You are on page 1of 52

PROJECT ID: CEET/ 07/48

KIGALI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
INSTITUT DES SCIENCES ET DE TECHNOLOGIE DE KIGALI
Avenue de l’ Armée, B.P. 3900 Kigali, Rwanda

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

A PPROJECT
ON

“ Comparison between concrete
blocks and bricks from Ruliba”

submitted by

ZIRIMWABAGABO LEODOMIR
Under the Guidance of

Mr. KAYINAMURA FRANCIS
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
FEBRUARY 2008

1

CHAPTER I : 1.0 : INTRODUCTION.
1.1: Statement of problem.
At the beginning as history tell it, people lived in a primitive way. They lived in caves
and later small communities were developed and shelters were put up. At that time,
natural building materials was easily available and have been used as the technology in
construction of buildings were developed.
Although, clay bricks and concrete blocks are improved in order to obtain safe and
esthetic locations, their price are not affordable for every one. Since, raw materials for
manufacturing building materials are cheap and rise day to day. For instance, one bag of
Portland cement (50kg) was being bought at 5,000rwf ten years ago, but now costs
13,000rwf . It means that, this increases 10% every year.
Similarly, labor cost increases for a considerable rate. In addition, cutting trees for firing
ceramic materials damages our forest which leads to environmental problems, and as a
result, the sustainable development is not ensured.

1.2 : Objectives of study.
Due to cheapness of building materials and the environmental problems due to
deforestation , this project intends to achieve the following objectives :

To facilitate the community to select required structural materials in terms of
stability, economy and esthetic;

To learn which type of structural materials can be used to improve engineering
structure at reasonable price;

To decide what kind of structure to make;

To minimize the deforestation rate due to cutting trees for firing the bricks;

To make sure the safety of the building and to give a good appearance to a
building;

To enable individual to be familiar with before hand the outlay of the work.

2

1.3: Justification.
The Engineering sector is in position to discover which bricks or blocks available in
plenty, which can be utilized to put up the building structure of acceptable qualities, with
low cost, thus necessitate the making comparison between concrete blocks and bricks
from Ruliba, which are current building materials mostly used in Rwanda.
It is not easy to decide which kind of structural materials to use in construction because
of different building material made by diverse organizations which appear on market.
Generally, some people prefer to use little cost structural material without consideration
of other necessary properties. In fact, diverse factors should be considered such as
economics, structural and environmental factors.
Moreover, rural and urban communities have no required knowledge about building
structure. For that matter it is important to inform them on structural blocks and bricks
commonly available on market like concrete blocks and Ruliba bricks.
One of the government policy is to protect the environment by reducing the deforestation
velocity due to use of timber in various purposes. Then, the production of ordinary bricks
was reduced.
As a solution, it is time to give the information on modern structural bricks and blocks
which complete engineering requirements. The building development requires the
construction of apparent building. For achieving this purpose it necessary to be familiar
on face bricks most used in construction of houses like Ruliba bricks compared to
concrete blocks.

3

1.4 : Scope of study.
This study was conducted on manufacturing place as well as site of construction where
bricks and blocks are considered as basic building materials. It includes the cost, some
properties and technical specifications necessary to achieve the project.
As the basic of this topic is Ruliba bricks and concrete blocks, that is reason why some
experiments like laboratory test was conducted as well as considerable readings in
relation to the topic was proceeded to compare the cost and the strength of both.

4

CHAPTER II. 2.0 : LITERATURE REVIEW.
2.1 : Varieties of bricks and blocks.
Bricks may be defined as small a cored building unit of rectangular shape that is
composed of organic non-metallic substances of mineral origin hardened by heat or
chemical action. Blocks are similar defined but have larger dimensions than that of
bricks. Blocks are larger than bricks.

2.1.1 : Clay bricks.
Clay bricks like other ceramic products are based on clay, to which various amount of
quartz and feldspar have been added. Selected proportions are mixed with water, shaped,
dried and fired to produce the structural clay products of brick, roof and structural tiles
etc.

Types of bricks.
Bricks of masonry units may be solid, hollow, or architectural terra cotta. All types can
serve a structural function, a decorative function, or a combination of both. The various
types differ in their formation and composition.

Building bricks.
Also called common or hard bricks, are made from ordinary clay and are fired in kilns.
These bricks have no particular shoring, markings, surface texture, or color. Because
building bricks are generally used as the burning courses in either solid or cavity brick
walls, the harder and more durable type are preferred.

gray. sharp edges. The glazing forms when mineral ingredients fuse together in glasslike coating during burning. and perfectly square corner. laboratories.5 Face bricks. red. This clay is very pure and uniform and is able to withstand the high temperatures of fireplaces. Because of this. And other structures requiring sanitary conditions and ease of cleaning. Clinker brick. rather than by kiln firing. or white. Pressed brick. yellow. Fire bricks are generally larger than other structural bricks and are often hand-molded. Clinker bricks are usually rough. The most common face brick colors are various shades of brown. face bricks are used in exposed wall faces. dairies. hard. . Normally. Face bricks are of better quality and has better durability and appearance than structural brick. Glazed bricks are particularly suited for walls or partitions in hospitals. and sometimes irregular in shape. Glazed Brick. durable. boilers. Pressed brick is made by a dry-press. Clinker brick is over burned in the kiln. and similar constructions. Fire brick. Glazed brick has one surface coated with a white or colored ceramic glazing. Fire brick is made from a special type of clay. Pressed brick have regular. smooth faces. they are used like face brick.

CaO. 2.2.2 : Bricks forming process. very fine aggregate :1.15 mm sieve. MgO. K2O.1 : Manufacture process. The clay minerals decompose between 400 and 7000 c.1. a high calcium lime and water. as it emerges from the die.5 N/mm2 2. . alumina and spinel compounds appear and the mineral mullite 3Al2O32SiO2 forms above about 10000C. or by pressing.6 2. 2. so that some melting may occur below 10000C.2. After raw clay has been screened and crashed. Firing transforms the raw clay brick into a rigid continuous (although usually porous ceramic by way of a complicated succession of physical and chemical changes.2 : Firing. machine-made bricks are formed either by extrusion and cutting.5 x 65 mm Density:1700 kg/ m3 Strength:14-27. Size: 215 x 102. Plastic clays may be extruded as continuous column of rectangular section (with or without perforations) which is cut into individual bricks by wire. The minor oxide constituents include Na2O. Raw materials: Siliceous aggregate. acting like a chisel cutter. At about 9000C crystalline silica. Water is lost rapidly as the kiln temperature rise above 1000C. and FeO produce relatively low melting eutectic mixtures with principal components of SiO2 and Al2O3.2 : Calcium silicate bricks.

Also.5) 125 125 (12. IS :1077.1:Average compressive strength of common burnt clay bricks. (N/mm2) Compressive Class Average designation strength not strength less less than than kgf/cm2 (N/mm2) kgf/cm2 350 350 (35) 400 (40) 300 300 (30) 350 (35) 250 250 (25) 300 (30) 200 200 (20) 250 (25) 175 175 (17.5) 75 75 (7.3 : Technical specification of bricks.1.5) 50 (5) Table 2. The average compressive strength of common burnt clay bricks is given in table 2. The durability of the masonry depends upon the strength of the bricks.5) 35 35 (3. .1976. the compressive strength of any individual brick should not fall below the average compressive strength specified for the corresponding class of brick by more than 20% .1: Strength of bricks. 2. Bricks often have to withstand great compressive stresses. Common building bricks should have a minimum strength of 35 kg/cm2 .7 2.5) 200 (20) 150 150 (15) 175 (17.5) 150 (15) 100 100 (10) 125 (12.3.5) 100 (10) 50 50 (5) 75 (7.

