You are on page 1of 6

Control of Single-Phase Cascaded H-Bridge

Multilevel Inverter with Modified MPPT
for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
Chaiyant Boonmee

Yuttana Kumsuwan

Department of Electrical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University
Chiang Mai, Thailand

Department of Electrical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University
Chiang Mai, Thailand
string and multi-string technology. It combines the improved
maximum power point tracking (MPPT) independently for
many strings connected in a series and operating as a singlestage power processing inverter. There are numerous
advantages of using the CHB-MLI for grid-connected PV
systems, such as low THD, small filter size, high efficiency,
low stress voltage of power switches, and reduced losses from
mismatch effect and partial shading. Additionally the CHBMLI has many H-bridge cells series-connected, each H-bridge
cell needs isolated dc-power sources, which can be easily
supplied by PV modules or strings. From these features, the
CHB-MLI topology is suitable for grid-connected PV systems
(GCPVS) [3]-[4].

Abstract—This paper presents a control technique of
cascaded H-bridge multilevel voltage source inverter (CHB-MLI)
for a grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPVS). The proposed
control technique is the modified ripple-correlation control
maximum power point tracking (MRCC-MPPT). This algorithm
has been developed using the mean function concept to
continuously correct the maximum power point (MPP) of power
transferring from each PV string and to speedily reach the MPP
in rapidly shading irradiance. Additionally, It can reduce a PV
voltage harmonic filter in the dc-link voltage controller. In task
of injecting the quality current to the utility grid, the current
control technique based-on the principle of rotating reference
frame is proposed. This method can generate the sinusoidal
current and independently control the injection of active and
reactive power to the utility grid. Simulation results for two Hbridge cells CHB-MLI 4000W/220V/50Hz GCPVS are presented
to validate the proposed control scheme.


Grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems have had an
enormous increase in their market share over the last decade
[1]. However the efficiency of commercial PV panels is
around 15-25%. Therefore, it is very important that the power
produced by these panels is not wasted, by using an efficient
grid-connected inverter. Grid-connected inverter technologies
for PV systems consist of 4 types: 1) centralized, 2) string, 3)
multi-string, and 4) AC-module technology. The string
technology is mostly used commercially and is more
efficiency than the centralized but it cannot solve the
mismatch losses and high voltage stress in power switches.
The multi-string technology is developed by adding many
strings, each interfaced with it’s own dc/dc converter, each
string can be independently controlled to operate at the
maximum power point (MPP) of the string, and is very
flexible. However the multi-string has two states of power
processing that cause more power losses in power switches,
and copper losses in dc wires due to connecting many PV
strings [2]. The transformerless cascaded H-bridge multi-level
voltage source inverter (CHB-MLI) merges the benefits of














978-1-4799-0224-8/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE



Keywords— grid-connected photovoltaic systems; single-stage
grid-connected inverter; maximum power point tracking.














Fig. 1. The power scheme of single-phase CHB-MLI for GCPVS.

The CHB-MLI topology is designed for supporting the
independent MPPT for each H-bridge cell. Furthermore, the
characteristic of PV power is nonlinear and time varying
caused by changing the atmospheric conditions [5]. Using the
suitable MPPT algorithm can increase the efficiency of MPPT
and GCPVS. Numerous MPPT techniques have been proposed
such as hill-climbing, fractional open-circuit voltage control,
P&O, incremental conductance (IncCond), fractional shortcircuit current control, fuzzy logic control, neural network,
ripple-correlation control and several others [6]. The ripplecorrelation control MPPT (RCC-MPPT) is the one which is
convenient for GCPVS with the following features: very fast
convergence to reach MPP, parameter-insensitive MPPT of
PV systems, several straightforward circuit implementations
and well developed theoretical basis. It would be suitable for a



