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Interview Q&A

Mechanical Engineering

2015-2016

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1. What is the difference between P11 and P12 Pipes?
P11 the chromium molybdenum composition that is 1% of chromium and 1/4% of
molybdenum. P12 the chromium molybdenum composition that is 1% of chromium
and 2% of molybdenum.
2. State difference between Anti Friction Bearing and Journal Bearing?
Generally, journal bearings have higher friction force, consume higher energy and
release more heat, but they have larger contact surface, so normally used in low speed
high load applications. In anti friction bearings friction is less. One object just rolls over
each other.
3. What is Powder Technology?
Powder technology is one of the ways of making bearing material. In this method
metals like bronze, Al, Fe are mixed and compressed to make an alloy.
4. State the difference between Unilateral and Bilateral Tolerance?
A unilateral tolerance is tolerance in which variation is permitted only in one direction
from the specified direction. e.g. 1800 +0.000/-0.060
Bilateral tolerance is tolerance in which variation is permitted in both direction from the
specified direction. e.g. 1800 +0.060/-0.060
5. What is difference between Welding and Brazing?
In Welding concentrated heat (high temperature) is applied at the joint of metal and
fuse together. Brazing involves significantly lower temperatures and does not entail the
melting of base metals. Instead, a filler metal is melted and forced to flow into the joint
through capillary action.
6. The Fatigue life of a part can be improved by?
Improving the surface finish by Polishing & providing residual stress by Shot peening.
7. Poissons Ratio is Higher in, Rubber/Steel/Wood?
When a material is compressed in one direction, it usually tends to expand in the other
two directions perpendicular to the direction of compression. This phenomenon is
called the Poisson effect. Poisson’s ratio is a measure of the Poisson effect.
For rubber = 0.5 ; For steel = 0.288 ; For wood < 0.2
Thus Poisson’s ratio is higher in RUBBER.
8. What are the different types of fits? Explain?
On the basis of Indian standards fits can mainly be categorized into three groups:
Clearance Fit: These types of fits are characterized by the occurrence of a clearance
between the two mating parts. The difference between the minimum size of the hole
and the maximum size of the shaft is called the minimum clearance, the difference
between the maximum size of the hole and the minimum size of the shaft is known as
Compiled by: Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s Institute of
Technology, Chennai-600119

Interview Q&A

Mechanical Engineering

2015-2016

2

maximum clearance.
Interference Fit: In these types of fits the size of the mating parts are predefined so that
interference between them always occurs. The tolerance zone of the hole is completely
below the tolerance zone of the shaft.
Transition Fit: As the name suggests these type of fit has its mating parts size limited to
allow either clearance or interference. The tolerance zone of the hole and the shaft
overlaps in case of such fits.
9. What are the rules that must be kept in mind while designing castings?
Some of the points that must be kept in mind during the process of cast designing are as
follows:
To avoid the concentration of stresses sharp corners and frequent use of fillets should
be avoided.
Section thicknesses should be uniform as much as possible. For variations it must be
done gradually.
Abrupt changes in the thickness should be avoided at all costs.
Simplicity is the key, the casting should be designed as simple as possible.
It is difficult to create true large spaces and henceforth large flat surfaces must be
avoided.
Webs and ribs used for stiffening in castings should as minimal as possible.
Curved shapes can be used in order to improve the stress handling of the cast.
10. What are the points that should be kept in mind during forging design?
Some of the points that should be followed while forging design are:
A radial flow of grains or fibers must be achieved in the forged components.
The forged items such as drop and press forgings should have a parting line that should
divide the forging into two equal halves.
The ribs in a forging should not be high or thin.
In order to avoid increased die wear the pockets and recesses in forgings should be
minimum.
In forgings the parting line of it should lie as far as possible in a single plane.
For ease of forging and easy removal of forgings the surfaces of the metal should
contain sufficient drafts.
11. What are the different theories of failure under static load, explain briefly?
The main theories of failure of a member subjected to bi-axial stress are as follows:
Maximum principal stress theory ( Rankine’s theory): This theory states that failure
occurs at a point in member where the maximum principal or normal stress in a bi-axial
Compiled by: Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s Institute of
Technology, Chennai-600119

