New York a stable liminality. as a streetwise known black male as the munity and experience Mythic Being life as order to enter the com- in an African American encing both the liberation she in the felt man — empowered male experirole and the racist fears her presence provoked in the whites around her. gestures. that gender identity in Butler's be acted out is "real tion of already repetitious acts own ciousness of the entire enterprise.inserted herself into the social environment to confront the disen- franchisement of those perceived as other. just a "constructed identity. words. including the actors themselves. and Wilke could not impact on documents 71 struck by the preco- have predicted the contemporary theorizations of performance that are informing so and queer thinking and. sexualities. trenchant again in the 1990s. interjecting mix the problem of racial difference into an already inflammatory ^ of divergent ideologies. postmod- ernism's distrust of master narratives."' s no way Rather. some of which utilize comic-strip "bubble" thoughts. Benglis. so popular in the 1990s. This sionary gendered self is. in the body art of the 1970s. Then. or ontologically determined. to proclaim all identity as performative rather than natural. Fueled by poststructuralism's concept of the decentered subject. social audience. is why the art and culture of and sexuality —has become so 3S 171 ." embody "I everything Another photograph bears the floating hate you for doing this to me. just a theatrical convention to means. however. Documented in a series of photographic and painted posters. and class-based issues that has plagued the modern-day women's movement from The advent of performance-based its inception. Piper ripped open the gender dichotomy that preoccupied feminist representation in the 1970s. genders as well as that of the other. five years later. which it is performed. and feminism's skepticism about essentialist ideologies. one portrait of the Mythic Being is accompanied by the phrase: you most hate and thought. fear. mativity has evolved as a significant critical tool today. "it is an identi- identity instituted through a stylized repetition of acts. and In thinking through the issues of 1970s emphatically performed their at will. repeti- artists that the much However. one It is to believe. come only to the extent that potential for disruption in this delusional system relies feminist illu- according to Butler. in the clear that artists performative." In this it work. which adheres to socially and politically determined codes of behavior. as she explains. Perhaps this —with The such as Acconci."™ These and movements image of an immutable gen- that generate the dered subjectivity. body it is art. Butler's pivotal work in the field identity or locus of agency has fostered an understanding that gender "is in from which various ty tenuously constituted in time Philosopher and gender theorist Judith —an "acts" are bodily functions. and myself for allowing "I to happen. their the artists' carefully crafted photographic rehearsed. complete with Afro and moustache. Piper posed. rather." which both male and female is in turn. one can recent infer from mimetic "performativity" of gender was not foregrounded. perfor- Adrian Piper Mythic Being: Getting Back #2.

decade following Fried's "Art and Objecthood" was precisely in the Gallery Cross-Dressing Routledge. a Henry Martin e storie simili). Museum work can be found this Twenty-Year Survey. and on demand Francois Pluchart." pp." for instance. 1975). socially as art only at the word "performative" over the more commonly save for the expanse of skin covered by the book. constructing their photographic imagery. no. She also Viking Press. art. 374-75. photogra- to a — by "unifi- idea. photo was attributed aes- its be undergoing a a complete acceptance of photog- might be privileged specifically for the pher named Bacci to medium. 189. (Stuttgart: Edition Cantz. for a brief discussion of the Duchamp was graze his bourgeois. and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. 64. 247-67. "L'Espace an corps: Le corps expose de Milan. pp. 252. Research Press. California. (Paris: Editions "Pictures. Stadler. 39. 2. 1974). "The Directorial Mode: Notes Toward a Definition. 1988). trans. 1971). corpo come linguaggio (La // in.. 257-93." in L'Art Man Ray a nos eds." in Goldstein Art. hardcover book a large. "Body-art" Art. exh. I). medium negation argument here about Conceptual photogra- Duchamp. cal sentiinentale. Bodyworks. Because of tional character." Artforum 15. Vito activities Acconci. "'Marks of Indifference'. and Annette Ray. pp. the violence inherent piece came general. "Art and Objecthood. Chris Burden. thought through the psychoanalytic model of Michelson. studio. 8. Oppenheim. withering radical critique apparently aimed at but Time- that involves the . (Ibid. produced throughout the radical art which invoked the that 7. pp. cites 1 Bruce as Failing to Levitate in the Studio (1966). Toward a Theory of Performance infamous performance work of the 1970s. the photo dated 1921 was taken A (Newport Harbor. pp. p. .: Press. Toward a Theory Performance Art: An Investigation of Its (I'll. Nauman the generic changes the terms. (Los Angeles: Contemporary MIT Art. 1992. exh. Michael Fried. 14. photojournalism to parody and thus distance Marjorie Garber has investigated the historical and during the 1970s such Dan Graham. originally published in 16. <>/ see Kathy O'Dell. "Subject-Object Body task- Nauman. 75-88. note 15). Vested Interests: elaborated. June 1967). 56-63. "body and for exhibitions. object. in 1973. the orgiastic theater of GUnter Brus. in Friedrich 2. sensa- its was perhaps the most Man arm with wound." Artforum 5. Ron Padgett (New (1796). literary correlations as Ian Huebler. Shoot by in cat. See the section "Jew. no. Dialogues with Marcel and trans. Douglas in phy's critical relationship to reportage Monk mance Azione whole ideology of the star system considered in con- Gothic novels such 1996). staged or "theatrical" photograph The the historiis particu- provocative in light of Duchamp's is The one sub- genre of Conceptual photography. Rather. See Crimp. Mass. and major retrospective the Artists active New York. Although Burden had apparently requested that the — autonomous.it 12. Giampaolo Prearo While early 1970s. and intemperance. the rare sale. 1992). in 1974. 10 ( theorist des Musees de Marseille. and curators Editore. ordained into the cult officially of the Dibbets. theatrical involvement with time and bodily ten- in its Meschede. (September 1976). the excavations in nature of Walter It is four of the major texts dealing with the emergence of body the of Abramovic and Ulay. Reconsidering the Object of Art: 172 Conceptual Hermann illustrated in 5. This action was part of the ( lalleria ( iina Pane's perfor- which was staged Diagramma. New City University of and Ann Arbor. social confrontations of Adrian Piper and Martha Rosier." in Garber. Licht. summer sun based of as "original" objects. (Chicago: pp. Abramovic's performance. Mich: UMI Sites York. unpaginated). p. 10. cat. likened allowing his skin change pigment to the process of being Documentation of cation" of the "body- ot ways: "body moment when seemed any further acstheticization or foreclosing and sculptural medium has in a photography could emerge . Homosexual. p. in this to the Art. 11. 1987). My durational work created camera from painted. unpaginated. on the sand with A Rodolphe artwork discussed is Rorimer. Wall Nauman's photographs. Reading Position for a Second Degree Burn Ann Goldstein and 1965-19/5. thetic presuppositions art." was the antithesis Woman. (fall 1983). pp. in his pivotal essay "Pictures. Museum of Modern Smithson their See Pierre Cabanne. discussed in at is & Cultural Anxiety (New York: relationship to Conceptual art during the documented Abramovic Nemser. 224-33. 8 (spring 1979). as an example of Conceptual photodocu mentation: and com- remarks regarding religious conversion and The photographer's geiuler identification. 415. Joan Copjec. p. and Bruce ed. MIT 1976-1986 (Cambridge. 4. Wall. Matthew Lewis's Her discussion about feminization of the Jewish male larly claims to mimetic truth its They did not. Such artistic strategies of the 1970s included. pp. nor were they conceived were made of Contemporary Art. Nitsch. the bullet." as subject. .. of Contemporary Art in Zagreb." codified. pp. For many. Dennis De Maria. the Nancy Holt. Coleman. collectible See Christopher Phillips. entitled Rhythm was staged out. "The Judgement Seat October.. but were by real-time systems of based no means limited Hans Haacke. exh. see Jeff Wall. self-mutilation. 179. Ira Museum alike. Douglas Crimp points 6. See O'Dell. between the Judeo- vestments and cross-dressed saints to as work from aesthetic value." (in Pluchart. L'Art corporeal. is du A photo- reproduced in corps." October. dencies. 55-61. in actuality he suffered a deep 15. as. Rosalind Krauss. such no. performance to exemplify art in which tended to be associated with brutality. October: The First Decade. As Wall succinctly explains: refer to the corporeal and "embodied works. Photographs by such artists as Acconci and Oppenheim were not necessar- ily issued in editions. the five-hour "embodied to Oppenheim means number art. Christian tradition and transvestism. '"Marks of Indifference': Aspects of Photography during the 1970s: Cindy art For a detailed examination of photography's 1970s." that the most (Mac: Galeries contemporaines jours." Arts Magazine 46 (September-October Lea Vergine. Reconsidering Smithson. 1993).: Press. unpaginated. and Rorimer." body art. oj that junction with Duchamp's Tonsure. The 1919 Gallery in Santa Ana. My indebted to Wall's pivotal essay on the subject. it was during the 1970s that artist in the United States with his first at 17. in this text as art. however. diss. and the staged 3. Marcel Duchamp's Tonsure least to: 13. 1995). 248-58. 1996). Photoconceptualism way toward raphy as art art choice of the Burden's Shoot was staged in the F Space Chris Burden: the and art. A. Yugoslavia. exh. LArt corporeal. Art. Douglas is Gordon Matta-Clark. 27-63. in graph from the performance ( latherine Millet. Working . plex of "studio photography. cat. from liturgical also utilized the pictorial codes of turn routinely to performance as a strategy for York: p. and Robert (Milan: may have been that market the case during the for "conceptual photogra- phy" has emerged during the past few years that has proven quite challenging to dealers 1971). publications. prints Paradoxically note on terminology: these terms are by no and Cambridge. For an examination of performance masochism.. 22 points out that marksman merely led Crimp. Ed Ruscha. 1975). Newport Harbor Calif: of Art. 9. and were usually dated to the and Rudolf Schwarzkogler. cat. 18. pp. Art and critic no. or the Object of Art. 12-23. exh. in 1973-74 (p. virtue of insisting that this of Photography." "performance exposure I from the 1970s been categorized reclined him sunburned leaving art cat. D.Notes 1. time of inception. Mass.) that presented to a live audience." art. Anne "performative open across to the Museum Oppenheim his chest." against which the aesthetics of reportage were in the chapter "Religious Habits." used "performance" differentiates ephemeral.

New ( Whitney Museum of American Hanhardt claims The in Andrew L'p to and Including Her Contemporary Art. 20." Historical representations of nude were conceptualized or ideal- ized through geometric canons of proportion: "Man the measure of is Rather. The same holds true for the 1980s and 1990s. 38-42. events. Describing 1. 1988). 26." October. with essays Cameron." p. June 1978).. the subject through the strong visual language Civilization. has approved (if rather 50-64. included Indifference'. the For a discussion of video's role in American art Castelli. as (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. during which performers such as Boy George. eds. Individual tographs. upon 27. cat. Schor. 3 made by women "Neutral" art is pointed out bv Andrew Ross in "Uses of a space conceived specifically for (New York: Dutton. 3—5. Also. patronizingly Avalanche women working \ (fall 1970 pp. see Narcissism. "Video: The 1 in No Ross. Rubble. "Beyond Illusion: Film and Video Art. Barbara Rubin's Christmas on Earth (1963)." Sharp. in women's performance work. Art. then man's is hidden. what he christened "body work. M/E/A/N/I/N/G. making of (May-June). (New ecole York: 1982). no. teased that artists such as by Dan and Kristine Strauss. such as Kenneth Anger's Scorpio Rising (1964). or the phe- this representational as revolving distinction between the phallus ibility ot art. Pierre Molinier. and object and "The Body works are mostly communicated The category "body association with Row. Krauss's text reads the psychoanalytic model and into the as equal competitors. career. trans. From Art. 22. "The Aesthetics of Power see Carol nomenon of Process and Earth In a subsequent article Nemser lack Smith's Avant- Garde against the Lucky Landlord Empire. world in the art 31. Mich. that the artists discussed in this essay still work) mance in art" many of artist's worked (and and performative self-representa- ings on liberation ticular. Participants in the exhibition After the portable videotape recorder was introduced on curator Jean- Ammann. object the Art Index in 1971.) became United States in the in 1965. and Carolee Schneemann's Fuses (1967)." For a theoretical analysis of video etiological" mode a*. Eno. system to around the Lacanian fact that the "the phallus or all things. Luciano "new perceptual instrument" and a 28. 1996). p. 254. as sources for the America. 29. art" first faces. article. in scious. Brian Dolls. "Bodv Works." in Lippard. eds. one of the leading mediums involved with bodv art and of the late 1960s and early. p. Lippard points out: Nauman skintight clothing. the phallus. and George Michael. bodies 30. Written in the relatively early years ot a it stream. who have moved "beyond" new fine arts into the hybridities. It is important to note. things. self-centered "play" taking place in the studios of artists transvestite rock in the visual arts the 1970s was not lost he carries out photographic acts of reportage whose subject matter The analogy between gender performance beginning at the time to be called "performance penis/phallus) is foregrounded. The Amazing Decade: Performance Art in Sherwood. Generally the performance tion tor the camera." ( Press. dividing the in Modern p. P." video's use by artists. American the video camera. his Eros enced art Herbert Marcuse's writ- and desublimation and its 1960s | New York: Harper & and the to the of body ticularly in discussions Flaming Creatures art. 14-17. Sharp does refer to Joseph Juliet is his to claim. Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the frcudicnnc. The artist both publicly staged "perfor- For an analysis of ordinary bodily functions and other usual of physicality. 1976). Mick Jagger. cited in of the time. While his oriented specifically to work by American artists. loan Jonas. 164. 1996). Lynda Benglis. 17. but none received the by a official condemnation congressional hearing conferred Flaming Creatures. See 1988). 1970s." pp.: Mira Schor discusses UMI Research its interacts with and the penis can only play role as veiled. This and Respect: Intellectuals New I chance Aesthetics of 25. prostitutes. 236-47. Marco. see Maurice Berger. Hanhardt.. a "ps) Rosalind Krauss. videotapes (in par- Labyrinths: Robert Morris. "The Pains and Pleasures of and American Women's Rebirth: European Michael lackson. how body becomes both the subject and of the work. its "lack" was rendered in image after — women as goddesses.. 1955) influ- of the 1960s and is of the action. pp. and 'Secret Flix": all in less a common Drag Queens. Suarez's discussion of lack Smith's in the 1960s is lasciviously) of Sexuality and Cassandra Langer. 82. see John G. see Nemser. ( Beuys and Yves Klein and during bition "Transformer": Aspekte der Travestie. for a Gockettes. See Lucy Lippard. pp. cat. Katharina Sieverding. For an overview and detailed chronology of ed. 62. even forgotten. 61-62. little with their own. Sharp employs vocabulary that was more or chapter "Drag. have Body been embraced by the music industry." "Subject-Object Body Art. pp. 64. Luigi Ontani. 1989). Even Feminist Essays on Women's Art "heavy metal" bands. Norton. pp." Sharp writes: Variously called actions. (Ann Arbor. 3} 173 . work into investigation of the Superstars: Avant-Garde. 196S-75. tor the the Wall. originally pub- with layers ot heavv makeup. art. 14) the counterculture. exh. Popular Culture - of reproduction. films. 73-81. 121-38. various aspects of the empirical world as power. were censored for sexual explicitness. categories: the effect physical or psychological as phallus. David Levi Stiles. more (Los Angeles: Astro Artz. 1983). Walter Pfeiffer. preferably cuted in the privacy ot the studio." in Arlene Raven. (spring 1976). language. the Center: America personae lished in Art in hair. and pp. the male follows Sharp's formal approach. artists working with the body during the 1960s who were not mentioned in Sharp's such as the Viennese Aktion text is artists. Bike Boys. body as a closed body as it in Feminist Art et al. Suarez. while the male establishment. Schneemann: New Y'ork of masculinity.. 24. see the recently published Carolee Acconci.within the experimental framework of what was 23. Duncan." Christophe the self-con- is modern "'Marks of 19. medium through pieces. Mass Culture and Cay Identities on body two Underground Cinema investigation of the 33. Thus. and platform heels. Suarez points out that other films sculptural material or tool. 1 For an analysis ot the paint brush pho- parlance in art-critical circles of the 1970s. Erotic Art. works present physical activi- and unusual manifestations between camera and monitor. organized the exhi- Kunstmuseum Luzern. The with strong immediacy of impact. 123) Women Criticism See Juan A." But the vis- the penis was rarely privileged." Sculpture: 1965-75. however. no. (p. Female 32. pp. 181-213. Jacques Lacan's quote is "The Meaning of the Phallus" (1958). (New York: New Museum of exh. body work recent Switzerland. all body articulated the in their art- Camp. and law. "Body Works. p." exe- and other media. Urs video for artists its artists as well as Bowie. musicians: David The Alex Meyer. performances. nymphs. from Mitchell and Jacqueline Rose. 29-39. Werner Liithi. 4 (November There were also a number of European male pp. who 1974. the body (ego) posits the as the critical third term ties. which caricature tropes E. Lisa Tickner. and perhaps attractive. no. And if woman's "lack" (of the image of nude change. In his analysis of 1989). 1990). public appeared Politic: Artists Since 1970. unsympa- York: Routledge. has still market main- women's participation thetic to See Willoughby Sharp. par- in the Art History and the art. pp. see Women and long-awaited examination of Schneemann's Warhol. Limits. and Andy documentation. (p. 12-13. America 1970-1980 in Sew York: Moira Roth. Jacqueline Rose W W. Minimalism. "Representations of the Penis. construct their stage works within 21.

