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How to read a turbo compressor map

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How to read a turbo compressor map.

Turbo system

To be able to read a compressor map for your specific application will require you to
calculate the volume and mass of air moving through your engine.
Hopefully this will also offer some other details.
Volumetric Flow Equation.


15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map This equation is for finding the volume of air going into the engine. V = the volume. So. Lets take an engine with a displacement of 122 cu. volume of air (cu ft/min)= (engine rpm x engine cid)/(1728 x 2) Ideal Gas Law/Mass Air Flow. What are absolute temperature and pressure? Do we care? Of course we do! Absolute pressure is the gauge pressure (measured by a gauge that reads 0 when it is open to the outside air) plus atmospheric pressure. After it is hooked up it reads 10 psi http://www.enginelogics. If you know any three of every 2 rpm.This is a 4 stroke engine with the intake valves on each cylinder opening once every 2 revolutions. The Ideal Gas Law relates the air pressure. n = related to the number of air molecules and is an indication of the mass (or pounds) of air. But the volume is always 122 cu. How many pounds of air is that? That depends on the pressure and temperature of the air in the intake manifold. Example: A boost gauge reads 0 psi before it is hooked up. R = a constant number T = the absolute of air. Atmospheric pressure is about 2/12 . The equation is written: PV=nRT P = the absolute pressure (not the gauge pressure). a handy equation to .7 psi at sea level.7 psi at sea level. Atmospheric pressure is about 14. Home Engine Management Service Support Articles Contact  Absolute pressure is the gauge pressure (measured by a gauge that reads 0 when it is open to the outside air) plus atmospheric pressure. you can calculate the fourth. for every 2 revolutions the engine takes in 122 cu.

the volume (which we calculate as shown in the first section (Volumetric Flow Equation). and volume of air you can calculate the pounds of air: n=PV/ (RT) That is useful. With some exhaust remaining in the cylinder and the restriction offered by the intake ports and valves the actual amount of air that flows into the cylinder is somewhat less than ideal. or -14.85 (or 85%). Unfortunately.ft. divided by the ideal amount. custom intakes and intake manifolds. For the purpose of this writing the Ideal Gas Law is rearranged to the two handiest forms. The more pounds of air being move the more power will be mademake. When a pressure reading marked “psia” it means “Pounds per Square Inch Absolute” and when the reading is marked “psig” it means “Pounds per Square Inch Gauge” A perfect vacuum is 0 psia.enginelogics. Absolute temperature is the temperature in degrees F plus 460.7 psig.7. 10 psi is the gauge pressure. ported heads. Due to ram effect some normal aspirated engines/vehicles fitted with tunnel ram can get over 100% at certain rpms. So we can figure out how many pounds of air the engine is moving to determine the turbo size needed. since we know the pressure (boost pressure). etc.15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map under boost. or deg R.73 x T(deg R)) To get the volume of air: V(cu. This gives degrees Rankine. To determine true actual flow we have to take Volumetric Efficiency or VE into account. If it is 85 deg F outside.ft. the absolute temperature is 85 + 460 = 545 deg R. For the average basic stock high performance 4 cylinder double overhead cam this number is around 0. For example. can get this number closer to 1. if you know the pressure. this doesn’t usually happen. the absolute pressure at sea level is 10 + 14. Things like big valves. actual air flow = ideal air flow x volumetric efficiency http://www.0 (or 100%). with the required constants: To get pounds of air: n(lbs/min)= (P(psia) x V(cu. we would open the intake valve and get 17 psi in the cylinder before the intake valve closed. complete cylinder fill could be achieved under perfect conditions(Theoretically) If there is 15 psi of boost in the intake manifold. big cams. tunnel rams. The Ideal Gas Law can be rearranged to calculate any of the variables.7= 24. and we can make a good guess on the 3/12 ./min) = n(lbs/min) x 10. The actual amount of air that does flow. temperature.73 x T(deg R) (29 x P(psia)) Volumetric Efficiency:  In a perfect engine./min) x 29) (10. is called the volumetric efficiency.