It can only change forms. Maximum distortion energy theory ( Hencky and Von Mises theory): This theory states that failure occurs when strain energy per unit volume reaches the limiting distortion energy. First Law: Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Maximum strain energy theory ( Haigh’s theory): This theory states that failure occurs when strain energy per unit volume of the stress system reaches the limiting strain energy point. Chennai-600119 . the total energy remains the same. each in thermodynamic equilibrium in itself. they will eventually reach a mutual thermodynamic equilibrium. In any process in an isolated system. breaking the isolation that separates the two systems. The sum of the entropies of the initial. entropy has increased. Ramesh. Second Law: When two isolated systems in separate but nearby regions of space. Heat and mechanical work are mutually convertible. and they exchange matter or energy. but not in equilibrium with each other at first. B. “energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. St. are at some time allowed to interact. How many Laws of Thermodynamics are there? There are three laws of the thermodynamics.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 3 system reaches the maximum strength in a simple tension test. Compiled by: Mr. Third Law: As temperature approaches absolute zero. In the process of reaching a new thermodynamic equilibrium. or at least has not decreased. State Laws of conservation of energy? According to the laws of conservation of energy. Is the boiler a closed system? Yes definitely the boiler is a closed system.” 14. 13. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. the entropy of a system approaches a minimum. It can only be transformed from one form to another. isolated systems is less than or equal to the entropy of the final exchanging systems. The entropy of the universe increases over time and moves towards a maximum value. Maximum shear stress theory ( Guest’s or Tresca’s theory): This theory states that failure occurs when the biaxial stress reaches a value equal to the shear stress at yield point in a simple tension test. Maximum principal strain theory ( Saint Venant theory): This theory states that failure occurs when bi-axial stress reaches the limiting value of strain. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. 12.

Compare Brayton Cycle and Otto Cycle? The heat addition and rejection processes in Otto cycle are of constant volume. If you heat a steel pipe with the hole at center. whereas in Brayton cycle. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. What is the difference between Speed and Economic Speed? The rated speed tells us about the maximum speed which can be achieved by a vehicle or some other machine but the economical speed means the speed limit at which the machine works efficiently with least consumption of fuel. Why Entropy decreases with increase in temperature? ds=dQ/T Entropy is inversely proportional to the temperature so. does heat affects the hole diameter? It gets bigger. The vehicles with DTSI Technology use 2 spark plugs which are controlled by digital circuit. as temp.Since the ignition will be done via a spark. Digital . What is DTSI Technology? DTSI stands for Digital Twin Spark Plug Ignition.Since two spark plugs will be used. increases. Twin . Why different types of sound are produced in different bikes. 18. St. 23. though they run on SI Engines? Compiled by: Mr.the max. 17. 19. Ramesh. they are of constant pressure. Chennai-600119 . entropy decreases.Since the spark generation will be initiated by a microchip. -Brayton cycle is the ideal cycle for gas power turbines.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 4 15. Spark ignition .eg-in normal bikes(not racing). 22. What is meant by One Tonn Air-Conditioner? 1 tonn refrigeration means it extracts 210 kJ/min of heat from the system. It results in efficient combustion of air fuel mixture. 20. What is Carnot engine? It was being designed by Carnot and let me tell you that Carnot engine is an imaginary engine which follows the Carnot cycle and provides 100% efficiency. Which has more efficiency: Diesel engine or Petrol engines? Of course Diesel engine has the better efficiency out of two. 21. -Otto cycle is the ideal cycle for spark ignition engines.speed limit shown on speedometer is upto 120 kmph but companies always advice their customers to drive such bikes at around 60 kmph to have maximum mileage. 16. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. B.

by an arc or by hanging in a cable. Chennai-600119 . It is the measure of rating of SI engine. It is the measure of rating of CI engine. Also the exhaust passage takes more responsible for sound. 27. The resulting resonance occurs regardless of orientation. What is the difference between Technology and Engineering? Engineering is application of science. Ramesh.Cetane number is defined as the percentage. such as a shaft. Cetane No. 29. in the field of rotor dynamics.2 Watt 25. of iso octane in the mixture of iso octane and h-heptane. of n-cetane in the mixture of n-cetane and alpha methyl naphthalene. 28. Ignition timing. all shows different technology but comes under civil engineering and science applied is laws of force/load distribution.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 5 Engine specifications are different in different manufactures like as Bore Diameter (CC). Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. 26.Octane number is defined as the percentage. Explain Bicycle Rear Wheel Sprocket working? Rear wheel sprocket works under the principle of ratchet and pawl. Whirling Speed is due to the unbalanced forces acting on a rotating shaft. What is Hydrostatic System? Hydrostatics is the study of fluid bodies that are At rest Moving sufficiently slowly so there is no relative motion between adjacent parts of the body For hydrostatic situations There are no shear stresses There are only pressure forces that act perpendicular to any surface. How much Watt means 1Hp? 746. As the speed of rotation approaches the objects natural frequency.. Application of engineering for sophistication/modernization is also called as technology. propeller or gear. the critical speed is the theoretical angular velocity which excites the natural frequency of a rotating object. Technology shows various methods of Engineering. What is the difference between Critical Speed and Whirling Speed? In Solid mechanics. St. What is Cotter joint? Compiled by: Mr. A bridge can be made by using beams to bear the load. 30.. by volume. B. by volume. 24. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. the object begins to resonate which dramatically increases system vibration. Definition of Octane Number and Cetane Number? Octane No.

