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Complete Guide

Do-it-all Anti-armour?

Only if One Believes
in Serendipity!
There is no doubt that America leads in most aspects of anti-armour
weapon technology. When we last reported (Armada 6/2000), one of
the most important developments in this field was that the US House of
Representatives Committee on Appropriations had demanded of the Secretary of Defense that his next budget submission should include an antiarmour munitions master plan that would quantify the post-Soviet
armoured threat and identify the weapons needed to defeat it.

Eric H. Biass and Roy Braybrook

T

he cause for this concern arose from
the fact that America’s worst-case
defence scenario had been revised
downwards drastically, to consist of two
smaller MTWs (major theatre wars)
involving – according to the Defense
Intelligence Agency – less than 20 per
cent of the Cold War estimate of opposing armoured fighting vehicles. Despite
this major reduction in the threat, in the
1990s the US services had maintained
and improved their inventories of
around 40 different types of antiarmour systems.The Pentagon nonetheless expects to spend approximately $ 14
billion on the development and acquisition of 13 new guided and unguided
anti-armour programmes.
The General Accounting Office
(GAO) reviewed the revised Master
Plan submitted in July 2000, and con-

cluded that it failed to provide a joint
effectiveness analysis. Instead, it was
based on separate US Air Force and
Army analyses, each without reference
to the other service’s capabilities. In
essence, computer modelling was
showing that new anti-armour weapon
systems would result in a favourable
conflict outcome being achieved sooner and with fewer friendly casualties,
but it was not assessing the relative
effects of the various new systems in a
multi-service fighting environment.
Nobody doubts that current technological advances can provide improvements over existing anti-armour
weapons, but the US services are failing
to make a credible case for continuing
developmental spending in this area,
since they are literally incapable of
“getting their acts together”.
The GAO accordingly recommended that the Secretary of Defense should
Complete Guide by armada

include in his next Quadrennial
Defense Review an independent joint
service assessment of anti-armour
munition capabilities, requirements
and priorities.
The anticipated total procurement
cost (from FY2001 to completion) of
the various new US systems is listed in
the box on the following page.

New Technologies and Concepts
In the course of the 1990s several new
anti-armour technologies reached the
stage at which they were ready for
deployment. These included multimode sensors and warheads, millimetric-wave radar for all-weather guidance, ‘soft’ launches for firings from
within enclosed spaces and automatic
target recognition systems allowing
fully autonomous operation of the missile or warhead.
However, while technologies were
advancing to meet long-standing requirements, the operators’ demands were
being modified to suit the changing face
of warfare.Aside from reducing the number of tanks required to be destroyed to
achieve a successful outcome, experience
in post-Cold War conflicts has brought a
number of fundamental changes in the
attitudes of some leading services to antiarmour weapon systems.

