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You are on page 1of 8

1/8

as functions of position, x, and plotted,

the resulting graphs are called the shear

diagram and the moment diagram.

constructing shear and moment diagrams.

functions for complex beams can be quite

tedious.

loading, shear force, and bending moment.

to an arbitrary loading. We will assume

that distributed loadings will be positive

small segment of length x and apply the

equations of equilibrium.

w = w(x)

w = w(x)

x

x

x

x

there is no concentrated forces or moments,

the result of this analysis will not apply to

points of concentrated loading

w(x)

Fy

w(x)x

= 0 = V w (x )x (V + V )

V = w (x )x

x

2

M + M

w = w(x)

V + V

= 0 = M + (M + M ) V x

x

+w (x )x

M =V x w(x )

(x )2

2

CIVL 3121

2/8

expressions by x and taking the limit as

x tends to 0 gives:

is equal to the (negative) intensity of the

distributed loading w(x) at that point

dV

= w (x )

dx

Slope of

shear curve

-Intensity of the

loading

dM

=V

dx

Slope of

moment curve

Intensity of the

shear

The slope of the moment diagram at a

point is equal to the intensity of the

shear at that point.

dV

= w (x )

dx

Slope of

shear curve

-Intensity of the

loading

dM

=V

dx

Slope of

moment curve

Intensity of the

shear

dV

= w (x )

dx

Slope of

shear curve

-Intensity of the

loading

dM

=V

dx

Slope of

moment curve

Intensity of the

shear

If we multiply both sides of each of the

above expressions by dx and integrate:

V = w (x )dx

Change in

shear

loading

M = V (x )dx

Change in

moment

shear diagram

equal to the (negative) area under the loading

curve between the points.

points is equal to the area under the

shear diagram between the points.

V = w (x )dx

V = w (x )dx

Change in

shear

loading

M = V (x )dx

Change in

moment

shear diagram

Change in

shear

loading

M = V (x )dx

Change in

moment

shear diagram

CIVL 3121

concentrated force and/or a couple are

applied to the segment.

P

Fy

M + M

concentrated force and/or a couple are

applied to the segment.

P

= 0 = V P (V + V )

V = P

V + V

3/8

M + M

M

= 0 = M + (M + M ) V x M '

M = M '

V + V

a beam, V is negative so the jump in the

shear diagrams is downward. Likewise, if P acts

upward (-), the jump is upward.

a procedure for constructing the shear

and moment diagrams for a beam .

moment M is positive, so the jump in the

moment diagrams is up, and when the couple

acts counterclockwise,the jump is downward.

the structure.

a procedure for constructing the shear

and moment diagrams for a beam .

a procedure for constructing the shear

and moment diagrams for a beam .

establish the V and x axes and plot the

value of the shear at each end of the

beam.

shear diagram at any point is equal to

the (negative) intensity of the applied

distributed loading.

CIVL 3121

4/8

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for

the following beam

a procedure for constructing the shear

and moment diagrams for a beam .

the (negative) area under the distributed

loading.

A

L

degree n, the shear will be a curve of

degree n+1.

Establish the V and x axes and plot the value of the shear at each

end.

P

Ax

L

By

Ay

MA = 0 = P (L + 2L) + By (3L)

By = P

Fy = 0 = Ay + By 2P

Ay = P

Fx

V

P

(k)

x

-P

L

= 0 = Ax

The slope of the shear diagram over the interval 0 < x <

L is the equal to the loading. In this case w(x) = 0.

At a point x = L, a concentrated load P is applied. The

shear diagram is discontinuous and jumps downward

(recall V = -P).

(k)

(k)

-P

L

-P

L

CIVL 3121

The slope of the shear diagram over the interval

L < x < 2L is zero since, w(x) = 0.

At 2L, P is applied and the shear diagram jumps

downward (recall V = -P).

(k)

5/8

(k)

-P

L

-P

< 3L is zero since, w(x) = 0.

< 3L is zero since, w(x) = 0.

(k)

(k)

-P

L

-P

The resulting shear diagram matches the shear at the right end

determined from the equilibrium equations.

Establish the M and x axes and plot the value of the moment at

each end.

In this case, the values are: at x = 0, M = 0; and at x = 3L, M = 0.

The resulting shear diagram matches the shear at the right end

determined from the equilibrium equations.

The slope of the moment diagram over the interval 0 < x < L is the

equal to value of the shear; in this case V = P. This indicates a

positive slope of constant value.

PL

1

P

(k ft)

(k ft)

diagram, in this case, M = PL.

CIVL 3121

The slope of the moment diagram over the interval L < x < 2L is the

equal to value of the shear; in this case V = 0.

6/8

The slope of the moment diagram over the interval 2L < x < 3L is

the equal to value of the shear, V = -P.

PL

PL

(k ft)

-P

(k ft)

diagram, in this case, M = -PL.

The slope of the moment diagram over the interval 2L < x < 3L is

the equal to value of the shear, V = -P.

PL

The shape of the shear and moment diagrams for selected loadings

P

Loading

w (x )

Shear Diagram

dV

= w

dx

Moment Diagram

dM

=V

dx

V

V = -P

(k ft)

x

M

diagram, in this case, M = -PL.

The shape of the shear and moment diagrams for selected loadings

The shape of the shear and moment diagrams for selected loadings

w

M0

Loading

w (x )

Loading

w (x )

Shear Diagram

dV

= w

dx

Moment Diagram

dM

=V

dx

V

1

Shear Diagram

M

M = - M 0

Moment Diagram

x

dV

= w

dx

dM

=V

dx

-w

x

M

Smaller

(+) slope

Large

(+) slope

CIVL 3121

7/8

The shape of the shear and moment diagrams for selected loadings

The shape of the shear and moment diagrams for selected loadings

w (x )

Loading

V

Small

(-) slope

Larger

(-) slope

Large

(+) slope

Larger

(-) slope

dV

= w

dx

Shear Diagram

Smaller

(+) slope

Moment Diagram

x

dM

=V

dx

Large

(+) slope

Moment Diagram

dM

=V

dx

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam

w0

w0

w 0L

w 0L

P

(k)

(k)

(k ft)

(k)

M0

-PL

(k ft)

w 0 L2

w 0L

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam

w0

4 k/ft

w0L

x

2

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam

P

(k ft)

(k ft)

(k)

(k ft)

dV

= w

dx

M0

Shear Diagram

Smaller

(+) slope

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam

(k)

w (x )

Small

(-) slope

Loading

V

x

P 2

(k)

PL

4

(k ft)

L/2

w 0 L2

8

w 0L

18 ft

CIVL 3121

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam

8/8

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam

600 lb

4 k/ft

60 k

A

20 ft

100 k ft

Any questions?

4,000 lb ft

A

10 ft

5 ft

5 ft

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