The centrifugal action of the impeller accelerates the liquid to a high velocity.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 6 A cotter joint is used to connect rigidly two co-axial rods or bars which are subjected to axial tensile or compressive forces. Annealing. Filter is more accurate than Strainer. 31. R-Radius 33. So the liquid entering the pump receives kinetic energy from the rotating impeller. M-Mass. Some of the motives or purpose of heat treatment are as follows: In order to improve the hardness of metals. Lower initial cost and lower maintenance cost. Which Mechanism is used in Automobile gearing System? Differential mechanism 35. To provide better resistance to heat. V-Velocity. 34. B. Chennai-600119 . St. wear etc. Surface or case hardening 37. Ramesh. Why the Centrifugal Pump is called High Discharge pump? Centrifugal pump is a kinetic device. Heat treatment is generally performed in the following ways: Normalizing. For the softening of the metal. Spheroidising. Tempering. What is heat treatment and why is it done? Heat treatment can be defined as a combination of processes or operations in which the heating and cooling of a metal or alloy is done in order to obtain desirable characteristics without changing the compositions. It is given in the following formulae: Centrifugal force F= (M*V2)/R. Which Pump is more Efficient Centrifugal Pump or Reciprocating Pump? Centrifugal pump. Hardening. 36. Because flow rate is higher compared to reciprocating pump. 32. In order to improve the machinability of the metal. corrosion. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. Flow is smooth and it requires less space to install. transferring mechanical (rotational) energy to the liquid. When Crude Oil is Heated. Which Hydro Carbon comes first? Natural gas (Gasoline)… at 20 degree Celsius. To change the grain size. So it discharges the liquid in high rate. How many governors are needed for safe turbine operation? Why? Compiled by: Mr. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. What is the difference between Strainer and Fitler? Strainer for coarse size. Where. The centrifugal pump uses the centrifugal force to push out the fluid.

The shafts are manufactured by hot rolling processes and then the shaft is finished using drawing or grinding processes. What are the assumptions made in simple theory of bending? The assumptions made in the theory of simple bending are: The material of the beam is homogeneous this implies that it is uniform in density. Also it should have a high level of machinability. Chennai-600119 . usually controls speed at a constant rate. The material should possess a low notch sensitivity factor. During the initial stages the beam is straight and unstressed. The material must also have wear resistant properties.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 7 Two independent governors are needed for safe turbine operation. 38. 39. Even after bending the cross section of the beam remains constant. One is an over speed or emergency trip that shuts off the steam at 10 percent above running speed (maximum speed). The second. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. lube oil cools the bearings by carrying off heat to the oil coolers. Besides lubrication. however. B. 40. All the stresses in the beam are within the elastic limit of its material. what are two functions of lubricating oil in some turbines? In larger units. The layers of the beam are free to contract and expand longitudinally and laterally On any cross section the perpendicular resultant force of the beam is zero. Good heat treatment properties should also be present. The chains take less space as compared to rope or belts as they are made of metal and Compiled by: Mr. What kind of materials should be used for shafts manufacturing? Some of the qualities that should be present in materials for shafts are as follows: The material should have a high index of strength. or main governor. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. The common material used to creates shafts of high strengths an alloy of steel like nickel is used. strength and have isotropic properties meaning possessing same elastic property in all directions. Lube oil in some turbines also acts as a hydraulic fluid to operate the governor speed-control system. many applications have variable speed control. Why should a chain drive be used over a belt or rope driven drive? State pro`s and con`s? The advantages of using a chain drives are: In a chain drive no slip occurrence takes place. 41. St. Compared to the cross-sectional dimension of the beam the radius of curvature is very large. Ramesh.

Special Purpose Springs: These springs are all together made of different materials such as air and water. Disc Springs: As the name suggests such types of springs are comprised of conical discs held together by a bolt or tube.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 8 offer much strength. St. Some of the cons of using a chain drive are: The cost of producing chain drives is higher as compared to that of belts./ Conical and volute springs: Both these spring types have specialized areas of usage where springs with adaptable rate according to the load is required. In case of conical springs they are wound so as to have a uniform pitch while on the other hand volute springs are wound in a slight manner of a parabloid. What are the different types of brakes and explain them briefly? Brakes can be classified on the basis of their medium used to brake. Electric Brakes: These brakes use electrical energy to deplete or create a braking force. They can be either helical or spiral in shape. They can be further classified into two types: compression helical spring and tension helical spring each having their own unique areas of application. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. Commonly seen being used as suspensions for vehicles. Ramesh. What are the different types of springs and explain them briefly? Springs can be broadly classified into the following types: Helical Springs: These springs as their name suggests are in coil form and are in the shape of helix. B. Leaf springs: These types of springs are comprised of metal plates of different lengths held together with the help of bolts and clamps. Torsion Springs: The characteristics of such springs is that they tend to wind up by the load. These types of springs are used in circuit breaker mechanisms. 43. Chain drives can transmit more load and power as compared to belts. The chain drives must be serviced and maintained at regular intervals and henceforth their cost of ownership is high comparatively. they are as follows: Hydraulic Brakes: These brakes as their name suggest use a fluid medium to push or repel the brake pads for braking. 42. Chennai-600119 . The chain drives can be used at both short and long ranges and they offer a high level of transmission efficiency. Both the above types of breaks are used primarily for applications where a large Compiled by: Mr. A very high speed ratio can be maintained in one step of chain drives. The primary purpose of such springs are to handle compressive and tensile loads. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering.