16-41 (hereafter referred to as "Postfeminism"). "Visual cism wielded against Wilke. "After Us the Savage Goddesses. 104-05. in Diamond. in II in Lippard expressed her concern with this dilemma — turn on two — turn my am breast. 10 I admire the courage of women than beautiful bodies who defy convenparticularly vulnerable to cruel although those women who do happen be physically well-endowed probably come in . exh. Schor completely dismisses Acconci's 1 onversions as a display of narcissistic male all signs oj maleness: first the hairs off his breasts. cam- — or Tin forced to handle. pp. 17.. while also manag- Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. thesis. Interview with Bruce Barber. was included was part effectively dismissed call to is The term "performalist did not involve any women's 11 54. Cassandra Raven. and other conceptual works Acconci mas- in which she posed and Quoted from Thomas H. In particular. 159. Jones must admit I artist rarely gender transference. Study of Vito Acconci and the Psychology of premised on the paradigm of performance.35- 51. 1976. She reads entirely is unpublished M. concrete methodology to getieral systems people. 1959). Laura A.) York: Doubleday. "An Interview with Vito critical my new conditions appearance one position in has a enough away from me 46. world: its herselj stereotypes. New Identity. p. who Artists me Interests. New York: HarperCollins: must say that tion less and become criticism. p. Avalanche 6 tall ( This special issue of Avalanche p. Lacanian reading of for a of Acconci's early performance work. flexible body. it is my (fall I develop ease era — I'm walking up lo to the in that my new an attempt to (static font of it . 39. 1996). was held on June codes associated with 15. the 1960s A life is photographed infamous perfor- tion. and a personal lack of to in black stockings. insult. using her expose that on Duchamp art that involved for disown representa- tions oi bodily desire in Laura Mulvey's away to it). p. 4 Body Modernist Dreamscapes. . quoted is was with protagonists and antagonists each adopt- recently occurred to Munich: ( 1994). Vito Acconci: of Contemporary Art. exh. 49. 1980). throughout the work with to — I'm dividing animals p. thesis. by Peter Weibel. . Early on. for metaphor theatrical ling is — he all talks done Acconci about people book The Presentation (New Max / Everyday of Self in (November no." Hannah Wilke: A Retrospective.. but the 53. proposed that 38. have only myselj myself is penis into another person. {Avalanche this section." See Jones. own will (March ." that leads thank Bruce Barber for sharing like to this material 1994). 157. caused great examines the issue of visual pleasure . sociologists: (December no. cat. (Ibid. beyond the false floor. (Columbia: University of Missouri in She argues that feminism's Press. all Conversions (Parts I-III) through the model of was enacting the "metaphorical castration 7." p. . University of in Washington. (Chicago: p.) About it functions it: — my words are addressed it's 52. ing to criticize the artist as well: "Postfeminism. In . "Pains and p. 32. York: Routledge. and Arlene Feminist Criticism. states: can dress I scaled to For the entirety of hairless: Acconci myselj in can throw myself into own. In a text [fall here set- referring to Goffman's influential is by male cited this piece. Rebecca Schneider. see . 72. directed herself. A woman boots. in controversy. 56. But the sources it's 11. woman of its daily activity for the duration of the show: hidden under a 47. this essay. and Stuttgart: Cantz Verlag Narcissism in his Tody and Performance Works: Acconci stated: 42. p. Vested The phrase social interaction 1969-1975 (M. "After Explicit Perform Their Masculinities. 167. belts." suggesting that Acconci an Other and ultimately to the development ot with me. gender Critical Garber. Pleasures ot Rebirth. Ibid. 41. In 1972. which draw remainder of tion. with them. . with bare breasts. ("Tapes with Liza Bear. 36. 8. her performances. — body's Cindy Nemser.\n devoted to Acconci's work.. 1977. dated January I would 37. 35. . eds." the 1970s are indebted to Jones's ground- to actor's rehearsal techniques. 3 it pulling at attempt making it. p. / Erving Goffman's work on interac- example. (Schor. the performance of the body. no. ed. Amelia (ones. 57. Ibid. toy by side with them side p. hidden.) 1971). quoted in "Excerpts from Tapes with Liza Bear" (interview)." Arts Magazine 45. seems garter do what she it may be . Art. about 44. cat. mance/installation Seedbed (1972) at the — Tin piny — my performance depends on away from it camera in this text. supple. pp." Baker and Harrison. Quoted from an interview with the "mirror-stage. Goddesses: Feminist Performance Art of the 43. [ones. directed television by Hans-Christof Sten/el. "Self-Identity and Otherness." pp.A. Acconci's Acconci writes: m my appearance. unpaginated. 1972]. 15. p. 37.A. Across There are ways and ways are addressed to the penis published with photographs of the I'm •lopping the candle at the space draped with Life "Pygmalion Reversed. in 1974: exploitation. personal informa- Retrospective: 1969-1980. "Representations of the Penis. 1989). Lippard expresses her concern over the criti- highly influential article from 197s. 26. at least for notes from. her study of women's performance art from male visual pleasure A and body has face Schneider. and coy come- to get the last laugh.. — an my me Acconci. bul ol the significance of feminism's militant a right a subtle women for sex- women to (Lippard. 1970s. 1975). "Postfeminism. — (New artists in the Savage Lis Performance and Cultural ed. us usual. unpublished manuscript. 1990)." Kochheiser. . History could be related And on I breaking work. character of his work. then the penis from Ids body.34- Acconci. Acconci acknowledged the theatrical in the writings 40. for . control. . in Jiirgen Goetz. So the phallus reinscribes itself over the erased/lai king even us die penis is woman. 124-25. I'm talking color. Brunsman argues 1972). 50. 21-23. action. 71. using one's ol sympathy with women who have themselves 1972). Parody to words Avalanche 6 New York. Sonnabend lime to persist (it pp." p. bananas.. Theresa de Lauretis's. my penis smoothness. Acconci describes his efforts: the hairs. 566." Artformn Kozloff.) in my own approach artist's ual titillation from women's use ol scope of this essay. "Dis/playing the Phallus: Male ing the appropriate dramatic role. to The breast . ol Art. Politics and women have not always avoided body." 14. it Gallery. exh. adapting myself to neeil far to burning develop a female breast. feminist Pleasures. 28. and was the self-portrait" is originally given to her title tographs shown at the Wilke's pho- Washington Project for the Arts in 1979. p. P. She continued to use the term to "credit the many people who assisted her in her self-portraits. kind of in a up "performance areas" when they meet. p. Hut he bus a penis place — in a and must put n some disappeared woman. toy houses. the piece entailed the artist's to it Quoted Museum 5 self- to necessarily complicated by social hither glances. Action 1 I . It's 174 A See Brunsman. — is Staged. Extending the sex change: exercising I 45. 71. Although . Uneasily. of Erving Goffman. 48." in 1 Joanna anger." Art ideas about performative art that a lot of my stuff obvious why. cat. abyss that separates men's use walking above him. She situates empowerment: //c seeks to strip to talk to turbated while fantasizing about the visitors refusal to perpetuate the Judith Russi Kirchner. German The performance The film in which it ol a larger film project titled C'est la Vie Rrose. and / Embodied Theories with Frueh. which My 1994). Sammlung toward increasing interaction with identity. Writing range from pieces. Klauke/Cindy Sherman. 55. indicating an interest all Klauke Jiirgen trans.

"Representations of the Penis. Rosalind Krauss. has resulted at times in politically ambiguous manifestations ibid. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion the occasion of a vestments associated with S/M sexuality helmet University Press. at New Gallery. 40. Rebirth. heavy chains. 278. Butler. 1 November artistic 3. (Quoted in Krane. Lynda Benglis: Dual Natures. a who ered a in the long run.. 270. Performance and selective in what she would approve. the phallus asserts here within acceptable visual codes. concert with his in 1974. cat.. Lippard the double standard 65. see Jane S. Lynda — i Benglis. and milium itself of Identity 69. for a discussion of performativit) as a and reproductions Details series Lippard." 59. of Lynda Benglis's advertisements can be found of' Krane. comments on 60. p. for the < — Morris's greased and muscular torso appears as is See also Butler. life. Nemser. Ibid. Sims. 271. 42. .. ed. . be read It made on self-portrait poster one-person exhibition. and Gender onstitution. glamor sees her art as "seduction. For the Since the women's movement. pp. 7- a conversation with the ot text see it. more punishment for Hannah right Wilke. therefore.. but her her roles as beautiful and own woman and contusion artist. Sonnabend in I the time. 57. . of the Morris-Benglis collaboration. the Castelli- a present and ( 71. 64. quoted 66. p. spiked dog collar. Atlanta: 1 58. p. 1 New York: 1987). 270." of Art." p. Susan in 68. and Annette Michelson. Ibid. Farver and Lowery does point out no. Benglis the "hermaphroditic" character of the image: / was alluding something: mocking art and to the sexual "hype" advertising. 125-26. The condition embody state." The Feminist Art journal ol feminist. in at man who invokes it For further details it. 1991 ) in Phenomenologv and Sue-Ellen Case. but she 67. . in Reflections 1967-1987. exh. 42. has begun she to do performances tion with her sculpture. Performing Feminisms: Feminist Critical Theory Benglis produced this image in dialogue with and Theatre Baltimore: lohns Hopkins Robert Morris. kind of his writing critical Granted. New York: Routledge. p." good too little 61. I — to was be was could mock both sexes.) I 175 ." "Postfeminism. 125) I — good exam- a is embodied Mythic Being that Acconci's self- woman considered artist are was acts of narcissism." p. You the perfect condition in a neither/nor had to take glasses because to a mocking stance with the me it's an impersonal state not to reveal anything. 4-5. 34. p. surrogate tor the penis itself. lones. 33. editors were Kozloff. how I . to mock male either a My intention the idea of haying to take sides involved with artist or a female. pp. Clad in the — p. Museum High I p.. lones. "Postfeminism. "Postfeminism. 34. loseph of the letter and flaunts her body in parody of the role she actually plays in real The Artforum Max own consid- is when she be true to . 59-60. as flirt and Pleasures level (Lippard. .) I — A Case of Sexual p. You Her) (1974-75). Alternative artist in 1996. Adrian Piper: Museum. 2. For a description indulgent antics are considered art while those by an attractive was provided by the his explanation "Pains and Pleasures of Rebirth. "Performative Acts and Gender An Essay in Feminist Theory. that exposed her to on a personal as well as on an criticism commentary about Nostalgia." ple ot Feminism's discomfort with art. of the ten-part series The Diamond. 4 author on Katharina Sieverding. her [sic] girl in "crucial critical trope" at the 199ns. ludith Butler. r E\ er always veiled. p. See Flin Diamond's "Introduction." pp. pp. The idea of the hermaphrodite is ideal because then you employ and embody without contradicting. Masheck. 128." p. "Pains 63. Constitution: exit. 1990). who was her lover should. cat. see Schor.. "Lynda Benglis winter 19-4-75). 9. conjunc- in Lawrence Alloway. p. note 9s. -o. 1990 1. see ibid. its Morris's poster For a discussion ot is this reproduced on image and relation to the veiled phallus. 62. I is a contradiction in itself. 39-46. p. . and Jones. "Performative Acts York." in ( ritical Theory.

1994 Gelatin silver print. 24 x 20 inches (61 x 50.Delia Grace Jat k's Back.8 ( 176 ourtesy of the artist cm) .

JUDITH HALBERSTAM

Bathrooms, Butches, and the Aesthetics of Female Masculinity

Recently,

on

my way to

need

airport. Feeling the
I

give a talk in Minneapolis,

had

I

to

make

to use the facilities, to freshen up, to relieve myself,

strode purposefully into the

women's bathroom. No sooner had

was knocking on the door: "Open up, security here!" As soon
their error,

again,

mumbled

On

security.

that

same

Needless to
port,

and took

apologies,

had been mistaken

I

trip,

where people are

man

for a

I

in Denver's

new

literally

as

I

at

Chicago's O'Hare

and other euphemisms,

entered the

stall

spoke, the two guards realized

I

some woman

airport, the

what

(fearing

bathrooms

is

in

ways that cause them to want

many androgynous

room

masculine women. Indeed,

so frequent that one wonders whether the category

used to designate public functions

no accident

It is

that travel

is

and

tion, "You're in the

gender seems

at

and brings us

of

all

is

up

participants aware of otherwise invisible gender standards

against the laws that bind

really says

two

women

to femininity.

different things. First,

it

odds with your sex (your apparent masculinity or androgyny
it

"woman" when

merely an intensified version of a larger "bathroom prob-

all its

wrong bathroom,"

supposed femaleness); second,

suggests that single-gender

bathrooms

The frequency with which
suggests that a large

announces that your
is

at

odds with your

are only for those

I

and others

I

know

are mistaken for

number of feminine women spend

a large

men

in public

in

who

fit

more

likely to

become

bathrooms

amount of time and energy

masculine women. Something very different happens, of course, in the men's public
is

The accusa-

one category (male) or the other (female).

clearly into

space

or

hubs become zones of intense scrutiny and observation. But gen-

The bathroom problem makes

their violation

in the lives

completely outmoded.'

der policing within airport bathrooms
lem."

occurrence

to

However, having one's gender

challenged in the women's rest
it is

called

intensified in the realm of the air-

as they traverse others (state).

a frequent

had

exactly?)

same sequence of events was repeated.

moving through space and time

is

than someone

understood immediately what had happened. Once

or a boy, and

some boundaries (gender) even

stabilize

off.

the policing of gender within

say,

connection

a

policing

toilet,

where the

a sexual cruising zone than a site for gender repression. Lee

Edelman,

an essay about the interpenetration of nationalism and sexuality, argues that "the institutional

men's

room

charge."'

constitutes a site at

Noting the significance of the juxtaposition of public urinals with private

comments: "Indeed, the
that

which the zones of public and private cross with a

would

still

effort to provide a space of privacy interior to the

in other

stalls,

men's room

Edelman

itself,

a space

be subject to some degree of public regulation and control, had encouraged by 1964

the increasing popularity of the coin-operated toilet

room,

distinctive psychic

5

stall

within the public washroom." The men's

words, constitutes both an architecture of surveillance and an incitement to desire, a

space of potential homosocial interaction and homoerotic interaction.
*.

i~

may

Sex-segregated bathrooms
also

produce and extend

society.

4

The bathroom

or a parody of

it,

outdated notion of a public/private

a rather

is

a

women from

be necessary to protect

domestic space beyond the

home

between male and female

split

comes

that

male predations, but they

to represent

out in the world. The women's bathroom accordingly becomes a sanctuary of

room"

which one

powder

enhanced femininity,

a "little-girl's

The men's bathroom

signifies as the extension of the public nature of masculinity

to

retreats to

one's nose or fix one's hair.

domestic even though the names given to the sexual space of the bathroom

"tearoom"

—suggest

bathroom

are primarily gender codes; in the men's

a

it is

—such

room

Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing

home

on the pro-

take

the liminality of the

bathroom

and females," and she observes that the

room

rest

is

both female-to-male (FTM) and male-to-female (MTF) cross-dressers and
the men's

room

FTM

represents the

most severe

test

cultural paranoia of being caught in the ultimately

same

place,

depends

for cross-

a "potential Waterloo" for

For the

transsexuals.''

of his ability to pass, and advice frequently

communities about how to go unnoticed

pleasure of 'passing' in that

in

& Cultural Anxiety in a chapter on the perils and privileges of cross-

Garber discusses the very different modes of passing and cross-dressing

identified genetic males

culates within

as "cottage" or

they are sexual codes. Private gender versus

comments upon

portions of a gender factory. Marjorie Garber

dressing. Here,

precisely not

it is

parody of the domestic. The codes that dominate within the women's

public sex, discretely repressive versus openly sexual, bathrooms beyond the

FTM,

domestic order,

wrong

in part

in

place,

cir-

male-only spaces. Garber notes: "The

which may be inseparable from the

on the same

cultural binarism, the idea that

gender categories are sufficiently uncomplicated to permit self-assortment into one of the two
'rooms' without deconstructive reading."
not) that the perils for passing

MTFs

in the

women's room.

nized because

men

other hand,

caught, the

him, and

if

it is

On

will

it is

worth pointing out here

men's

the one hand, the

room

FTM

FTM may face some
and

only because Garber does

(if

from the

are very different
in the

are not quite as vigilant about intruders as

men's room

women,

for

is

FTM

likely to

version of gender panic from the

fear violence in the

of passing

perils

be

less scruti-

On

obvious reasons.

wake of such

be more scrutinized in the women's room but possibly

caught. Because the

over his head,

It is

in the

quite reasonable to expect

by comparison,
if

FTMs

7

man who

a discovery.

less

open

the

discovers

The MTF,

punishment

to

ventures into male territory with the potential threat of violence hanging

crucial to recognize that the

machinery of gender segregation and

is

bathroom problem

is

much more

than

a glitch in the

better described in terms of the violent enforcement of our

current gender system.
Garber's reading of the perilous risks of using rest

out of her introductory discussion of what Jacques Lacan
recall,

calls

for

both

FTMs and MTFs

develops

we may

"urinary segregation."" Lacan,

uses the term to describe the relations between identities and signifiers, choosing the simple

diagram of the rest-room signs "Ladies" and "Gentlemen"
ual difference,

primacy

naming confers

is

to

show

granted to the signifier over that which

rather than reflects meaning. In the

ates the very functionality of the categories

and

rooms

it

that,

within the production of sex-

signifies; in

more simple

terms,

same way, the system of urinary segregation

"men" and "women." While rest-room

ratify distinctions that already exist, in actual fact these

signs

seem

cre-

to serve

markers produce identifications within

these constructed categories. Garber latches onto the notion of urinary segregation because

it

helps

her to describe the processes of cultural binarism within the production of gender; for Garber, transvestites

and transsexuals challenge

and "Gentlemen." Garber uses the

178

this

system by resisting the

figures of the transvestite

literal

translation of the signs "Ladies"

and the transsexual

to

show

the obvious

and gaps

flaws

binary gender system; the transvestite as interloper creates, for Garber, a "third

in a

space of possibility" within which

become

binaries

all

unstable." Unfortunately, as in

attempts to

all

break a binary by producing a third term, Garber's third space tends to stabilize the other two.

Edelman

uses Lacan's diagram to
desire

term "urinary segregation"

also turns to Lacan's

and about the

difference.'"

mark

heterosexual anxiety "about the potential inscriptions of homosexual

knowing or recognizing whatever might

possibility of

While for Garber,

1

the transvestite

it is

"Ladies" and "Gentlemen," for Edelman,

it is

who marks

the passing

of these various destabilizing performances. As

drama of the men's room avoids

the

I

am

constitute 'homosexual

the instability of the markers

homosexual who does

Both Garber and Edelman, interestingly enough, seem to

the

of the "tearoom," but he

in his discussion

fix

upon

so.

room

the men's

as the site

arguing here, however, focusing exclusively on

much more

complicated theater of the women's room.

Garber writes of urinary segregation: "For transvestites and transsexuals, the 'men's room' problem
really a challenge to the

way

in

which such cultural binarism

is

read.""

She goes on to

list

some

is

cine-

matic examples of the perils of urinary segregation, discussing scenes from Tootsie (Sydney Pollack,

Cabaret (Bob Fosse, 1972), and Female Impersonator Pageant (1975). Garber's examples are odd

1982),

illustrations of "the

men's-room problem"

demonstrates gender policing

in the

women's room.

"In fact, the urinal has appeared in a

—or studied

only because

room while

der policing happens in the men's

'difference'

if

indifference."

the

Garber makes

Also,

women's room

number of fairly
IJ

one of her examples,

at least

sound

as if vigorous gen-

more benign

a

is

it

Tootsie,

zone. She notes,

recent films as a marker of the ultimate

Obviously, Garber

is

drawing

a parallel here

between the con-

ventions of gender attribution within which the penis marks the "ultimate difference"; however, by

not moving beyond this remarkably predictable description of gender differentiation, she overlooks
the

main

in the

distinction between gender policing in the men's

women's room, not only the

men

the men's room, biological

(as

fifth, sixth,

opposed

to the

but

are rarely

third space of possibility occupied

fourth,

MTF

all

room and

in the

women's room. Namely,

gender-ambiguous females are scrutinized, while

deemed out of place. Garber's

insistence that there

is

in

a

by the transvestite closes down the possibility that there may be a

or one-hundredth space beyond the binary. In

"men's-room problem") indicates

fact,

a multiplicity of

the

"women's-room problem"

gender displays even within the

supposedly stable category of "woman."

What

gender, then, are the hundreds of people born female

female in the women's room?

we not begun
answer

this

as a society

to

count and

And

name

question in two ways:

we

are

committed

since so

many women

who

clearly fail the

women's-room

the genders that are clearly emerging at this time?

On

the one hand,

we do not name and

to maintaining a binary gender system.

also say that the failure of "male"

are consistently not read as

and "female"

to exhaust the field of

On

notice

and female, the categories gain power and currency.

why

have

One could

new

genders because

the other hand,

we could

gender variation actually

ensures the continued dominance of these terms. Precisely because virtually
tions of male

test,

Finally, as

nobody
I

fits

the defini-

suggested in relation to

Garber's arguments about transvestism, "thirdness" merely balances the binary system and, further-

more, tends to homogenize
It is

many

remarkably easy in

parison, to not look like a

different gender variations

this society to

not look

why

is

woman;

it is

relatively difficult,

man. So another question posed by the bathroom problem might

makes femininity so approximate and masculinity so
spin,

like a

under the banner of "other."

precise?

Or

by combe,

what

to pose the question with a different

femininity easily impersonated or performed while masculinity seems resistant to imita-

".

179

tion?

Of course,

opposite:

this

Why is

it,

formulation does not easily hold and, indeed, quickly collapses into the exact

in the case of the

masculine

woman

bathroom, that one finds the

in the

femininity so quickly while the limits of masculinity in the men's

We

might tackle these questions by thinking about the

room seem

effects, social

fairly

and

limits of

expansive?

cultural, of reversing

gender typing. In other words, what are the implications of male femininity and female masculinity?

