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Mathematics 55 - Elementary Analysis III

Summary

First Semester, A.Y. 2014-2015
Granario

I. Double integrals
a. Let f (x, y) and R = [a, b] × [c, d] be given. The double integral of f is the limit
ZZ
f (x, y) dA = lim

∆→0

R

where ∆ =

max

1≤i≤n,1≤j≤m

n X
m
X

f (x∗i , yj∗ )∆xi ∆yj ,

i=1 j=1

q
x2i + yj2 , provided that the limit exists. In this case, we say that f is

integrable.
b. Partial integration:
Z b
f (x, y) dx - Integrate the function with respect to x with y fixed.
i.
a
Z d
ii.
f (x, y) dy - Integrate the function with respect to y with x fixed.
c

Z

b

Note. The integral

Z
f (x, y) dx is a function of y and the integral

a

of x.

b

f (x, y) dx is a function
a

Exercise. Evaluate the following integrals.
Z 1
a.
x2 y + xy 2 + 2x − 3y + 1 dx
0
Z 2
ln(x + y) + 2x2 ey dy
b.
Z1 π
c.
cos(x − y) + sin(xy) dx
0
Z 1
2x
d.
dy
2
2
0 x +y +1
c. Theorem (Fubini). Let R = [a, b] × [c, d] and let f (x, y) be continuous on R. Then
Z bZ

ZZ
f (x, y) dA =
R

d

Z

dZ b

f (x, y) dy dx =
a

c

f (x, y) dx.
c

a

Exercise. Find the volume of the solid under z = f (x, y) over the closed rectangular region R.
a. f (x, y) = ye−xy ; R = [−1, 1] × [0, 1]
b. f (x, y) = cos(3x) sin(2y) ; R = [−π, 0] × [0, π2 ]
1
c. f (x, y) =
; R = [1, 3] × [1, 2]
1+x+y
d. A region D ⊆ R2 is said to be bounded if D ⊆ R for some closed rectangular region R (you
can enclose D with a rectangle). A Type I region D ⊆ R2 is a region of the form

Let D ⊆ R2 be bounded and f. ZZ f (x. In this case. Then ZZ ZZ ZZ i. where f1 . y) dA ≥ g(x. y) on D. y) dA if D = D1 ∪ D2 and the intersection of f (x. In this case. y) ∈ R2 : f1 (y) ≤ x ≤ f2 (y). where g1 . g be integrable functions on D. D a g1 (x) A Type II region D ⊆ R2 is a region of the form D = {(x. Z bZ ZZ g2 (x) f (x. y) dA = D D ZZ ZZ f (x. y) ∈ R2 : a ≤ x ≤ b. y) dA = c D D ZZ iii. y) dA + g(x. f (x. y) dA. D D . ZZ Z d Z f2 (y) f (x.D = {(x. y) dA = D f (x. If f (x. y) dA D D ZZ ii. y) dA = f (x. Theorem. f (x. y) dA + D1 D2 D1 and D2 are only boundary points of D1 and D2 (their interiors do not overlap). then f (x. g2 are continuous functions. y) dA for any c ∈ R cf (x. y) dy dx. f2 are continuous functions. y) + g(x. y) ≥ g(x. y) dx dy. c f1 (y) e. ZZ ZZ iv. y) dA = f (x. g1 (x) ≤ y ≤ g2 (x)}. c ≤ y ≤ d}.