39

Although the fire-and-forget version has been cancelled. Note that the rear set is tilted downwards to be fired while the forward set is still in place. This is what prompted manufacturers to design tandem charges. typically of at least 50 mm in diameter. the US Air Force is more concerned than the Explosive reactive add-on armour was designed to break up a penetrator or a sabot round dart under the shearing effect of an armour plate and of the explosive charge itself. It has thus become far more important. (Armada/EHB) with many of these targets deliberately dispersed within civilian areas. the MBDA Brimstone was designed in the later days of the Cold War (GEC-Marconi at the time) to exploit the potential of millimetric-wave radar and automatic target-recognition technologies in providing a safe (i. Again. firstly. and since the risk of exposing an aircraft to enemy fire can be justified only if it can kill several tanks in a single pass. This in turn prompted the development of doubled Era plates. against shoulderlaunched Sams) day/night all-weather fire-and-forget capability from fixedwing aircraft platforms. typically engaging a group of tanks. the general public is now far less willing to tolerate personnel losses. Many current weapon systems were conceived in the days when the challenge was to destroy (at almost any cost) large numbers of the Warsaw Pact tanks that were expected to swarm across Europe. eliminating the limit imposed by trailing guidance wires. the radio-guided Tow RF will provide substantially longer range. missiles found the loophole by adopting larger precursor charges. Its successful development undoubtedly represents an outstanding «Today’s threat is characterised by much smaller numbers of armoured targets in a fluid situation with no real frontline and with many of these targets deliberately dispersed within civilian areas. Partly as a result of the Coalition’s mere handful of casualties in the spectacularly successful Desert Storm. Several changes in demands are illustrated by new versions of the Raytheon Tow. Anticipated Total Procurement Cost From FY2001 to completion. to strike it accurately with just sufficient energy to US Army to reduce operator workload. the MBDA briefing executive responded that the service is looking for lock-on before launch capability and not fully autonomous operation. Today’s threat is characterised by much smaller numbers of armoured targets in a fluid situation with no real front-line and Firing of the MBDA Brimstone from a Tornado. the forward one (precursor) tasked with the setting off of this protection to clear the way for the main charge. . the price of the various new US systems: (in descending order of magnitude and in terms of then-year [million] dollars) Bat/Army Tactical Missile System: Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System: Javelin: Longbow Hellfire: Wide Area Munition: Tank Round M829A2/E3: Joint Stand-Off Weapon (BLU-108): Sensor-Fuzed Weapon: Predator: Sense and Destroy Armor: 25 mm Gun Round. which is launched from both ground platforms and helicopters.Complete Guide Friendly fire accidents in the 1991 Gulf War emphasised the need to minimise ‘blue-on-blue’ casualties. the pilot or gunner launching the anti-tank missile should be exposed as little as possible to return fire. Operations in 1999 in Kosovo brought demands to reduce collateral damage. For example. especially in the context of remote conflicts. Priorities naturally vary between services. and secondly. (Alenia Marconi Systems/DR) destroy it. the approximate position of which is known prior to launch. since the majority of its tactical aircraft are single-seaters.» technological achievement. However. In addition. For example.e. when asked by Armada about prospects of selling the Brimstone specifically to the US Air Force. the improved resolution of which will allow targets to be detected and identified at four and two times present ranges respectively. Army M919: Remote Area Denial Munition: Multipurpose Individual Munition: Army Army Army/USMC Army Army Army USAF/USN USAF USMC Army Army Army Army $ 4171 $ 3369 $3012 $ 2107 $ 1733 $ 1613 $ 1571 $ 709 $ 592 $ 295 $ 242 $ 151 $ 141 (Source: GAO-01-607) 40 Complete Guide by armada The principal changes may be illustrated by reference to some new antiarmour systems. to identify the target correctly. It will also be compatible with Raytheon’s Itas (Improved Target Acquisition System).