3. The compressive strength is the only mechanical property used in brick specification. The specimen brick is immersed in water for 24 hours. Bricks are tested wet. Generally. A considerable variation is found between individual bricks and a batch of ten is tested to obtain a mean strength. and shrinkage cracks. 2. including those associated with large particles.2: Test for compressive strength. compressive strength decreases with increasing porosity. The compressive strength is limited by brittle fracture and is sensitive to individual flows in the sample under test.3: Compressive strength and other mechanical properties. The young’s modulus of elasticity of brick ceramic lies usually in the range 5 to 30KN/mm2.8 2. Load is applied axially at a uniform rate of 14N/mm2(140Kg/cm2) and the maximum load at which the specimen fails is noted for determination of compressive strength of brick given by: Compressive strength = Maximum load at failure/Loaded Area of bricks (Average of five results shall be reported). The frog of the brick is filled flush with 1:3 mortar and the brick is stored under damp jute bags for 24 hours followed by immersion in clean water for three days. fissures formed during shaping. but strength is also influenced by clay composition and firing.3. The specimen is then placed between the plates of compression testing machine. It is the failure stress measured normal to the bed face. . normally with frogs filled with hardened mortar.

Hendry in structural masonry (1998) have stated the important factors in determining the compressive strength of masonry as follow: 1. local stress.3. Most commonly used bricks format are 215x102. Some of these factors. while others. relative height.4: Factors affecting compressive strength. are determined in the manufacturing process. Unit characteristics: Strength.5: Size of bricks. are susceptible to variations in constituent materials. type and geometry like solid. Masonry: Bond. water retentivity. such as the unit characteristics. 2. relative deformation and relative thickness.5x75mm and 220x110x73mm. So that. 2. hollow.9 2. the length = 2width+1 joint.3. 3. mixing and accuracy of construction. such as mortar properties. .5x65mm and 210x100x63mm with mortar joints of 10mm the size becomes respectively 225x112. Arnold W. Mortar characteristics: Strength developed by mix. perforated. proportioning. absorption. water/ cement ratio. direction of stressing. The International Standard states that the length of brick should be equal to two times width plus one joint size of 10mm.

fine aggregate and coarse aggregate.4: Concrete blocks features. Concrete block technology can be easily adapted to suit special needs of users by modifying design parameters such as mix proportion. water/cement ratio and type of production system. Concrete block technology offers a speedier. It is an effective means of utilizing wastes generated by stone crushers. The most common size of solid concrete blocks is 300x200x150mm. environmentally sound alternative to conventional walling materials like bricks. The technology has high potential in areas where raw materials are easily available.2: Business. 2. 2. uniform high performance masonry unit. 2. The basic raw material is cement. which uses very little cement.4. The concrete block technology package is a highly profitable business for micro and small scale building material producers and construction companies.3: Product. specially in the areas where burnt bricks are not easily available or are of poor quality. The market for concrete blocks is growing at a rapid rate.4. cost effective.. The specifications and the characteristics of a concrete block depend on the machine used to manufacture concrete blocks.4.10 2. stones. compressed earth blocks.. Very little water is used.1: Concrete block technology. . It is based on the principle of densification of a lean concrete mix to make a regular shaped. This is possible only with mechanized compaction and vibration and gives the block high quality in spite of the lean mix. etc. quarrying and stone processing units.

. On an average 600-800 blocks can be made in 8 hours by 1 skilled and 6-8 semi-skilled workers. Concrete blocks are usually produced using a semi-mechanized stationary type machine.4. Another common type are hollow concrete blocks. such as lighter weight. High quality machines provide optimum vibration in the mix so that the ratio of cement used can be reduced substantially without compromising on the strength of the blocks. easier handling and facility for conducting or reinforcement through the hollows.5: Production process. 2. The blocks are cured for a minimum period of 14 days. before they are ready to use.4: Unique features of concrete block technology : • Cost effective compared to other traditional walling systems • Maximum utilization of stones wastes and local resources • Structural performance can be engineered • Decentralized local production • Offers business opportunities 2. The machine also compacts and consolidates the mix so that the blocks are uniform in size and attain desired physical properties. They are made with a richer mix.11 Weight of a concrete blocks can be surface engineered by using pieces of stone or ceramic waste on their face. but offer a number of advantages. a mobile semi-mechanized egg-laying machine and fully mechanized system which combines compression and vibration.4. The other production systems are-manual moulds which require hand tamping.

4. The mortar used is also less which results in cost saving.12 2. . walls. dressed stone and compressed earth blocks for composite wall construction. thus construction is faster than with other masonry units. Concrete blocks can be used like any other masonry unit to build foundations. The permanence of a cement based product is making concrete blocks a preferred choice in rural areas as well. etc. low maintenance and investment for institutional and industrial buildings. which would be a source of weakness. It would seem probable that such slots would introduce stress concentrations. the perforation pattern made little practical difference. but in some tests reported by Monk the units had rectangular slots. at the British Ceramic Research Association to examine the compressive strength of brickwork built with a variety of wire-cut bricks having different hole patterns with perforation ratios up to 20 per cent.4.5 bricks. In these tests. the perforations were either circular holes or slots with round ends. They are compatible with other materials like fired bricks. They are very popular as a long lasting. arches and corbels. A typical concrete block is equivalent to 4. and these tests showed reduced compressive strength in prisms.7: Perforated and hollow block units. A number of investigators have studied the effect of different types of units on compressive strength and an extensive series of tests were undertaken by West et Al. 2. The results of these tests showed that if the brickwork strength was calculated on the basis of a standard crushing test on the unit.6:Building with concrete blocks. Acceptability of concrete blocks is very high in urban areas for all types of buildings. not only in service but also in manufacture.

It is usual to take the strength of hollow units which are to be laid full-bedded as the maximum test load divided by the gross area of the unit. Hollow block work masonry is frequently built with the cores filled with concrete (grout). provided that the corners are well rounded.0036. Thus Hamid and Drysdale have found the strain at ultimate strength of fill material used in their investigations to be about 0.0024 compared with the strains at failure of the block material of 0. Hollow block masonry may be built with the cores either unfilled or filled with concrete . even when the materials are of approximately the same nominal strength. This is because there is a difference in the strains in block and fill materials at ultimate load. Schellbach’s study included examination of stress concentration factors associated with different perforation patterns. These different construction methods result in considerable variations in structural behavior and this quite clearly results in a more complex situation than for solid units in assessing masonry strength. The compressive strength of this type of masonry is found to be considerably less than the sum of the strengths of the hollow block and concreted core tested separately. and he concluded that these remain within acceptable limits even with rectangular slots. The stress conditions and mode of failure of shell-bedded hollow block masonry differ considerably from those in solid block masonry. They have been investigated by Shrive who has shown that tensile stresses are developed in the webs of the blocks. BY Arnold W. which eventually lead to failure. This value is then used to determine the masonry strength as if the unit were solid. Handry in Structural Masonry (1998) .13 Schellbach has examined the strength of various types of highly perforated units and has found that the highest ratio of masonry strength to unit strength was obtained with a perforation ratio of 38-43 per cent. In the former case the mortar joint may cover the whole of the bed face of the block (fullbedded) or only the outer shells (face-shell-bedded).