They can be classified as follows: Thick film bearings: These type of bearings have their working surface separated by a layer of the lubricant. St. They can further be classified into internal and external blades. The involute gears are easier to manufacture as they can be generated in a single curve ( the face and flank ). Thin film bearings: In this type of bearings the surfaces are partially in direct contact with each other even after the presence of a lubricant. The advantages of Involute gears are as follows: The primary advantage of involute gears is that it allows the changing of the centre distance of a pair without changing the velocity ratio. 44. Briefly explain the advantages of Cycloidal and Involute gears? The advantages of the Cycloidal gears are as follows: Having a wider flank as compared to Involute gears they are considered to have more strength and hence can withstand further load and stress. Ramesh. Zero Film Bearings: These type of bearings as their name suggests have no lubricant present between the contact layers. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. They are also known as hydrodynamic lubricated bearings. Axial Brakes: In these types of brakes the braking force is acting in an axial direction as compared to radial brakes. Externally or hydrostatically pressurized lubricated bearings: These bearings are able to without any relative motion support steady loads. The contact in case of cycloidal gears is between the concave surface and the convex flank. 45. Chennai-600119 . Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 9 amount of energy is to be transformed. this results in less wear and smooth running of the gears. B. 46. This results in less wear and tear. Mechanical Brakes: They can be further classified on the basis of the direction of their acting force: Radial Brakes: As their names suggests the force that acts on the brakes is of radial direction. No interference occurs in these types of gears. What are Bevel Gears and what are its types? Bevel gears are the type of gears in which the two shafts happen to intersect. They are generally mounted on Compiled by: Mr. The other name for such type of bearings is boundary lubricated bearings. The gear faces which are tooth bearing are conical in shape. On what basis can sliding contact bearings be classified? Explain? Sliding contact bearings can be classified on the basis of the thickness of the lubricating agent layer between the bearing and the journal. The pressure angle remains constant from start to end teeth.

47. Crown bevel gears: When the two shaft axes intersect at an angle greater than 90 and one of the bevel gears have a pitch angle of 90 degrees they are known as crown bevel gears. The bevel gears are classified into the following types on the basis of pitch surfaces and shaft angles: Mitre Gears: These types of gears are similar to each other ie. Both the types of stresses are perpendicular to each other and hence it is aimed to reduce the resulting stress as much as possible. St. L = 1.2t-1. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. The shaft axes intersect at 90 degrees angle.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 10 shafts which are 90 degrees apart but they can be made to work at other angles as well. Internal bevel gears: In these type of gears the teeth on the gears is cut on the inside area of the pitch cone.4t where t is the cylinder thickness. Joseph’s Institute of Technology.15 times the length of the stroke (l). Compiled by: Mr. This results in two types of stresses: longitudinal and circumferential stress. they have the same pitch angles and contain the same number of teeth. Angular bevel gears: When two bevel gears connect at any angle apart from 90 degrees. Chennai-600119 . Ramesh. What are considerations taken into account while creating a piston head? The piston head is designed on the basis of the following considerations: The crown should have enough strength to absorb the explosion pressure inside the engine cylinder.15(l) Cylinder flange and studs: The cylinders are always cast integral as a part of the upper crankcase or in some cases attached to it by means of nuts and bolts. 48. Length and bore of the cylinder: The length of the cylinder and the length of the stroke is calculated on the basis of the formula: length of cylinder L = 1. The head must always dissipate the heat of the explosion as quickly as possible to the engine walls. The flange is integral to a cylinder and henceforth its thickness should be greater than that of the cylinder wall. What are the different values that need to be determined in order to design a cylinder for an ICE? The following values are needed to be determined: Thickness of the cylinder wall: The cylinder walls in an engine is made witness to gas pressure and the side thrust of a piston. B. The stud diameter is calculated by equating gas load ( due to max pressure ) to the grand total of all the resisting forces of the studs. The thickness of flange should generally be between 1.