Then full-size anti-armour warheads might prove totally unsuited to defeat lighter vehicles (even if they are heavily armed) since their penetrators can pierce them completely and still have sufficient energy to wreak havoc in whatever might be behind them. Fire-and-forgets have the tremendous limitations mentioned in this article. allowing the gunner to fire from inside buildings. and has 2. shown here at Farnborough International 2000. The only future alternative appears to be active self-protection systems – like the Arena – in which the Russian manufacturers have a definite lead. Moreover. and a 136 kg blast-penetrator with fragmentation effects). The effect is a high-density and highspeed dart that will eventually separate from the core (which follows the dart) and forge its way into the armour.5 times the range of the Dragon that it replaces. There are two important factors that have to be taken into account:  Observation: anti-armour weapons are emplaced at ‘sensitive points’ and used for long. with the emergence of urban warfare. 42 in-the-loop IIR guidance. In the case of the US Army’s Common Missile. a medium-range system that is especially suited to rapid reaction forces. allowing the use of active millimetric-wave guidance. the choice of directattack or top-attack engagements and a soft launch. Its power is directly determined by the square value of its original frontal diameter. (Armada/EHB). with a choice of three guidance heads (TV. Emphasis is placed on minimising the risk to the operator by increasing range and reducing time of flight. Weapon projects featuring interchangeable warheads have been played with but have proven unsatisfactory – one main problem stemming from trivial centre of gravity alteration issues. this would have been the panacea in a West-East confrontation with a clear red line separating the two. the Tow-FF and the Trigat-MR – and why no decision regarding their replacement has yet been envisaged. guidance is not really needed against a building. if a tank is involved.7 kg shaped charge. Modular construction is well illustrated by the Raytheon Maverick. Complete Guide by armada prisoners. This is an interesting development because until recently. The United Kingdom is funding 15 per cent of the current phase. the situation is quite different. in any case. it is anticipated that a tri-mode seeker will be fitted.Complete Guide One of the most important anti-armour missiles for light forces is the Lockheed Martin/Raytheon Javelin. and as Kosovo-like operations have recently demonstrated. IR or laser) and two warheads (a 56. plus the fact that the pop-up and dive category may have a tough time finding their targets on the way down in a treelined avenue. which precludes the use of not having a man in the loop. Warhead Technology Armour and anti-armour have been playing a cat-and-mouse game ever since they were invented. Here. which runs to September 2003. so that the missile can be launched from a variety of platforms and is effective against a wide range of targets. Today. It houses . Now. What Next? T he question that is giving both decision-makers and missile manufacturers a considerable headache is “what anti-armour weapon should we use in urban warfare?” As recent urban conflicts proved. As repeatedly noted by Armada. which is currently being competed in the system definition phase and is scheduled to replace both the Boeing/Lockheed Martin Hellfire and the Raytheon Tow. (Armada/RB) Another anti-armour missile offering compatibility with the Itas is the Raytheon/Lockheed Martin Javelin. The competitors for the eventual British Army order are understood to be the SpikeER and a Next Generation Tow. semi-active laser homing or man- Upon explosion of the charge. The Arena designed by KBM is a vertical pod mounted in a commanding position – on the rear of the turret. ergonomics play a major role. The Javelin is being produced for the US Army and US Marine Corps. the warhead definitely appears to have an edge because the weight penalty it imposes on armoured vehicles is becoming hardly bearable. This may explain why new missiles are not being purchased in large numbers right now. none of the existing missiles really offer a suitable answer. however. The status quo on the Trigan nicely illustrates the current blur.  Collateral: armoured enemy formations now have a propensity to move with buses full of civilian hostages or anti-building weapons are also needed with all the logistical problems having different categories of weapons entails. protracted observation periods of time. It also provides fire-and-forget capability by virtue of its IIR (imaging infrared) seeker. fireand-forget was all the rage. Finally. and why a number of new weapons have been and still are being cancelled – like the Sraw. the copper liner is crushed towards the centre and simultaneously turned inside out as one would do with a sock. Other important trends include modular construction and operational flexibility.

(Armada/EHB) a number of charges that can be fired 360° around the vehicle. the dart would drag over the surface. Another type of warhead is the explosively forged projectile. an ‘ordinary’ anti-armour missile tends to cause a terrific blast outside the target – and thereby produce unwanted results in urban. Although the reasons are quite different in the armour context. short-range use. This enables the warheads to be accurately machined and their density controlled. This Swiss company has specialised in isostatic pressing and shrink fit warhead assembly. As explained elsewhere in this survey. firing a hollow charge against a concrete wall at short range will make life as uncomfortable for the gunner and his pals as for those on the other side. (Textron Systems) . (MBDA) minor improvements (10 to 15 per cent) are achieved through tweaking the shape and density of the copper lining. but the firm is also looking at the possibilities offered by thermobaric warheads. Their effectiveness (i. This is a preferred solution for top-attack warheads dispensed from a higher altitude than the over-flight missiles. like this Eryx. the warhead of which was developed by Ruag. also referred to as EFP. see their main warhead mounted behind the motor. ceramic. penetration power) is proportional to their diameter. As the pictures herewith show. Ruag has managed to develop an asymmetrical hollow charge that allows the impact of the downwards-fired dart to remain over the same single spot on the attacked armour in spite of the forward movement of the horizontally moving warhead. Talking of top-attack leads us to an interesting development – the Swedish 44 A new requirement has emerged in the wake of recent conflicts. which is itself packed around a central tube. glass. missiles use hollow charges. As remarkably demonstrated by this sequence. and that virtually all precursors have a diameter of about 40 mm or more – this due to the more efficient explosively reactive armour now available. Kosovo being one example. page 41) under the control of an accelerometer fuze. Looking at the fold-out table provided in this special supplement will reveal that all charges have a diameter of at least 130 mm (except the top-attack variety). In a majority of cases. glass and steel. the warhead still has to penetrate and pierce. Missiles like the Raytheon Tow use telescopic probes while others. and thereby the shape. (Armada/EHB) Bill 2. These are triggered by a detection radar (also mounted on the turret) and literally thrown in the path of the incoming penetrator to destroy it or at least considerably disturb its destructive action.e. like the Textron BLU-108 skeet warhead. Ruag Munition again seems to have Complete Guide by armada The Textron Systems skeet pushes the explosively forged projectile art to the extent of also producing a crown of fragments. of a penetrator in composite armour. For example. Other solutions are being sought for urban warfare. Without this trick. bunker and sandbag penetration. Failing this. it does illustrate the way varying density materials can affect the behaviour. This roughly follows the same principle as the hollow charge (or shaped charge) except that the copper liner is replaced with a tantalum lens that is forged into a high-speed slug. found an appropriate answer to the challenge. which is building. various solutions such as combining a hollow charge with a retarded grenade did not prove satisfactory. High explosive is currently used. The Swiss company is currently experimenting with a penetrator called the Mep (modular explosive penetrator) that uses the reverberating shockwaves to penetrate the hardest concretes and explode inside the building (see full details in Armada 4/2002.Complete Guide The feat: many of us remember the school-time broken pencil experiment that demonstrates how different diffraction indices disturb the path of light. at right represented by a sandwich of steel. although A hollow charge requires a certain distance to form itself ahead of the target.