5.2: Blocks manufacturing.5. It is faster to built with concrete blocks than with bricks and the amount of mortar is reduced to less than half. the consumption of mortar is reduced by a further 50%. Blocks can be made by using a simple block. Concrete blocks are often made of 1:3:6 concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 10mm or a cement-sand mixture with a ratio of 1:7.making machine operated by an engine or by hand. . 2. 1:8 or 1:9. The mould can be lined with neat steel plate to prevent damage during tamping and to reduce wear on the mould. give concrete blocks a compressive strength well above what is required in one-storey building. The blocks may be solid.5: Concrete blocks forming process. the total cement required for the blocks and mortar is far greater than that required for the mortar in a brick wall. In large-scale production steel moulds are often used. These mixture . However.8: Benefit of using concrete blocks . Lightweight aggregate such as cracked pumice stone is sometimes used. 2.1: Mix proportion of blocks. Blocks are made to a number of coordinating sizes.4. if properly cured. the actual sizes being About 10mm less to allow for the thickness of the mortar. in which the mortar is placed only along the edges of the blocks. Cellular blocks have cavities with one end closed while in hollow the cavities pass through.14 2. cellular or hollow. If face shell bedding is used. 2. They can also be made by using simple wooden moulds on a platform or floor.

of stiff or plastic consistency placed in layer is compacted with a 3 kg rammer. or shutters. with the cavities laid horizontal to form a continuous passage for the circulating air. Blocks of simple shape can be made in a wooden mould by inserting pieces of wood to obtain the desired shape. water is sprinkled on them for two weeks during curing. Starting the day after the block have been made. the blocks are dried. they will shrink and cause cracks. In addition. . • Give an attractive appearance. After 48 hours the blocks can be removed for stacking. The concrete. some are designed to keep out rain while others include mosquito-proofing. • Provide permanent ventilation.15 The wooden mould is initially oiled overnight and need not be oiled each time it is filled. If damp blocks are stacked interspaced. To assure maximum drying. The mould has a steel plate cut to the shape of the Block which is put on as a lid and held dawn as the hollow-making pieces are then loosened and the sides of the mould removed with a swift motion. Decorative concrete or sand/cement blocks can serve several purposes: • Provide light and security without installing windows. exposed to the prevailing wind and in the case of hollow blocks. 2. the blocks are dried. After curing. It is sufficient to wipe it clean with a cloth. All parts of the mould should be slightly tapered so they can be easily removed from the block. If damp blocks are put in wall. but more complicated designs usually require a professionally made steel mould. But the wetting is continued.3: Decorative and Ventilating blocks.5.

cement mortar is more costly than other types. In most cases. bricks or other masonry units. Mortar is a plastic mixture of water and binding materials used to join concrete blocks. In fact cracks are more likely to appear in the blocks or bricks if the mortar is excessively strong. . but is difficult to work with because it is not "fat″ or plastic and falls away from the blocks or bricks during placement. If smoothed off while standing. A 1:3 mix using fine sand is usually required to get adequate plasticity. There are several types of mortars each suitable for particular applications and of varying costs. Consequently it is used in only a few application such as dump-proof course or in some limited areas where heavy loads are expected. a pile of this type of lime mortar can be stored for several days. Hydraulic lime hardens quickly and should be used within an hour. In all cases the sand should be clean. In addition. It is desirable for mortar to hold moisture.Mortar for jointing. be well graded (a variety of sizes) and not exceed 3mm of silt in the sedimentation test.6. Cement mortar is stronger and more waterproof than lime mortar. free of organic material. Two types of lime are available. particle size should not exceed 3mm as the mortar will be " hash″ and difficult to work with. Lime mortar is typically mixed 1 part lime to 3 of sand. be plastic enough to stick to the trowel and the blocks or bricks and finally to develop adequate strength without cracking. It is suitable for both above and below ground applications. Non-hydraulic lime requires air to harden and can only be used above ground. Most of these mortars include sand and ingredient. Mortar need not be stronger than the units it joins.16 2.

1:2:9.2 and 2. lime and sand.5 cm brick wall 0. Type Cement bag Lime kg Sand m3 Cement mortar 1:5 6. cutback.1 Compo mortar 1:3:12 2.51m3 10cm sand-cement block wall 0.3 13.0 1.3: Mortar Required for Various Types of Walls. while a 1:1:6 is better for exposed surfaces and a 1:3:12 can be used for interior walls or stone walls where the extra plasticity is helpful.2: Materials required per Cubic Meter of mortar.17 Compo mortar is made with cement.0 1. A 1:2:9 Lime pozzolana-sand mortar about equals a 1:6 cement-sand mortar. Type of wall Amount required per m2 wall 11.0 1.1 Cement mortar 1: 8 3.1 Lime mortar 1:3 - 200.0 100. or soil. cement-lime-sand mix is suitable for general purposes. The addition of the lime reduces the cost and improves the workability. Table 2. although ability to accommodate movement increases. Mortar can also be made using pozzolana.25 m3 22. bitumen.1 Compo mortar 1:2:9 3.5 150.2cm brick wall 0.1 Compo mortar 1:1:6 5. Starting with cement mortar.5 1. strength decreases with each type. Adobe and stabilized soil blocks are often laid in a mortar of the same composition as the blocks. In some localities a 50:50 cement-lime mix is sold as mortar cement.7 - 1.008m3 15cm sand-cement block wall 0.011m3 20cm sand-cement block wall 0.1 Table 2.0 - 1. Table 2.3 provide information on the materials required for a cubic Meter of various mortars and the amount of mortar per square meter for several building units.015m3 .

N. 2. It is useful to calculate the effect of changes in cost or in productivity on the unit cost.2: Unit cost. Requirement of materials should be worked out and materials should be organized. collected and stocked close to the site of working well in advance so that work is not held up for want of materials. Dutta in estimation and costing in civil engineering. All designs and working drawing should be prepared well in advance. Locally available stone. stone slab may be use in roof slab instead of reinforced concrete. should be used which will reduce cost of transport. local materials should be used as far as possible which will be cheap. For a given production figure. The whole construction shall be completed as quickly as possible so that the supervision cost may be minimum possible. Materials should be stored at suitable place so that they can be mixed and supplied to the mason and other artisans readily with least possible lead and delay. timber etc. Over head costs should be as low as possible. supervision etc. 2.1: Economy in construction.7.7 : Cost in structural materials. materials. As cement and steel are costly and are not readily available. This enables the price of blocks to be set at a sensitive level. the construction should be done as economic as possible by organizing labor.7. fixed and variable costs are added together and total divided by the number of blocks produced giving the unit cost. According to B. The costs of raw materials identical. and save cost of transport. and stabilizer remain . Laborers should be well organized to use then fully and the number of different category of labor should be controlled and their work supervised to get maximum work from them.18 2.