It can generate between three and nine voltage levels depending on the selected control technique. The relationships of instantaneous PV power between grid power Pgrid . It slows down reaching the MPP of PV operating. to overcome that disadvantage. This paper proposed the control method of CHB-MLI for GCPVS by using the modified RCC-MPPT method to guarantee the accurate MPP operating of power transfer from each PV string. n vo = ∑ ( Sm1 − Sm3 ). the conventional RCC-MPPT has some disadvantages relating to the definition of suitable time constants of the filters to generate the desired output signal for correct MPPT control. This technique can generate the high frequency in each voltage level of output voltage fo . The value of power derivative ∂p / ∂v is an The output voltage of CHB-MLI vo is synthesized by summing the two cascaded H-bridge inverter output voltages. especially in the case of rapid shading irradiance. and instantaneous inductor power pL . The Modified RCC-MPPT The most of MPPT algorithms are based on the tracking of the maximum power operating point. In the ac-side of GCPVS. and given by THE PROPOSED CONTROL METHOD fo = 2 ⋅ H ⋅ fcr . II. the waveform of output voltage vo can be produced of five voltage levels. shows the proposed control scheme for two Hbridge cells CHB-MLI consisting of three main parts. in case of unity power factor and neglecting power losses in CHB-MLI. It can be given by 567 .1.vPVm m =1 . The control technique for injecting power to the grid in this paper is developed using the current control.1} . the modulation control technique. Fig.iPV1 vPV1 iPV2 vPV2 1 2f 2 f ∫ ppv1 ⋅ dt 0 2f ∫ 1 2f 0 vpv1 2 f ∫ ppv2 ⋅ dt 0 2 f ∫ vpv2 ⋅ dt vg vref 1 dV p 2 f ∫ ppv1 ⋅vpv1 ⋅dt 0 * pref VMPP vpv2 dV ig iPV1 vpv1 p pv2 PLL * ref 1 1 2f ∂p1 = p pv1 ⋅ vpv1 vpv1 ⋅ dt 1 2f 1 2f p pv1 1 2f 2 f ∫ ppv2 ⋅ vpv2 ⋅ dt 0 ∂p2 = p pv2 ⋅ vpv2 0 Vgd dq * Qref iPV2 vpv2 i ωg * pref 2 VMPP ωg Vgd αβ delay vref 2 Vgd ωg * od * gd igd igq v * oq v ω Lf ω Lf dq vo*α αβ vcr ωg Current Controller S12 S13 S14 S 21 S 22 * pref 2 * igq Vgd MRCC-MPPT S11 S 23 cos S 24 PS-CBPWM Fig. (1) where m and n are the order number and number of cascaded H-bridge in the PV systems . instantaneous capacitor power pC . B. Fig. 2. However. which uses small converters and the applications requiring a high rate of convergence [7]-[8]. Modulation Control From the Fig. Each H-bridge cell has its own PV string power supply parallel-connected with the decoupling capacitor. The information of the proposed control technique can be detailed as follow. (3) In case of the PV input voltage of both H-bridge are equal (vPV1 = vPV2 ) . which is the minimum derivative or partial derivative of the change in PV output power ∂p at the change in PV voltage ∂v . This emphasized that the injecting active and reactive power can be controlled separately. the power switches are controlled with the unipolar and phase-shifted carrier-based pulse width modulation (PS-CBPWM) techniques [9]. S m 3 ∈ {0.2 Proposed MRCC-MPPT. for which the operating principle is shown in Fig. 1 shows the power scheme configuration of the singlephase single-stage CHB-MLI grid-connected PV system consisting of two H-bridge power cells which are seriesconnected their output terminals. In this paper. A. to ensure that gridconnected inverters have to inject the sinusoidal current into the utility grid. and fast MPPT strings in case of rapidly changing of irradiation. current control and modulation control techniques for two H-bridge cells CHB-MLI for GCPVS modular application. based on the principle of rotating reference frame for the proposed single-phase CHB-MLI scheme. and using the current control based on the rotating reference frame theory for injecting the active and reactive power to the utility grid. the MRCC-MPPT technique and the current control technique. it is double the carrier frequency fcr and multiplied by the number of cascaded H-bridge H . S m1 . The output terminals of CHB-MLI are connected to the grid through the inductive filter Lf to reduce the derivative and harmonic distortion of the grid current ig . according to the specific standards defined by the utility in each country. the RCC-MPPT has been modified using the mean function concept to generate the corrected ripple signal and make the MPP operating more accurate. is given by pPV = pC + pL + Pgrid (1 − cos (2ωt )) (2) where pPV is the instantaneous PV power. 3. respectively. it can be written as ∂p / ∂v = 0 .