Male Body," Susan Bordo laments

In "Reading the

"when masculinity

that

gets symbolically 'undone'

in this culture, the deconstruction nearly always lands us in the territory of the degraded, while

femininity gets symbolically undone, the result

terms of gender

irreversibility slightly; here

male masculinity while

sullies

example proves that

this

is

not

all

is

an immense elevation

Bordo seems

changes the

in status."" This

to suggest that even a hint of the feminine

masculinizations of femaleness are elevating.

so.)

when

think

(I

my bathroom

Her examples of elevated masculine females include the heroines

of Thelma and Louise (Ridley Scott, 1991), Linda Hamilton in The Terminator (James Cameron, 1984),

and Sigourney Weaver

in Aliens (Ridley Scott, 1986).

performances of female masculinity quite tame

is

It is

not

their resolute heterosexuality.

female masculinity conjoins with possibly queer identities,
is

difficult to see that

important when thinking about gender variations

like

it is

far less likely to

what renders these

When and where
meet with approval.

male femininity and female masculinity not

simply to create another binary. In Bordo's reading, masculinity everywhere and always

power; in alternative models of gender variation, female masculinity
female femininity nor

a female version of

is it

It

is

signifies

not simply the opposite of

male masculinity. Rather,

as

we

some of the

shall see in

artwork and gender performances discussed below, very often the unholy union of femaleness and
masculinity produces wildly unpredictable results.

A«U

J
<

/<\,

Many theorists

have observed that gender

by which gender

is

is

one

a technology,

that

works

rendered natural. In other words, the apparent "givenness" of gender

nology, and while femininity often manifests as technical effect or simply as

draws

its

Monique

power from

its

seeming

Wittig, writes in

to be 'sexed'; to be 'sexed'

stability

and organic

is

always a

way of becoming

artificial,

qualities. Judith Butler, for

Gender Trouble: Feminism and

system participate in the form of the universal person."

14

and

The systems

relative,

is its

tech-

masculinity

example, following

the Subversion of Identity:

particular

mechanisms

to obscure the

"To be male

and males within

is

not

this

that sustain the conflation of

maleness and universality are various, of course, but can generally be described as compulsory heterosexuality within capitalism. While Garber, as

binarism of gender

is

either thirdness or the Utopian

mances within parodic

and

yet,

resisted. Butler,

ungendered space, arguing

repetition. In a project

sense to go with Wittig's

bility";

saw, feels that the only

way out of the

cultural

to valorize a disruptive third term, Wittig believes that the very categories

"man" and "woman" must be refused and

make

we

call for

on

on the other hand,

refuses to invest in

for the proliferation of

gender perfor-

alternative masculinities, such as mine,

all

does not

the abolition of gender or with Garber's "third space of possi-

while the notion of parodic performance as theorized in Gender Trouble

obvious starting point for

it

attempts to cast masculinities without men,

we need

a

may be

more

the

descriptive

account than Butler's of the places within representation where corporeality and performance conspire to

i8o

produce masculinity with

a difference.

in this latest butch older harassment. mercenaries. the action-adventure film. 1989). In Goldeneye. but. parody or exposure of the norm.— One might begin by pointing out that it is relatively simple to expose the mechanisms of even dominant male masculinity. battles the usual array of femme type. Other assaults upon dominant gender regimes come from queer butch which might include drag king shows. queer subject masculinity of Agent as its which Bond goes science nerd gives one with great enthusiasm. is the action flick. In the scene in Agent version of normative masculinity. heterosexual bodies. and. a laser-weapon watch. charms — bad suits and lots little if Bond woman who flick. calls namely. butch art and performance. Bond's boss. in this rather actionless film. as passive and who embodies a normative standard of male beauty and male porn characterizes black asexual. In terms of drag king performances. theatrical roles. In Goldeneye. the most masculinist of does so all the time. his male buddy betrays him and for his bomb something curiously lacking is power. They Within Looking for —can undo also have the power the to reorga- itself. For example. for a representation of the technology of masculinity. 1995). suggests that pornographic narrative structures assume a white male viewer this scopic field. middle-class. Goldeneye (Martin Campbell. So. — which seem as old women seem and as ineffective as his primarily prosthetic and. phallic hierarchic relations between nize masculinity and Asian men of color that disrupt this representational code Langston (Isaac Julien. Since masculinity tends undermines the heterosexuality of the hero even Bond's masculinity women. femininity and masculinity signi- normative within and through white. The gay absolute dependence of dominant masculinities locations. credible mascu- Bond dinosaur and chas- a him of sexual His secretary. writing about gay male porn. has disguised as a pen. and the female masculinity of We Q might read is indeed an M provide a remarkable representation of the upon minority masculinities. Miss Moneypenny. if embody an extreme find that excessive masculinity turns into a gender to manifest as natural ly itself. for example. Minority masculinities and femininities destabilize binary gender systems in fy as embodiment but exposes the workings of dominant heterosexual masculinity. and she does so partly by exposing the sham of Bond's own performance. his up to pick brand-new that the science nerd his newest accessories is called set of gadgets. Masculinity. M who convinces us that sextechnical special effect. we emphasis on prosthetic extension. him Bond is a dupe. Q with linked not only to a profoundly unnatural form of masculine also to gay masculinities. or art featuring gender-variant subjects. 13 Films by artists men as excessively sexual and wholly desirability. to separate masculinity from the oppression of action-adventure hero should has it As many feminist and antiracist critics many different have commented. actual- model of the interpenetration of queer and dominant regimes. ultimately. and a superaggressive. most recent James Bond to the film. Nazis. and countless it signifies It not to go more often as a M who most convincingly performs masculinity. The not impossible. But there line tises — a retractable belt. He bad guys: Commies. a and demonstrates each Agent Q. indeed. a is a noticeably for being a misogynist and a sexist. accuses calls him of sexual innuendo gadgets. violent puts on his usual performance of debonair action-adventure hero and has his usual supply of gadgetry to aid him and so on. M. other action films. for example dominant and minority sexualities. it is It is ism and misogyny are not necessarily part and parcel of masculinity even though historically become difficult. in anything to do with biological maleness. Richard Fung. stars like Elvis Herselvis or Tony Las Vegas (performed by Julie 4 v^ I K 181 . we could look film genres. 1988) and Tongues Untied (Marlon Riggs. in Goldeneye. campy and almost queeny agent — as a perfect a It is who Q no accident Bond it extends his masculinity. instead.

females as staged. the masculinities that offer up subversions of recognizably dominant male masculinity tend to be nonwhite. Second. example." to these is finds butch iconicity to be less about rary queer dyke culture. my argument I drag." She states correctly. partic- . and does not properly express strong models of lesbian identity. 1990 Photographed by Phyllis Murray's analysis. butch identity has a complicated relation to notions of lesbian 182 that consciousness in which the butch simply lacks trying to masculine women. Exhorting the audiences in dyke clubs to "show us yer close to other for tits" and standing far too onstage with him. one of the very few In kings. community and lesbian visibility and. on the topic of lesbian masculinities themselves. Tony reeks of the tricks of misogyny. in relation to Murray. for example) or explicitly performative middle-class masculinities like the lounge lizard. Murray redefining masculinity and marker of lesbian torical Where we more about appropriating male power. dominant male masculinity or an instance of in the to an his- belongs to 1950s lesbian communities but not to contempo- play with the feminine. Wheeler manages to parody masculinity by performing most unnatural and obviously staged women its aspect: sexism."' about the apparent also agree with her that the woman has less to grab on to when 7 stability of male masculinity concurs with forms of masculinity available for parody tend to be Christopher either working-class masculinities (the construction worker. "don't masculine the way gay diverge. Tony's manipulations of a stagy and theatrical masculinity draw attention not simply to the performative aspect of masculinity but also to the places where nonperformativity has ideological impli- by exposing smarmy male attentions to cations. reason. As Tony Las Vegas. Furthermore. as play with mas- something they express or embody. may it are gender deviants not lesbian feel free to women. For this into a general term for "behavior women do something separate from (and what "masculinity" has also been produced make masculinity Murray does. by feel free to Ifi arguments by saying. ultimately. She reduces butchness visibility that I men would respond culinity does not belong to patriarchy. associated with males. A longer project of which it is specifically What it is may is am I a part) is false that to position masculinity as play with but not a quality they what we who inaccurate and indeed regressive to show it is crucial to recognize that as either in this essay call mas- an appropriation of that is demonstrated all and often lesbians. "A doing individual Elvis Herselvis Obviously. popular misunderstanding of lesbian butchness depicts by women. has not only been produced by men. the drag king refuses any construction of misogyny as the natural order of things. Sarah Murray articles in print asks provocatively: into a distinct theatrical genre own She answers her among on the "Why topic of drag hasn't drag developed lesbians in the United States?" question by drawing 1 upon conventional notions of lesbian invisibility and by remarking on the "naturalization of the masculine. first. In other words. however." To argue then. as culinity play with the men.Wheeler) turn dominant masculinity around by parodying male superstardom and working conventional modes of performed sexism and misogyny comedy into successful routines. and she suggests that lesbians.

the patriarch. She moves easily back and forth between various personae: she is the fighter. male clothing mances may To be perfectly as drag actually is not a costume but represents she does mention transgender figures like Billy Tipton. to lesbian drag. For come from femme drag this reason. Shaw. Shaw makes bodied person inhabiting each role and that each role part of her gender identity. There is no question here part and parcel of her lesbianism rather than a drag identity.8 cm Photographed by Tanya Braganti her article because she cannot account for what happens part of an identity effect. In order to play among a variety of masculine identifications. and transgender butches in particular. some of the do not wear best drag king perfor- kings like Shelley Mars. In a slightly different kind of butch theater. we have yet to determine what it Murray L. the crooner. the bread- winner. — they embody masculinity.6 x 50. she exist on is it is clear that she is is a female- not forced to become her already "just like" her father and their masculinities parallel planes. butches appropriate women to may not be the most do male drag. 1^ 4 ^ 5 g 183 . performers who maintain a dis- junctive between gender and performed gender. restaging masculinity is Peggy Shaw represents female masculinity as a pugnacious and gritty staging —of family dynamics via the butch daughter. Murray avoids any substantive discussion of transgenderism in Gelatin-silver print. ly When identities. 16 x 20 inches (40. that Shaw's Shaw becomes her mother's substitute husband and her lovers' substitute fathers and brothers and constructs her own masculinity by reworking and improving the masculinities she observes around her. and uses feminine pronouns to talk about their per- butches. Since so little has been written on lesbian masculinity that does not reduce to a stereotype of the lesbian or a pathetic parody of maleness. father or to appropriate his maleness. she incorrect- and imprecisely characterizes them formed when drag as "female" clear. In each of these roles. 1996 tions might be to either lesbian or transgender definition. furthermore. the romeo. Furthermore. that is. Hill as John Travolta its Gallagher and Penelope Tuesdae and Olivia relaNewton-John. A.— ) Betsey ularly. the soldier. a queer performance-art piece called You're Just Like My Father (1995).

Opie's lush photographic S/M communities put early projects. the camera zooms on the in model's face (often even cropping the top of the head). and their colorful displays of tattoos and body markings single them out for photographic glory. While Opie's work is often her to public spaces. confronted with the hormonally and surgically altered bodies of transgender pierced and scarred skin of the butch dyke. Indeed. moreover. it's not like like that. setting a female face. In one of her framed portraits of mustachioed or yellow backdrops. of the portraits look very sad. that facial hair. exhibitionists." 2 Opie's images of bearded. and their scene has become a public spectator sport. what Some I mean. I bedroom and out Opie puts visual aesthetic of alternative masculinities. the facial hair appears to be Opie's work. transforms them into "abstract signs" and leaves the spectator free to be a voyeur. 184 adding a we look at men Whether we are or the tattooed and bodies that display layered and multiple identi- gender dimension unassimilable within the boundaries of "man" or "woman. or binarism. of the portraits. In each shot.The ic fleshing out of female masculinities has not been limited to theatrical arenas. suppose. if we her photographs within a larger context of productions of female masculinity. in which. macy between model and In ficiality many of the remains gender ambiguous. The stare of the spectator is forced to be admiring and appreciative rather than simply objectifying and voyeuristic. One reviewer of Opie's 1994 show. I think they have this distant gaze but they are never pathetic. piercings. hut I try to make amount of dignity. The close-up articulates what artist. the portraits stare hack. Indeed. entitled Being bearded faces we can watch set against startling members of portraits of a particular version of female masculinity and Having. The tattoos. despite its proximity. as cross-dressing models take their performances "both into the They are. rests sense of gender congruity. The power of the gaze Opie portrait always. she vigorously denies such a comparison: / try to stared present people with an extreme at. men compared ' create a powerful to Diane Arbus's because both take as subject so-called misfits and freaks. critics insist that sciously take place at its at a male or complexity when we determine whether we real." 1 ' But. In relies inti- not readily available to the viewer. in others. this gaze replicates the hostile stares that the street. That's Diane Arbus or anything I mean. pierced." . of gender seems spectacularly irrelevant. they're always going to he the relationship is all ahout. and Catherine Opie and Delia Grace. that the isolation of each subject within the stylized frame of the photograph. and own literally. Opie created a series of body becoming mas- the female on dyke. and body modifications that mark the Opie model become in her portraits far more than the signifiers of outlaw status. 2 ' Opie's insistence that her portraits "stare back" creates an interesting power dynamic not only between photographer and model but also between image and spectator. the camera comes close enough to the model's face to reveal the pause to wonder whether we are looking look is an feels like upon up many a visual trap: arti- we may of the commentaries on the "operations that almost uncon- man are looking at a or a woman. in this context. Portraits." But such an assessment ignores the disorienting in their effect of these pictures — the subjects are positively regal opulent settings. and tattooed dykes and transgender it. even of model probably faces every day in the in an with the image: the perpetual stare challenges the spectator's self. these portraits are not simply ambiguous — they are resolute images of female masculinity. with its commented brilliant color backdrop. an intimacy. bringing the spectator right up against a face that. in fact. and powerful ways. the ambiguity. In the photograph- work of artists like culine in stunning gender. fications. trans- display.

This image Grace has photographed repeatedly. wearing khaki pants mark see a sailor with his Navy-issue pants and a white cap and has a hand tucked into his waistband. x 22 inches (43. and. However. He wears white is closely shaven. Cadmus or Rainer Werner Fassbinder's Querelle (1982) or the However. given the many multigendered images of dykes word "DYKE" gives very few clues as to that Opie what the front of this body might look like. The pallor of the bodies and the smoothness of the shaven skin turn skin to marble. The breasts are just pronounced enough to are small enough and the torso is muscular enough to keep the ambiguity intact. and desire. and Los Angeles thus see gender as a complex set of negotiations between bodies. in many Chromogenic of Grace's photographs an action defines gender ambigui- 17 print. 1991 Grace's images of gender-ambiguous bodies are. the inscription dispels gender ambiguity by declaring on the other hand.Catherine Opie Wolfe. In jack Unveiled (1994). ty in relation to a set of sexual practices. but has produced. the back belongs to Jackie. In her photographs of butch bodies.2 x 55. x 22 inches (43." but they is tightly now see and pulling an army T-shirt over her head. after mythological and beauty even from the Being and Having series. refusing the traditional softness of femininity. In Jack's Back (1994). Opie also uses back shots to make gender unreadable.2 x 55. we Her photos often feature two or more bodies in play. framed. The back of the head image bank of gay we face mus- Jackie head is still exposed. her torso (Jack's front) Jackie as a broad and manly. embrace.. stylized portraits in the Mapplethorpe tradition. the hair. While the model's partially obscured. In Catherine Opie Triad (1992). the shoulders are could have been plucked from Paul cled butch whom erotica. a beautifully built and "woman. back toward us. of a head of very short the body lesbian. we on. Grace borrows from gay male erotic imagery to construct a context for an unself-conscious female masculinity. she always grants her titling the models photographs dignity. for example. photographing them in classical costume or subjects. The word "DYKE" On is a torso set tattooed in Gothic script just below the neckline the one hand. Grace frequently affords her subjects an almost mythical Chromogenic 17 treatment. 1991 print. as does Opie. In Dyke (1994). ^ 185 . we see against an elaborate backdrop. three shaven and bald female bodies are intertwined in a three-way /. power. identities.9 cm) Courtesy of Regen Projects. from the Being and Having series. Los Angeles as she exposes them to the gaze.9 cm ) Courtesy of Regen Projects. framed. like Opie's.

Delia Grace Jack Unveiled. 1994 Gelatin-silver print.8 Courtesy of the 186 artist cm) . 24 x 20 inches (61 x 50.

a refusal to Chromogenic print. but Fair. While Opie's and Grace's portraits often make 187 . published. sits Opie uncomfortably close to one of Opie's arm dispels curiosity about notes about this self-portrait: "It says a lot what the front of the body might of different things.) Catherine Opie Dyke. be a surface for inscriptions. man. allowing return the gaze with piercing a space to open up for both gen- der variation and different inscriptions of the sexed body.Portrait (1993). her husband. words and drawings. to view. In Los Angeles another back shot. Demi Moore appeared on the cover of the August 1992 Vanity naked but for a painted man's suit. childlike Self. image of two Opie exposes her own back stick figures in skirts reveal. art and desire. below a bubble cloud. Opie's cuttings and the tattoos and scars on the bodies of both Opie's and Grace's models stand in direct opposition to another recent and popular image of gender bending created by the photographer Annie Leibovitz.6 x 76. Cut into the skin is a holding hands. 1993 Chromogenic print. we will be reminded of how body it fiercely heterosexual suit precisely fails to suggest and gender invariant popular culture tends to be. Moore's even a mild representation of female masculinity precisely because so anxiously emphasizes the femaleness of her body. in blood." 23 While so many of Opie's photographs literally back shots circumvent the question of the gaze. seemingly etched tattoos. 40 x 30 inches (101.2 cm) Courtesy of Regen Projects.6 x 76. The picture. Inside the magazine were further pictures of the painted suit and leaning over the body of a sleeping tographs were considered innovative and challenging Moore. wearing These phoif we juxta- pose Leibovitz's images of Moore's painted body with the gender art of Opie and Grace. the you. One of them Catherine Opie Self-Portrait. 1992 Opie's and Grace's "back art" They want gender literally to is engage with the all-too-easy game of gender ambiguity. 40 x 30 inches (101.2 cm Courtesy of Regen Projects. Bruce when they were first still Willis. standing in front of a stick house. is that Los Angeles I have my back to stares. Turning the back into As the artist a canvas.

have tried to chart the implications of gender policing and gender performances with- in public spaces and By making such a to map them onto move. excessively strange. from butch bodies to and a Utopian vision of radically different bodies bodies. the Moore images represent femaleness as that which confers most conventional of masculine facades (the suit). gadgets. into being a categories of male toilets it we will seems to new set of and change the func- me that there are difference. simply does not as a signifying system in these arenas can be exploited to hasten the proliferation of alternate gender regimes in other locations. From drag kings to spies with their technologies are already .no effort to femininity make femaleness upon even the visible. gender and sexuality and simply a matter of keeping them that way. Nor do tion of dominant genders within heteropatriarchal I to suggest that some very obvious spaces work and that the in outmoded by simply desegregating public which gender breakdown of gender cultures. as conventionally described. By contrast. However. 188 It is FTM sexualities. art I of gender. the female masculinity in the work of Opie and Grace offers a glimpse into worlds where alternative masculinities make an In this essay. I do not wish to suggest that we can magically wish properly descriptive genders that would put pressure on the mean female.