3: Cost estimating. which consist of the cost of materials. Inaccuracy in preparing estimate. The estimated cost is prepared in order to know the probable cost of construction before starting the project works. taxes. In preparing the estimate the quantities of different items of work are calculated and from these quantities the cost is calculated. transport. In forming a correct estimate. checked or verified by any body. The rate of each item should also be reasonable and workable. ..7. and to avoid omissions of any kind of work or part there of.19 2. An estimator should picture the object (the structure in his mind from the study of drawings and specifications). The rate in estimate provide for the complete work. attempts must be made to reduce the cost. by reducing the work or by changing the specifications. through increase in the rates is one of the main reason. etc. If estimate is exceeded it becomes difficult to the engineer to explains and account for additional money. A remark column may be introduced and notes may be given where necessary. The one who can understand and read a drawing can find out the dimensions in length. establishment and supervision cost reasonable profit of contractor. Alternatively the estimate can be done by measuring the length. breadth. Calculations consist mainly of a length x breadth x height for volumes and length x breadth or length x height for areas. care should be taken to find out the dimensions of all items correctly. are the reason for exceeding the estimate. changes in design improper rates etc. Nothing should be left or missed. If the money available lower than the estimate. height or depth etc. In the preparation of estimates one has to go into details of each item however big a small it might be. cost of water. In preparing estimate the principle to be followed is to make each item or dimension clear and intelligible so that they can be understood. For that matter a knowledge of drawings is essential. breadth and height from the existing structure. mission of items..

. b. changes in design.7. etc.20 2. Abstract of estimated cost. abstract of estimate form. The estimate is prepared in two stages : a. unforeseen expenditures. concrete. etc. A 1. and details of measurement of each item of work are taken out and the quantities under each item are computed in the prescribed form known as measurement form. The grand total thus obtained is estimated cost of work. The whole work is divided into different items of work as earth work.5% to 3% is also added for contingencies. The cost under item of work is calculated from the quantities already computed at workable rate. and the total cost is worked out in prescribed form. Account of all expenditure is maintained day to day during the execution of work in the account section and at the actual cost should not differ much from the estimated cost worked out at the beginning. An estimation is a computation of the quantity required and payments expected to be incurred in the construction of a work. Actual cost : The actual cost of work is known at the completion of the work. Estimate : Previous to stating the construction project it is compulsory to know its probable cost which is worked out by estimating.. 3. and the items are classified and grouped under different sub-heads. The estimate is the probable cost of a work and is determined theoretically by mathematical calculations based on the plans and drawings and current rates. to allow for petty contingent expenditures.4: Methods of estimating. Detailed estimate : Preparation of detailed estimate consists of working out the quantities of different items of work and then working out the cost. 2. Which may occur during the execution of work charge establishment. Details of measurements and calculation of quantities. Approximate estimate may be prepared by various methods but accurate estimate is prepared by detailed estimate method. 1. changes in rates.

transport.21 3. Rates. scaffolding overheads. contractor's profit. taxes. labor. Rates of different items in the estimate are the current rates for the completion of the items of work which include supply of materials. Seeley in building construction technology. By IVOR H. etc. .

strength. manufacture.48 210 x 100 x 63 2 60 76.0 : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.94 4893.24 7136.8 400 x 175 x 95 6. The second data collection technique applied in this research is the site Visiting.22 CHAPTER III .2 2832 210 x 100 x 63 3 60 231.5 20 434. All most literature review concerning bricks and blocks Like sizes.84 260 x 125 x 68 2.35 36 198. The most concerned site is "BRIQUETERIE RWANDAISE RULIBA″ (BRR).15 36 135. 3. cost. availability and the center of market.24 4172. .1 : Data collection techniques.64 250 x 120 x 95 3.24 8684.28 8165.1 : Variety of Ruliba bricks and their relatives prices.6 250 x 175 x 95 4.7 4602 210 x 50 x 63 1 60 47. mix ratio.24 7906 250 x 175 x 190 8. The first and most important information was extracted from library and Web site.9 25 316. 3.28 13876.6 52 80.The objective that visit was to Collect the data / information about the Bricks produced by that factory like technical specifications.9 20 408. raw materials etc are recorded from engineering published materials.8 Table 3. Sizes of bricks/ Mass (kg) Pieces/m2 Blocks (mm) cost/ piece cost/m2 (rwf) (rwf) 400 x 175 x 120 10. The information tabulated below was extracted from syllabus of Ruliba factory.

Production and construction cost. The interview method were applied to know the real situation on the construction field. the second with concrete blocks (400x200x150).23 The third data collection technique used is experiment like laboratory test. Calculations consist mainly of a length x breadth x height for volumes and length x breadth or length x height for areas. One is constructed with Ruliba blocks (210x100x63). Prepared sample is placed between the compressive machine plates and the load is applied regularly and axially to the sample. surface and edges. the uniformity of color. size and the strength was been recorded. The crushing strength test was conducted in order to know the resistance of Ruliba bricks under applied load. Two typical walls were considered in order to make safe comparison . The technical specifications like mix proportion. The visit was also been conducted on field were the construction works by using concrete blocks took place. Hand manipulation may necessary to test the roughness of materials surface. The observation method are used to know attractive appearance that presented Ruliba bricks. Estimation and costing of two typical walls is a benchmark of this study. . The maximum load at failure divided by the loaded area of the brick determine the crushing strength of the brick.

2: Unit cost of Ruliba bricks.94 40782 260 x 125 x 68 433 80. 1. sizes and properties. the price of one brick must be multiplied by the number of bricks required to make one cubic meter of masonry.92 250 x 175 x 95 206 198.36 400 x 175 x 95 143 316. four items are considered: The unit cost of bricks. mortar for binding units and labor cost. Sizes (mm) Pieces/m3 cost/ piece Cost/m3 (rwf) (rwf) 400 x 175 x 120 114 434. 3.24 45222. To be familiar on their unit cost.2 56640 210 x 100 x 63 600 231.1 : Calculation of masonry unit cost.28 46543.24 49503.32 250 x 175 x 190 114 408.24 34743.24 40837.2. .9 210 x 100 x 63 600 76.7 46020 210 x 50 x 63 1200 47. A) Bricks from Ruliba. The cost of Ruliba bricks are fixed according to their mass.2 : Data organization for analysis. For calculation of masonry unit cost for Ruliba bricks.44 250 x 120 x 95 300 135. Cost of bricks. transport.24 3.28 46256 Table 3.