fos = 2f to correct the MPPT algorithm operating. The block diagram of the proposed MRCC-MPPT and dclink voltage controller are shown in Fig. i-v curves and the simulation result of power derivative ∂p / ∂v and the change of PV power ∂p of a PV string.This method needs to know the oscillation frequency fos which is double the grid frequency f1. 2. i-v curve.9 and frequency modulation ratio m f = 7 pPV. For example of H-bridge1.MPPT only uses the mean function to find out the mean term of instantaneous PV power p P V 1 and mean term of instantaneous PV voltage v P V 1 .1 vmod v cr+90 ° v cr −vmod The power derivative ∂p / ∂v is given by fcr = 350 Hz. It causes the output of each dc-link voltage controller to produce a reference active power for each PV string. which have the same operation. To control the dc-link voltage through the difference between the mean of feedback PV voltage vPV1 . 568 .01 vab2 = van2 − vbn2 ∂p ≅ ∂v van1 vbn1 van2 vbn2 vab1 1 0 vab2 -1 vo = vab1 + vab2 0. at the MPP. respectively. important variable to define the reference PV voltage vref in the dc-link voltage controller for reaching the MPP. 4. p-v curve and power derivative ∂p / ∂v curve. to find out the power derivative ∂p / ∂v . vPV ⋅ vPV (6) 2f This paper proposes the modified RCC-MPPT (MRCCMPPT) by using the mean function as the main process in order to overcome the complicacy to define the suitable time constant of using the 1st order HPFs and 1st order LPFs in the conventional technique [8]. 3. This method still uses the sign function to generate +1 if the p PV1 ⋅ vPV1 > 0 or -1 if the p PV1 ⋅ vPV1 < 0 .vPV can be met at the zero point at the same PV voltage.03 time (s) Fig. the curve of power derivative ∂p / ∂v and the curve of the upper term of power vo fo = 4⋅ fcr 2f ∫ t Fig. which is converted * to be an element of the reference voltage v ref 1 through the integrate function block. the MRCC . They are subtracted from the instantaneous PV power p P V 1 and instantaneous PV voltage vPV1 to keep their ripples and multiply them to get the product ripple p PV1 ⋅ vPV1 . The RCC-MPPT method uses the instantaneous PV power ripple p PV and the instantaneous PV voltage ripple vPV . In this case. Fig. where MPP is the top of p-v curve and the power derivative ∂p / ∂v = 0 . It also generates a fast response for the desired output signal in case of rapidly shading irradiance.9 f = 50 Hz 1 0 1 0 1 0 vab1 = van1 − vbn1 1 0 -1 2 1 0 -1 -2 0. this paper uses the current control technique based-on the principle of rotating reference frame to be the controller model of proposed GCPVS as shown in Fig. Phase-shifted carrier-based PWM for a 2-H-bridge CHB-MLI with amplitude modulation ratio ma = 0. which are the inherent alternative components in single-phase GCPVS. vPV = vPV − vPV p PV = pPV − pPV the reference voltage v ref 1 and the PI controller. 4. The reference active * power of PV2 p ref 2 is used to control the power switches in Hbridge2 directly in order to maximize power from PV2 to the utility grid. the reference * active power p ref 1 can be produced as it is simply a product of C. The typical of p-v. The single-phase voltage equation in the ac-side of the proposed GCPVS can be written (4) (5) where vPV and p PV are the dc components of PV voltage and PV power. It indicates that the curve of ∂p can be used to find the MPP correctly as the curve of power derivative ∂p / ∂v .02 0. 4 shows the three curves of PV characteristic. it has two sets of MRCC-MPPT dc-link voltage controllers for two H-bridge cells. From the simulation results in Fig. Active and Reactive Powers Controller In order to control the injecting active power and reactive power to the utility grid independently for GCPVS. derivative ∂p = p PV . The mean function concept is used for finding instantaneous PV voltage ripple and instantaneous PV power ripple as output of dc-link voltage controller and PV current iPV1 . 0 Voltage [pu] Voltage [pu] Voltage [pu] -1 1 0 2f ma = 0. iPV MPP i-v curve p-v curve ∂p ∂p ∂v vPV 0 ∫ t t− 1 p PV ⋅ vPV ⋅ dt 2f t− 1 ≅ vPV ⋅ vPV ⋅ dt p PV ⋅ vPV .2. The MPPT algorithms force the PV systems to track the MPP by regulating the PV voltage vPV . The mean function is used again to find the output of ∂p .

