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# CIVL 3121

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## If the variation of V and M are written

as functions of position, x, and plotted,
the resulting graphs are called the shear
diagram and the moment diagram.

## We will develop a simpler method for

constructing shear and moment diagrams.

## Developing the shear and moment

functions for complex beams can be quite
tedious.

## Lets draw a free body diagram of the

small segment of length x and apply the
equations of equilibrium.

w = w(x)

w = w(x)

x
x

x
x

## Since the segment is chosen at a point x where

there is no concentrated forces or moments,
the result of this analysis will not apply to

w(x)

Fy

w(x)x

= 0 = V w (x )x (V + V )
V = w (x )x

x
2

M + M

w = w(x)

V + V

= 0 = M + (M + M ) V x

x
+w (x )x

M =V x w(x )

(x )2
2

CIVL 3121

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## Dividing both sides of the V and M

expressions by x and taking the limit as
x tends to 0 gives:

## The slope of the shear diagram at a point

is equal to the (negative) intensity of the

dV
= w (x )
dx
Slope of
shear curve

-Intensity of the

dM
=V
dx
Slope of
moment curve

Intensity of the
shear

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

The slope of the moment diagram at a
point is equal to the intensity of the
shear at that point.

dV
= w (x )
dx
Slope of
shear curve

-Intensity of the

dM
=V
dx
Slope of
moment curve

Intensity of the
shear

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

dV
= w (x )
dx
Slope of
shear curve

-Intensity of the

dM
=V
dx
Slope of
moment curve

Intensity of the
shear

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

If we multiply both sides of each of the
above expressions by dx and integrate:

V = w (x )dx
Change in
shear

M = V (x )dx
Change in
moment

shear diagram

## The change in shear between any two points is

curve between the points.

## The change in moment between any two

points is equal to the area under the
shear diagram between the points.

V = w (x )dx

V = w (x )dx

Change in
shear

M = V (x )dx
Change in
moment

shear diagram

Change in
shear

M = V (x )dx
Change in
moment

shear diagram

CIVL 3121

## Lets consider the case where a

concentrated force and/or a couple are
applied to the segment.
P

Fy
M + M

## Lets consider the case where a

concentrated force and/or a couple are
applied to the segment.
P

= 0 = V P (V + V )

V = P

V + V

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M + M
M

= 0 = M + (M + M ) V x M '
M = M '

V + V

## Therefore, when a force P acts downward (+) on

a beam, V is negative so the jump in the
shear diagrams is downward. Likewise, if P acts
upward (-), the jump is upward.

## Procedure for analysis - the following is

a procedure for constructing the shear
and moment diagrams for a beam .

## When a couple M acts clockwise, the resulting

moment M is positive, so the jump in the
moment diagrams is up, and when the couple
acts counterclockwise,the jump is downward.

the structure.

## Procedure for analysis - the following is

a procedure for constructing the shear
and moment diagrams for a beam .

## Procedure for analysis - the following is

a procedure for constructing the shear
and moment diagrams for a beam .

## 2. To construct the shear diagram, first,

establish the V and x axes and plot the
value of the shear at each end of the
beam.

## Since the dV/dx = -w, the slope of the

shear diagram at any point is equal to
the (negative) intensity of the applied

CIVL 3121

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## Shear and Moment Diagrams

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for
the following beam

## Procedure for analysis - the following is

a procedure for constructing the shear
and moment diagrams for a beam .

## The change in the shear force is equal to

the (negative) area under the distributed

A
L

degree n, the shear will be a curve of
degree n+1.

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

Establish the V and x axes and plot the value of the shear at each
end.

P

## In this case, the values are: at x = 0, V = P; and at x = 3L, V = -P.

Ax
L

By

Ay

MA = 0 = P (L + 2L) + By (3L)

By = P

Fy = 0 = Ay + By 2P

Ay = P

Fx

V
P

(k)

x
-P
L

= 0 = Ax

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

The slope of the shear diagram over the interval 0 < x <
L is the equal to the loading. In this case w(x) = 0.

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

At a point x = L, a concentrated load P is applied. The
shear diagram is discontinuous and jumps downward
(recall V = -P).

(k)

(k)

-P
L

-P
L

CIVL 3121

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

The slope of the shear diagram over the interval
L < x < 2L is zero since, w(x) = 0.

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

At 2L, P is applied and the shear diagram jumps
downward (recall V = -P).

(k)

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(k)

-P
L

-P

## The slope of the shear diagram over the interval 2L < x

< 3L is zero since, w(x) = 0.

## The slope of the shear diagram over the interval 2L < x

< 3L is zero since, w(x) = 0.

(k)

(k)

-P
L

-P

The resulting shear diagram matches the shear at the right end
determined from the equilibrium equations.

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

Establish the M and x axes and plot the value of the moment at
each end.
In this case, the values are: at x = 0, M = 0; and at x = 3L, M = 0.

The resulting shear diagram matches the shear at the right end
determined from the equilibrium equations.

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

The slope of the moment diagram over the interval 0 < x < L is the
equal to value of the shear; in this case V = P. This indicates a
positive slope of constant value.

PL
1
P

(k ft)

(k ft)

## The change in moment is equal to the area under the shear

diagram, in this case, M = PL.

CIVL 3121

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

The slope of the moment diagram over the interval L < x < 2L is the
equal to value of the shear; in this case V = 0.

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## Shear and Moment Diagrams

The slope of the moment diagram over the interval 2L < x < 3L is
the equal to value of the shear, V = -P.

PL

PL

(k ft)

-P

(k ft)

## The change in moment is equal to the area under the shear

diagram, in this case, M = -PL.

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

The slope of the moment diagram over the interval 2L < x < 3L is
the equal to value of the shear, V = -P.

PL

P

w (x )

Shear Diagram

dV
= w
dx

Moment Diagram

dM
=V
dx

V
V = -P

(k ft)

x
M

## The change in moment is equal to the area under the shear

diagram, in this case, M = -PL.

w

M0

w (x )

w (x )

Shear Diagram

dV
= w
dx

Moment Diagram

dM
=V
dx

V
1

Shear Diagram

M
M = - M 0

Moment Diagram
x

dV
= w
dx
dM
=V
dx

-w

x
M

Smaller
(+) slope

Large
(+) slope

CIVL 3121

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w (x )

V
Small
(-) slope

Larger
(-) slope

Large
(+) slope

Larger
(-) slope

dV
= w
dx

Shear Diagram

Smaller
(+) slope

Moment Diagram
x

dM
=V
dx

Large
(+) slope

Moment Diagram

dM
=V
dx

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam
w0

w0

w 0L

w 0L

P
(k)

(k)

(k ft)

(k)

M0

-PL

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

(k ft)

w 0 L2

w 0L

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam
w0

4 k/ft

w0L

x
2

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam
P

(k ft)

(k ft)

(k)

(k ft)

dV
= w
dx

M0

Shear Diagram

Smaller
(+) slope

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam

(k)

w (x )

Small
(-) slope

V

x
P 2

(k)

PL
4

(k ft)

L/2

w 0 L2
8

w 0L

18 ft

CIVL 3121

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam

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## Shear and Moment Diagrams

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the following beam
600 lb

4 k/ft

60 k

A
20 ft

100 k ft

Any questions?

4,000 lb ft

A
10 ft

5 ft

5 ft