For instance.000rwf and 80. Transport cost.5 476 114 3.4 343. In districts like Musanze (North). The transport cost depends upon the distance of and the weight of materials. Nyanza (south).35 420 8400 210 x 100 x 63 3 1667 600 1. . one tour of five tones costs 35.7 420 8400 210 x 50 x 63 1 5000 1200 0. In table below.9 725 143 2.25 2. the unit cost presented.8 8436 400 x 175 x 95 6. is estimated basically to that information by calculation the transport cost of one kg per km multiply by the number of bricks contained in one cubic meter of masonry.000rwf of transport. The table bellow illustrates the estimated transportation cost for different sizes. say from Ruliba to any where in Kigali city.000rwf per trip.6 2500 433 0.1 6062 210 x 100 x 63 2 2500 600 0.2: Unit cost of transport at 20km distance of various size of Ruliba bricks.2 6864 250 x 175 x 190 8. it is very strange to use Ruliba blocks because of high carrying price.9 562 114 3.1 353.5 309 6180 250 x 120 x 95 3. At reasonable distance. Kayonza (Eastern) and Karongi(Western).0 600 12000 Table 3.35 1149 206 1.1 330 6600 260 x 125 x 68 2. Sizes (mm) Mass (kg) Bricks Bricks per 3 cost/kg/km Cost/m3/km Unit cost at per trip one m (Rwf) (Rwf) 20 km 400 x 175 x 120 10. the transport costs lie between 60.4 7068 250 x 175 x 95 4.15 1587 300 1.7 421. In other Provinces.7 303.

001323 = 0.2008m3 Unit cost of sand : 35000/5 x 0.251 = 0.100 x 0.110 x 0.3 kg Unit cost of cement = 12000/50 x 75.68 40239 250 x 175 x 95 38 206 176.073 = 0.749 = 0. cost of mortar.220 x 0.6 =19477. Ratio: 1:4 One part of cement over four parts of sand: Volume of brick with joint = 0.0017666m3 Number of bricks = 1/0.001323m3 Total volume of bricks : 566 x 0. one brick (rwf) one m3(rwf) per day.4 : Unit labor cost of masonry for various sizes of bricks. Sizes (mm) Built Number of Labor Cost of Labor cost of bricks bricks in m3.68 40239 400 x 175 x 95 24 143 280 40040 250 x 175 x 190 19 114 353.749m3 Volume of mortar : 1.001766 = 566 bricks Volume of net brick = 0.0. .26 3.0502 x 1500 = 75.210 x 0.6 rwf Unit cost of mortar = Unit cost of cement + Unit cost of sand = 18072 +1405. 400 x 175 x 120 19 114 353.251m3 Unit volume of cement : 1/5 x 0. Labor cost.84 36429 250 x 120 x 95 56 300 120 36000 260 x 125 x 68 84 433 80 34640 210 x 100 x 63 120 600 56 33600 210 x 50 x 63 240 1200 28 33600 210 x 100 x 63 120 600 56 33600 Table 3.251 = 0.0502 m3 Mass of cement : = 0.6rwf 4.2008 = 1405.063 = 0.3 = 18072 rwf Unit volume of sand : 4/5 x 0.

while the porter paid 280rwf per hour. So that. Most employers does not consider the security and other taxes for their employees which is wrong. Three main items must be taken into account in estimation of unit cost of wall made with concrete blocks. the unit cost of wall =(Cost of blocks + labor cost +cost of mortar). while one bag of cement costs 11.e. his is paid around 40rwf per block. Then. the transport fees of raw materials may be considered.000rwf. Then. The cost of blocks combines both the cost of raw materials and which of former.0000rwf for imported Hima Portland cement and 13. one trip of sand bought between 35. The day of work is equivalent of eight hours.000rwf for local Portland cement. the labor cost of one mason is 560rwf per hour. The difference lies in their mix proportion ratio in which.000rwf and 40. that of mortar is one part of cement to four parts of aggregate. The cost of mortar for binding concrete blocks units is estimated like the cost of blocks. It is more economic to make blocks on place of work to avoid the transport cost of finished units.27 One mason is paid 560rwf / hour One porter is paid 280rwf/ hour Total = 840rwf/ hour i. On market. . For that case. 840 x 8 =6720rwf. B) Concrete blocks. For labor cost. One porter and one mason can built 120 bricks of 210 x 100 x 63 mm sizes per day. one mason and one porter can build about 60 blocks of 400 x 200 x 170 mm sizes per day.

726 +2.123 m3 Unit volume of cement :1/5 x 0.880 + 5.0136 x 64.058 m3. Cost of cement: 12000/50 x 87 = 20880rwf.640rwf Unit volume of sand: 4/5 x 0.40 x 0.28 1.5 = 2580rwf.123 = 0. unit cost of blocks = 20. Former unit cost: 40 x 64.098 m3 Unit cost of sand: 35000/5 x 0. Unit cost of sand: 0.877 = 0. 2.Unit cost of raw materials.877 = 0. Number of blocks : 1/0.123 = 0. 3.058 x 1500 = 87 kg.5 blocks.0.Unit cost of blocks.818m3.877 = 0. Net volume of blocks in one cubic meter of wall. Mass of cement: 0. Volume of block with 10 cm joint : 0. Net volume of one block: 0.024m3 Mass of cement: 0.17 = 0.0155m3.186rwf.640 + 686 =9.5 = 0.20 x 0.024 x 1500 = 36 kg Unit cost of cement: 12000/50 x 36 = 8. .e. Net volume of blocks in 1m3:0.0155 = 64. 7000rwf/m3.326rwf.41 x 0.580 =29. Unit volume of cement : 1/15 x 0. Unit volume of sand: 14/15 x 0. Ratio: 1:4 Unit volume of mortar : 1.Unit cost of mortar for binding materials. Mix proportion : 1: 14.21 x 0.818 x 7000 = 5726rwf.0136 m3.18 = 0.877m3. 5m3 costs 35000rwf i.098 = 686rwf Total unit cost of mortar: 8.

The unit cost of blocks wall = 29. Ruliba bricks (1m3) Descriptions Concrete blocks (1m3) Unit cost(rwf.738 .915.6 Mortar unit cost 9. From this.779 Trans.172 Blocks unit cost 29.5 : Unit cost comparison of Ruliba bricks wall and concrete wall.Mortar unit cost 19. Trans.186 2. Labor cost = 840rwf/ hour i. Table 3. Labor unit cost 36.5= 0.226rwf. the output of one mason is 60/64.) 1.738rwf.226 Total unit cost 108.487 Labor unit cost 7.5 blocks sized to 400mm x 200mm x170mm.e. the determination of unit labor cost is simple.29 4.326 + 7.477. One mason is paid to 560rwf / hour and one porter is paid 280rwf/ hour.Then. one unit of volume contains 64. 840 x 8 = 6.720/ 0.326 4.720rwf As said above.226 = 45.930 x 1=7.186 + 9. Unit cost 7. That must be equal to 6. Unit cost - 3.) Descriptions Unit cost (rwf.6 Total unit cost 45.930m3 per day. Bricks unit cost 45.Labor unit cost.

Crushing. This test will help us to make comparison of Ruliba bricks properties with that of concrete blocks.machine.2. Each structural wall must withstand against natural and artificial action like compressive stress.Two Ruliba bricks samples. • Measurement of loaded area. . it required to know the crushing strength of that product. . Procedure.2: Data related to technical specifications. etc. A)Technical specification of Ruliba bricks. • The maximum load at failure is noted as the crushing load of the brick. .Ruler. . Hypothesis. . • Preparation of samples.30 3. Materials and apparatus. • The specimen is then compressed between the plates of testing machine. As the Ruliba brick is the case study. Purpose: This laboratory test is conducted in order to state some mechanical properties of Ruliba bricks like compressive strength and the density . capillarity.Balance. Report of laboratory test for strength and density. • The brick is then weighted . The problem behind is to know the ability of these materials to support the applied loads in order to make safe design. That will depend on resistance of its structural materials say bricks.