and ig α .W/m2 W/m2 1000 1000 S of PV1 . v PV2 and PV currents i PV1 . SIMULATION RESULTS The PV system structure and control scheme shown in Fig. in reference frame in order to generate the desired active and reactive power components. and i g d . (b) Power variables of PV system. In Fig.75 −60 vg 60 0 −300 1. V gq are the grid voltages . the active power p and the reactive power q are given by 1 Vgd ⋅ igd 2 1 q = Vgd ⋅ igq 2 (9) * * .75 −60 time (s) (d) (d) Fig. voq produced by the controller are given by αβ stationary reference frame as ⎡ voα ⎤ d ⎡ igα ⎤ ⎡Vgα ⎤ ⎢ v ⎥ = Lf ⎢i ⎥ + ⎢V ⎥ dt ⎣ g β ⎦ ⎣ g β ⎦ ⎣ oβ ⎦ (7) * * * ⎡vod ⎤ ⎡−igd ⎤ ⎡Vgd ⎤ d ⎡igd ⎤ ⎢ * ⎥ = Lf ⎢ * ⎥ + ωg Lf ⎢ * ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ v i i dt ⎣⎢ oq ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ gq ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ gq ⎦⎥ ⎣Vgq ⎦ where v oα .55 1. there are two current feedback control loops in the current control scheme for the accurate control of grid currents igd and igq . and grid current ig . V g β are the grid voltage. The waveform of PV system during a case 1 irradiance profile. i PV2 of both PV strings. 5. (c) The PV voltages v PV1 . V g α .65 1. The reference output voltages of * * CHB-MLI vod . PV2 500 500 (a) W W 4000 4000 3000 Pinvt p PVt 0 (a) p Pinv1 . grid voltage vg. (b) Power variables of PV system. 2 have been implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK in order to verify the behavior of the proposed control scheme.v p PC2 (b) V 266 8 66 PV1 PV1 i 4 A vo vg 60 300 0 0 0 −300 ig 1. and grid current ig . 2. (a) The shaded irradiance profile of both PV strings. the voltage and current in (8) have to be transformed to the two-phase voltage and current in dq rotating 569 . voq in the dq the output voltages reference of CHB-MLI vod rotating reference frame to be the reference output voltages of CHB-MLI in αβ stationary reference frame. using the proposed MPPT method and PQ control scheme. The parameters of each PV panel and the parameters of the PV system are shown in Table I. and (d) Output voltage of CHB-MLI vo . The waveform of PV system during a case 2 irradiance profile. Pinv2 1000 (b) V v 66 i PV1 . v PV2 and PV currents i PV1 .To generate the proper grid voltage orientation. the characteristic of the cells and equations were implemented according to [10]. which can be generated by transforming In the dq rotating reference frame. 1 and Fig. The model of the PV module is the single-diode model. p PV2 PVt Pinvt 3000 Pg1 2000 1000 S of PV1 S of PV2 1.45 time (s) ig 1. The two sets of 10 series-connected of PV panels supplied to each H-bridge in the CHB-MLI. (a) The shaded irradiance profile of both PV strings. p = (8) III. and (d) Fig. i g β are grid current. using the proposed MPPT method and PQ control scheme.65 1. v o β are the output voltage of CHB-MLI. i g q are the grid currents in dq rotating reference frame. The modulation control signal of H-brigde1 is the reference output voltage vo*α . 6.i PV1 .55 8 PV2 V 300 1. where V gd . (c) The PV voltages v PV1 .45 i (c) A vo v 4 (c) V A v PV2 PV2 PV2 Pinv2 PV1 PV2 0 A 266 p PC1 PC2 PC1 Pg1 Pinv1 2000 p PV 1 . grid voltage vg. i PV2 of both PV strings. Output voltage of CHB-MLI vo .