and substantially this essay. 2 l6 Calhoun suggests that the category no. "Catherine Opie Projects." philosopher Jacob Hale uses Wittig's radical may term this precise in the Garber. 83. 8. Barbara Cruikshank. index Edelman. 22. 13-16. 23. PP. her essay "The Straight Mind. "Dragon Ladies. 3. although the Some people Bad Photographer Catherine Opie Documents and H8. 1993). Hale. entitled of different. "The Gender Closet: Lesbian no. it 11. (New York: Obviously. Why Male and Female Are Not Enough. (New York: in Routledge. Gender Trouble: pp. 19. and Sex with Furniture. 1 Feminism and New York: Homosexual Communities. Ibid."' 1 My Gay Video Seattle: Reflections Calhoun. November Routledge. p.. title on the femi- to insist work. 441). Draggin' Men: Some "woman" ( Richard Fung. Vested men. Vested Dressing & Interests: Cross- Cultural Anxiety Routledge. p. to think about other exclusionary public space. 29. Public Culture David Pagel. the Subversion of Identity Routledge. no. argued women" in Wittig. p. 14. that "lesbians are not relations to Wittig p. 121.. p. and even amusing. 179 ( — Regen December 1994)." Flash For an examination of differing notions of Anne all there "The 1996). Drag and winter 1994). Judith Butler. is presently working a project. 47. p. genetic and biological gender. 1992). Gender: Public Life.7-34- Penis: Porn. Feminine Gaze" seems Ibid. The continued "woman" viability of the category has already been challenged in a Monique variety of academic locations: most notably. For a discussion of the "third" in more claim to theorize the possibility of gendered p." that tries to upon gender-based exclusion 6. 21. Susan Bordo. 344. it. "Tearooms and Sympathy. see ibid. (spring 1995). embodiments on (ibid. 20-24. This is trivi- involved not to say that gender can never be a "laughing matter" and must always be treated seriously but only to question the use of the pun as a theoretical method. it is also trou- The constant use of puns throughout book has the overall effect of der crossing sound like a game making gen- or at least alizes the often life-or-death processes in cross-identification. 18. 19941. 4 14.Notes An earlier. Feminist Studies 19. for example. 15 Object Choices. Interests. "Catherine Opie with Ferguson" (interview). "The Five Sexes: things produced by is women. 721. Sarah Murray. 9. 1. 9-13. 1992). the Water Closet. pp. "The Feminine Gaze: Lesbian Daddy/Boy Subculture. called "Flushing Toilets and Public This is a great early expand in public toilets Fausto-Sterling. Ferguson." Art Issues p. Cheshire 5. Video and Film male and female. "Catherine Opie. and Other Essays Boston: Beacon Press. no. Let's this Russell no.. version "Techno-Homo: Bathrooms." p. see Women?" Hypatia 11. Elsewhere.. 2 (April Michael Cohen." The Advocate. p.. Mariorie Garber. 145-68. 160. 113. P. Ibid. 1990). "woman. 1991. 1991)." transgender that exceed p." Michigan Quarterly Review 32. "Looking for Eroticized Asian in (spring 1996). nothing feminine about Russell Ferguson. p." lenge to the category 4. Disappearance under the Sign "Woman. p. they cannot occupy the posi- "woman. "Reading the Male Body." The Sciences 33 (March-April 1993). Ibid. 94-121. 189 . 6. 45. for example. pp. "Catherine Opie. Lee Edelman. 20. Although Garber never uses Jennifer Terry. Index 1. Butches. 30. 13." in in Gay (New York: Literary Bay Press. 159. The Straight Mini! tion her general terms. "Tearooms and Sympathy The Epistemology of Homographesis: Essays Cultural Theory or. text. Ibid. see 21. ed. does appear 10." was published in Melody Calvert and eds. Anna Maria Smith." in Wittig. pp." actually "operate as a lesbian closet". Garber's use of the term "Waterloo" makes a pun out of the drama of bathroom pun is bling. 2 ( 1. 360. Ibid. p. social construction of The How Do I Look? Queer (September-October 1994). 1997). 356..98. p. review of Opie's work. "Are Lesbians (fall p. claims that since lesbians are refusing primary 2.. no." in on Gender. see. Art 27. another philosophical chal- In 12. the clever While the surveillance. pp. are currently writing about the ninitv ot gender within the oper- face ation of sex-segregated bathrooms. Processed Lives 7.

.

sitting on the back porch of our brownstone waiting for a father but I remember that in the Bronx. He never came. and . vague now. It's mother reading. spent an increasing amount of time. again. terrible sense was hiding I I am It in We were to Charleston. I getting ready to go to the park. And my room where if I wasn't playing. ready since eight a. age seven. Now waiting for father. trying to figure out manage absence. busying ourselves with exteriors.si she had been here before and was seeking refuge there. and our bags were packed. staring with a is silent. I think my brother was reading too.m. with an image of me. resolute familiarity through her glasses at another book. as if si. and in a maybe we each are. sitting by the door. who would never arrive. was now two./ have to take you elsewhere. or maybe we were both running around playing. I how to understand that not only were we wi we were resisting the idea of him. still waiting for him. or down south somewhere.

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Flash Art 26. in 1995. Janine Antoni that the industrially fabricated forms of their Minimalist forebears. VIVIEN GREENE. the experience of that Whether sculpted with her tinued to invest her projects with both a temporal and corporeal teeth. reflecting her acute awareness of history and and Dublin: patriarchal constitution. in 1994. their geometric lines bear the disfiguring Whitney is exhibitions throughout the United States and Europe. first Exh. Janine Anioni (b. brochure. desire that also mediate one's relaJanine Antoni/Matrix 129. sleeping. Antoni's work. Antoni physical activities as their point of departure while a graduate able to interrupt conventional equations concerning the female student at the Rhode Island School of Design. January 19. I iii/i/i . in is recalls Eleanor Antin's Carving: which the artist "sculpted" her A fig- diet regimen. Dublin. Antoni's art operates in the space between processes and reveals the ways in which our experiences of the object body have been meanings. its ure by means of a rigorous own body on which she draws. cat. bathing. . and PerForms: Charles Ray. Her work has been the subject of solo exhibitions upon intimate washing socially rituals and culturally conditioned. Since receiving an M. 1995. FIONA RAGHEB artists featured in the more information about them as well as other artists illustrated in this book." Interview with Janine Antoni. r. AND The biographies that follow are for the exhibition. creating work that makes manifest otherwise ephemeral painted with her hair. her dye-soaked hair. where the body consumer 1993). teeth. "Janine Antoni: Biting Sums sold and the and has been presented housing the masticated remains of lard and chocolate. administered by Art. first engage her the body. body is is overdeter- modeled with her tongue./( it Modern Prize. woven through Slip of die Tongue. Freeport. Hartford. Up My Relationship and the heart- lipsticks to Art History. the and performance. into site de Arte Reina Sofia. Laura. respectively. in 1992. with The choice of materials distances these cubes from their Modernist lineage while linking '93 Jana Sterbak. /n i u ill 11 if . recalling Mierle Laderman Ukeles's Maintenance Art Bahamas) 1964. her achievements were recognized the Irish for IMMA/Glen Dimplex Museum of The Hugo Boss Museum. she positions her drawing as eating. A Atheneum. Conn. f. Indeed. see sources listed in the accompanying each essay. In niques through the body. Yet the artist's them to the highly physical world. its pre- which Antoni "mops" or "paints" the floor with Irish Museum of Modern Art. While the art is emblematic of with the experiential realm of 600-pound cubes of lard and chocolate comprised the installation evoke ready associations with the traces of an act both critical and marks of Antoni's humorous. Exh.S^Mt6^ ' c/6 log ?^ah/tie^ TRACEY BASHKOFF. Madrid. 171 in which chocolates are frequently (summer objects of in Irish of the Venice Biennale. with honors in sculpture in 1989. Antoni's Museum communal of Modern numerous group the border between private Art. lives in Artists Award. Philadelphia. rich tissue ot art-historical precedents is 1996. in the use of her as a source of art the 1970s.F. Antoni a display . no. In 1996. For discussed notes and J. or element.: Wadsworth tionship to the body. In —such —whose meanings sphere. from the mid-1970s. 104-05. Antoni's performance confuses the distinctions between art and Janine Antoni began working on process-oriented pieces that take work. Antoni sented r 20 in 1992. in making and the is private experience most indebted clearly evoked in to feminist art of Loving Care.A. By also interjecting notions of feminine beauty. Glasgow: Centre for Contemporary Arts. — Crudo Biennial. - r. solo exhibition. Like series this earlier series. Cocido y in at the Museo Nacional Centro at the Institute of Contemporary Art. Glasgow. SUSAN CROSS. are constituted in the work on and Gnaw. Providence. as well as with her nomination administered by the Guggenheim New York. including Aperto artist's efforts to partially Contemporary 1995 at the Centre for and public realms. the 1993 Cottingham. which had shaped vacuum packaging of contested gendered spaces of the was reinforced by been transformed. pp. she has con- how body and to reveal mined by a host of societal forces. This association the Arts. This lineage reinterpretation of artistic tech- Gnaw Traditional Sculpture (1972).

" Otto also suggests autoeroticism. Blending athleticism and choreography with an beginning ineffable symbology of sexuality. 93. the —which he Edwardian photography — or the body and collected from childhood its as well as Modernist photographic trends. a Beaton continued to portray the British royal family over the next solo exhibition at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. tapioca. f. Appropriating conventions from Victorian and sitters as sexually as a sin- however. 'U </'/< < ft I' • ' " </' n tf . In this. 118-24. Artforum once at Barney 33. and Signer. activities he would pursue ener- provides the basis for Barney's meditation on sexual difference. these elaborately styled videos entertainment create an alternative cosmology of sexual with a collection of portraits of the social and in 1930 elite. Beaton's theatrical inclinations led Woven marking elapsed time gle oblong. and rococo costum- if sometimes emerging ambiguous ing. his clients. and work on Cremaster 5. at the age of twenty-four. discipline. he has created work that fuses sculptural installations with many in and 1995 Biennial exhibitions exhibitions.- Goodeve. pp. In addition to War II. 117. in 1989 for performance and video. erotic undercur- sexuality. and chorus girls. in a projected organized by the Deutsches Werkbund in Stuttgart. were staged at the university's athletic complex. becomes engorged Cecil Beaton attended private schools before enrolling at and is broken down. sternal retractors and speculums. creSpace." its Homonymic in altered For the closure city's high to orchestrate lux- cipherlike uriant portraits that fuse reflective surfaces throughout Barney's work. During World Museum Boymans-van engaged Beaton exhibition of his work that toured Europe throughout 1995 and abroad. — Barney has been included exhibitions. wax. him muscle and fashion. Jerry. his earliest works. and a range of pp. such as the 1993 a training Parkett 45 (1995). Barney was honored with and the aristocracy for the coronation of George VI. London. His singular vision foregrounds the physical rigors of sport and rents to explore the limits of the work artist's reflects his own body and its j. athletic England) model of development. Beaton in Otto's jersey and began number his form artist. San Francisco) Whitney Museum of American Matthew Barney graduated New from Yale University. which he was awarded the Europa 2000 New York and Haven. 9 (May 1995). and orifice self-imposed restraint. at the Aperto past as an athlete. his posed figures. he devised style that was simultaneously romantic and innovative. Beaton was the sole British photographer and screened at several film festivals. the . Thyrza Nichols. Sarah Lucas. pp. "Travels new attuned to a Art. moved In 1925. he photographed differentiation that pre- the Duke and Duchess of Windsor's wedding portraits as well as sents "a million different zones of sexual articulation. London to ongoing for the artist's exploration of a polymorphous sexuality. Barney's ritualistic actions unfold in artists. Within this alternative universe." Parkett 39 (1994). 1904. This trian- Cambridge University in 1922. Since then. ated at Yale. 82-91. Broadchalke. and in healing becomes stronger. He also series of five that allegorize the stages in the sexual differentiation achieved recognition for a number of photographic publications. viscous substances such as Wakefield. d. 10 ). Issue devoted to camp and medical Roman Matthew Barney." Art in America (October 1996 84. lives in third r. satyrs. Neville. "The Next Sex. January 22. 112. In 1937. to execute photographic portraits of that him society. body evident in the in Hypertrophia. and petroleum jelly. 1996. or coated with. blocking sleds. hybrid spaces that evoke Prize. and productivity raphy and theatrical endeavors. the currently at is international installment of his video cycle to be produced. props often cast in. The Book of Beauty. both British and Not only well-received in Broadcast on Dutch television the commercial realm. 25." royalty In 1991. 1967. equipped as they are with wrestling mats Saltz. a signature with the word "auto. no. of an embryo. restraint: the in which growth occurs only through muscle encounters resistance. no. organized a solo The to photograph the war both resulting images were in a in Britain and more documentary style.— Matthew Barney March (b. resembling oblong represents "the this and a football field. motif variously appears as in his videos. 66-71. the Ministry of Information Beuningen. Rotterdam. and research laboratory. There he concentrated on photog- gulated relationship between desire. January (b. while also being politics of the many contemporary New York. or a closed. self-sufficient system. and the self naked or cross-dressed —engage artist him- metaphoric dance of in a Cecil Beaton sexual differentiation." which becomes a leitmotif life. Barney's Cremaster project — named Beaton's success in creating glamorous images ushered for a testicular into the worlds of film transports these concerns to an Arcadian realm populated by faeries. Cremaster 4 (1994) and to Cremaster 1 (1995) are the first two videos produced be shown in the 1929 avant-garde Film und Foto exhibition. American Vogue were among by 1928. getically These athletic and sexual references converge throughout "00. 1980. Barney's protagonists — including an actor dressed as Oakland Raider Jim Otto." Interview with work of Matthew Barney. Documenta /Xand numerous other group < 20> . Barney's exploration of the body draws upon an 14. "Matthew Barney's Fornication with the Fabric of Indeed. The four decades.

She studied 1914). George Cukor's 1964 film ver- including rock idol Mick Jagger and Pop Elizabeth Marilyn as with Brassai publications. and Pablo travels to foreign countries. A renowned many own Beaton curated his of artist its celebri- Andy Warhol. The result of Beaton's one foray The Gainsborough as a playwright. 8. in literature and philosophy. His contact with these artistic figures later led Parisian graffiti London's Barbican Centre organized . "Nightwalkers. she pro- poetry and photomontages some pho- first article age of twenty. Rosalind. 1968. generation of the 1960s. a book subse- wane. his family He . of the demimonde of criminals. later deriving his He moved pseudonym from the forged an early connection with there in 1903 for his father's year- studied art at the Kepomuveszeti Foiskola in 25. his subjects intellectual fami- Oxford (1907-08) and the Sorbonne (around homosexuals. By as a 1930. retrospective at London's National Portrait Gallery and in 1972 was knighted by on of Beaton's Brassai' was also a sculptor. Beginning Matisse.33-38. Berlin- Vasily Kandinsky. but received in Brighton. has been hon- most important of at which traveled the Museum to Australia. she adopted the and dance Modern English Channel Islands) in the moved zum of [Lucy Renee Mathilde Schwob] Charlottenburg (1921-22). 1964). Barcelona: Fundacio and its life 4. no. Tabori and Chang. His 1956 New Brassai Picasso. Si Festival. 1917. while continuing to contribute to literary journals. of his native town. Conversations avec Picasso (Conversations with Picasso. -v. September by David Mellor. and Miller. Saint-Helier. Brasso. Born Gyula Halasz and city's cafes set designer. Romania]. December d. New York: Modern Art. g. Lucy Renee Mathilde Schwob was born into an ly. and he extended his talents beyond the stage to include quently distributed worldwide in numerous languages. he recovered and persevered II. although she never A photographer and a writer. ties an Academy Award. Brassai was the son of a university pro- long sabbatical. released in English as Lovers . 9. (Gyula Halasz] d. 1899. Brassai's other significant with his art until his death in 1980. a prize at the . recording solitary views of abandoned streets as well as the bohemian halls Art. 1958) designed the costumes and sion of My Fair Lady (as sets for in the film Gigi He Academy Awards." Art Journal Nice) fessor of French literature. duced Aveux non avenus (Avowals not admitted were to create tographic self-portraits around 1912 and published her photographs appear to be completely candid. at (spring 1981). he portrayed in the 1930s. Edited Little Brown. of oeuvre. to 1 1954. Oskar Kokoschka. Brassai' draughtsman. r/i 11 </ j Vom New York: Museum Surrealismus Claude Cahun Hungary [now Brasov. 1995. and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. 1 among PP. Brassai Krauss. and photographed ties. Cahun briefly engaged in theatrical pursuits. Brassai: cat. to Paris in 1924 and worked intermittently German and Hungarian newspapers.A <• 11 the in 1968. In 1956. I Cannes Film and Clowns) Antoni Tapies. Beaton In 1968. Philippe. October Jersey. Stewart. Cecil Beaton: A A New York: <• (I 1920-19/0. Exh. Paris as photographic projects include a series as there are animals. Zealand. Brassai's pictures of Paris Beaton's interest and professional involvement in theater did not were published as Paris de Nuit (Paris by night). In Paris. in 1951 he did for the original 1956 stage pro- duction).Notwithstanding his diverse photographic undertakings.-v. Most recently. him and documentary images taken during and filmmaker. designing costumes and scenery for films. embarked upon cinema icons such Beaton maintained Kelly. majoring graduated. Cahun espoused made leftist politics ). Informel. Retrospective. finally moving there in 1922 with her stepsister. this time attaining two dandy opened acclaim. 1994. for these portrayals. degree. / 1/ i/i/i'J te (/ 1986. he had started photographing Paris by night. Exh. Budapest (1918-19) and the Akademische Hochschule. and sometime-collaborator Suzanne Malherbe (who signed herself Marcel Moore). Exh. and South America. transvestites. Henri literary also was magazine Harper's Bazaar. Hollywood. . In 1930. 1984. from the Surrealist journal Minotaure to the fashion was esteemed by the extravagantly styled himself. Despite a stroke in 1974. July 8. and David Mellor. fit III/ > Garner. 1894. (b. I fit/ rf e /' </ (b. earned Queen photographer for a wide variety of a free-lance such twentieth-century cultural icons as Salvador Dali. name books such to publish g. she began Mercure de France at the the last name taken from her maternal grandmother. in 1986 a retrospective Henry ored by several major exhibitions. and prostitutes. cat. writer. Though Brassai's generally aware of his presence and frequently posed. In 1933. lifelong part- ner. the photographer little a series depicting Monroe and Grace Girls. In approximately pseudonym Claude Cahun. a book of prose in collaboration with and played Malherbe. She visited Paris frequently. where he received his degree and met correspondent for 206 New York. cat. and his designs for the costumes won him (Vincente Minnelli. Nantes. Cecil Beaton: Photographs when his film Taut qu'il y aura des betes (So long those held during his lifetime was a retrospective Brassai. a role in the Surrealist .