9 x 0. Let’s increase VE by installing bigger valves and port the cylinder head.97 lbs air/minute Now let’s take the same engine and put an intercooler on it with the manifold temperature now at 125 deg F and 15 psi boost.44 lbs of air/min more than the non inter-cooled engine.15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map Let’s use a 2.93 lbs of air per minute (ideal) 10. The engine is running 15 psig boost.97 cfm 1728 x 2 This holds true for both an intercooled and a non-intercooled engine. Both intercooled and nonintercooled engines will be moving 290. VE can only change when you modify the intake track such as installing bigger valves and porting the head etc.85 = 27. in engine and calculate the lbs of air/minute for both turbo charged engine with an 85% VE @ 8500 RPM as an example. http://www.7 psia n(lbs/min)= 29. As we will see however.97 cfm of air into the cylinders at 8500 rpm.7 psia x 290.9 lbs of air per minute (ideal) 10.7 = 31.97 cfm x 29 = 39. volume.ft per minute = 8500 x 122 = 290. Remember VE does not change even if you do turbo charge the engine. Absolute temperature = 125 deg F + 460 = 585 deg R Absolute pressure = 17 psig + 14.97 cfm x 29 = 32. Suppose the temperature in the intake manifold for the non intercooled engine is about 250 deg F.73 x 710 deg R lbsair per minute actual = lbs/min ideal x vol.85 = 33. the mass of air flowing is not the same.3 x 0.enginelogics. What is the mass of air the engine is using? Absolute temperature = 250 deg F + 460 = 710 deg R Absolute pressure = 15 psig + 14.7 = 29.41 lbs air/minute Note that the inter-cooled engine got 5.7 psia x 290. = 4/12 . eff. = 39.7 psia n(lbs/min)= 29. eff. To see what effect an intercooler can have we take the same 122 cu.73 x 585 deg R lbsair per minute actual = lbs/min ideal x vol. Bench numbers for the head increased form 265 cfm ? 300 cfm thus meaning that an overall increase of 12% was achieved.0 L (122 cu. New VE.

This power comes from the exhaust side of the turbo. = 39. Just like rubbing your hands together will warm your hands due to the friction between your hands.3 x 0.15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map = 85 x 1. Instead. If we 5/12 . called the Turbine. and this results in heat. http://www.41 lbs air/minute By porting the head and installing bigger valves we now have increased the air intake of the intercooled engine with and additional 4 lb/minute Turbo Charging.2 Therefore lbs air per minute actual = lbs/min ideal x vol. This is because we cannot build a perfect machine. Turbo Charger The compressor is the part of the turbocharger that compresses air and pumps it into the intake manifold.952 = 37. because of the design of the compressor. all of the power would go into building pressure.12 (12%) = 95. When this happens. Not all of the power that comes from the turbine goes into building pressure. the air molecules get “beat up”. It takes power to do this. Air molecules get sucked into the rapidly spinning compressor blades and get flung out to the outside edge. the air molecules get stacked up and forced together. Some of the power is used up in heating the air. This increases their pressure. the friction between the compressor and the air and between the air molecules themselves will heat up the air. eff.

7 psia Pout/Pin = 29. The left side of the graph shows the outlet pressure to inlet pressure ratio.53 deg F.092 (this is the compression ratio) Tout = 530 + 530 x (-1+2. the suction pressure is -0.0920. The performance of a compressor can be shown on a graph by a series of curves.5 psig + 14.53 deg F 0. How Hot is the Air Coming out of the Compressor? The equation used to calculate the discharge temperature is: Tout = Tin + Tin x [-1+(Pout/Pin) 6/12 . For example. and the rpm that it is turning. We have to figure out the pounds of air moving and correct it from the actual inlet temperature and pressure to their standard temperature and pressure. Compressors do not always operate at the same discharge pressure. GT3076. efficiency curves and rpm curves.15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map Compressor efficiency is determined by dividing the amount of power that goes into building pressure by the total power put into the compressor.2 = 2. The other 30% of the power is used heating up the air.53 deg R – 460 = 227. but the CFM of air). When you try to build lots of boost with a blower you have to put in a lot of power and more than half of that power is heating up the air instead of raising pressure.7/14. That is why we like high efficiency compressors because more of the power is being used on building pressure and less is used heating up the air. The bottom of the graph shows the lbs/min of air that the compressor is moving.263] efficiency Example: the inlet temperature is 70 deg F. The area where http://www. corrected to a standard temperature and pressure. The discharge pressure that the compressor produces depends on the volumetric flow into it (not the pounds of air. Turbos. Paxtons.263 ) = 687. GT3571 and GT3776 compressor maps from Garrett. There are two different sets of curves in the graph. NOT for a given mass flow. and the efficiency is 72%. The maximum efficiency of these kinds of superchargers is usually between 70% and 80%. Below is a GT 2876.72 At 15 psi boost with and an inlet temperature to the compressor of 70 deg F the theoretical outlet temperature is 227. They are called this because the centrifugal force of flinging the air molecules from the center of the housing to the outside edge is what builds air pressure.7 = 14. the discharge pressure is 15 psig.2 psia Pout= 15 psig + 14. and Vortechs are all centrifugal superchargers. What is the discharge temperature? Tin= 70 deg F + 460 = 530 deg R Pin= -0.enginelogics. The standard industry practice is to put this part of the graph in actual volumetric flow (such as ACFM) since the compression is constant for a given volumetric flow and compressor speed. Roots blowers like the 6-71.7 = 29. a 70% efficient compressor means that 70% of the power put into the compressor is used in building air pressure.5 psig (a slight vacuum). work differently with a 40% lower efficiency.