15 s. 5(a). From the results. v P V 2 were changed lightly and the PV currents i P V 1 . 3000W and 2000W in case of without shading. the power from PV1 and PV2 can be controlled 1.ppv (W ) A. both PV strings. Although. the irradiance change was operated in 0. i P V 2 were decreased and increased explicitly following the profile of irradiation. case 1 and case 2 irradiation shading. the maximum total PV power generated by PV1 and PV2 p PVt was 4000 W in case of without shading. grid current i g . the CHB-MLI and the proposed active and reactive power controller continuously injected the maximum power to the utility grid. and increases again from 500 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2. In both cases.0 1. the B 2000 S = 1000 W m 2 1000 0 C V M PP S =500 W m 2 0 200 100 A 263 vPV (V) 300 Fig. MPPT with Rapidly Changing Irradiance In order to verify the effect of using the proposed MRCCMPPT technique to control the two H-bridge cells CHB-MLI for GCPVS in the two situations of rapidly shading irradiance. From the results.3 1. p PV2 . v P V 2 and PV current of each PV string i P V 1 .and the fundamental active power Pg1 and reactive power Qg1 .8° THDig = 3. 7. 6 show the simulation results of the proposed control method in case 1 and case 2 of irradiance profiles.95% (c) Fig. In case 2. 2000 W in case 1and 3000 W in case 2. The power transferred to utility grid 0 −300 −60 Pg1 came from the summing of the input power of both H- bridge inverters. 8 Results of the active and reactive power control (a) Reference Grid currents * igd * and grid currents . (c) the waveform of output voltage vo . the behaviors of PV voltages and PV currents supplied to both H-bridges were the same. the PV voltages v P V 1 . Fig. 6(d) show the waveforms of output voltage of CHB-MLI. during the PV1 and PV2 could not receive the same value of power as case 2. Fig. The temperature was considered 25°c during the simulation. 5 and Fig. Fig 5(b) and Fig 6(b) show the behaviors of the following variables in the condition of case 1 and case 2 respectively: the summing of both instantaneous PV powers p PVt . grid voltage vg and grid current ig . with a constant slope. only the PV string of H-bridge2 PV2 was under shading conditions and the PV1 was operated in constant irradiance as shown in Fig. respectively. The irradiance change starts from 1000 W/m2 to 500 W/m2. 5(c) and Fig. separately to transfer the maximum power from each PV string to the utility grid. The power-voltage characteristic curves of PV string PV1 under a case 1 irradiance profile (S) 1000-500-1000 W/m2 using MRCC-MPPT A i 30 gd * gd i 10 i 0 gq * igq −10 (a) W/Var 4000 p = g V ⋅ I ⋅ cos(φ1) g1 = g1 g1 1 Vgd ⋅ igd 2 P 0 −2000 q = g 1 Vgd ⋅ igq 2 V ⋅ I ⋅ sin(φ1) g1 = g g1 Q (b) V vo summing of mean input power of two H-bridge inverters Pinvt . respectively. 6(a). From the features of the PV system. igq i gd . Pinv2 . Fig. In case 1.05 s period for the decreasing and increasing ramps. The proposed control method can control the CHB-MLI to generate the five voltage levels with sinusoidal patterns and inject the sinusoidal current which in-phase to grid voltage continuously for providing unity power factor. the mean input power of H- 0 bridge1 and H-bridge2 inverters Pinv1 . 6(c) show the behaviors of the following variables in the condition of case 1 and case 2 shading respectively: the instantaneous PV voltage of each PV string v P V 1 . In case 1 shading conditions. PV1 and PV2. the mean power of capacitors PC 1 . the PV system produced the maximum power for 4000W. 570 .26% THDvo = 45.and grid voltage v g in the case 1 and case 2. igq . only PV current supplied to H-bridge2 iP V 2 was decreased and increased follow the received irradiation. the active power to grid Pg1 . In case 2 shading condition.2 1. respectively. 5(d) and Fig. multiplied to the function of CHB-MLI and subtracted the power of inductor pL . PC 2 . the instantaneous PV power of A vg 300 60 ig each PV string p PV1 . i P V 2 .1 1. waits at this level for 0. (b) active power pg and reactive power qg . were shaded from irradiance in the same time and power from the irradiation as shown in Fig. the PV voltage vPV2 was changed a little to keep the MPP of PV2 string.4 time (s) vo vg ig φ = 28.