Though working Staircase. he had his Club of Chicago. and aptitude to experiment with the construc- embodiment. 8 (April 1992). where he developed artist Man Ray. and plans first . as various personae. The Large a life Duchamp that led to the creation of his 1913. - v. and mounted as children. so that they were 2. she group established a founding Cahun tumed. Marcel (Henri-Robert-Marcel) Duchamp embraced an frequently presented herself cos- a Turandot-like figure. he produced the only issue York Dada. "A Movable Mirror: Claude Cahun. In 1936. article 1968. probably joining the Association des Ecrivains Artistes Revolutionnaires by the end of 1932. with whom he would trips to collectors Katherine Dreier and Walter and la Louise Arensberg. dent un likely personal use. Claude Cahun: L'Ecart mathematics art. Man tographed by Ray. their captured and condemned to death in Duchamp's They were eventually Jersey until her death in 1954. Glass). game of chess. Along with Villon. appeared in some of Duchamp's own work. incomplete. Marcel Duchamp et Her pamphlet on the possibility of revolutionary poetry. ered the conceptual aspect of his g. 2 initially a painter. Nude Descending a nal Cubist work. The following year. together with of New In the 1930s. Back in Paris in In 1920. and his organization of 1 3 207 . Rrose Selavy. Along with Andre Breton and in 1934. Even deliberately leaving own propaganda campaign against the Nazis. Man Ray. Francois. Exh. in 1935 in response to the threat of Fascism. New York's Armory next year at is to have exhibited her assemblages of objects in the 1936 objets domestiques" (Beware of 1904 to study for a in year at the Academie Julian in Paris. of his most which he intermittently worked on scientific studies led tangible photographie and the 1985 exhibition VAmour Fou: Photography and Surrealism at the of Art. Surrealism exhibition at the Modern Art. Paris. Among Duchamp became involved with the Surrealists in other endeavors. New York. anonymously dispersing written messages throughout the island. Cahiers d'art published her regarding the premise of the show. 1995. movement. In 1921. Paris: for. new and gave ordi- The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors. at the Arts mark collectors such as exhibitions. 1944 by the Gestapo. significant pieces. complex love for enterprise. Pic (Pic's heart). a gallery in Paris. Georges a appeared Bataille. sometimes mechani- at least as significant as its intensive thought to also evidenced by for his pieces. until 1923. later collaborate. drawings." Artforum One consequence of this practice was the fashioning of his 30. Exposition surrealiste d'objets at Charles Ratton. Duchamp dedicated Corcoran Gallery 'aaaestea zh eaai m/ Ville him and made copious notes. the unknown pho- exclusion of Musee d'Art Moderne de logic of is many extended de Paris and Jean-Michel Place. he in Museum first of solo also assisted land- Peggy Guggenheim in the made New York permanent home. Dada group. photographs of still-life 1937 children's poetry household objects). Dada. His his other lifelong to the and War I. This alternate identity was phono. No. October (b. puns. Washington. 1992. female alter ego. through such noire: Le Surrealisme et la C. including a that she ever exhibited any of these photographs. D. but the war ended before they could be executed. nary props of modern Cahun's cance tableaux served as illustrations for a book by Lise Deharme. In 1912. It is only recently. "Prenez garde aux descen- Show. France) Duchamp who became joined the lifelong patrons. Lichtenstein. In 1942. 1918. July 28. Cahun remained on publications as Edouard Jaguer's 1982 Les Mysteres de and often incongruous signifi- tion of a multiplicity of three-dimensional. France. Duchamp made the New York. Therese. made up. which he sometimes played steadfast friendships with Claude Cahun: Photographe. he was included the Fantastic Art. it intense interest in. he designed publications for works by fellow artists and writers. la renowned Duchamp began work on one creations during the course of his career. In 1937. In her self-portraits. chambre that Cahun's virtually tographs were rediscovered. work Following the outbreak of World cat. Because he consid- cal. Leperlier. 64-67. in in three (Nu which caused an uproar when exhibited the 2). Duchamp soon became he could find and recontextualizing them. She Raymond Duchampgoing n° escalier. et la metamorphose. pp. and was the pseudonym by which he signed a number of pieces. known made There is chiefly for her own artistic career. 1887. Selecting the most banal objects In conjunction with this exhibition. Duchamp show. which also contained an article by Tristan Tzara. or masked life-size "doll" and member of Contre-Attaque. d." In interested dimensions. Les Paris sont ouverts (Place your bets). —experiments "readymades. and Suzanne Duchamp. he Coeur de ( Cahun and Malherbe moved where both had summered to the Isle of Jersey. he returned to Paris: the United States and engaged in constructing visual and written Jean-Michel Place. Neuilly.. he painted his semi- no evidence it is his siblings Jacques Villon. was Blainville-Crevon.

Edited by Nan Goldin. cat. and artist. writer. 1953.. much tances in an effort to secure sister. is a malleable construct that and unconventional relationships Goldin's Goldin's interest in photography began as a She details of her daily existence. Edited by Marvin Heiferman. Exhibition./((/ . 1973.A. haps best known. life and her obsessive need to record it. a drag bar. Side: 1972-92. cat. in her teenage years to escape the lingering effects of her older York. which included All By Myself. Edited Nan Goldin. Milan: Palazzo Grassi and Bompiani. cat. a B. these unstudied. no. in 1991.from 1946 making given up art for chess. constituting a self-described "diary" rather than a programmatic .v. and Suzanne a music — . She has and attending an in with foster families been the recipient of the Camera Austria Prize alternative school outside Boston. 1969. Edited by Anne d'Harnoncourt and Kynaston while living with drag queens in Boston and frequenting the McShine. — from the bars where she Mudd Club and other underNew York. of dis- Fletcher. it shows. to the artist. Zurich: Scalo./iy/. The Other Side: 1972-1992. show earned artist herself as its sole subject. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art. including Pleasures and home Terrors of Domestic Comfort at the Museum of Modern New Art. the juxtaposition of slides with a soundtrack that has included such songs as "You Don't "My World Own Me" serves to dynamics of relationships. 39-43- Nau Goldin: Til Be Your Mirror. Goldin's pho- as prints or slide tographs reveal her milieu with a directness and immediacy in keeping with her personal relationships with her subjects. track. and Zurich: New York: Scalo. I irrft/< . a struggle that tion of gender roles Goldin maintains./ The Other study. Whitney Museum of American and relationships of her work provides an intimate glimpse Nan York: Aperture. where she relocated in the late 1970s. D. relation- a universal struggle —then is between autonomy complicated by the construc- the ultimate autonomy comes from redefining such distinctions. on ships are predicated and Hudson. The Complete Marcel Duchamp. 1993. 1996. Whether exhibited which he was was the 1963 Marcel Duchamp: A Retrospective alive to witness. Goldin's York. Exh. They Pasadena Art spring directly from her g. September 12. a slide engagement with photography the subject of as she a solo exhibition at the struggled to preserve recollections of her dead In 1996." Art in America 75. (1(11 /((/. lack of a New that takes the from the School of the Goldin began exhibiting her photographs teen." the '(((/(/(. "The Family of Nan. Duchamp. . Art. hued photographs share the same concerns The that inform English edition. Capturing the unconventional relation- Side. she and Fifth-Year Master's Museum Certificate The slide presentations for known began The Ballad oj in to turn to slides. Exh. having sex. Nan. living their lives —suggesting volatile narratives of most frequently frustration. men and women and otherwise last with Duchamp's oeuvre and was significantly influenced by The affected desire pivotal role in the shaping of twentieth-century culture. work was Whitney Museum of American persisted.11/ . and Hans Werner Holzwarth. In English. become when the These shows were Sexual Dependency. a body of work published in 1993. played out For in bed. moving Whitney Biennial 1995. darkroom forced her in at which she would presented in various environments worked Goldin of Fine Arts in Boston. and in 1977. the of several as. and the sister's suicide. lounging around. ( f./|( (/( . -j.'A New York. . 1986. 11 (November 1987). pp. Polaroid camera and began photographing friends and acquain- and numerous other awards. Museum. Mark Holborn. r. for which she Chronicling the gritty lives is per- a constantly evolving hundred images accompanied by "re-created family. . and New York: Abrams. began show later Provincetown to the ground venues slide lives in the age of nine- of necessity during her art-school years. London: Ballad of Sexual Dependency. and Walter Kozloff. Keller. Arturo. Max. numerous exhibitions means of both remembering the gender dynamics that characterize conven- Washington. As evidenced in these candid pho- tographs of the "third Nan Goldin can be enlisted to (b. The Ballad of Sexual Dependency. work has been included in alike.C.F. had that he as Etaiit Donne's. Goldin." alter the left her in the United States and abroad. 1959 English translation of Robert Lebel's a Duchamp played a With the monograph Marcel generation of emerging artists became acquainted major retrospective devoted first it. There. David Armstrong. and in 1993 Goldin was given for Contemporary a Photography in 1989. Goldin. evolved from photographs she began taking in the early 1970s Marcel Duchamp. The in Empty Without You" and Is clarify her interest in the sexual show has slide also been presented videotape format and was published in book form in 1986. As an time when to 1966. and dependency — as If. Exh. and Other New York: Museum of Modern and transsexuals. Thames Schwartz. at a was believed he secretly worked on his cultural arbiter. the Brandeis Award in Photography in 1994. her Art.) tional Nan sex. known large-scale work. 1993. Goldin.. organized by Walter Hopps at the and sleeping. work and remains. brightly ships of drag queens Marcel Duchamp. Art. memories of them. New by David Armstrong.

p. at and Coral Gables. Germany. a well-known photograph of this series. a traveling Enigmas of Race.. Using as subjects Renee (with whom Kobena Mercer. entertaintrated women's magazines published by Ullstein. February 6. compassion and death that To support herself we are dealing with as two brothers who love each other in Berlin. Los Angeles. The Good Jack Tilton Gallery. Art." with oversized color Polaroid portraits created by Harris in colIn laboration with friends and family. Thomas nomics in Amsterdam. his brother Thomas. Recent Value: major from eco- created his artist including a was not in after a liberating visit to his that Harris switched his Tisch School of the Arts of The Allen Harris. comprehensive selection of Harris's phoBerlin-Heiligensee) tographs was exhibited in Masculine Masquerade Visual Arts Center. p. filmmaker Thomas until his undergraduate years Middletown. who engages became her artistic collaborator and companion until 1922. fa </'/<> te (/ /A e a (ii mi sequence of poses Cohen. and two years later started fashioning photographic images of "bul- photomontages that utilize clippings taken from the type of illus- letin-board" collages that consist of cutouts of sports. Cotter. a traveling exhibition that of Contemporary Arts in and Persona. Parrish Art at subjectivity. show organized by the Museum. in 1992." Arf in in the exhibition Black Male: Representations of Masculinity in Contemporary Art. Wesleyan University at it During that time. 63-64. Hole (1996)." Flash Art 29. in 1995. Harris questions fictions of race. Dread Scott. racism and redemption. Kobena. 107. and New York: Flammarion. Ike Ude. giving the object of desire his of what he has called "fanatically devoted" amateur photogra- to at London in the Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago. no. at the Whitney Museum of American 1996). Kunstgewerbemuseums. Caracas: Centro de Arte Euroamericano. vintage r Si 5 209 . Gotha. -s. d. In 1995. Harris lives in Los Angeles. from the California Institute of Arts in Valencia in 1990. George Rush. internationally. in 1994. Mercer. but she resumed in full her studies in 1915 at Berlin's Staatlichen Lehranstalt des reflection on Huey Newton. pornography. he shared a studio).Y. Harris's grandfather. 1994. at The the MIT List selection Hannah (Johanne) Hoch included works from Harris's 1994 collaboration with his brother at Thomas. Crossroads.. "Dark and Lovely: Black Gay Image Making. a November 1. and fashion advertisements. 1889. and gender as well as of family and Hannah Hoch cul(b. has been awarded numerous grants and fellowships. Exh. where she met Raoul Hausmann. Harris created portraits of real and imagined figures of American and African-diasporic culture. Hoch produced her Dahmer and first his victims. The Americas (1987). with his brother. of gelatin-silver prints enti- artist in a . 1916 for the publishing Harris's most recent work. no. Michael. 31. Holland. "the ambivalence around desire. New York: to the Jungle: New Positions in Black Routledge. 6 (June 1994). Harris also experimented with the camera. 1965. an installation called Hoch began working company Ullstein Verlag. lation integrated enlarged family photographs Fla. Harris and collaborator Lyle Ashton Harris grew up moved to Dar Bronx. to art. pp. in illustrations for American culture by focusing on part time in critically. but as a teenager briefly in the mother and older es Salaam. Harris states. New York) self-portraits. makeup with guns. In addition. and handwritten notes alluding exploitation and self-destruction. premiered Fellowship in 1991. Influenced by a family phers. presented 1995.: Parrish Art of Art and Cultural Center. envy. but vio- Tommy Gear created kaleidoscopically repeating images of "Narcissus" the watering hole. pp. In English and in vintage Spanish. tural history. and the Armand Hammer Museum UCLA America 82. and Etcetera. Brotherhood. he completed the National Graduate Photography Seminar New York University in 1991 and the Whitney Independent Study Program In 1989. Jr. at the Institute and in 1995. New York first 1995. and the Kunsthalle Basel in 1996.F. This instal- Life. the artist brother body of first photographs. Lyle Ashton Harris. mirrorlike images of the artists embracing. Los Angeles. 188 (May-June between genders. This that challenge the tenuous distinctions series was presented New York. Berlin-Charlottenburg. 221-32. solo exhibition. completed a series which portray the the at own WESTAF/NEA American Portraits. May 31. Cambridge. Mirage: Desire. "Lyle Ashton Harris. sexuality. In New York. cat. explores interracial desire and consumption serial killer Jeffrey brochures and magazines. New York. Southampton. Margaret Nelson. and himself. which depicts Her education was interrupted by World War nude and I. Massachusetts. Black Power icon A left Gotha in 1912 to study applied arts the Kunstgewerbeschule. c. Lyle Ashlon Harris (b. news clippings. 1978. He has been a member of the faculty of the Otis College of Art and Design. Welcome Cox Cultural Studies. Harris received an M. Harris tled Constructs.: Ambrosino Gallery. Connecticut. "Art after Stonewall: Twelve Artists Interviewed. ektachrome by Albert Sydney Johnson.A. Throughout his work. the artist was given his Museum. In 1994. 1996. Rather than ment. Exh. Tanzania. cat. since 1994. lence and pleasure. for two years. where she The Watering remained for ten years making handicraft patterns." collage in 1916. Southampton. Harris presents elegiac and lettering. and has exhibited group exhibitions of note include Face Difference. N. at Face Value: American Portraits.

included in the international photography exhibition Film and Foto. this rejecting the Performance (1972-73). that gender is not an innate biological construction that more recent work is trait but instead a fictional "performed" and may be modified reveals a shift at will. of Klauke's early photographic series —such as Self- (i974) — all convey a sense of negotiation and symbiosis of the Self-Performance. Transformer (1973). ing a transformation of sexual identities. new academ- — favored a prac- For Klauke. The Netherlands. and ethnography. Exh. probing the mutable nature of work identity. the subject of solo exhibitions at the Beuningen. Trained as a graphic exhibi- of her works. participating in staged and contributing works to Erste Internationale (b. beliefs that 1989. . Musee d'Art Moderne de traveled to the in come more — in the identity apart Since the early 1970s. along with the majority of those exhibited." Hoch depicting the constructed images that con- fronted the ambiguities inherent in that notion of the woman Through her peripheral association with member performances it tion. Klauke has been engaged in a continuous solo Hoch was in Stuttgart. she show before returning That same to Berlin. organized engaged tographs. Klauke's work has been Museum Boymans-van Museum Ludwig. where. Germany) She then showed photomontages. cat."New Woman. The by the Deutsches Werkbund first Czechoslovakia. which Modern Art./i if . which were a logical out- growth of the photographs. near 6. Hoch Neumann in 1919. Klauke's use of the sequence further underscores the performative aspect of the work. commentary and. New York. such as that held by the Novembergruppe. Cut with the Kitchen Knife: Hannah Hoch. in 1996. Berlin. — both the "truth" and a fixed identity Berlin: Berlinische Galerie and Argon. Dada-Messe exhibition social its first Weimar and political Republic. a retrospective la Ville to represent directly. r. Dada group. -v. many in Berlin in 1920. Exh. satirized the September a of the Berlin Dada group. in part. Most mounted Center. in 1976. Cologne. in 1987. 1996. social The Photomontages of Hannah Hoch. Klauke's refutes facile notions concerning photography's ability to capture Hannah Hoch 1889-1978: Ihr Werk. photography territory. cat. the uality. where he teaches f. Minneapolis. ihr Leben. and Masculin/Feminin point her artistic career was a thyroid illness. in 1929. Klauke 4 I i 210 fur in 1992. Museum of a was de Paris and the Walker Art major Hoch exhibition. In contrast. the at in 1992. from made photomontages Kliding. Accessorized with the trappings of at rituals and appendages that mimic both male and female genitalia. His toward an exploration of identity within a broader social context. the Kunsthochschule . Maud. and the Kunstmuseum Diisseldorf Cologne. g. Hoch became Hoch contributed paintings to to 1929. abandoning a highly individual eroticism in favor of an almost depersonalized assessment of the subject in society." notably After the dissolution of the Berlin Cochem an Cologne. Baden-Baden. 1993. V| I ill/I 11 / 1 In . androgyny. had her year. photomontages was held icant exhibition of her real life provided a means to negotiate ing objective . Seeking a ic und a exploration of identity outside the conventional accounts of sex- with International Constructivism and befriended Kurt Schwitters. shows Klauke undergo- self. but brought to a halt Two until 1945. the artist presented the first of several related performances. Klauke Jtirgen in 1997. the Fachhochschule fur Design artist at period of cultural upheaval that had reached themes of "otherness. 1943. did not exhibit again recently. the Staatliche Kunsthalle. Rotterdam. Klauke's oeuvre Minneapolis: Walker Art suggests a tacit endorsement of more contemporary theorizations Center. and Many modern propagated by Weimar society. held at the Hausmann. 1972) diaristic commentary with pho- became Klauke's main means of givand to his subjective impulses erotic obsessions. in 1987. these sexually transgressive poses coolly straightforward manner —suggest — photographed a fluid in a and multidimen- sional sexuality. New Haven: were promul- German photographer August gated. the artist lived in Hague. In 1975. I. From 1926 tradition that painting had artists apogee its new student demonstrations of 1968. The Weimar Photomontages of Sander's early twentieth-century series of representative types based on Yale University Press. The signif- years before her death. Jtirgen Klauke graduated in 1970. a poster in the that address persisted in this vein of 1923 to at least 1934. affiliated Kunst from bourgeois conventions. While his early publication I Sequences) (Ich combined & Ich drawings and erotic titles form &I (Daily Sketches and Photo [Tageszeichnungen und Fotosequenzen]. a twelve-part work. through Lavin. der Mosel. photography soon various annual Berlin exhibitions. and ginal S/M others debauched.- |. during in tice that those of female identity. sculptures. Hoch became Graphischen Kabinett of B. appearing at times vir- Brno. ihre Freunde. held at the by at this Hoch A Nationalgalerie. in 1934. ' II t/l/l . backgrounds and occupations. lives in Medien. From 1920 until 1931.

Exh. August [Emmanuel Radnitsky] 27. subsequent tographed eminent cultural and saw the work of In New York. She supported his aspirations and provided him with an entree into the sphere of the intellectual avant-garde. d. to create in private constitute a — —because of unique Eine Ewigkeit ein Lacheln: Zekhnungen. Haven. 'uaqeited zrieaainai with writer and arts patron Gertrude Stein. York. Jean Cocteau. Boston: Little Prokopoff. he pho- particularly since he received the prominent gallery owner up photogra- Levy. 1986. first used photography to document the works exhibit- Man Ray subsequently form and. Lynes's Photographical Works. created his first cliche-verre. and In many of his fine-art images. 1982. in 1925. George Balanchine's Adon full in BrookJyn. with an exhibition at Boston's Institute of George Piatt Lynes benefited from attended Yale University.. his work was of great interest to Dr. changing tastes in photography. and Baden-Baden: diffi- cat. and body of especially given the photographer's profesits positive portrayals of homosexuals Eternal Smile: Drawings. In English and German. established Surrealist photographers. and in adherence to male nudity its as subject matter. His reputation burgeoned and by 1934 he was exe- Emmanuel Radnitsky grew up cuting portrait and fashion commissions. Exh. nudes Lynes continued and German. and the nontraditional Ferrer Center. 1993. . George Piatt education and and the publication of George Piatt semester in a single Lynes: Photographs 1931-1955. Woody. a image derived from drawing on a glass negative. Pasadena. Jiirgen Klauke/Cindy Sherman. In 1914. Buchverlag. Jiirgen Klauke. he married the Belgian Lacroix. Kinsey. Lynes also photographed ballet dancers and. Alfred C. After his death George (b. East 15. The male Munich: Sammlung Goetz. during time Lacroix influenced his intellectual development. fu </ i te >i /'i e a ' - tit ng involved in pursuing his personal photographic projects and grew increasingly dissatisfied with commercial work. Surrealist Lynes was but it visit to soon became among them Julien Levy. studio by 1932. the Art Institute of Chicago. Paris) a professional New York. On a activity. At that time. Boston: Institute of Contemporary Art. November 18. April Plait 1907. Calif. Although Staatliche Kunsthalle. at the Daniel Gallery. i960 portrait exhibition George Piatt Lynes. 1976. 1981. 1890. d. newly arrived from Paris. and poses to suggest a dreamlike world. who began collecting it around 1950 in con- junction with his research on gay-male sexuality. Cologne: cat. him to return to New York in 1948. the latter often ied art at the National informed by Surrealist principles. Jack. December at 6. by which time he had use of backdrops. in 1941 with a retrospective New York. sensual images that are occasionally explicit in their depic- Man Ray was introduced to Marcel Duchamp. he developed a friendship to France. James. Fotoarbeiten. in 1928. cat. cat. a role model for later photographers such as DuMont Robert Mapplethorpe. Portraits 1931-1952 New Jersey. for Contemporary Art. he had his first solo show. Ray. blurring the boundaries between commercial and fine-art abbreviated his photography. figures. In Lynes was unsuccessful in resuming his former career due to English and German. who to Man Brown. nudes. Edited by Andreas work would become Vowinckel and Evelyn Weiss. Lynes to Los Fotosequenzen 1972-1980: Die Schwarz-Weiss Sequenzen. Exh. In Academy of Design. George Piatt Lynes: Photographic Visions.v. Lynes gained open (b. significant exposure. 1992. Edited by Jochen Poetter.a . In English work that is erotic sional stature An Performances 1970/86 (Jiirgen Klauke. Angeles in 1946 to assume the position of Chief Photographer for Frankfurt: Betzel-Verlag. name to Man he stud- the Art Student's Ray. In English and German. which featured than two hundred portraits. where George made Bellows and Robert Henri taught. it was not until the early 1980s that his oeuvre began to receive critical attention. Jiirgen Klauke. 1994. In which 1915. 1980. However. for 1935. Lynes originally took phy secondary in 1927 as a pal occupation. New tion of gay sexuality. Ostfildern: Cantz. His earliest during his ambition was to be first trip a literary publisher and. the union lasted four years. in writer make promotional images was hired to American Ballet Theatre in New York. c. 1955. financial Jiirgen Klauke: Sonntagsneurosen. who became a lifelong friend and collaborator. In these compositions. Vogue magazine's studio in Hollywood. Lynes explored homoerotic themes by focusing on male Lynes's popularity reached its apex held at the Pierre Matisse Gallery. George his princi- France. with the Surrealist endorsement of the Man Ray represented several Through which allowed him as Piatt Lynes. Philadelphia. movement. Performances 1970/86). Exh. he became more more ed there. George Piatt Lynes: Photographs 1931-1955. That same year. Lynes League. 1926. Lynes's Lynes Orange. as an art photographic 4 % < . photographs were largely forgotten except for the in 1955. photographers such initially identified Crump. New a private Lynes: Photographic Visions. In New York) fact. culties obligated Ostfildern: Cantz. mastered the medium in 1917.: Twelvetrees. moved In an effort to revitalize his career. Stephen. props.