very little of the original missile remains. (Armada/RB). Harrier or Tornado is four triple launchers. stop and self-destruct (by The left-hand example of this array of 122 mm rockets presented by this Mi-35M at ILA-2002 appears to represent the laser-guided S-13L version.Although the external shape is similar. and production acceptance flight trials with four triple releases (following weapon evaluation trials with six single and two triple firings) are due to be completed shortly. it will dive until it detects the ground. it will continue to navigate on memory. Emphasis is placed on light weight: the Flight Refuelling reusable launcher with three rounds weighs only 235 kg. This is followed by systems primarily designed for helicopters and finally ground-to-ground systems. and will attack provided it can see at least half the target. but without external fuel these aircraft will be able to carry a total of 18 Brimstones.2 kg main charge and is effective against all known and projected armour. surface-to-surface missile launchers and small naval vessels. and goes on a pylon that would normally carry a single Maverick.3 kg precursor and a 6. and an alternative blast-fragmentation warhead to suit other types of target. exemplified here by a Raytheon Paveway II GBU-12 (Mk82). (Whether Brimstone will actually be applied to the Harrier remains to be seen). there have been references to the addition of a laser seeker to minimise the risk of collateral damage. Since the Hellfire was designed for a 220-km/hr helicopter. providing a fire-and-forget day/ night all-weather attack capability with a fully autonomous weapon providing multiple kills per pass. Looking to the longer term. As mentioned earlier.Complete Guide Fixed Wing Aircraft This section deals with the principal anti-armour weapon systems. carried by an F-15E on a conformal tank pylon. To avoid conflict with the Longbow Hellfire. armoured personnel carriers. beginning with guided missiles. There is potential for the algorithms to be modified to allow recognition of aircraft and radars on the ground. (Ruag Munition) Production deliveries for the RAF Tornado GR4 will begin in early 2003. the Brimstone automatically recog- 46 diving into the ground). The £ 600 million ($ 900 million) development and production contract was awarded in late 1996. with TV lock-on for the AGM-65A/B/H. (Armada/RB) Complete Guide by armada . considerable redesign was necessary to suit carriage on fixed-wing combat aircraft. with a 93 per cent success rate.The aim was to suit use on fast jet aircraft. Some 6000 have been used in combat. as seen in this highspeed camera sequence. IIR (imaging infrared) for the AGM65D/F/G. the Maverick has a modular design. If its radar is jammed after it has detected its target. The final ground firing of Brimstone was carried out in June 2001. More than 66. Making approximately 35 radar ‘cuts’ per vehicle. using as its basis the helicopter-borne. nises all tracked fighting vehicles (tanks. Brimstone The MBDA Brimstone was developed to meet British requirement SR(A)1238. If the launch aircraft has Link 16. designed to suit use by fixed-wing aircraft. explode. A salvo of missiles can be told to fan out and search. The Alenia Marconi Systems active 94 GHz radar (replacing the passive laser seeker of Hellfire) also controls missile altitude and provides terrain avoidance. target coordinates can be inserted into the missile directly from external sources such as the Jstars aircraft. with pre-set distances to start search. The Ruag Mep is being developed to cleanly penetrate 250 mm of reinforced concrete by sheer force and only then. MBDA has agreed not to market the Brimstone actively for helicopter applications. If the Brimstone is fired from above its normal 500 ft cruise altitude. there is considerable overlap between these categories. A 57-kg shaped charge is Many tanks have been killed by laser-guided bombs. Brimstone has a 0. As will become clear. and laser spot-homing for the AGM-65E. Maverick Deliveries of the Raytheon AGM-65 Maverick began over 30 years ago. due to the need to minimise development spending and the number of different weapons in any nation’s inventory. laser-homing Boeing AGM-114A Hellfire.000 have now been produced for the US services and 28 international customers. The Brimstone can be instructed to search in a variety of modes (column. self-propelled guns and air defence units). point and area).The standard load for the Typhoon. including ceramic materials and two-layer ERA (explosive reactive armour).