50. What does a pump develop? Give reason to support your answer. Other than the dimensions there is no major difference between the two. precisely why making a diamond the hardest material. B. 53. St. A pipe is measured based on its inner diameter (ID) whereas a tube is measured based on the outer diameter (OD). Explain the difference between pipe and a tube. Pipes made of mild steel with welded fittings are instead largely used. The ground that surrounds the pipe also acts as a layer of insulation. Pump is a device that is used to transfer fluid from one place to another place which means it develops flow not pressure. Explain the formula of heat loss in a pipe. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. Chennai-600119 . 52. Galvanized pipes are usually not used for steam. 54. Ramesh. However. extra care is to be taken.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 11 The temperature at the center and edges of the head. made up of carbon atoms which cannot move. Carbon is the only atom that can have four electrons in the second shell surrounding the carbon nucleus. The thickness of the piston head is calculated on the basis of the Grashoff`s formula which takes into consideration the maximum gas pressure of an explosion . Considering this. Steam is a compressible gas due to which the capacity of the pipe line depends on the size of the pipes and pressure of the steam. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. four stroke engine or a two stroke engine and why? Compiled by: Mr. there also are claims by a few to a new rare material called Wurtzite Boron Nitride which has a structure similar to a diamond but has some other atoms in place of carbon.06 Joules 51. 55. 49. the thermal properties of the stoneless sand is included in the heat loss calculation. One unit of BTU is how many Joules? 1 BTU=1055. Since steam at even low pressure can be dangerous. Who invented the four stroke engine? According to you which one is more efficient. the permissible bending and the outside diameter of the piston. What kind of pipes are used for steam lines? Pressure and temperature are two of the most important factors to be considered before selecting the type of material to be used. In order to find total heat loss through the pipes it is imperative to know the thermal conductivity and the differing thicknesses of each layer. Which is the hardest material on earth? Diamond is currently the hardest material.

Since the piston of a diesel engine is larger. Since it burns in the gaseous phase. generating less carbon. Compiled by: Mr. Both. it results in less corrosion and engine wear. Diesel produces slow energy on burning of fuel and the efficiency of the engine increases with load which is why diesel engine is suitable and largely used for heavy vehicles. The more torque in the engine. 57. Why do heavy vehicles use diesel engine? The compression ratio of diesel engine is higher than the petrol engine. torque determines the time in which that speed can be reached. However. 2 stroke produces more power. This is the reason petrol engine has higher power and acceleration. 58. 61. LPG evaporates quickly. Between steel. so it is basically the potential of the engine.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 12 Nikolaus Otto invented the four stroke engine. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. Power is the rate at which work is done. In most cases. Explain why diesel engine is known as high torque and petrol engine as high speed engine? Each power stroke in a petrol engine releases more heat and is converted into mechanical energy due to a higher rate of burning. Disadvantages: The LPG requires servicing at approximately once a year. the reason for producing higher torque. What is the difference between torque and power? While power determines the speed of a vehicle. St. more torque is delivered in produced. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. two stroke and four stroke have their own advantages and disadvantages. The greater the torque figure. With less carbon buildup. the faster you accelerate. Copper conducts heat faster than steel or brass. B. Ramesh. 56. What are the advantage and disadvantage of using LPG in a car? Advantages: The high octane rate enables it to blend better with air and to burn completely. Explain what is torque Torque is the force that causes rotation. which conduct faster heat. copper and brass. In case of a spill. Chennai-600119 . 60. material that is good for conducting heat is also good for electricity. therefore extreme pressure is high. It is a measure of how much force is acting on an object making it rotate. Diesel engine is a compression ignition engine with higher compression ratio. spark plugs often last longer and oil changes are needed less frequently. The efficiency of diesel engine increases with load. the faster the acceleration. 59. 4 stroke is more fuel efficient.

Why DTSI is used in motor bikes? DTSI is used for a better fuel combustion in the cylinder head which helps provide better efficiency and optimum use of fuel. constant volume. isobaric. B. 67. Isothermal. Ramesh. Chennai-600119 . 63. isochroic. A spherical shape helps in distributing these forces uniformly. 66. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. throttling and adiabatic processes respectively. Installation of LPG is rather difficult. Supercharging is the process of supplying higher mass of air by compressing the atmospheric air. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. more heat is liberated which is not advised for a long journey as the engine will get over heated. When two sparks are generated at either ends of the combustion chamber. Which is that ? Temperature. better fuel efficiency and lower emissions. 70. constant pressure. Thus they respond faster to fluctuations in demand. 65. What is the difference between scavenging and supercharging ? Scavenging is process of flushing out burnt gases from engine cylinder by introducing fresh air in the cylinder before exhaust stroke ends. Compiled by: Mr. 64. the air-fuel mixture is ignited in a way that creates two flame fronts. Which impurities form hard scale and which impurities soft scale ? Sulphates and chlorides of lime and magnesium form hard scale.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 13 Since complete combustion occurs. What are the names given to constant temperature. 68. What is the difference between hard water and soft water ? Hard water contains excess of scale forming impurities and soft water contains very little or no scale forming substances. St. Further single tube failure does not lead to catastrophy. instead of the usual one. The outcome of this is more torque. Why large boilers are water tube type ? Water tube boilers raise steam fast because of large heat transfer area and positive water circulation. 62. A higher rate of combustion is achieved leading to higher rise in pressure. Why gas containers are mostly in a cylindrical shape? The ideal shape would be a sphere. The container must have the capacity to withstand the extremely high pressure of liquefied gas. and constant entropy processes. and carbonates of lime and magnesium form soft scale. constant enthalpy. 69. Enthalpy and entropy are functions of one single parameter. What are the advantages of DTSI over normal engines? The cylinder head has two spark plugs.