pp. P.8° . It caused the value of PV1 power p P V to be decreased to operate around the new MPP. In Fig. Chapman.61 A 263 V 2000 W C1. They caused the injected reactive power Q g changed from 0 to -1555var. respectively. The output voltage of CHBcurrent reference igq MLI vo can be generated in five voltage levels with high output frequency f o = 6 kHz while the PWM carrier frequency f cr = 1. Jun..8° . Power Electron. no. 8(b). Rodríguez. Chapman. T. L. Value REFERENCES 1555var to +1555var. 11. Pacas. Active and reactive power control Fig. Jan. vol. is proposed. G. 2009. Peng. 49. and F. [1] VMPP IMPP 26. Tech. pp. “A Phase-shifted Carrier-Based PWM Technique for Cascaded H-bridge Inverters Application in Standalone PV System. pp. on Energy Conversion.15 s and move back to the last level (1000W/m2) again. P. pp.95%. Ind.5 kHz 220 VRMS Vg = Vgα f1 Lf Kp. the grid current i gd . and P. Esram. at point C. 200 15. pp. Villalva. C2 fcr 2000µF 1. A. “An improved maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic grid-connected inverter based on voltage-oriented control.. June 2006 [9] C. Rodriguez. pp. i gq can Power and control scheme DC-link capacitor PWM carrier frequency Single-phase utility grid be controlled by adjusting the grid current references of the * * and the reactive current igq . 1. and +1555var to 0. Fig. no. Champenois. pp. 2011. Kimball.. 2009 formulas. The injected active power Pg is almost constant at 4000 W (PMPP). Rep.. Ruppert F. no. “A survey on cascaded multilevel inverters.tcpdf. Simulation results confirm the correction and reliability the developed control scheme and algorithm method with two situations. -10A to +10A. vol. “Control of a single-phase cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for grid-connected photovoltaic systems.3 V 7. 1282–1291. IEA PVPS T1-21:2012.” IEEE Trans. Electron. “Dynamic maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic arrays using ripple correlation control.-P.EPE-PEMC 2012. Electron. Z. [7] T. Gaubert. 7. [5] R. [4] E. they can be guaranteed that the proposed algorithm cause high accuracy and fast respond for correction the MPP in case of rapidly shading irradiance and it do not need the harmonic filter in the dc-link voltage controller. 2. Ki T 2 50 Hz 5 mH 25. The proposed method can generate the sinusoidal grid current with low THD of grid current.” IEEE Trans.” Brazilian Journal of Power Elec. 4. controls and applications.. [10] M. 58. R. J. Correa. The current control technique based-on the theoretical rotating reference frame to 571 Powered by TCPDF (www. Ind. no. “Single-Phase Single-Stage Photovoltaic Generation Based on Ripple Correlation Control Maximum Power Point Tracking. Kumsuwan. 66–75. The value of PV1 power can be controlled to run around the MPP (2000W).” IEEE Trans. Gopakumar. Jul. CONCLUSIONS This paper has presented a control technique of CHB-MLI for GCPVS. Midya. Y. Electron. and G. 2006. vol.61 A Irated Vrated Prated 7. [6] T. 8 shows the simulation results of active and reactive power controlled with the proposed control technique. Villanueva. “Trends in Photovoltaic Applications.” in Proc. Gazoli. 