Amsterdam. his images are both elegant and provocative. In Rosalind New York: Museum created sensual diptychs and triptychs of photographs printed 1 1 on Abbeville Press. photographer for Andy produced album covers at the for same time pho- such as John Paul Getty celebrities III means of art making. concurrently produced photographs in a at the Pratt Smith. was with Miller that model. Ray's innovative approach to photography.Man Ray executed the first of several artful photographs of Duchamp posing as his feminine alter ego. "aerographs. November 4. the Whitney Museum of American Contemporary Art. led to his discovery of the (a in the early 1970s. She encouraged his Patti portraits structions that incorporate images of He and enrolled Chelsea Hotel in Manhattan. Man Ray entered into a collaborative relationship with the photographer Lee Miller. 1963. mixed-media sculpture — is commissioned united by the constancy of approach and technique. his first time. where he was introduced to first who and photography later collector became Mapplethorpe's became Sam friend sitters for portraits. In the summer of 1921. his first substantial shows in 1977." collages. Perpetual Motif: The Art of Man Ray. where his work was well received. met the members of the proto-Surrealist In his and first he presented work paintings. gallery associations. 1989. photogram photograph produced by placing objects on be a photogra- to he mainly made assemblage con- with a fortuitous darkroom accident. g.: National Institution. the Institute of Ray. and posed commercial pho- home portraying the cultural and aristocratic circles he had begun to frequent. at the The curator in 1971. University of Pennsylvania. accepting commissions from fashion magazines and strictly artistic vein March d. L'Amourfou: Photography and Surrealism. Self Portrait. were the notorious his lover Dada bookstore in several objects. he moved to Los Angeles. four major exhibitions Surrealist Photography. Man Ray socialites Two Museum bought Mapplethorpe Man Ray of the collectors triate artist was included in in 1936 the expa- both the landmark International Surrealist Exhibition at the Burlington Galleries. devised the process of solarization (tone reversal in the photo- Garnering further international recognition. in 1963.F. full New York. Curator of Prints and Photography Metropolitan up photography in Paris. Smithsonian 198s. a gathering place for artists. the Stedelijk Museum. and in 1976 was awarded the Order of Artistic Merit by the French government. Interested phy. Surrealism at the permanently to Paris in 1951. et al. D. when they pher. photographed the denizens of Montparnasse. encouraging the photographer's development. In 1988. Jane. Mapplethorpe's diverse erotic images. Floral Park. Merry. combined own images Warhol's Interview magazine. New York.C. and musician poet. floral still lifes. In the mid-to-late 1980s. pictures of children. He received the gold medal in recognition of achievement in photography at the 1961 Venice Biennale. —and the artists' model earn his livelihood in Paris. It who was his assistant. 115-47. 1946. Boston: Little Brown. camera and persuaded him Mapplethorpe traveled to Europe time with McKendry. pp. mented sometime in the winter of 1921-22. Exh. Washington. and lover until 1932. Art. They remained Mapplethorpe had New York: close until Wagstaff 's death in 1986. Boston) Cafe Certa.A. with Retour a la Tzara. shadow and light. Mapplethorpe of American Art. New York: Abbeville. Robert Mapplethorpe of Art. Wagstaff. To Man Ray turned to (b. Man Ray and mediums: During the 1920s. It in 1962 his B. . Robert Mapplethorpe Institute. sensitive paper) men from pornographic Mapplethorpe turned for these collages. and regardless of subject. Man Ray returned Fantastic Art. New York. and Museum of Modern Art. He met John McKendry. Man Ray moved to Paris and In the winter of 1920. and Livingston. circle at the Parisian solo exhibition. 1988. London." adding film to his repertoire to in 1923 work He light- experi- which he called in multiple genres. as a staff He Smith and the group Television. left for Brooklyn and numerous in the During Man and contributed images more and musicians to 1974. his now-celebrated book Photographs by 1920 Paris 1934 also his photogra- and Carolina Herrera. Dada." Krauss and Jane Livingston. the ing artistic quarter of Paris in which he lived. Rrose Selavy. In 1934. magazines with found objects and painting. In order to create to Surrealist journals. -v. and career course. cat. but rather than remain in New York. writers. returning to the sculptural Foresta. who and eventual for many Curator he met in lover. his —homo- work the Kitchen. and raison (Return to reason). initially using a Polaroid traiture. In 1929. New York. Brooklyn. in 1970. ture and received artist. student. in por- of Mapplethorpe's friends were influential in his continu- the was published and ing exploration of photography as a graphic print). realized for his friend Dadaist poet Tristan Mapplethorpe worked tographed to SX-70 camera. Man use of photography seen in his early assemblages. 9. Among Kiki (Alice Prin) transvestite trapeze thriv- his subjects —who became performer Barbette. The surfaces of his prints offer a seemingly endless gradation of blacks and whites. extensively with this particular technique. where he studied painting and sculp- tography. in 1921 at the gallery Librairie Six. an exhibition of photographs of flowers at both in the Holly Solomon Gallery and one of male nudes and sadomasochistic imagery at portraits. Wartime exigencies forced Man Ray to repatriate in 1940. work lived together in was not Mapplethorpe's original intention and from 1970 he met this time. to take 1972. Man Ray continued "rayography. "Man Ray and fabric and luxurious cloth of his work were organized: by panels.

(spring 1992). and was particularly inspired by the in liberating the defining charac. Marclay mance art as well as music. new ture.. Washington. where he earned a B. Museum and Sculpture Garden.C. its Washington Project Arts (W. Switzerland. French. poster. Vogel.: Hirshhorn Shuttling between these different arenas. 1994. no. Marclay maintains a la Centre d'Art Contemporain Kunsthalle. In 1994. cat. Geneva. ». Marclay 's work has been exhibited nationally and internationally since 1983. Marclay 's later album featuring collaged . Similar to the c. Mapplethorpe. Exh.P. scheduled opening.A. 1992. 3 himself into a chameleon — a compilation of consumers' dis- pp. where for the received record atten- it humorous sculptures.).F. in in Geneva. his overlapping. questions the fixed nature of identity as well as the object. where he studied at the Ecole Superieure and the Musee 1994. Marclay Christian Marclay: Amplification. and German. attracted a diverse Pennsylvania.-!'. and Fribourg: Fri-Art Cruz." Art Journal 50. cat. cat. and instruments. fall 1997 in conjunction Marclay became interested in perforwith the Preis fur Junge Schweizer Kunstgesellschaft. each of Advertising. reuses existing recordings as well as everyday sounds to produce music. Exh. January 11. Robert is type of musician Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art. exhibition at the Kunsthaus Zurich in in 1980. In each In English. "Christian Marclay. Richard. While in school.. (both 1990) are styled into totemlike // sculptures.A. D. I 213 . Washington. "In Record Time. which often combine and juxtapose parate elements of art and musical culture. jackets. no. parate desires.C. highlighting the hollow ' were made of recy- blages.and the National Philadelphia. D. wooden covers skeletons. Mapplethorpe died due The Contemporary Institute of to travel after wing objections to the Art's retrospective at its first D. Although the exhibition had sparked no controversy prompted Portrait Gallery. (jazz. Smithsonian Institution.C. Amada. 1988. often trans- Italian. 1988. Though born United in the States. series.C. classical. dard visual clues that had manipulated them./it/. His first two venues. Bern: Office Federal de Culture. French. to cancel the show two weeks before instead traveled to the in continued cled records manipulated into visually stimulating right- Washington. in the early 1980s mounted groupings of Mix /and commercial Marclay had previ- erotic hybrids. Marclay has had notable solo (b. "Directions: Christian Marclay. audiotape. Janet. on boxy. brochure. Smithsonian Institution. Tuaaeitea zh < </</' n>q . New York: Whitney Marshall. the Cleveland Center for the Arts in 1995. 64-76. d'Art Visuel. Like these theatrical unions. With their exquisite-corpse-like combinations of male and female body parts. no. concert announcements installed in the streets of Geneva. from AIDS Mapplethorpe's death. Exh. Exh.. D. California) exhibitions at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. In his sculp- Marclay recontextualizes the paraphernalia of musical cul- ture such as speakers. (fall 1991). Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment. his sculpture and were included in the in 1995 the artist represented Switzerland at the Venice Biennale. fresh perspective in both his music and visual art. Marclay attended the d'Art et d'Histoire. to complications and artificial aspects of these objects. 29-32. . rock). Switzerland. Marclay 's mance pieces at such venues as the Kitchen New York and and La cultural institutions throughout dis- DJ perfor- Mama found objects he orchestrates in Europe use in his visual art. The marriage of art and music has been teristic New York. San Rafael. Examples of Whitney Biennial Christian Marclay in 1991. Milan: Electa. in 1996. of Marclay 's career ever since. punk-rock scene. pp. 103-07. Duchampian assem- London. In English. called False group of individuals. The (it whom was surprised to discover not the particular concert she had expected but an exhibition of the posters. The artist will be given a solo Massachusetts College of Art in Boston. 1990. Berlin: Daadgalerie. forming familiar objects into unexpected. pp." Artforum 29. 1995." Journal of Contemporary Art 1 5. lives Seliger. Fribourg. 1955.. Marclay depicted himself in a series of five Germane Celant. and Christian Marclay. the threat of Corcoran Gallery of Art works done in 1989. Like his objects and specific installations. Returning to the States in 1977. "" and often Body Mix (1991-92) series. sewn-together album covers refashion stereotyped images of race and gender into strange.s." Exh. Exh. In English. Robert Mapplethorpe. Sabine. cat. the artist Kardon. "The Scene of the Crime. 9 (May 1991). University dressed in the stereotypical garb of a certain cat. Dennis. ously Skin B. the Fri-Art Marclay was raised Centre d'Art Contemporain Kunsthalle. German. the artist has at times "fashioned" Barrie.'\< !/</</< rir/i . Jonathan. Museum of American Art in association with New York he or The group was Graphic compelled to confront its preconceptions and to rethink the stan- Society Books. photographs of S/M and homoerotic acts officials at the The exhibition dance. site- "mixing" techniques to create unusual fusions of music. Washington. Christian in 1990.

In 1989. as well as pho- tographs satirizing women's tortuous beauty rituals and other Pierre Molinier Deriding the separation of art and social conventions. impishly perverting the makeup viewer's notions of the hideous and the ings." Artnews 94. fragmenting. needlework. After a brief Her use of interlude in Paris. titles. rebellion. Eliel. pp. for example. 1995. meme. and his little-known c. imaggallery. where he in the small Artiste. Penelope. and fantastic identities. Messager manipulated In 1955. Exh. he apprenticed with his artistic training available in the dual nature of things. a forest of brightly colored Primarily for his internal organs made own pleasure. (b. Molinier obfuscated the gender and of Modern identity of the figures through repeated technical manipulations. Agen. in January 1956. 66-71. Memory and menace words encounter with Surrealism proved to be a creative catalyst for the coexist in Messager's dualisartist. Molinier's in weblike The Pikes (Les Piques. museums churches and Grenoble: cat. mediates scenarios that depict himself and other models wearing copious between funhouse and slaughterhouse. 132-35. inary landscapes. In a Annette Messager: Faire des histoires/Making Up father she has described as a Influenced by the many Sunday painter and trips to Stories. Musee de Grenoble. Berck. France. u r/ </ c ff 1/ /A r a r/i /nf . bedroom. November ' . who painting. ." and prolific and diverse maintained an interest between and death life augment the limited career." to Throughout her and took evening courses including des Beaux-Arts. tic universe. In human referencing the Impressionist style. Exh. "Annette Messager Collectionneuse" to differentiate them from the works grew up Pierre Molinier made in her studio. when he speak for themselves. pp. writing repetitive mantras down the showed wall in colored pencil. which nequins or handmade dildos. a painter. allowing them to means for him to document his work until about 1950. In 1995). at is once ominous and carnivalesque. life. Messager (November 3 1990). —mediums —can be seen named and with a Pierre Augustin de Fumadelles. Le Surrealisme. Molinier approached Surrealist leader Andre Breton. work. Messager had her first or female masks and costumed in leather corsets. -s. New York: atmosphere of the greatly influenced by the radical intellectual Museum May 1968 Annette Messager. or weaving threads of arrangements. To "Practical town of Agen. and drawing over them to consequently gave him a solo exhibition at his new Parisian form strange monsters. made in her April 13. in 1995. to execute self-portraits. Museum constructing his virtually recently. organized a major retrospective of the artist's In 1967. she Toronto: Mercer Union and Cold City Gallery. and adding text to her works. 1991-93). with her interest in "secret objects. the of Art and the Museum seamless photomontages. which also traveled to the Art Institute of Chicago lives in Malakoff. Gourmelon. was Messager When man- artists of the . no. stock- divine. and cat. Messager signed these works. parts. Sheryl. affiliated with the Vienna Actionists. 30. then delving into abstraction. "Art that Annoys. 1900. 1991. d. enlarging. where she was of Modern Art. New York. and. Surrealism and an early attraction to Catholicism. collector. which she signed "Annette Messager went Over the Messager has assumed several years. him." she began making eclectic personal diaries in the early 1970s that include collections of her own signature. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art. photography soon become popular with European 214 who in 1996. no. his paintings in several Surrealist exhibitions. Molinier moved to Bordeaux in 1923 and estab- suspend objects that permanent residence lished his as a father. and stiletto heels while employing props such as touring retrospective. Rowlands. S. Penetration (Penetration. expense records. Most Los Angeles County Art. In English and made French. originated at the Musee de Grenoble. Molinier met and collaborated with Hanel Koeck. in 1936. and Carol early 1960s to attend the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs. Photography was merely a ity to free gendered bodies from fixed meaning. Following the artist this. Messager also began contributed to Breton's periodical. throughout Europe as a child." "Trickster. l'Etoile Scellee. first creating landscapes in a Post- the artist tries to close between other accepted dichotomies. Annette Messager's early artistic interests were encouraged by 1989. Molinier crafted photographic of stitched and stuffed cloth. Exh." metaphor there. Bordeaux) 1976.Annette Messager (b. a who dedicated himself in 1964 almost exclusively to pho- garden of spikes tography and to photomontages that concentrated on sexually and impaled dolls. French and German. 1943." Arts Magazine 65. March 3. 8 (October began keeping to create reliquarylike objects in art school. Mo. Messager uses ambigu- adopting a more Surrealistic idiom. France) Annette Messager: Comedie tragedie. 1993-94). Molinier was a painter for for the gaps most of his career. Messager has sculptor taxidermy and photography the Ecole at "Peddler. cat. Messager moved to Paris in the Conkleton. In many began series made during photographs of isolated body the 1980s. "Arbitrated Dissections: The Art of Annette Inspired in equal turns by the subversive qualities of Messager. 19/1-1989. France. while transgressive themes. to the local art school Woman. form.

from Kyoto City University . Morimura lives in Osaka. satirizing upper-class Japanese in the Luzern's exhibition "Transformer": Aspekte der photographer Musee National obsessed with Western status symbols in the photographs of him- Chanel and Louis Vuitton. and Yasumasa Morimura (b. 1993. In 1979. Morimura. Osaka Yasumasa Morimura received a B. Molinier: Une his first solo show museum at a in 1992 at the Vie d'enfer. Morimura (March-April 1992). spective of his work. 1996. over-painting. Wright. Tokyo.-v. he has been using photography to investigate the complex cultural and economic exchanges between East and West that have 25. held a retro- time. brochure. J I iifffi . include photography. Francesco. In English illusions. 7 Yokohama: Yokohama Museum of Art. "Yasumasa Morimura: Double Exposure. (His brightly colored tableaux rivaling in still and cinematic produc- can measure up to eight by April 14. Chicago: of race and gender. Sandusky. 1992. In 1991. Exh. Options 44: Yasumasa Morimura. his imperson- photography the most elaborate theatrical tions. and Dorothea Lange. the Ginza Art Space. culture. in 1994. which subsequently Pauvert. Exh. in 1996. In works predetermined. Museum traveled to the Carnegie icant solo exhibitions have of Art. costumed in The artist also began reworking documentary photography Sister series. California. earning an M. and computer imaging. the women ing Japanese identity. race. white male subject by corrupting accepted Aquitaine and Musee National dArt Moderne. and the Yokohama Museum of Art -s.A. The Third of May. between Ray's portrait of Marcel which gender race invoked through as natural or a consummate drag fictions Duchamp's female ( July 1996). Following high school.A. ( Margarita in Velazquez's Las Morimura undermines the colonizing gaze of the Molinier: Peinture. European. Paris. and the self with his Molinier. Kunstmuseum a consequence. 1961. the masterpieces he —through reproductions— Bonami. Beryl Rembrandt's The Anatomy Lesson of Professor Nicolaes Tulp Art and Japanese. transports himself into the center of such iconic Edouard Manet's Olympia as Girls. from the I 215 . in cat. Catherine Opie spent Rancho Bernardo. "Lost (and Found) in a Masquerade: The Whether he Photographs of Pierre Molinier. Morimura elaborated on the theme of the ' '"'/'/< itt >/ 1 entertainer with his Actress series of 1996. Canada: Plug in impeccable Editions. Morimura denies these categories artist's Catherine Opie Man Rrose indicated by costume and jewelry and and props have become more extravagant. Opie returned to Southern California. photos et photomontages. Gumpert. 82-83. Pittsburgh. Ohio) her teenage years in hood on moved of thirteen. Lynn. in which he faithfully restaged eaainqi from various American. at the age photography. parallels Selavy. re-creates. Pierre. 62-65. c.A. from the self. Reacting to the profusion of Western images in Japan's visual vocabulary. his 1988 interpretation of ations in narrative. ) As early 1970s. Winnipeg. a prefer- ence influenced early on by the work of Lewis Hine and later by the work of artists such as Bernd and Hilla Becher. various incarnations of Michael Jackson and and again expanded his use of pop-culture imagery in 1994 Madonna. g. Moving from Ohio makeup." pp. 2-3 (1994). 1955) or the Infanta pp. she San Francisco and began to interest in Institute. with his Psychoborgs. is alter ego. Molinier until his death he was included by suicide remained active as a in 1976.F. and French. beauty. Walker Evans. Morimura had Petit. cat. 1992. works Morimura Yasumasa: The Using methods that (1863). Paris: Fondation historical Western. Museum of Contemporary Art. After receiving her feet." Exposure is playing Marilyn Monroe in The Seven Year Itch 29. "Glamour Morimura both homage and critique. In English J. in 1993. Paris: Ramsay/Jean-Jacques Museum of Contemporary Art. Other signif- been organized by the Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain. 84. Hara. at this d'Art Moderne. "truths" of gender. as knew as a youth.) Morimura (b. cat. A < '/'/' /' y of Art in 1975 and studied visual design there in 1978. Enrolling to explore her at the also addressed the economic factors shap- childhood San Francisco Art Opie focused on documentary photography. Sickness unto Beauty — Self-Portrait as Actress. 1979.F.. as 1986. began work has become even identity as performance. Exh. inserting (1632). Pierre. 11. Durant. and Goya's artist. 163 influenced contemporary Japanese identity. no. (Billy Wilder. 27-35- Meninas 1656). nos. Pierre Molinier. Chicago. a neighbor- the outskirts of San Diego." Flash Art B. As the more concerned with eleven America an Asian subjectivity into such as Doublonnage (Marcel). in 1985. pp. Mark Alice. Centre Georges Pompidou. and Japanese stills film classics. no. Travestie in 1974-75. June 1951. Paris./. 1808 a European As early drawing (1814). Since 1985. . the Hara Museum. Exh.