8 x 2.7 cm Height (h1) = 6.8 cm Width (w2) = 2.8 cm Width (w1) = 2.5 cm Height (H2)= 6.8 cm Number of Hollow (N)= 6 Length of hollow (l2) = 7.8 cm Crushing load = 440 KN Loaded area = (L2 x W2) – (l2 x w2) x N = (26 x 12.5 cm Height (H1)= 6.8 cm Crushing load = 240 KN Loaded area = (L1 x W1) – (l1 x w1) x N = (26 x 12.31 Results and data.8 cm Number of Hollow (N)= 6 Length of hollow (l1) = 7.7) x 6 = 199 cm2 Crushing strength = Crushing load / loaded area of brick.21 KN/cm2 .5) – (7.21 KN/cm2 Sample 2 : Length (L2) = 26 cm Width (W2)= 12. = 440/199 = 2.5) – (7. Sample 1: Length (L1) = 26 cm Width (W1)= 12.8 x 2.7) x 6 = 199 cm2 Crushing strength = Crushing load / loaded area of brick.7 cm Height (h2) = 6. = 240/199 = 1.

7 x 6.208 cm3 Total volume of solid = 2210 – 143.79)/2 = 1276.2. the average of two solutions gives the density of 1276.7 x 6.8 = 143.8 x 2.643/2066.95 + 1278.5 x 6.633/2066.8 = 2210 cm3 Total volume of voids = 7. it better to control carefully the samples before testing and to take more samples during laboratory test.208 cm3 Total volume of solid = 2210 – 143. The previous observations made on samples was shown that there was small crack on sample 1.37 kg/cm3.792 cm3 Density = Weight (W1)/ Total volume of solid = 2.37 Kg/cm3 Conclusion and recommendation.5 x 6.208 = 2066.8 = 143.8 x 2. .32 Density: Sample 1: Total volume of brick = 26 x 12.792 x 10-6 = 1273.95 Kg/m3 Sample 2: Total volume of brick = 26 x 12. which is the reason of that difference in strength. As recommendation. The result of test show that there is a great difference between the crushing strength of sample number 1 and that of sample number 2 .792 x 10-6 = 1278. So that.208 = 2066. As density.79 Kg/m3 Average Density = (D1 + D2)/2 = (1273. result given by the corresponding sample must be ignored and consider the second result as the crushing strength of Ruliba bricks.8 = 2210 cm3 Total volume of voids = 7.e.i.21 KN/cm2.792 cm3 Density = Weight (W2)/ total volume of solid = 2.

79 Hollow block 25 x 17.9 1037.5 4.15 1666.5 x 12 10.5 1250 2.5 x 19 8.37 2.21 Hollow brick 21 x 10 x 6.6 3.5 x 9.6 1.5 3.7 2.5 x 9.92 B)Technical specification of concrete blocks. Mix proportion 1:12-14 (1 part of cement: 12:14 part sum graded aggregate) Water absorption in 24 hours Less than 10% by weight .3 3 2267.6: Technical specifications of Ruliba bricks.35 1046.6 1276.7 2.3 2 1511.8 2.6 1.3 1 1511.5 x 6.16 Hollow block 40 x 17.88 Hollow block 26 x 12. Table3.7: Technical specifications of concrete blocks. Types Sizes (cm) Mass(kg) Mass density Average compressive (kg/m3) strength (kg/cm2) Hollow block 40 x 17.85 Hollow block 25 x 17.81 Hollow block 25 x 12 x 9.5 6.9 1070. Parameters Description Typical size 300 x 200 x 150 Average compressive strength at 28 50-110 kg/cm2 days.7 2.62 Fire brick 21 x 10 x 6.6 1.62 Hollow brick 21 x 5 x 6.33 Table 3.

37 kg/m3.478 Labor unit cost 40.436 6. The result from laboratory test show that the crushing strength and the density of Ruliba bricks are respectively equivalent to 2. Unit cost 8.478 19.837 40.256 Trans.239 40.made blocks.222 46. sizes and mass are tabulated 250 x 175 x 190 250 x 175 x 95 250 x 120 x 95 260 x 125 x 68 210 x 100 x 63 210 x 50 x 63 210 x 100 x 63 Bricks unit cost 49.478 19.180 6.544 40. All costs of Ruliba bricks fixed according to their Functions.478 19.924 107.604 113.478 19.478 19.3 : Results presentation.478 19. the compressive strength of blocks made by block-making machine is greater than that of man.040 40.8: Total unit cost of masonry for various sizes of bricks.21kg/m2 .600 33.3.498 118.1: Strength and density.118 111. . the quality and mix proportion of raw materials.020 56.000 Mortar unit cost 19.744 46. 3. 3.239 36.334 400 x175 x 120 400 x 175 x 95 Sizes (mm) below: Table 3.While the compressive strength of concrete blocks varies from 50 to 110 kg/m2.34 3.429 36.782 34.329 102.640 33. Then.656 111.600 6.860 94. modern technology used and the esthetic aspect presented by those products.600 33. All most costs of bricks from Ruliba are not affordable by every one in this country.400 12.640 46.478 19.3.062 8.478 19.924 102.000 34. Those parameters recorded after 28 day of manufacture.600 Total unit cost 117.068 6.503 45. and 1276. But are reasonable depending on raw materials used.400 8.2: Cost. depends on method of manufacture.864 7.

).3: Availability. Some peoples produce blocks and sell them at 500-700rwf per block but. . sand and aggregate with ratio of 1:3:6. The clay and shale are the basic raw materials used in Ruliba bricks making. Concrete blocks are easily available. 3.35 The cost of concrete block is influenced by which of its constituents and the production cost.Also. They are obtained in abundance in different form . For a ratio of 1:14.4: Materials used.3.3. to control the quality of raw materials. to organize the proportion mix process and to save money. because they can be produced on work site. Ruliba bricks are available at Ruliba factory(B. The advantage of producing blocks on site is to avoid the transport cost. for sand.R. function and sizes. 3. The use of fuel has replaced that of wood in order to reduce the deforestation velocity. total cost of concrete block is about 500rwf. The quality of raw materials must be well controlled in order to get final product of good properties. (man-made block.000rwf. Raw materials for producing concrete blocks are cement. The production cost is 40rwf per block. the mix proportion of raw materials is critical because they want to gain more profit. The maximum aggregate size is 10 mm.R) situates at Nyabarongo bridge in Nyarugenge District in Kigali city Province. one trip of five tones costs 35. For that. one bag of cement is used to produce 36 blocks with sizes 400 x 200 x 200mm.

