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Vital Signs of Various

Animals

Submitted by:
Cherry Luz L. Rezaga
Submitted to:
Dr. Tomas J. Fernandez Jr.

1.1. Proper handling of visual aids (2.5 meters (2. Grammar (25%) 5. figures. Appropriateness of visual aid (15%) 3. Organization of thoughts (5) 5.2.2.5.2.2. Syntax/Choice of words (5) 5. Coherence of paragraph (5) 5. Only relevant topics discussed/included (5) 5.Rezaga. Readable from a distance of 1. Magnified voice (2.3.5) 6.4.2. Main criteria written on a ¼ sheet of paper attached to hard copy of report (2. preparation (grammar) (5) 5. Tenses. Cherry Luz L.6.3. Completeness of the topic (5) 1. Appropriateness of visual aids (2. Promptness of submitting report (5%) 6. Number of literature cited more than five (5) 1.3Principle discussed (5) 1.4. Confidence (15%) 2. VMed 182 – Clinical Orientation “Vital Signs” Criteria of Reporting 1.5) 3. Sentences translated in the way it is understood (5) 6. etc (2.3.5) 3. Appropriate use of color (not glaring) (2.1.1.5) 7.1Complete uniform(5) Total score: Score .5) 3.2. Clarity of pictures. Knowledge of the subjected matter (15%) 4.4.4Literature should be cited in the text (5) 2.1.5. No reading(5) 2.3.5) 3.5) 4. Slide not crowded (2. Thorough explanation of subject matter (5) 4.5) 3. Ability to answer questions (5) 4.5) 3. Thorough research (20%) 1.5) 2. Correctness of words spelled (2. Uniform (5%) 7. Hard copy & soft copy submitted(2. Eye to eye contact (5) 2.1.

Vital Signs Three of the most important parameters in this process are the traditional "vital signs" the temperature.  Digital or electronic thermometers This technology enables much faster. 4.Fear . Thermometers are calibrated on the side in either degrees Centigrade/Celsius or Fahrenheit.5  Hyperthermia is the elevation of temperature past critical point. Temperature One of the most important measurements of the physiological state of the patient is the body temperature. the large sizes often have an eye at one end to tie a string on for use in large animals. The purpose of the string is it is easy to pull out if "swallowed" by the rectum.A decrease in temperature can indicate cold environmental temperature and the physiological condition of shock. It is recommended that for the most accurate evaluation the temperature be measured several times to look for trends. 8 An increase in temperature can be caused by many things including: .6 I. Pyrexia is a febrile condition where the body temperature exceeds the  normal range for the particular age and species. In some models the probes or plastic probe covers are disposed between patients. 6.Increased environmental temperature  Hypothermia indicates a low body temperature2 . and some can be used in alternative sites. among other things. .2 Materials and Method Used in Taking the Temperature 2. 9  Mercury thermometers These are supplied in various sizes. 8. The temperature normally fluctuates slightly hour to hour and is affected by many things.Infectious disease . Other areas used include (in small animals) the axilla (armpit). The best site to take the temperature in animals is at the rectum. inguinal region. 6  The body temperature normally is highest in the late afternoon and lowest during deep sleep at night. pulse and respiration (TPR) which is considered as the signs of life. easier and very accurate readings.Exercise .Pain .1. 7. ear canal (special thermometer or probes are needed for these locations). The patient's temperature is lower at these peripheral sites by 1 or 2 degrees. 7. These thermometers are more expensive.

one inch in each species and that it makes contact with the mucous membrane of the rectum. Wait for reading (2 minutes). 2. After being positioned in the ear canal descending to the eardrum.Technique for temperature evaluation using Mercury and Digital/electronic thermometers: 1. Restraint of patient standing or lying lateral. 4. Remove thermometer. The . facing backwards.  With livestock and horses the challenge is to avoid getting kicked. Shake down thermometer (mercury thermometer) and clean and disinfect it. 5. 3. Species variations: 6  Cats dislike having their temperatures taken.  Cattle generally kick to the side so it is safer to stand directly in back of them. Ensure that the bulb is inserted to a relative constant depth of 2. Lubricate the thermometer’s bulb end and gently insert it with a rotary action through the anal sphincter into the rectum. record reading. The small size and quick readings of digital thermometers work well in cats. A normal pulse should equal the number of heartbeats. II. Be sure to lubricate the thermometer well. Always stand next to the body. Gently lift and move the tail to one side to insert the thermometer. Their tail muscles are not as strong as those of a horse and the tail can be lifted upward to insert the thermometer. By being next to the body if the animal does kick there is less "power" when the leg is not fully extended and less chance of serious injury. Pulse The pulse is a measurement of the blood pulsations through an artery (arterial pulse). This will make the cow move forward so it should be confined before using this technique.  Auricular infrared device More practical anatomical location of the ear and the much faster result but not as accurate as the rectal temperature. and to the side when taking the temperature of a horse.5cm. Sometimes the patient is not used to having their tail manipulated. the activation push-button was pressed and the auricular infrared thermometer provided readings within seconds.