Its area is given by A = D f. You may use polar coordinates. y) ∈ R2 : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Do not evaluate. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1}. The region D is given by Example. ZZ (a) xy + y 2 dA. β − α ≤ 2π. Evaluate the integral dx dy by reversing the order of integration. ZZ (b) exy+1 dA. Express the following double integrals as iterated integrals. Let D ⊆ R2 ZZ 1 dA. Find the value of 0 x D = {(x. x ≤ y ≤ 1} = {(x.Theorem. r = f2 (θ). Z 1Z 1 Z 1Z y Z 1 1 1 2 2 We have cos y dy dx = cos y dx dy = y cos y 2 dy = cos 1 − . be a bounded region. θ = β . where α ≤ β. r = f1 (θ). Reversing the order of integration is done if the function is difficult to integrate with respect to the first variable. 2 2 0 x 0 0 0 Z 1Z 1 2 x ye Exercise. then ZZ Z β Z f2 (θ) f (x. Double integrals in polar coordinates If the region D is bounded by rays θ = α. y) dA = D f (r cos θ. 3 √ 0 y x g. 0 ≤ f1 (θ) ≤ f2 (θ). y) ∈ R2 : 0 ≤ x ≤ y. r sin θ)r dr dθ. Z Z 1 1 cos y 2 dy dx. where R is the region bounded by the parabola y = 6 + x − x2 and the line R x + y = 3. α f1 (θ) Exercise. where R is the region bounded by the lines x + y = 1 and the coordinate R axes. .

d. v)i. Similarly. Find parametric equations for the surface generated by revolving the curve y − ex = 0 about the x-axis. Find a set of parametric equations for the portion of the plane y − 2z = 5 that extends between x = 0 and x = 3. Surfaces of revolution:    x=x   i. v). If u is held constant. v) ranges over a set D. and x = 1. v) = hx(u. About the x-axis: y = f (x) cos θ . b. ZZ xy − y 2 dA. c. Give a set of parametric equations for 4x2 − 3y 2 + 2z 2 = 6. we have a constant v-curve r(u. (f) R h. the domain of parameter. The surface S is also defined by the vector function r(u. v)    z = z(u.ZZ p (c) x2 + y 2 + 4 dA. Parametric surfaces. e. . y(u. called a constant u-curve. R ZZ (e) x3 + y dA. i. where R is the region in the first quadrant bounded by the y-axis and x2 + R y 2 − 6y + 6 = 0. z(u. where f (z) ≥ 0. Find parametric equations for the surface generated by revolving the curve y = sin x about the x-axis. v). R ZZ (d) ex 2 +y 2 +1 dA. About the y-axis: y = y .    z = f (x) sin θ    x = f (y)   ii. where f (x) ≥ 0. a. where R is the region outside r = 1 and inside r = 2 cos 2θ. v = v0 . u = u0 . where f (y) ≥ 0. v) where (u.    z = f (y) sin θ    x = f (z) cos θ   iii. v) is a curve on S. r(u0 . Find a set of parametric equations for the portion of the cylinder y 2 + z 2 = 5 that extends between x = 0 and x = 1. y = x2 − 4.    z = z Exercise. where R is the region between the circles x2 + y 2 = 4 and x2 + y 2 = 8. where R is the region bounded by x2 + y 2 = 4. A parametric surface S is a surface defined by a set of functions    x = x(u. v0 ) if v is fixed. v)   S : y = y(u. About the x-axis: y = f (z) sin θ .

Surface area. The area of S over a bounded region R is . Let S be a parametric surface defined by r(u. z(u. v) = hx(u. v). y(u. v).j. v)i.

.

Z Z .

.

.

.

∂r ∂r .

.

.

.

.

.

dA. × .

.

∂v .

.

y)2 + fy (x. R Exercise. then the area of S over R is ZZ q fx (x. Otherwise. Express the area of the given surface as an iterated integral. A lamina L is an indealized flat object that is thin enough to be viewed as a two-dimensional object. we say that L is inhomogeneous. a. y) dA. y) be the density function of L. y)2 + 1 dA. The center of gravity C(x. y). Its mass M is given by ZZ δ(x. R ∂u If S is the surface defined by z = f (x. The portion of z = x2 + y 2 inside x2 + y 2 = 2x. y) dA R where R is the region of the lamina L. L is said to be homogeneous if its composition is uniform throughout. Let δ(x. The portion of the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 8 inside z = x2 + y 2 . y) of L is given by ZZ 1 x= xδ(x. The portion of sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 16 between z = 1 and z = 3. 4] × [−6. p d. y) dA M R and 1 y= M ZZ yδ(x. 6]. p c. The portion of cylinder y 2 + z 2 = 36 above R = [0. R . k. b.