Small bricks are used in construction of building walls.5 Hollow block Face wall 26 x 12. Blocks may be made by using machine or hand after mixing raw materials at required ratio. Prepared plastic clay are extracted as continuous column of rectangular section with or without perforations which is cut into individual bricks by wire. Each client buy the products according to his appreciation .Below that temperature. all components react and dissolves ones with others .5 x 12 Hollow block Face wall 40 x 17.3 Table 3. Ruliba bricks are available in various sizes. forming monolithic material. Products Function Sizes (cm) Hollow block Face wall 40 x 17. The bricks of greatest sizes are similar to those of blocks are commonly used in construction of contour walls.3.5 x 9.5 x 6.11000 C . 3. The obtained product is cured during two weeks by sprinkling water up to it maximum strength.5 x 19 Hollow block Face wall 25 x 17.6: sizes.5 Hollow block Face wall 25 x 17. Produced blocks can be solid . those bricks are fired up to 900 .3 Fire brick Fire resistant 21 x 10 x 6.8 Hollow brick Face wall 21 x 10 x 6.36 3. Bricks from Ruliba factory are made mechanically by using machine.5 Hollow block Face wall 25 x 12 x 9.9: Different sizes of Ruliba bricks.3 Hollow brick Face wall 21 x 5 x 6.5 x 9.cellular or hollow depending on mould used.5: Method of manufacture. . Continuously.3.

The fist one have great sizes while the second one have small sizes. 400 x 200 x 175mm. 400 x 200 x 150mm. In addition. . it manufacturing process not requires high technology and more instruments.3. so that. In addition. common sizes of blocks are 400 x 200 x 200mm. their cost is affordable comparatively to other structural materials. Concrete blocks are popular because of its cheapness and resistance. most richest people and companies live in Kigali town. Even if the binder like cement is cheap. because of reasonable distance from Ruliba.37 Sizes are that the main difference between blocks and bricks.7 : Center of market. 3. It is not easy to get market in others provinces or district for reason of high transport cost. The center of market is Kigali city. 300 x 200 x 150mm etc.

Let us to consider two structural wall of 10m length.738 274.2:Abstract of estimating and costing of typical wall made in concrete blocks. The abstracts of estimation and costing of those walls are presented bellow.500 150.1: Cost comparison.043.500 150.38 CHAPTER IV .20 m thick constructed respectively with Ruliba bricks and concrete blocks.000 Bricks work with cement mortar 2 Jointing outside and inside 3 Varnishing Total 1. 4.916 653.000 240. 4.428 .000 Blocks work with m3 cement mortar 2 Plastering cement mortar 3 Painting Total 664.428 with m2 60 4.496 Table 4.496 m2 60 4000 240.1:Abstract of estimation and costing of typical wall made in Ruliba bricks. 4. and 0. SN Items of work Units Quantities Rate Total cost (rwf) 1 m3 6 108.000 m2 60 2. 3m height. SN Items of work 1 Units Quantities Rates(rwf) Total cost(rwf) 6 45.0 : DISCUSSIONS.000 m2 60 2.

compressive strength. density of concrete blocks and bricks from Ruliba factory. Concrete blocks Bricks from Ruliba High Compressive strength Low compressive strength Less cost High cost Can be produced on site Are produced on factory Has not good appearance Has good appearance Are most available Are only available on factory Are require plastering Not requires the plastering Are not require jointing It requires jointing The manufacturing process is not The manufacturing process is complicated complicated. General comparison of concrete blocks with Bricks from Ruliba. only three items are considered in each case. 4. Machine and hand made products Machine-made products Are not burned Are burned Their density is high Their density is low .3:Size.1 1276. Compressive Density(kg/m3) Strength(kg/cm2) Concrete block Bricks 300x200x150 from 260x125x68 50-110 2250 22. Brick/Block Sizes in mm. Less variability of sizes Most variable of sizes.2:Compressive strength comparison.39 As seen in above tables.37 Ruliba Table 4. It is observed that the total cost of wall made with concrete blocks is lower than that which is constructed in Ruliba bricks.

1 : Conclusion. method of manufacture and it availability. Also. the problem are similar for both materials when the engines used produce gas waste which is very dangerous to the atmosphere. the recommendations given are follow: ƒ The concrete blocks should be adopted in construction of buildings fist to Ruliba bricks because of they durability as well as they cheapness. the results of this project show that concrete blocks are compressive resistant. But. in point of view architectural aspect. The unit cost of wall made with Bricks is greatest due to its transport cost. ƒ The price of Ruliba bricks should be minimized as possible in order to facilitate the population to construct the esthetic building with low cost .2 : Recommendations. it is advantageous to use concrete blocks fist of Ruliba bricks. most people prefer to use concrete blocks in their construction project. As conclusion. the concrete blocks are most used in internal and external wall where the plaster is required. That is due to their regular corners and joint when Portland cement mortar is used in jointing. 5. In addition.0 : CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.40 CHAPTER V. . it is not easy to use Ruliba bricks for people who lives away of Kigali city and its surrounding in reason of transport price. After the completion of this project. ƒ The mix proportion of Ruliba bricks should be controlled in order to improve they qualities. 5. the bricks from Ruliba are dominant because of it good looking when is used in construction of wall. For that case. The time required to built the structural wall with each of both materials is different. As environmental sector. So that. According to results obtained and the discussion made. 5. it is shown that the Concrete blocks should be preferable before bricks from Ruliba because of it durability and it low cost. less expensive but less esthetic comparatively to Ruliba bricks.

B. England.scoland. Seely.hill publishing company Limited. KOHSER (1997) “Materials and processes in manufacturing”.com http:// www. E. Prof. New delhi. England. 4. Graw. BN Dutta. New-delhi. A. Tata Mc (2003) “Civil Engineering materials”.Black and Ronarld A.41 REFERENCES. 2. JT. customer services department. mac millan Distribution Ltd. Paul Degarmo. Web sites: http://www.Arnold W. Handry (2003)“ Structural Masonry” Addison Wesley longmen limited . Ivor H. Books. (1992) “Building technology”.uk . 1. 5. Google. 3. “Estimating and costing in civil Engineering” UBS Distributors Pvt Ltd.gov.

2 NSSF 3% of Gross Pay 6726.7 952 47 44.L HARBERT RWANDA Limited Works : Construction of New American Embassy Site: KACYIRU Rate to pay 560rwf/hour Pay type FRW Rate Hours worked RT Basic 560 152. Enterprise : B.120 22 24.00 85.72 FARG 1% of basic Net to pay 851.120 Over time 1. L HARBET RWANDA Limited.42 APPENDICES. The Structural materials used are Reinforced concrete.744 Double Time 1.88Frw Total .224Frw PAYE Per Tax table 51267. modern bricks and blocks.5 840 83 69.20 165. The information below.640 Gross to pay 224.378.720 Over time 1. was given by one of mason of B. Statement of calculation of monthly salary for mason.

declare that the project entitled “ COMPARISON BETWEEN CONCRETE BROCKS AND BRICKS FROM RULIBA” is my own work. ZIRIMWABAGABO Léodomir.i DECLARATION. It has never been presented any where in Institute or University for the same purpose. ZIRIMWABAGABO Léodomir……………………………… . I.

To: My God. All who have contributed to this work. My family.ii Dedication. .