The animal can be standing or in lateral recumbency. 6 Dog and cat The easiest site to evaluate the pulse is the femoral artery at the medial aspect of hind leg. Count the number of pulses in 15 seconds and multiply by 4. The 5th intercostal space on the left side is the best point for palpating the heartbeat. The fingers are placed high in the inguinal area and the vessel is pressed between the index and second fingers and the femur. It should be still. 6. also termed mandibular artery which runs under the jaw is the preferred site to monitor the pulse.pulse gives an indication of the strength of blood flow to peripheral tissue. Goat and Sheep Also the femoral artery is used. . 5. 6.1  Tachycardia is an abnormal rapid heart rate. Species Variation2. Horse The sub-mandibular artery. The pulse is best monitored using the fingers. 4. 2. not the thumb. 3. This will give you the pulse rate in beats per minute. 9 1. This is palpated just back from the eye. Procedure in taking the heart rate:1. 7 The pulse is evaluation for:  Rate or pulsations per minute  Rhythm or regularity of the pulsations Terms used to define pulse frequency:  Frequent – quick or rapid  Infrequent – slow  Consistency or strength. Heart rate is used. Heart rate is the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricle per unit of time. 3. Use a stethoscope to listen and get the time for the beats. Cow The most frequently used pulse point on the cow is the facial artery (just mentioned in the horse). Palpation is most easily done with the palm at both sides of the thorax. 4. a weak pulse is sometimes described as "thready" the blood volume and or blood pressure is low.  Bradycardia is the slowness of heartbeat. Pulse rate can also be taken from the transverse facial artery. Increased cardiac impulse or movement of the heart against the thoracic wall can be felt at both sides. Pig No pulse is palpable.

9 Respirations can usually be evaluated in two ways. resting heart rates listed are for healthy animals at rest at home and not for animals that are evaluated in a veterinary clinic where heart rates are higher due to excitement.  Crackles and wheezes indicate adventitious sounds. shallow breathing  Apnea – Transient state of cessation of breathing  Bradypnea – Abnormal slowness of breathing Procedure for Taking the Respiratory Rate: 6.  Compositions of respiratory cycle: . Relaxed or athletic dogs tend to have slower heart rates.  Rhythm is the change in duration of inspiration and expiration. Table1. remember.  States of breathing  Eupnea – Normal quiet breathing with no deviation in frequency or depth  Dyspnea – Difficult breathing  Hyperpnea – Increased depth. 8. most veterinarians will accept "panting" or TNTC (too numerous to count) written in the record.  Breath sounds are any sounds that accompany air movement through the tracheobrachial tree. The heart rate can be measured at the same time the pulse is palpated to check for a pulse deficit. 7. or both  Polypnea – Rapid.  In some species the respiratory rate may be hard to monitor by watching the chest. By holding your hand. increased frequency. at the nostril or the chest. Normal values for adults of different species6. 9 Respiration is recorded as the number of breaths in one minute. Respiration8.   In dogs and cats. stress or disease.Inspiration or expansion of chest or thorax (inspiratory phase) . In these cases it might be possible to detect breathing directly at the nostril. one breath includes both inspiration and expiration. each expiration can be detected. If the heart beats more often than the pulse is felt (a pulse deficit) this can signify a serious heart disorder. III. or a piece of tissue or hair in front of the nostril.  The easiest way is to watch the movement (rising and falling) of the chest wall. 8 .  It is difficult to count the number of breaths while a dog (or rarely a cat) is panting.  Respiratory depth is the intensity or indication of straining.Expiration or expulsion of air from lungs (expiratory phase)  Respiratory frequency is the number of respiratory cycles per minute.