35 with a range of 10. which has already gone through several stages of development. Switzerland’s Ruag Munition manufactures an improved warhead for the Swiss Army version of the Tow-2A. Spike-ER An alternative to the Trigat-LR is the Israeli Rafael Spike-ER. The tube-launched laser beam-riding KBP 9M121M Vikhr-M (AT-16) is believed to be a derivative of the 9M120 Ataka (AT-9) series. ers and the thermal sights enabling the vehicle to remain concealed behind manmade or natural obstacles. which will overcome the limitations imposed by the guidance wires of the existing system. the only potential customer in prospect appears to be the German Army.000 metres. which allows target detection and identification ranges to be increased by factors of four and two respectively. Tow The Hot currently provides somewhat more range than the Raytheon BGM71 Tow. Unlike the Hellfire.Complete Guide limited.000 will not encourage exports. low-rate initial production in 2007 and service entry in FY2010. (Raytheon) Complete Guide by armada In the longer term both the Tow and the Hellfire are to be superseded in the US Army inventory by the new Common Missile. which employs imaging infrared guidance for fire-and-forget capability. but this deficiency is being rectified (at least in the case of the topattack Tow-2B) by the introduction of a less blunt nose and more guidance wire. Beamriding suggests that it cannot be used in an indirect-fire mode.A project calls for a telescopic platform that could hoist up several launch- wire-guided Euromissile Hot. Flight trials of this Tow Extended Range began early this year. Diehl and STN Atlas.Whether the same range can be achieved with the direct-attack Looking like a central heating duct.and fixed-wing aircraft. However. this upgraded Mi-24 carried KBM Ataka missiles outboard and Rafael Spike missiles on the mid-span pylon. It is said to penetrate 900 to 1000 mm of armour behind ERA. combining Rafael with Rheinmetall. However. it is a larger version of the Spike/Gill family. Raytheon’s current emphasis is on enhancing the effectiveness of the Tow by means of the Itas (Improved Target Acquisition System). with a range of six kilometres. (Armada/RB). Its warhead is described as combining shaped-charge with blast and fragmentation effects. which increases the maximum range from 3750 to 4500 metres. Lockheed Martin and Raytheon. but it may have a laser seeker in the nose. which may possibly use it on the Tiger. the supersonic laser beamriding KBP Vikhr-K seen here at Eurosatory 2000 has now been superseded by the Vikhr-M. Trigat-LR Another relatively long-range helicopter-launched anti-armour missile is the MBDA Trigat-LR. and a rumoured unit price of around € 500. known as the Tow WH96. France will definitely not buy it before 2008. It was hoped to successfully market this weapon as an option for the Tiger helicopter. (Black Mamba) is being developed for the Rooivalk helicopter and is also to be qualified on a ground vehicle for export purposes. but the qualification of Hellfire on the Tiger for Australia now makes this less likely. a fibre-optic link and the choice of CCD or IIR seekers. The Trigat-LR may see ground vehicle-launched applications. the Vikhr’s slender body (approximately 130 mm. the French Army will continue with the Tow-2A (the telescopic nose of which complicates aerodynamic improvements) remains to be seen. Hot Instead of using the Trigat-LR. Raytheon uses the term “Next Generation Tow” to apply to both the Tow Extended Range and the Tow RF. followed by first flight in 2006. It should weigh around 32 kg and have a range of over 12. Upgrades with millimetre-wave or IIR guidance are planned.000 metres. (Armada/RB). combining a peak speed of around Mach 2. The next major advance will be provided by the radioguided Tow RF. The Tow series is in use in over 45 countries. and Miltec produced the safety and arming system under American licence. which is being promoted in Germany by the Eurospike consortium. compared to 178 mm for Hellfire and Mokopa) suggests that its armour penetration is more Exhibited by Israel Aircraft Industries at the Paris Air Show of 1999. notably with the Hot2T. Previously referred to as the NT-D (Nun Tet – Dandy). which is now in the pre-EMD (Engineering and Manufacturing Development) phase and is being competed by a Boeing/Northrop Grumman team. which introduced a telescopic precursor charge. 53 . Common Missile The Common Missile is scheduled to enter the SDD phase in late 2003. the Vikhr is designed to be used from both rotary.