15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map there are lines drawn is the operating envelope. It will still run if you go to the right of the envelope. where it is marked “surge limit”. GT2876R Turbo Map http://www. the flow through the compressor is unstable and will go up and down and backwards unpredictably. just not well. This is surging. Pick a turbo that is close to the peak turbo efficiency at the engine’s torque peak while still maintaining at least 60% efficiency at the maximum rpm of the 7/12 . It is best to operate the compressor within its envelope. Do not pick a turbo that will operate in this area! It can be very damaging. How to read the graph. To the left of the envelope.enginelogics.

com/read-a-turbo-compressor-map/ 8/12 .15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map GT3076R Turbo Map http://www.enginelogics.

com/read-a-turbo-compressor-map/ 9/12 .enginelogics.15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map GT3571 Turbo Map http://www.

949 psia = 28. In our example.41 lbs/min of air.15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map GT3776 Turbo Map Figure out the pounds of air that you are moving through the engine. at inlet conditions of -0.92 inches mercury is atmospheric pressure at sea level.52 inches mercury vacuum. 29.5 psig and 70 deg F.92 – 28.949 has been used because everything is measured in psia instead of in inches of mercury 13. That is the standard suction pressure. so 29. http://www.5 (Pin/ 10/12 .4 = 1. Now correct that flow to the standard temperature and pressure.4 inches mercury absolute.949) Note that 13. we were passing 33. Corrected flow = actual flow x (Tin/545)0.

000 rpm to get the pressure up to 15 psig from -0. http://www. For the GT2876 it is inside the 74% curve.15/6/2015 How to read a turbo compressor map Standard temperature is 545 deg R. 77% for the GT3571 and 78% for the GT3776.5 + 14. but since the turbo is sucking air to itself the pressure at the inlet is lower than that. Our point on the rpm curve for the GT2876 is at 101500 rpm. it is produce to help the reader understand the basic principals required in choosing a turbo for his/her application. Where the two lines meet is where the turbo will operate at 15 psi of boost. The air pressure is 0 psig.) Again. The other curves are rpm curves for the turbo.5 psig to 85 deg F and -0. and the point at which the compressor runs at changes. or 0. so the actual compressor outlet pressure is 3+15=18 psig. Using our example.5 inches mercury vacuum.7 = 14.5 psig. so the operating point moves to the right. or 545 – 460 = 85 deg F. or 11/12 .5 psig at the inlet.46 lb/min (14. The next step is to figure out the compression ratio.30 (-0. and draw a straight line upward from that point. temperature and pressure have to be absolute.949 psia.2/13. Tin = 70 + 460 = 530 deg R Pin = -0. More engine rpm means more air flow.5 = 32. And so on. which look like circles. Let’s say it is -0. So we are correcting the flow from 70 deg F and -0. Note: This document is not produced to recommend a specific turbo. Let’s suppose the pressure drop from the turbo outlet to the manifold is 3 psi. Then the compression ratio.75 psig (or 13. 77% for the GT3076.3 on the left side of the graph and draw a line horizontally from that point.5 + 14.7) Now we plot 2. Change any of these numbers. Look at the efficiency curves. Colder intake temperatures means more pounds of air which moves our point to the right. using absolute pressures.75 psi vacuum. for the GT 3076 at 101000. If you are trying to choose between 2 turbos. The Turbine has to provide enough power to spin it that fast. but also the compression ratio goes up so our point definitely moves up and should move right. pick the one with the better efficiency where most of your driving is done.41 x (530/545)0. for the GT 3571 at 115500 and for the GT3776 at 98. Raising the boost probably means more air into the cylinders.7) = 2.2 psia Corrected flow = 33. or however you want to look at it. Pout/Pin is : Pout/Pin = (18 + 14. we had 15 psi boost in the intake manifold.enginelogics.949) Mark that point on the bottom of the graph.

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