is prints. pp. He taught in the art department of Brooklyn College from 1971 to 1972. assemblage. Samaras further pushed the boundaries of pho- tography c. b. emerged from the camera. 1994. It's the Kunstraum. Opie began series of Jersey. Samaras lives in New York. 82-83. he discovered that the image could be The artist's work has recently been represented in group exhibitions. Opie's more artifice behind colorful Portraits of 1994. under Meyer Shapiro. These the mid-1980s. These formal and dignified bust. including. were included in her New York. Opie's images reassess attitudes toward depict and representation of various "fringe" and familiar communities. York. emigrated to the United States in 1939. 1996. of the seemingly ordinary. New York. In 1973. Greece) Samaras and Rutgers University in however. Museum Girl. art Samaras's inverts first explorations into photography. New York. In 1969. 18-19. Heide. Macedonia. and other friends Lucas Samaras differentiated Samaras from the Pop artists. Australia. at Oh altered him performing photograph immediately Persona Cognita. 22-24. ing and mugging. the Frankfurter Toronto Photographers Workshop. Lucas West community. are straightforward homages to individuals and couples in the little-represented lesbian 14. in a number of Happenings at New where he met Jim Dine. Ralph. eaat after ullerton. the showed an extensive collection of the Independent Curators artist's Smith. vamp- and distorted by manipulating the emulsion of the unique Samaras. New York: Modern Incorporated. up and cropped. -s. scratched.t. it terned surfaces to give psychological dimension to his work. sculpture. the International Center of Photography. In her of industrialization with a surprising romanticism. Claes Oldenburg. photography identity //</ new used the swirling. Self. in 1969. Exh. Munich. 1994. which came to be known Happenings. and Pompidou. art history Samaras participated New York's Martha at Jackson Gallery in i960.. pp. Segal until 1959. in 1995." The Advocate. close a a variety of homes. In 1959. formal approach similar to that of her earliest portraits. Museum of Kunstverein. Samaras experienced timedia performance events. same year was admitted Brunswick. Opie had already begun taking though not exhibiting members of the — photographs of her and leather fetish In 1948. Samaras became an Opie consid- full-length portraits gained erable attention at the 1995 Kastoria. Persona Cognita. first These head shots depicting times allow the viewer to see the the masculine masquerade. he gave an advanced film. Australia: Museum of Modern Art at and the Serpentine I leide. Paris. exhibition in women in 1991. Munchen. "The Feminine Gaze: Photographer Catherine Opie Documents November « 216 a Lesbian 19. Exh. at the Heide. Reuben Gallery. Being and Having. London. cat. a retrospective I camera nude or costumed. New American solo with mustaches and beards were intended as performa- tive pieces that at September (b.Though California Institute of Arts in Valencia in 1988. and pat- continues to experiment with cat. Opie began In 1995. pp. cat. photographs. Fabrications. 41-43- Rugoff. which focus a fresh lens on the queer and standard definitions of gender. Anna Marie. In 1983. instant • for the pioneering Photo-Transformations opened up a University of Chicago. the Centre Georges at the lives in Los Angeles. New Gallery. and show with other pioneer Pop New Forms exhibition second as New York. were her previous critiques of perception and hints at the perversion his AntoPolaroids. S/M community. Expanding her investigation of community. with Kim Levin. sculpture seminar at Yale University and completed a short film. 1991. Transformers. rippling. Renaissance Society who b>y possibilities for incorporating double exposures into his oeuvre. /'"/"/' /"/ A . he entered Columbia University. and Sky Gilbert. her mas- ter's degree show and other early work were documentary pro- jects on planned communities. Exh. and the Kunsthalle Basel in 1996. and Vienna. facades. Like her portraits. I'art. The autobiographical content of his work vision of these to who had development of Kaprow's junk-filled environments and mul- artists in the community his father. In this series. which are Opie by producing work that embraced diverse mediums such as paint- and ing. at the Opie Paris. the the New Kaprow and George Allan York's photographs of the Los Angeles freeways his and citizen in 1955 and studied Biennial. In 1992. 1936. however.and Whitney artist's mother moved from Greece where they joined in the New to Studying with Jersey. He expanded contemporary thoroughfares challenges expected notions of landscape and his interest in the performative aspects of beauty and again brings into view what attending the Stella Adler Conservatory of Acting and continued panoramic black-and-white platinum monuments a series Opie imbues these devoted to Hollywood Hills house The photographs capture often seen often excluded. at of Modern Art the Kunstverein at in 1994. . femininmasculin: Le Sexe de numerous black-and-white Polaroid self-portraits that of Samaras's photographs was present- Toronto: ed at the Centre Georges Pompidou. Red Grooms. Opie's earliest series of intimate portraits intended for a public audience. Daddy/Boy Subculture. and proceeded to a in 1994. and Persona Boy. Kim. In and to new technology and formats He in rework questions about the nature of portraiture. Art.

Having gradu- Sherman ated from State University College. Exh. Katharina Sieverding enrolled at the Staatliche struction of woman-as-image. close-up self-portraits that vary endlessly as she Feeling pigeonholed by the feminist discourse that surrounded her work. New at Jersey) the Stedelijk Cindy Sherman emerged onto the numerous group exhibitions. where she studied until 1967 with throughout the mid-1980s served to perpetuate this discourse. Cindy Sherman: Photographic Work 1975-1995. Beuys's emphasis on the creation of the in a vivid light. lighting. Vienna. — including Sherman has appropriated numerous the film still. visual genres career. object and subject been theorized by film critics in —one that terms of spectatorship and had the Untitled Film (b. 19. the Schauspielhaus. Cindy Sherman. rospective organized by the 1980s as part of a new generation of artists concerned with the Rotterdam. Lifson. Samaras: Photographs. debates surrounding authorship and the role of originality. New York: parts. In English and Dutch. New York: Rizzoli. historical portrait. pho- Krauss. 1993. the closely cropped photographs reveal a body Kunstakademie through 1972 under the that is available to the camera and bathed and the at the direct tutelage of Joseph Beuys. She continued her studies of the centerfold. January Glen Ridge. Diisseldorf. of patriarchy. centerfold. 1995. designs venues such as artist's persona is Sherman's choice of gendered genres compounds the voyeuristic evident in Sieverding's early photographic work. a retMuseum Boymans-van Beuningen.— . Simultaneously. art scene in the early in 1982. It Kathctrina Sieverding Stills elicited debate concerning the con- Kiinste. 1954. In English. Most recently. the condition of the photographic image. and soft-core sex image —while dis- rupting the operations that work to define and maintain their respective codes of representation. 1988. and construction Sieverding also worked for theatrical performances at on set codes of what film theorist Laura Mulvey termed the "to-be- the Burgtheater. her to attempt to create work that was "unsaleable" due to its vis- 1988.- New York the following year. cat. Teo Otto. Sherman was In photograph and Martin Schwander. Felix Munich: Schirmer Art Books. Ben. and yet never really there her ready adaptation of a range of personae highlighting the masquerade of identity. which features impression established in the works. fiction cat./( J A . In the mid-1970s. 1996. na "<ii < Disasters series . artifice created Lucas Samaras: Photos Polaroid Photographs 1969-198). Throughout her In English. and the increasing cornmodification of early 1980s Sherman's work was quickly embraced art. Exh. body ceral depictions of vomit. f. and focus. as in her Fairy Tales and changes makeup. looked-at-ness" of female representation. Edited by Zdenek Sherman's reputation was established on the basis of her Stills. Cindy Sherman: 1975-1993. 1983. Exh. Sherman gradually dispensed with representations of the female. Lucas Samaras: Objects and Subjects. ' in/t/< . 1987. ever present. the photographs Sherman made Kunstakademie. Rosalind. She came to Whitney Museum of < 217 . Sieverding began making monumental pho- tographic tableaux that combine images and New York in 1976 to participate in the text. in 1976. by garish colors and gaps that reveal the behind the Musee National d'Art Moderne. Hamburg. often removing herself from the picture and toward more fantastic and moving lurid imagery. In addition to Cindy Sherman (b. large-scale. 1944. and the Whitney New York. in the and framed within the contemporary feminist critique cat. at a time when New York and lives in is at work on a feature-length to j. 1969-1986. of black-and-white photographs from artist depicted herself dressed B-movie heroines. While Her Centerfolds (1981) and Fashion (1983-84) series elaborated the at school. Exh. codes of representation in a media-saturated era. and grotesque fairy tales. she instilled the works with a heightened sense of Abbeville Press. traveled throughout Europe in 1996 and 1997. challenging Aperture. November 16. her work was the subject of solo exhibitions Museum New York Museum. Exh. Emulating the signifiers Deutsche Oper. New York: from the mid-to-late 1980s. of American Art. Diisseldorf. Buffalo. French. the authority of the Amid Modernist paradigm was coming under increasing scrutiny. Cindy Sherman. in after cat. in 1987. Rotterdam: of American Museum Boymans-van Beuningen. fashion photo- graph. Her appropriation of the space on both sides of the lens destabilized the traditionally tion between artist gendered opposi- and model. Berlin. Prague) its After spending one year (1963-64) at the Hochschule fur Bildende gendered codes of looking. the late 1970s in a series which the the guises of cliched tograph. illusion. Centre Georges Pompidou. r. market for her photographs also prompted The ever-increasing this turn. 1969-1986. Paris: and German. New York: Whitney Museum Art. she moved horror film. Untitled Film cat. Amsterdam.

the Kunstverein Salzburg. and creating installations tions such as the Minneapolis College of Art in at institu- and Design. pp. eliminating blemishes. 11-24. Sieverding has she produced a controversial the bridge was raised. In English "The Face of in Amsterdam since 1990. In English and German. genitals. the Kasseler Kunstverein. Installed in 500 locations around circus performer. I 1 218 Utrecht. Solomon-Godeau. cre- and abstracted works that are connected to and photography Akademie (1985-90). 1992. and for a one-year residency at PS. . Since her dressed as sites scattered Mode Akademie 1. showing and publishing her work Sieverding. and Vivienne Westwood. b. Amsterdam. 1992. In large text received public commissions city-funded billboard for a drawbridge in Amsterdam. In the four alterations suggest a loss of individuality the Stedelijk Van The pho- confronted motorists has always been van Lamsweerde's tactic to comprise her 1993 Diisseldorf in 1980. cat. moved in 1992 to the Institute of first series in 1991. in 1992 Abigail. the Stedelijk and the Musee d'Art Moderne de Van Lamsweerde r Museum. Memorial (Mahnmal. the masklike images she produced in the 1960s and early 1970s. of mascu- faces.American Manhattan to become a member Inez van in of the Graduate Faculty of New and Social Science of the Political in 1977. lecturing. Her work has been seen in exhibiOstdeutsche Galerie. the billboard depicted a black-and-white retail and Van Lamsweerde has graffiti der Kiinste and a year later executed a controversial billboard woman's and eroticism was awarded the Photography Award of the Netherlands Difference. in 1979." In Katharina (PANL) and Sieverding: Eine Installation. the Los Inez van Lamsweerde studied fashion at the Vogue (1983-85) New York University. Gary. Abbe Museum. tions at the Centraal Museum in 1994. Sieverding to Berlin to teach at the Hochschule project for Kunstwerke. Berlin. Photography in Contemporary German appearance of her models —elongating body Art: i960 to the parts. in 1992. . and and German. she alters the Garrels. dis- and eroticism. Exh.-T. Artspace. Herve Leger. in 1987. a photograph of eruption a solar to the persecution in 1933 of parliament — the renovated Sieverding's proposed memorial non-Nazi members of the German —provocatively explores the country's political past and present. Regensburg: Museum the European Kodak Awards for the categories of Fashion and People/Portraits. Exh. moved In 1992. 1990). Present. Many bill- boards were defaced or removed. to and nipples from the images of nude female Quantel paintbox computer program. Kassel. Sieverding Hochschule a work that fiir was visiting professor at the Bildende Kiinste in Hamburg. -t. She lives in Diisseldorf. both Angeles Institute for Contemporary Art. cat. she has removed and feminine and series The Forest subtly examines gender iden- that is women — men portrayed have a subtle blurring emphasized by the models' carefully Van Lamsweerde works concurrently as a successful commer- fashion photographer and has shot. performing. The Netherlands. 1963. Art. some- works that parts. or duplicating figures. and the Nationalgalerie. Sieverding's work was shown She has had solo exhibitions at Eindhoven. San Francisco. cat. fetaaeitea z/teaainaa too. in 1993. Bureau. the Stadtische Kunsthalle at the Thank You Thighmaster. Here. Amsterdam and New York. Minneapolis: She has been Walker Art Center. Kassel. Vinoodh Matadin. which depicted posing for pin-ups in unremarkable urban if throughout the northern Dutch city of Groningen. models by using body in Documenta 5. styled hair been chosen to represent Germany own quieting plasticized figures that are the result of these complex line 1997 Venice Biennale. lives in la Ville de Paris in 1994. where she created was chosen by the jury organized to fill monumental Reichstag in Berlin. van Lamsweerde has mimicked the glossiness of fashion maga- From 1990 zines to 1992. Veronique Leroy. Contemporary Sieverding returned to self-portraiture in the early 1980s. Helmut Lang. Van In these works. 1993. Exh. subvert the vocabulary of commercial photography for her that houses Berlin. leading seamlessly alter her models' a German newspaper: "Deutschland wird headline taken from a deutscher" (Germany as if when and sup- Van Lamsweerde often employs high-tech working methods exhibition and studio space. Ostfildern: Cantz. Montreal. in collaboration with the collections of John Galliano. critical image of catalogues in order to target myths of beauty and to question assumptions about gender roles. what accusing the flat since it of sexism artist it — to be defaced with a critique that fell body series hair. surrounded by knives. Independent Study Program and remained Art's September (b. and Concordia ating close-cropped Amsterdam) School for Social Research She traveled throughout the United States and Canada 1977. in 1988. arranged tograph of a sensuously posed when thrown by is a superimposed on the image was a becoming more German). in 1993. Lamsweerde women in at the Gerrit Rietveld Amsterdam. The a Lamsweerde's 1995 tity. 25. parts of the bodies of the been replaced with those of cial b. a Berlin arts complex face port for projects since 1992. woman purposes. in 1972.

1996. In 1920." Ranging from Candy Darling (James socialite Edie Slattery). The Turner. Exh. Warhol's legacy has been recognized in 1949. the at an institution in 1994 he shortened his name. 1989. Art. -A /' lli/rfi . Art. 2 primary camera. which consist of multiple identical pictures [Andrew Warhola] famous Warhol created figures that Andy Warhol commissioned sewn together prolific artist. Exh. Andy Warhol Polaroids 19/1-1986. proceed- ed to earn a living as a portrait photographer. He carried a camera and eventually kept Yevonde Cumbers attended boarding schools Belgium. like the majority of Warhol's Andy Warhol: A artist's interest in seriality. the A Warhol: A Factory. appropriately dubbed "The Factory. 6. critical attention as a fine artist in the mundane products purchased by American consumer. cat. d. 1987. she decided to study photography and apprenticed with the portrait intended to reveal whether the subject had the potential to be the almost killed by (b. silk-screened works of also August (b. 1989./. In 1989. finding the most banal actions mesmerizing. The Andy Warhol Museum. Warhol gained resentations of the and sculptures artist. p. Interview magazine. Stephen. 1964 with the Photobooth pictures. d. Jonathan. These works. photography occurred in individuals Sedgwick to transvestite appear in Warhol's films Warhol's first true foray into he simply prompted subjects to pose in where their a photo booth. the that feature iconic rep- . Upon graduating in died prematurely in 1987. Warhol was shot and a January 5. Zurich: Kunsthaus Zurich. 1928. I He usually up in his studio to capture staff had camera a stationary film (first assistant. in which a motionless for the three-minute of film. Gallery and art. and cable-television shows./i crte a 111 a . and exhibitions world- was held executing advertisements and illustrations throughout the 1950s. cat. "Inez van Lamsweerde: Vanity Fear. to create his like of Andy Warhol Photobooth but also his enthrallment with popular culture. 96-97. Warhol was obsessed with recording everything around him. Warhol moved and successful to New York. During this period. </ i/ as well as images of idolized celebrities such Marilyn Monroe. first early 1960s with paintings as New York. is planned Museum SoHo. called Screen duration of a reel sit a regular Tests. Warhol's studio. no. it he took a gargantuan number of Polaroids that encompass nudes. and then video) set Inez van Lamsweerde. many Retrospective the Pictures. cat. cally lectured on photography and. enrolling in the Department of Painting and Sculpture. he embarked upon a commercial artist. self-portraits. Koch. and mass production. Andy Warhol attended Pittsburgh's Carnegie Institute of He Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University). 1986. person would be asked to Madame Yevonde photographer Cumbers Lallie Charles from 1911 to 1914. Exh. In English and performing daily visitors and German. Warhol proclaimed the more glamorous and outrageous of these "Superstars. photographic silk-screen process. December 22. Collier. Robert Miller Gallery. Pittsburgh. New York: Robert Miller New York: Pace/MacGill Gallery. Madame Yevonde in 1921. 1976 to 1986. cat. utilized mechanical means. following gallbladder surgery. by Kynaston McShine. apparel. opened large-scale interdisciplinary exhibition. Exh. pp. February 22. completing her education a at the seventeen.-v. in Andy for spring 1998 at the Guggenheim the hi i/. marking the beginning of her commitment to women's causes. Exh. Edited New York: Museum oeuvre. the Polaroid Big Shot became Warhol's Schorr." Artnews 93. In 1968." Artforum 33. A New York) and wealthy society personalities From until his death./• II ni/l i II r/ which he dictated over the phone to an detailed diary. woman who had appeared in one of his films. 1975. he produced stitched photographs. Sometimes Warhol would employ the film camera as one would camera. At movement. [Yevonde Cumbers Middleton] London. g. portrait Polaroids were often the source for the no. were done in multiple versions that not only exemplify latter. Museum Andy Warhol: A Modern of dedicated to the Pittsburgh. stardom. taking the professional own in London in 1914 name of Madame Yevonde. "Openings: Inez van Lamsweerde. activities. For these. Around 1970. The Screen Tests were sometimes next Superstar in a Warhol movie." was the Modern The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts. also generating books. contributing to society magazines such as The Sketch married playwright Edgar Middleton. where lucrative career as a wide. photographs were automatically taken. and tape recorder with him constantly.1 . 9 (November 1994). 1992. locus of convergence for notorious characters belonging to the New York: cat. to create a single image. and portraits. producing film portraits. established a studio of her and. was the first she periodi- woman i . and The Tatler. they and photographs from this period. Andy Warhol Photographs. 1893. counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s. and with (October 1994). 75. In keeping with Warhol frequently Retrospective. On an impulse. Warhol experimented ad methods of reproduction during successfully with myri- his lifetime. she joined the suffragette London) in England and Sorbonne in Paris.