56. The MRCC-MPPT method by using the mean function to be the main process of the maximum power transferring is proposed in order to correct the MPP operating of PV string continuously and quickly reaching MPP in case of the rapidly shading irradiation. 562-568. The dynamic active current igd response of the CHB-MLI was simulated to three steps * changed in reactive current reference igq . 439–449. 2007. +28. J. as shown in Fig. and +10A to 0A. vol. no. In Fig. Nov. “Modeling and Circuit-Based Simulation of Photovoltaic Array. pp. Sep. vol.control the injecting of active power and reactive power independently. respectively. P.” IEEE Trans. respectively. The step settings of Inductor dc link voltage controller: PI Grid current controller: PI Ambient Temperature reactive current reference were stepped from 0A to-10A. August 2012. The total harmonic distortion (THD) of grid current ig and the output voltage of CHB-MLI v o are 3. 21.. J. during constant irradiation. J. 57. 40 25°C IEA-PVPS. Krein. E. Ki Kp. Energy Convers. no. W. 5. “Multilevel inverters: A survey of topologies. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1995 and 2011. IEEE Conf.14. and C. Aug.” International Energy Agency – Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. no. full and half PV string shading. 22. Esram and P. which corresponded to reactive power Q g1 calculated in fundamental IV. 2. Pérez. and M. lagging and leading power factor conditions with the phase-angles φ1 were 0° ..26% and 45. 21. Grandi. until the irradiance profile was reduced to 500W/m2.” IEEE Trans. 8(c). K. Ind. 2197–2206. and −28. Electron. [8] D. LS8c. no. vol. . Malinowski. vol. it can be seen that the phase current of CHBMLI can operate under the in-phase. Kadri. Lai. 1. Rossi. Casadei. The value of PV1 power p P V 1 was increased and run around MPP at the point B (2000W) immediately. J. J. and M.” IEEE Trans. there was some slightly changed of active power Pg while the reactive * was stepped. 35-45. [2] M. TABLE I MAIN DESIGNED PARAMETERS OF PV SYSTEM Parameters PV panel MPP voltage in STC MPP current in STC PV string for each H-bridge cell Rated current Rated MPP voltage Rated maximum power B. respectively. The MPP of the PV system can be tracked immediately by the proposed MPPT method. G. 7 shows the relationship curve between PV1 power p P V 1 versus PV1 voltage v P V 1 in case 1.” IEEE Trans. Boonmee. “Comparison of photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques. Symbol . From the results. 2010. 724–738. [3] J.5 kHz . S. pp. Ind.3-1-4. 4399–4406. Rodríguez. 8(a). However. The curves started from the minimum PV power point at the point A and track to the MPP at the point B following the line of p-v characteristic curve of the irradiance 1000 W/m2. 2002. vol. The irradiance profile was waited in this level 0.