Pale: anemia. Yellow: jaundice or icterus. large breed: 6080 Small breed: 80120 Young: 110-120 Adult: 100-120 Young: 130-140 Adult: 60-80 Calf: 80-120 40-60 Adults: 30-40 Foals.5–39. 3. Mucous Membrane Color 2. The different "shades of color" of the mucous membranes can provide information about the status of the patient.0 37. The color helps evaluate the blood perfusion (function of the cardiovascular system) and respiratory function (oxygenation) as reflected in the peripheral tissue. inspiration louder and shorter than expiration. minimalist movement.5-38.0 Adult: 38.5 Pig Poult ry 39. can reflect either liver pathology or hemolysis of circulating red blood cells .5 Pulse rate in beats per minute (bpm) Adult.5 Cattl e Cow Adult: 38. due to a lack of oxygenation caused by various problems primarily associated with respiratory system. 8 Traditionally color is checked at the gums. often due to blood loss or shock Blue: cyanosis.Speci es Dog Temperature in °C 37. 6.5 Calf: 39.9 41-42 38. here are some conditions associated with certain colors of mucous membranes.5-40. 2 weeks: 80-120 3-5 mos: 65-80 6-12 mos: 50-75 1-2 years: 40-60 Adult: 70-80 Kid/Yearling: 80-120 Adult: 70-80 Kid/Yearling: 80-120 60-90 220-360 (based on heart rate) Respiratory rate in breadths per minute (bpm) Adult: 14-16 Young: 20-25 20-30 Adult: 25 Calf: 30 Beef: 10-30 Dairy: 18-80 Adult: 9-10 bpm Foal: 14-15 bpm 12-20 15-30 10-20 12-37. closed beak There are three other evaluations that can be done quickly to help determine the physical status of a patient: IV.5-39 Cat 38-39.5 Hors e Shee p Goat 38. but other mucous membranes can be used.5 Calf: 39.

R. tinged due to methemoglobinia. 8 Skin turgor test may be the most helpful one to determine whether an animal is well hydrated and can help make a rough determination of an animal’s hydration status. may reflect sepsis. the skin snaps back into position quickly as a normal result for the skin turgor test. 8 Capillary refill time (CRT) reflects the perfusion of peripheral tissues.  In dogs and cats. Avoid the skin of the neck because it is too thick for the test. The normal C.2 seconds. a possible sign of dehydration is indicated.  Other ways to determine dehydration include checking mucous membrane (gums) for moistness and noting if the eyes are sunken. toxins such as Tylenol (in cats). Observe the skin as it returns to its resting position. . or sepsis Brown: membranes appear brown caused most often by poisoning from Pink: normal compensatory phase of shock or "grayish" tinge caused by shock. If the skin returns slowly of remains slightly tented. VI. cardiovascular disease. 6. Pull the skin over the chest or back into a tent and release it quickly.T. Hydration3. shock. is checked by pressing on the gums with a finger or thumb firmly to blanch the area then measuring the time it takes to return to normal color. T. Prolonged CRT greater than 2 seconds may indicate compromised circulation due to cold.R. This can be affected by other several factors such as:  Weight loss  Age  General skin condition Procedure for skin turgor test: 1. is considered 1 . The C. V.T. Capillary Refill Time (C. anemia or other causes. Muddy: membranes have abnormal heart failure.)6.R.Bright red: hyperemic. 2.

Saunders Company. Dipl. 2007. University of Cambridge UK . UK & Peter D. Philadelphia. G. University of Arizona 5.edu/vetonline/Vet105/Vital%20signs. MSc.uk/how_3027_check-rspiratoryrate.sheepandgoat. Blood.co. D. Morishita DVM. Clinical examination of Farm Animals Peter G.com 9.htm 7. Edward A. FRCVS University of Cambridge 3. Cockroft Ma. VetMB. Teresa Y.nvcc.References: 1. MRCVS. Pennsylvania 2. WB.edu – www. Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary. ACVP OSU Extension-Veterinary Medicine & Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory 4.ehow. DCHP.C.co.D. Area Livestock Specialist. http://loudoun. DVM&S. MA.. 3rd Ed. DVM&S.uk http://www.html#ixzz1dwmBlPde 6. Le Viness. Dr. Physical exam Checklist for Pets Authored by: The VIN Emergency medicine folder staff 8. Ph. Jackson BVM&S. How to Check the Respiratory Rate of Dogs and Cats | eHow. SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.