Smerch Russia’s equivalent of MLRS is the 12tube Smerch system. Tests from a helicopter have recently demonstrated the feasibility of releasing the Bat from a UAV such as Predator using a Bat UAV ejection tube (Buet). South Africa’s Kentron Ingwe (Leopard) is a Tow-class laser beamriding missile with a maximum range of 5000 metres. the saclos wire-guided KBM 9M14 Malyutka (Baby) or AT-3. each weighing 4. which was promoted at Eurosatory 2000 by the Kovrov Mechanical Plant.55) KBM 9M114 Shturm (AT-6). while the extended-range M26A1/2 carries 518 over 45 km. The full complement of twelve rockets can be launched in under 40 seconds. For export customers. which has radio saclos guidance. The Atacms Block I delivers 644 dual-purpose M74 submunitions to a maximum range of 165 km. The Mayutka M2T is a joint development by Romania’s Arsenalul Armatei and Euromissile. a range of 6000 metres and entered service on the Mi24 in 1976. (Armada/EHB) . The key to controlling thrust may lie in the use of a gelled propellant with metal additives in a hydrocarbon fuel. it has been cleared for use on the Mi-24 Ground Vehicle Systems One way to deal with armoured formations close to the front line is to dispense submunitions from artillery rockets. eight BLU-108s or 32 Sadarms. Medium Ranges . The latest known variant for the Shturm-V system used on the Ka-29 and Mi-24 appears to be the 9M120 Ataka-V (AT-9). while the Block IA has GPS guidance and carries 300 M74s for 300 km. giving a reduced time-of-flight.000 M26s were fired.Malyutka Offering half the range of the Shturm/ Ataka series. but the 9M120 is used on Mi-24/35 upgrades and the Mi-28 family. In the mid-1990s it was promoted in 9P149 Shturm-S form. The Mayutka-2 used on helicopters such as the Mi-17 has a heavier tandem warhead and an improved rocket motor. notably the Lam (Loitering Attack Munition) being developed for the NetFires system. such as four Locaas. Shturm Older long-range missile systems include the supersonic (Mach 1. thus ignoring simple decoys. It fires the 300 mm 9M55 family of rockets for a distance of up to 70 km. to replace rounds used in Chechnya. Last June it was reported that the plant had been funded by Russia’s Defence Ministry to restart production of the 9M120. Complete Guide by armada (presumably for Algeria) and one type of ground vehicle. 32 Atacms and over 10. The latest vehicle in the MLRS family is the Himars (High Mobility Artillery Rocket System). Atacms Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control is responsible for the design and manufacture of the MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System). This can be stored like a solid propellant. The Germanmanufactured AT2 version dispenses 28 anti-tank mines. which can then be transported in a C-130.Complete Guide The missile should provide improvements in range and time-of-flight and feature a multi-mode (laser/imaging infrared/mm wave) seeker allowing lock-on after launch. Like all the helicopter missiles discussed above. which entered service in 1961. a mission-selectable warhead and a controllablethrust rocket motor. it was innovative in flying well above the line-of-sight and diving on the target in the last few hundred metres. substituting the tandem warhead from the Milan 2T. In principle. which is discussed later in this report. During Desert Storm. minimising susceptibility to countermeasures. The baseline M26 delivers 644 dualpurpose M77 grenades over 32 km. The MLRS is now fielded in 14 countries. and the Block II takes 13 Northrop Grumman Bat anti-armour submunitions to 140 km. mounted on the 9A52-2 8 x 8 combat vehicle. based on an MT-LB tracked vehicle that carried twelve rounds. The even lighter Limaws is planned for service entry sometime in 2006. which reduces its field of view to suit the distance to the target. the Atacms Universal Dispenser can deal with other submunition loads. Aside from being the first supersonic Soviet missile in this class. It is currently in the low production phase for the US Army. the Shturm can be fired from ground vehicles.85 kg. and is thus ‘throttleable’. The Bat is the responsibility of the Electronic Systems division of Northrop Grumman and in its baseline form employs a combination of passive acoustic and imaging infrared seekers to detect and home on to moving armoured targets. but when under pressure flows like a liquid. in which the M270 tracked vehicle fires twelve M26 or two Atacms (Army Tactical Missile System) rockets. The 800 kg 9M55K1 weighs 800 kg and carries five top-attack anti-armour submunitions. In ground-based form it is used with the Lomo Lcem (Land Control Equipment Module). The P3I Bat will add an advanced millimetre-wave radar and an improved imaging infrared sensor to expand the target set to include stationary and cold vehicles. The Lcem also detects the rotation of the missile by means of its two base-mounted flares. including Sam and Scud-type launchers as well as artillery rocket systems. Future development potential for MLRS includes the use of later payloads. Khrizantema The KBM Khrizantema system is mounted on the BMP-3 tracked ICV The Russian Smerch multiple rocket launcher system pictured here at an Idex exhibition in Abu Dhabi rests on a 9A52-2 carrier. 54 which mounts six M26-series rockets or one Atacms missile on the FMTV five-ton truck. each weighing 15 kg and equipped with a two-band IR seeker. Production had stopped in the early 1990s due to lack of funds.is still being upgraded.The 9M55K4 dispenses 25 anti-tank mines.