Thus weight of coolant gets reduced and smaller riadiator can be used. St. Compiled by: Mr. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. 76. They are stored in water for several months to permit radioactive decay to an acceptable low level. 73. What is heavy water and what is its use in nuclear plants ? Water containing heavy isotopes of hydrogen (Deuterium) is known as heavy water. 78. Blower directs the air in a single path with high pressure. Heavy water slows down the fast neutrons and thus moderates the chain reaction. 79. 72. What is the difference between Fan and Blower? Fan moves the air in low pressure at all directions. What is the principle of mechanical refrigeration ? A volatile liquid will boil under the proper conditions and in so doing will absorb heat from surrounding objects. Heavy water is used as a moderator. Why it is unsafe to have high water condition in boiler drum ? High drum level does not allow steam separation to be effective and some water can be carried over with steam which is not desirable for steam turbine. Accordingly three methods of disposal are : (a) Zero or low radioactivity material is dispersed or stored without elaborate shielding. 77. B. 74.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 14 71. What is the purpose of biological shield in nuclear plants ? Biological shield of heavy concrete prevents exposure to neutrons. Ramesh. Chennai-600119 . What is the effect of friction on flow of steam through a nozzle ? To decrease both mass flow rate and wetness of steam. In some engines glycerine is used in place of water for cooling of engine. Explain nuclear reactor in brief. 75. A plant which initiates. Low water in boiler drum is unsafe because it may result in overheating of water tubes in furnace. Disposal of radioactive waste materials and spent fuel is a major and important technology. (b) Medium radioactivity material is stored for short duration of about 5 years to allow decay of radioactivity. controls and maintains nuclear fission chain reaction and provides shielding against radioactive radiation is nuclear reactor. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. sustains. (c)High radioactive material. Why ? Glycerine has boiling point of 90°C which increases its heat carrying capacity. beta rays and gamma rays which kill living things. How the waste radioactive material is disposed off ? Non usable fission products are radioactive and take short/medium/long time for radioactive decay to reach safe level of radioactivity.

during thermal equilibrium (No temperature gradient) no heat exchange is possible. It is determined from the total energy input supplied to the Turbine divided by the electrical energy output. B. Code is procedure of acceptance and rejection criteria. Standard is accepted values and compare other with it. Efficiency is defined as the input given and the work obtained from that input like money. it only creates flow. 87. Difference between Performance and Efficiency? The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy. Compiled by: Mr. What is the difference between Specification. Chennai-600119 . 82. time.(a) Flow (b) Pressure A pump does not create pressure. What is difference between Corrective actions and Preventive actions? Corrective actions are taken on discrepancies noticed during inspection of products/documents/process whereas preventive actions are taken to eliminate the possibility of discrepancy in future. Ramesh. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. What does pump develop:. 86. St. 88. 84. 85. Which is heavier 1kg Cotton or 1kg Iron? Both of them have same weight. Standards? Specification is describing properties of any type of materials. and speed is called as Performance. What is Difference between Hardness and Toughness? Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy. What is Heat Rate of Power Plant? Heat rate is a measure of the turbine efficiency. cost. What is the difference between Sudden Force and Impact Force? An impact is a high force or shock applied over a short time period when two or more bodies collide. Codes. A force which applies on the body (material) suddenly is known as sudden force. Hardness is the ability of a material to withstand wear. 89. What is the hottest part of Refrigerant in Refrigeration? Compressor 83.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 15 80. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. Heat never transfer when there is no temperature gradient. completeness. Pressure is a measurement of the resistance to flow. labour etc. Difference between 'Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer' Heat transfer deals with non equilibrium heat exchange or transfer due to temperature gradient while in thermodynamics. It’s the main factor of productivity. 81.

Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. 92. 97. What is added in LPG to detect leakage? . Car lifts. 91. While tempering is a process wherein hardness and elasticity or ductility can be regain by use of heating and cooling cycle till desired properties can be obtained.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 16 90. Application. It does this work by reducing or increasing the amount of fuel passing to the engine. Pascal law ? Applications? Pascal's law or the Principle of transmission of fluid-pressure states that "pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the pressure ratio (initial difference) remains the same. The flow is continuous in double acting and in single acting the flow is not continuous unless there is a surge vessel. and sagging describes a beam which curves downwards.Yes. Compiled by: Mr. 96. double-acting machines use both sides of the cylinder for compression. Difference between single acting and double acting pump? In single-acting machines the compression takes place on only one side of the piston. Joseph’s Institute of Technology.Hogging and sagging describe the shape of a beam or similar long object when loading is applied. B. What is hogging and sagging? . Can you transfer the heat energy from cold body to hot body? . Fork Lifts 94. Difference between Flywheel and Governor. Ramesh. an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. Hogging describes a beam which curves upwards in the middle. Bernoulli's principle states that for an inviscid flow. Difference between tempering and annealing. What Bernoulli’s Principle? In fluid dynamics. with external work.Hydraulic jacks. Chennai-600119 . Eg : Air conditioner 95. The function of flywheel is to store the energy/power produced during the power stroke of an engine and this stored energy is used during remaining stroke to make piston up and down during working of engine while governor tries control the speed of an engine due to variation in load. St. Annealing is a process in which workpiece is heated up to certain temperature to get desired changes in grain or micro-structure and then allowed to cool slowly in order to relieve the stresses during work treatment.Methyl Mercaptan 93.

and boiler plate. ISO-9002.90%. couplings and forgings. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. less than 0. due to circular fluid motion.4% Mn. forgings. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. Ramesh. These materials may be used for stampings.30% C.60% C range are also used for rails.60% and the manganese from 0. Compiled by: Mr. Ultrahigh-carbon steels are experimental alloys containing 1. The carbon content for these high-formability steels is very low.5% with an accompanying increase in manganese allows medium carbon steels to be used in the quenched and tempered condition. Medium-carbon steels are similar to low-carbon steels except that the carbon ranges from 0. gears. ISO-9000 and ISO-9004 are advisory documents.30 to 0. The uses of medium carbon-manganese steels include shafts. What is conduction. tin plate. Increasing the carbon content to approximately 0. Radiation The transfer of energy to or from a body by means of the emission or absorption of electromagnetic radiation 99.5%. 100. For rolled steel structural plates and sections. seamless tubes. Classify Carbon Steels on basis of carbon content? Low-carbon steels contain up to 0. Typical uses are in automobile body panels.0% C.65%. ISO-9000 contains guidelines for using the standards.30%. B. ISO-9001. 9002 and 9003.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 17 98.10% C.60 to 1.40 to 0. convection and radiation? Give Examples? Conduction or diffusion The transfer of energy between objects that are in physical contact Convection The transfer of energy between an object and its environment. ISO-9003 and ISO-9004. crankshafts. axles. The largest category of this class of steel is flat-rolled products (sheet or strip). St. For instance.25 to 2. The standards are contained in ISO-9001. Steels in the 0. railway wheels and rail axles. with higher manganese content up to 1. High-carbon steels are used for spring materials and high-strength wires. the carbon content may be increased to approximately 0. usually in the cold-rolled and annealed condition. and wire products.00% C with manganese contents ranging from 0.30 to 0. What are ISO-9000 standards? ISO-9000 standards are made up of five parts namely ISO-9000. with up to 0.60 to 1. High-carbon steels contain from 0. Chennai-600119 .

Joseph’s Institute of Technology. Which ISO standard would be applicable if the product or the service involved design and development? It would involve ISO-9001 which is the model for quality assurance in design. The design can be visualized on screen and any alterations made and its effects clearly seen. Thus optimum designs can be achieved much faster and these are thoroughly tested from all angles. What do the numbers 6 x 19 represent? Number of strands x number of wires in each strand. Chennai-600119 . 109. It performs calculations very fast. What is the main purpose of a gear box in a vehicle? To vary the torque at the road vehicles. 108. the member may fail due to buckling even though the member is symmetrical in all respects and the load is concentric. How computer helps in designing? Computer is able to store lot of information and same can be retrieved fast. 105. What are the common profiles used for splines in machine elements? The profiles used for splines in machine elements are straight sided splines. B. A wire rope is designated as 6 x 19 standard hoisting. 104. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. What type of threads are used for pressure tight joints and for power transmission? Pipe threads are used for pressure tight joints and square threads for power transmission. 107. Ramesh. production. What is endurance limit? Compiled by: Mr. Why slenderness ratio is considered in design of members? When length of the member is increased. Can you tell something about Hazop study? In Hazop (Hazards and operatibility) study each and every conceivable process deviation from normal operating condition of a system having identical design intention. installation and servicing.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 18 101. 111. Why a sleeve is fitted on a ball bearing? To prevent relative axial movement between the shaft and the bearing. St. Can you tell us about ISO-9002 and 9003 also? ISO-9002 is for quality assurance in production. 106. triangular splines and involute splines. 102. 103. installation and servicing and ISO-9003 is for quality assurance in final inspection and test. 110. is thoroughly analysed for causes and consequence and required action plan to mitigate hazard/operability problems are suggested on the basis of available protective system. development.