I m grateful to the staff of Ruliba factory who provided me with useful data that made this study possible. in particular way thanks goes to Mr. . Special thanks go to KIST Staff and students for their immeasurable technical assistance and their availability to assist in application of class theories and practices.iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. KAYINAMURA Francis who provided guidance to the present research work. The bless of God for all who gave a helping hand to the successful completion of the present work. The author is grateful to all who contributed to the successfulness of the present study.

iv ABSTRACT. Raw materials for manufacturing concrete blocks are expensive. The current technology involves the construction of building with update materials require low cost and stability. website field visit of Ruliba factory ﴾BRR﴿ was tracked down. Given that. In order to make excellent comparison. The crushing strength test was conducted in order to check the resistance of Ruliba bricks. Information about topic from libraries. In addition. Main assumption of this project. For instance. the common question to be asked for is how to get cheap and esthetic building materials.On the other hand. some one who desires to construct a building. as well as to show how it is possible to build up the buildings using materials which may resist against natural actions. the best objective in building design. the ability to withstand against the expensiveness of raw material and the design for environment. different techniques were employed. cutting trees for firing clay bricks leads to deforestation which affects our environment. the cost of two typical walls constructed in materials under comparison was estimated. . require low cost and durability. The bed rock of this project is to take out the confusion during the choice of sustainable building materials. are the selection of structure materials. on one bag of local Portland cement costs 13.000rwf .

.6 2. ……......3.1 : Strength of bricks …………………………………………………...………..1 : Statement of problem…………………………………………………….......9 .………….1 : Clay bricks……………………………………………………............. ……..............3.....vii Appendices CHAPTER I .0 : Introduction …….......0 : Literature review………………………………………….....3 : Justification……………………………………………………………………….3 CHAPTER II ....7 2..1.4 : Scope of study………………………………………………………………………..............……………......6 2..2........4 : Factors affecting compressive strength…………….....6 2....2 :Bricks forming process………………………………………………..... …….………………….....……...........2 : Test for compressive strength …………………………………….................4 2...iii Abstract…..6 2.....1.v List of tables……………………………………………………………………………....…………………………..…... …….4 2..7 2.……..1 1...vi List of symbols and abbreviations ……………………………………………………......2 : Calcium silicate bricks ………………………………..2 : Objectives of study… …….……..... 1....3 : Technical specification of bricks…………………………………………..…………1 1...... Certificate Declaration………………………………………………………………………………...1 1..... ……….. ……......8 2... …………………….3......3 : Compressive strength and other mechanical properties………………..8 2. 2........v TABLE OF CONTENTS....1: Varieties of bricks and blocks ……………………………………………………........………………………………………………….4 2........3..i Dedication……………………………………………………………………………….........2.1 : Manufacture process………………………………………………………...2 1.........iv Table of contents……………………………………...ii Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………..2 : Firing………………………………………………………………………........

2 : Data organization for analysis……………………………………………………...10 2..22 3........7............7.7: Cost in structural materials………………………………………………………….....8 : Benefit of using concrete blocks………………………………………….3 : Product ………………………………………......1 : Economy in construction ………………………………………………...11 2....9 2...4.....4.7.........6 : Mortar for jointing……………………………...3.....4..2.... …….........…....22 3.......5.11 2............1 : Concrete block technology…………………………………………..............2....1 : Data collection techniques………………………………………………………….16 2..6 : Building with concrete ……………………………………………….... …….2 : Business ………………………………………………………………..30 ...7 : Perforated and hollow blocks…………………………………………….......18 2.1 : Calculation of masonry unit cost…………………………………………24 3..5 : Size of bricks ……………………………………….4.......4 : Unique features of concrete block technology…….10 2.....20 CHAPTER III ..3 : Decorative and ventilating blocks…....24 3.....10 2......... ……………………15 2.....14 2..5........5...4 : Method of estimating …………………………………………………….......4..3 : Cost estimating …………………………………………………………19 2..4..18 2..4.....4..5 : Production process ………………………………………………………......14 2.7.........2 : Data related to technical specifications……………......2 : Unit cost …………………………………………………………………..2 : Blocks manufacturing ……………………………………………………14 2.vi 2...10 2..…12 2............ 3.........18 2....0 : Research Methodology ……………………………………………………..5 : concrete blocks forming process……………………………………………………14 2................1 : Mix proportion of blocks ……………………………………………….4 : Concrete blocks features……………………………………………………...12 2...

..40 5.…………………………………36 3.1 : Cost comparison……………………………………………………………………38 4.………………………..........…………………………....40 References……………………………………………………………………………….35 3............3............37 CHAPTER IV ......…...40 5.1 : strength and density………………………………………………………34 3...........6 : Sizes…………………………………..34 3....……………….......………….......................3..........7 : Center of market……………………………........3....................4 : Materials used……………………………………………………………......…………………………………38 4....1 : Conclusion ........0 : Discussions ………………………….34 3...... 4.36 3..3.2 : Cost………………………………………………………………………....3..2 : Compressive strength comparison………….. 5..3.3.....35 3..……………...3 : Availability………………………….vii 3..........…………….........………………………..........39 CHAPTER V.2 : Recommendations………………………………………………………….41 Appendices .5 : Method of manufacture……………….........3 : Results presentation……………………………………………………………….......……….0 : Conclusion and recommendations…………….

Table 2..7 Table 2.2 : Unit cost of Ruliba bricks……………………………………………………24 Table 3..29 Table 3...38 Table 4.viii LIST OF TABLES.6: Technical specifications of Ruliba bricks…………………………………….9 : Different sizes of Ruliba bricks ……………………………………………...7 : Technical specifications of concrete blocks…………………………………33 Table 3.2 : Abstract of estimating and costing of typical wall made in concrete blocks………………………………………………………………38 Table 4.33 Table 3..17 Table 2...1:Average compressive strength of common burnt clay bricks…………………. density of concrete blocks and …………....39 bricks from Ruliba factory.3: Mortar Required for Various Types of Walls……………………………….2: Materials required per Cubic Meter of mortar……………………………….3 : Unit cost of transport at 20km distance of various size of Ruliba bricks………………………………………………………………..3 : Size.. compressive strength.... ..1 : Varieties of BRR Bricks/ blocks and their relative prices……………….8 : Total unit cost of masonry for various sizes of bricks……………………….5 : Unit cost comparison of Ruliba bricks wall and concrete wall…………….34 Table 3.25 Table 3..36 Table 4.1 : Abstract of estimation and costing of typical wall made in Ruliba bricks……………………………………………………………….4 : Unit labor cost of masonry for various sizes of bricks………………………26 Table 3.…22 Table 3.17 Table 3...

R. Abbreviations Descriptions units KIST Kigali Institute of Sciences and Technology B.ix List of symbols and abbreviations.R Briqueterie Rwandaise Ruliba CEET Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology L1 Length of brick for sample number 1 cm L2 Length of brick for sample number 2 cm W1 Width of brick for sample number 1 cm W2 Width of brick for sample number 2 cm H1 Height of brick for sample number 1 cm H2 Height of brick for sample number 2 cm N Number of hollows - l1 Length of hollows for l2 Length of hollows for sample number 2 cm w1 Width of hollows for sample number 1 cm w2 Width of hollows for sample number 2 cm h1 Height of hollows for sample number 1 Cm h2 Height of hollows for sample number 2 Cm D1 Density of brick for sample number 1 Kg/cm3 D2 Density of brick for sample number 2 Kg/cm3 sample number 1 cm .