Congress of the Professional Photographers to address the Association. ( 1 1/1/1/1 . London. Salway. she extended her commercial endeavors to include advertising. Exh. . Photographic Society. In Camera. and Others: Yevonde. She exhibited her celebrated Goddesses in her studio in July 1935. the Royal member since 1921) named her a Fellow for her work Madame Yevonde photography. In Camera./ci/ . Goddesses London: National Portrait Gallery. a and .11/1 /ii/ life. ingeniously placing colored cellophane and filters camera and modulating the lens over the lighting to obtain specific tones and vibrant hues. Fantasy. Though grief stricken Madame Yevonde by her husband's death in 1939. . and Myth. was organized by the Royal g. The "goddesses" were society costumed as Greek and Roman deities series women and posed against back- drops of imaginative props in fantastical and artful compositions. Her auto- biography. Robin. cat. Madame Yevonde: Colour. [Madame] Yevonde. In 1973. . with her lecture "Photographic Portraiture from the Women's Point of View. -v. '/| libson. producing solarized early 1960s. London: Balcony Books. and Pam Roberts. . was published in 1940. whose work Madame Yevonde in 1936 that depict unusual juxtapo- sitions of objects. A Portrait. Tiring of black-and-white photography. 1990." Around 1925. in the late 1950s for her eightieth birthday. 1990. London: Women's Book Club. did not curtail her artistic activities. Influenced by the Surrealists and especially became known also in Britain in the mid-i930s. began creating still lifes Man Ray. a color continued to explore diverse photographic techniques throughout her photographs in in London. Madame Yevonde began experimenting with the Vivex color process in the early 1930s. 1958. Kate. In the same Photographic Society (of which she had been year. as a tribute major retrospective Sixty Years a Portrait Photographer.

78 (details of album photographs). 91 Collectionneuse). 12 (by Georges de Zayas). summer Urs Luthi Marc Eemans 1971. 102 Gary Cooper. 32 tit Ude Sisterhood. 1994. 136 Eileen Agar Betsey Angel of Anarchy (second version). 29 Pride 1991. 1930. I. Annette Messager Ball. 1968. ca. 8 Self-Portrait. 9 Barbette and Tabboo! Making Up. n. 1972. 131 Untitled (Your gaze hits the side of my face). '49 1931. 68-69 Lorraine O'Grady Nefertiti/Devonia Evangeline. 9th. 1921. 63 The Spur of Love (L'Eperon d'amour). 25 Self-Portrait. Full See the ne voispas Olivia Newton-John. 1927. 164 L. 1925. 1994. 1928. 37 Duchamp as Rrose Selavy. 37 Training (Ertiichtigiing). 166 sciee).YV< . 108 Lyle Ashton Harris and Ike Brassai Woman Slide Easy In. 25 Yasumasa Morimura 13 Doublonnage (Marcel). 1994. 182 Claude Cahun Self. 26 The Tragedienne (Die Tragoedin). 1920. summer Dependence). The Strong Men Tamer (Dompteuse). 1924. 1972. Julia Bredt and 20 Eve. 18 Surrealist Chessboard (L'Echiquier surrealiste). 1892. 24 Klauke Marlow Moss photograph of. 1927. Boston. Jack Unveiled. . 1929. 44 Lady Lavery.36 Clown. 1988. 1928. 143 Man lie and Dress. 136 Sell Dressed i'p as isth. 1927. 14' Igor Markevitch.H. 112—113 Portrait. 176 Baillie- Poulett. 1990. 43 Robert Mapplethorpe Guerrilla Girls Self-Portrait. Homosexual Messager Collector (Les 1972. 4:40 pm. 110 Magnetic Portrait of Stephen Tennant. 183 performance of The Blacks Les Negres). 148 i5 .. Vagabonds Jiirgen Fuckface Twin. 56 Eau de Voilette. ca. 58 et les of. Monday. 1992. 1935. Display). 186 ( 'ountess ( astega. 156 The ( Christian Marclay David Bowie. 1924. 36 Dinos and Jake 77 Effigy (Effigie). ca. III. Adam and Duchamp Tonsured Marlene. 1928. /46 Nan Goldin 1891. October Selj Do Not as John Travolta Jean Genet Alice Austen lulia and Penelope Tuesdae 1929. 64 Self-Portrait with Top Hat. 1921. 1989. Viol). 97 September [Woman] Hidden la Aurelien. Adaptation. Confessions of the Guerrilla Girls. 137 Diamond with the ami Dad. 42 Mick lagger ca. Boston. ield. 1928. in the bathroom. Boston. 1920. 137 Physiognomies [Physiognomien).Portrait. 10J 54 Matthew Barney 4: Faerie in the Forest [femme] cachee dans Man Ray Ivy with Marilyn. 1973. ( 'ine-sketch: Naomi on the street. 1921. 1935. 50 Self-Portrait. 1995. Montpamasse. 10 Annette Hommes-Femmes Elvis Herselvis Lynn Hershman 7 series. 1966-68. ca. 1988. Hill (Je Janine Antoni Mom Rene Magritte A. 1930. 1988. Assistance. 41 Construct «io. 103 Gertrude Stem. Untitled. 1891. 93 Femmes-Hommes. 1981.d. 1N92. 1991. 126 1971. Wanda - Debutantes Hamilton and lady Bridget Jack's Back. Light. 1933. 63 1924. Thursday. series. 1920s. from the Body Mix luld. 1932. 1928. 1922. Men. 1970. 14 14. Boston. 28 99 s'<s ' Pat 4: 1961. 1929. 30 Street. 1941. 1924-25. (Self-Pride). 70. 1970. I laforet). 60 David ami Mistress Formica Martin. 1932. 1929-30. 89 Marcel Delia Grace Cecil Beaton Kiki of Montpamasse. Reflection. Self-control). 109 "Bijou" of Montmartre. 35 he Monocle. Album-collection No. Colette and 1994. 38 Lyle Ashton Harris and Lynda Benglis advertisement (November in Alex and 13 1974). 1980. 1940. from the Body Mix Annette Messager The Men-Women and the Women-Men. Alexandra Epps Artforum Fields. 98 Loughton Manual. Marcel Duchamp 1981. 1994. from the Body Mix 92 series. Chapman The Doll (La Poupee). 55 CR CR The Rape (Le 1 1993. 1975.. 142 George Ernst Lynes Piatt Untitled. II: Groundwork. 40 Lyle Ashton Harris Gertrude Stem and Alice B. 100 Barbette. Parade. 142 1991. Belle Haleine. Q. ca. 199s. 62 27 ( late 1960s. 13 1932. O. 1980. 123 Toklas. Self-Portrait. photograph 1933. Trappings. 1924. ca. 34 Pierre Molinier Roberta's Construction Chart. October 1971. 1920-21. Gallagher / Murray Anonymous I L. 1973. 169 Female Couple. 1994. 164 The Sawed-up Max Woman < La femme Be Your Mirror. 1944. I: I have up to give me to be loved by you?). 1991. 87 Vagabunden). O. and Dcninc 111 the Profile Room. 79 (installation detail) Hannah Hoch Self-Portrait. Barbette. Grand Melee (Grande Melee). 1934. 1996. Self-Portrait. 1919/1930. Length with Fan. 158 Jean Cocteau. 1994. 6 1928. ca. 134 Baba Beaton. 33 Quarrel. eft j'oaucticmA 7jta<<\r o The Phenomenon Acconci Vito oj Ecstasy {Le Plienomene de Heart (Do I'extase). 59 11. NYC. 164 /'// Conversions (Part Association. on the set Lyle Ashton Harris and Hence Cox of Performance.U. 1933. 167 Transformer. 165 vanity hair. 1973. 21 Conversions (Part Insistence. Lyle. 1972-73. 120 1931. 1971. David drove at Jimmy Gay at the Paulette 1973. 1926.O.. (Die starken Manner). 140 Conversions (Part summer Barbara Kruger Salvador Dali Reproduction* arc lined by page number. late 1960s.

" series. 1995. from the Being and Having series. ca. The Forest. 61 #6. 170 Nicholas Sinclair Fabian. 1978. 168 Madame Yevonde Self. 185 Goddesses series. 187 /. 1986. 1991. 205 from the Being and Having series. from the Being and Having series. 1975. Ethel Scull 36 Times. 1962. from the as "Arethusa. Jake. #56. 1925.Portrait. from the Goddesses Mrs. 1946. 80 1978. 137 Niki de Saint-Phalle The Death of the Patriarch (La Mort du patriarche). 85 Untitled. 1935. 1937. 1935. 1989. 171 Hans Anton Prinner of. 1992. #14. Klaus. viii Untitled. 168 Mitch. 185 from the Being and Having series. 1994. 9$ The Forest. 1995.Andy Warhol Catherine Opie and Having series. Untitled Film Still." series. 1991. 73 Self-Portraits in Drag. 1971. 1995. 151 Jack Smith film still from Flaming Creatures. 1995. 47 Orlan Lady Dorothy Warrender Orlan Before Saint-Orlan (Orlan avant Sainte- Goddesses series. 52 as "Minerva. 1989. #11. from the Being Chief. 144 Lucas Samaras Auto Polaroid." 46 in. 71 1991. 1935. 1991. #193. 106 Papa Bear. 1993. 1963. Marcel." from the Adrian Piper photograph as "Penthesilea" Edward Meyer from the 49 Amazons). 1969-71. Untitled Film Still. Inez van The Forest. from the Being and Having series. 45 48 .. Chicken. 66. 1977. #201. as "Medusa. 104 Hannah Wilke Portrait of the Artist in His Studio. 1855. 95 The Forest. 1962/72. 22 series. 1980. 1935. from the from the u Mrs. 83 Katharina Sieverding Transformer. 1973-74. 74-75 Cindy Sherman Untitled. Richard Hart-Davis as "Ariel. Lady Michael Balcon Orlan). 1935. 187 Lady Bridgett Poulett Wolfe. 161 Gertrude Stein "Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose" letterhead. 143 Pierre-Louis Pierson Countess de Castiglione. Cecil Beaton. 84 Untitled Film Still. 39 1991. 199s. #112. 127 Untitled. Rob. 10$ Through the Large Glass. 121 Raoul Ubac Mannequin by Marcel Duchamp. 1935." 1991. Lady Milbanke Winged Domino as "Ceres. 1976. 104 Dorothy Wilding Dyke. 1987. Goddesses Goddesses Mythic Being: Getting Back #1. 82 Untitled Film Still. 143 1938. Lamsweerde Andy. 1988. 150 Goddesses Roland Penrose (Portrait of Valentine). 1982. 94 94 View images reproduced J i (Queen of the series. #17$.

San Diego. Politics. book on "female currently finishing a and Mark A. literature. which appeared on is nineteenth-century fiction. where she rary art. essays on Claude Cahun. c'est la vie': Fetishism as Cultural is courses in film and visual culture. and abroad. sarah wilson where she writes film reviews for Girlfriends Magazine. forthcoming). 1995) and lyle the author of Associate Professor of Literature University of California. She College of Art and Design. 1990). ed. ed. Los Art and the Angeles. Peggy Guggenheim's carole-anne tyler on Autobiography and art. ed. including Flash Art. Martin Kreiswirth judith halberstam She She liter- Fuss (Routledge. contempo- museum include and Rebecca Horn. Riverside. cat. Gay Theories. first Solomon R. contributing texts Ernst. Pasadena. University of London. His in Paris. and Photography). where she and postwar European art. and while also publishing extensively in Britain is Politics the author of When Modernism Failed: of the Left in France. forthcoming). 1930-1956 (Yale University Press. Marc Chagall. in differences: a journal offeminist cultural studies. at Otis is a lecturer in twentieth-century art his- specializes in Georges Pompidou masculinity." exh. writings and interviews have appeared in international journals. which is She writes frequently on issues visual culture for the museum and interna- tional art publications. Since 1981 she has collaborated on major exhibitions with the Centre is French art and Visual Culture (University of Michigan Press. and will be published in The Passionate Camera: Photography and the Bodies of Desire. Los Angeles. is Assistant Curator at the Guggenheim Museum. and cultural studthe author of Skin Show: Gothic Horror and Lesbian Theories. col- photographs. "'Eros. the Technology of Monsters (Duke University Press.Contributors Jennifer blessing R. Inside/Out: Gina Pane. at the and modern Female Impersonation (Routledge. Associate Curator at the Guggenheim Museum. Kurt Schwitters. ashton Harris Diana tory at the Courtauld Institute of Art. and has completed several editorial photography projects for The New nancy spector is York Times Magazine. and Art Center College of Design. and Theory between the Disciplines: Cheetham ies. She in Art/Fashion. 1991). aRude. is represented by Jack New York. Harris Tilton Gallery. paparazzi (Surrealism. Vision. Berlin Biennial. Deborah Bright (Routledge. queer theory. Gypsy Rose Lee. portions of Discourse currently writing an essay is Associate Professor of English at the University of California. gender and sexuality. and Margo Leavin Gallery. Fashion. where she teaches ary theory. Solomon specializes in Surrealism Her publications include lection." She a lecturer is postwar European art. specializes in Exhibitions she has curated at the retrospectives of Felix Gonzalez-Torres She is currently co-curating the scheduled for in summer contemporary 1998. Max politics. art and on postwar sexuality. 1997). Art in America. 1 J 223 . (Skira. where she teaches is is Authority. and most recently. and Afterimage. forthcoming).

and Metro artist courtesy of Sotheby's London. Mr. ©Gilberte Brassa'i. 97-101. 21. Paris. 55. Musees de de la Ville photo by Phototheque des Paris. 102. © for the Visual Arts 1997 / Andy ARS. Pictures. Lyle with pages 7-8. 93. Seitz-Gray. 8. York. bottom. Warhol Foundation New York. Myers. © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). de Nantes. Production manager. 50. 25. Archives. Lynes II. New York / ADAGP / Man Ray Trust. 45-49. 148. 24. photo by Michael James O'Brien. 185. © 39. courtesy Courtauld Institute of Art Witt left. courtesy ot the New York. Catherine Opie. Samaras. New York / ADAGP. New York / VG Paris. 58. top right. © 94. 1980 Angeles. All rights reserved. 60. courtesy of William A. © 1922 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 30. / Sieverding. © 7. courtesy of Courtauld Institute of Art / Paris. 54. Photo by Ms. 26. 170. 156. England.6y. 32-35. New York. 6. Gil. Bild-Kunst. Paris. 38. Paris. 95. photo by Adam Reich. photo by Ms. Ashton Harris. 158. © 1996 The Museum of Modern Art. S. New York / VG Bild-Kunst. © 1997 Artists Rights New York / ADAGP. pages courtesy of the facilities Banff Centre for the Arts. 56. All Rights Reserved. 82-85. 108. Ewing.A. Los Ray Trust. © Katharina (ARS).E. Milan. courtesy of Black Care Hopp. 2/. 126. courtesy of Barbara Gladstone Gallery. 136. Nicholas Sinclair. 143. 143. listed courtesy of the Detroit Institute of Arts. © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Katharina Sieverding. Garbs. © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Inez van Lamsweerde. Paris. for the Visual 71. © 1996 Whitney Museum of © 1997 Andy Warhol Foundation Arts ARS. Sulkin Winters Partnership. courtesy Matthew Marks Gallery. photo by Sandra 149. photo by Ellen Labenski. 18. (ARS). 109. New York ADAGP Man Ray Trust.G. © and Metro artist Library. © 1988 Catherine Opie. Bonn. Paris. Lousada. photo by Ilona Ripke. © / Museum Berggruen. Pompidou. Pictures. New York. New York / ADAGP / Man Museum Lucas 80. 142.Photo credits Photo credits are x'iii. 141. Alexander Portrait The Metropolitan Museum of All rights reserved. © 1996 rights reserved. Jody Zellen. photo by Maggie from work by Lyle Sites of Beauty Ashton Harris . © Yevonde Portrait Archive. 74-75. New York VG Bild-Kunst. 104-05. © AIDS Research and Education Staten Island 1928 Centre Georges Pompidou. Photo by 1997 Artists Rights New York / ADAGP / Man Ray Trust. © New York. 120. opening (1994). Man Ray Trust. 10. Paris. © Galerie Bugdahn und Kaimer. of Art. Witt Library. © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 143. Estate of Robert Mapplethorpe. New York / ADAGP Man Ray Trust. 29. 20. >5'< © photo by 144. Laurent Condominas. photo by Zindman/Fremont. © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Video and Ike Ude. © top. American Art. 13. page 13-14. photo by © photo by Teri Slotkin. Paris Estate of Sotheby's London. photo by 1997 Artists Rights Society New York ADAGP / Man Ray Trust.D. top. photo by Bill photo by Orcutt. New York / ADAGP Man Ray Trust. © The courtesy of Sotheby's Sotheby's London. Centre Georges courtesy of © Historical Society. © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). left. © © Musee National Pompidou. 12. 89. left. / © courtesy of the 1996 courtesy of © Nan Goldin. © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Bonn. 22. Paris. drag racing credits: Designer. © Art. . © 1996 Kunsthaus Zurich. New York. 147. photo by Ellen Labenski. © Nan County Museum Associates. 11. photo by A. New York. New York / ADAGP Man Ray Trust. right. 77. New York / VG Bild-Kunst. of Art Witt Library. 14. Goldin. Bonn. © © 182. 62. top 1997 Artists Rights Society Art. 134. artist New Estate of Robert Janine Antoni. tesy of 9. Ellen Labenski. © 1997 / © 223. 63. 66. 57. © Bill Orcutt. © Gilberte BrassaT. © Philadelphia Museum of Art. Los Angeles 37. Phyllis Christopher. (Community Project) University 9. 131. Paris. 6). Paris. London. photo by Ellen Labenski. 28. © 1996 The Museum of Modern Art. bottom. courtesy of the / and Metro Pictures. Luhring Augustine Gallery. 36. courtesy of d'Art Moderne. all New York. courtesy of Matthew Marks Gallery. 103. © Museum Boymans-van Beuningen. E. Freda Leinwand. Metropolitan © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). The 112-13. Jean-Claude Planchet. cour- Christian Marclay. Lyle 106. © 88. 15. / / / Marcel Duchamp. Production Ashton Harris in collaboration of Southern California. of Art. © Lyle 1995. courtesy of © Yevonde Archive. E. Ville © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). no. Paris. 36. Courtesy Regen Projects. a collaborative Society (ARS). still text. courtesy of Courtauld Institute 137. 40-44. top. The The Museum of Modern by page number. courtesy of Galerie Tom Hustler. © 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 92. 146. 68-69. England. courtesy of Musee National d'Art Moderne. 1990 Catherine Opie. 87. Centre Georges 64. © Estate of Eileen Agar. Seitz-Gray. 25. 1981. 73. Bonn. Society (ARS). B. 52. Roger Schall and Francis Lee. Mapplethorpe. Paris. © George P. courtesy of Courtauld View photos by Institute of Art Witt Library. Outfit by courtesy of Sotheby's London. Ashton Harris. 187. Lynn Hershman Leeson. bottom.

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