114. The function of a flywheel is to keep the speed of machine between given limits while the machine is doing work or receiving energy at a variable rate. B. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. Universal coupling is used to join two shafts whose axes intersect at a small angle. How do you define a spring? A spring is an elastic member which stores energy and provides a force over a distance by elastic deflection. Bushed pin flexible coupling is used to join two shafts which are not in exact alignment. 119. and it should meet the specification requirements. 120. 118. 113. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. A product so designed should permit economical manufacture. Harmonic cam is used for low and moderate speed engine. 116. What type of cam follower is generally used in automobiles? Spherical type cam follower.M. S. What are the different types of design? Adaptive design – Adaptation of the existing design Development design – Improvement of the existing design New design – Design of an entirely new product 121. St. The designation M 33 x 2 of a bolt means Metric threads of 33 mm outside diameter and 2 mm pitch. What is a flywheel? A flywheel is a heavy rotating body which acts as reservoir for absorbing and redistributing kinetic energy. Cycloidal cam is used for high speed engine. How do you define a shaft? A shaft is a rotating member.H. Say some types of cam. Say the use of some couplings.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 19 Endurance limit or fatigue limit is the maximum stress that a member can withstand for an infinite number of load applications without failure when subjected to completely reversed loading. What is a design? Creating a plan or drawings for a product using intellectual ability and scientific knowledge is called design. What is engineering design? Compiled by: Mr. cam is used in order to minimize jerks. Oldham’s coupling is used to connect two shafts which have lateral misalignment. Ramesh. Chennai-600119 . 112. Sleeve or muff coupling is the simplest type of rigid coupling. transmitting power. usually of circular cross-section (either solid or hollow). 117. 115.

Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 20 Iterative decision making process to conceive and implement optimum systems to solve problems and needs of society. The main benefit of shot peening is the delay or prevention of cracks in highly tensile stressed alloy components. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. 123. It entails impacting a surface with shot (round metallic. What is creep? The slow and progressive deformation of a material with time under a constant stress.to the relative extension strain (or axial strain) in the direction of the applied load. solid to liquid. What is shot peening? Shot peening is a cold working process used to produce a compressive residual stress layer and modify the mechanical properties of metals. 130. What is modeling? Representation of the real world on desk in symbolic form or in the laboratory.) Entropy deals with the actual disorder of particles and substances (i. What is enthalpy and entropy? Enthalpy describes the energy it takes for a substance to change from one phase to another (i. Peening a surface spreads it plastically.e. 128. The maximum strain energy which can be stored in a material per unit volume is called as proof resilience. Chennai-600119 . What is poisson’s ratio? The ratio of the relative contraction strain (or transverse strain) normal to the applied load . B. What is coupling? Coupling makes a semi permanent connection between two shafts. 132. What is cam? A plate or cylinder which communicates motion to a follower by means of its edge or a groove cut in its surface.e. 127. 131. What is resilience? What is proof resilience? Strain energy stored per unit volume is resilience. What is machine design? A process of achieving a plan for the construction of a machine. St. glass. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. etc. What are clutches? Couplings which permit the disengagement of the coupled shafts during rotation. 124. more disorder of the particles as a solid substance is heated to a liquid. 129. characteristics. or ceramic particles) with a force sufficient to create plastic deformation.) Compiled by: Mr. What are preferred numbers? A general basis for standardizing and grading a series of similar dimensions. 126. Ramesh. causing changes in the mechanical properties of the surface. 122. 125.

51. 132. 41. 42. 134. Chennai-600119 . 16. 91. analysis. 120. where the tangent line makes a constant angle with the axis. physics. 127. 66. 90. 50. 86. 4. 24. 59. 135. 129. and are typically curves in a 2-d plane. 65. 28. 113. 131. 112. 81. 20. 35. 64. 33. Compiled by: Mr. 85. 5. 15. 19. 49. 82. 134.Interview Q&A Mechanical Engineering 2015-2016 21 In short. enthalpy looks at the energy needed whereas entropy looks at the organiztion of the particles themselves. 89. 125. 73. 17. B. 116. What is the difference between heat and temperature? Important Questions: 3. Ramesh. 79. 62. 115. 99. 135. Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. 111. 75. 23. 61. 78. 55. 58. 108. 45. 92. 119. St. 22. 36. 46. 118. and materials science for the design. 88. 69. What is the difference between helical and spiral? A helix is a curve in 3-d space with an axis. Joseph’s Institute of Technology. 76. 128. What is mechanical engineering? Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies the principles of engineering. Spirals on the other hand do not need to have that property. operation and maintenance of machines/machines tools. 126. 84. 26. 31. 68.manufacturing. 72. 130. 93. 67. 133. 7. 133. 110. 52.