The missiles are extended on a two-round launcher. Lockheed Martin has studied the use of Kems on a modified LAV III chassis. The Hatm is designed for compatibility with existing Tow launch systems. Ckem The US Army also has a programme for a lighter (23 kg) but faster (Mach 6. The KBM Khrizantema-C is described as a multiple-purpose missile as. It has a maximum speed of Mach 4. The US Army eventually hopes to acquire 172 more fire units and around 1600 missiles. a dual-mode (laser/ ladar) seeker for surveillance/ reconnaissance duties and a multi-mode warhead. The NetFires involves the remote control of container/launcher units (CLUs) of low-cost. The concept definition and riskreduction phases are being competed by Lockheed Martin. The firing was carried out from a prototype of the Raytheon Universal Launcher. after firing. which will lead to the first unit being equipped in 2008 and deployed in 2010. (Lockheed Martin) (infantry combat vehicle) chassis. The first flight of a Raytheon Lam took place on 17 June 2002. It has a crew of three and is equipped with a second-generation flir/video sensor and four Kinetic Energy Missiles (Kem) that can defeat all projected armoured fighting vehicles and can out-range tank guns. The Lam is envisaged as a turbojet-powered. Losat The trend to more easily deployed systems is illustrated by the Lockheed Martin Losat (Line-Of-Sight AntiTank). is retracted to be automatically reloaded. it can defeat ships. which. a company of the US Army’s 5-11th Parachute Infantry Regiment could go to war with twelve Losat fire units in 2004. will provide indirect fire support. It may be explained that. Raytheon and a team combining Northrop Grumman and Miltec. low flying targets and shelters.5) Compact Kinetic Energy Missile with a range of 5000 metres to act as the primary direct-fire anti-armour weapon for the Future Combat System (FCS). the other missile element of the FCS is the NetFires. up-armoured Hummer chassis. as currently planned. apart from reactive armourprotected vehicles. The Losat vehicle weighs approximately 5. Last August Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control received an initial $ 9. Both missiles and launcher should have been demonstrated by the second quarter of 2004. which would carry eight rounds externally and eight reloads internally. The system is seen here in twinlauncher guise on a BMP at the Maks show in 2001.The CLUs would be dispensed across the battlefield from ground and airborne vehicles.» from late FY2003 to late FY2007. of which the US Army and Marine Corps have more than 6000. The Kem weighs 80 kg and houses a long rod penetrator. Two targets can be engaged simultaneously. in an emergency. It would carry out longrange (50 km) precision attacks against armoured targets such as tanks and command and control vehicles. which is based on an air-mobile. each weighing around 45 kg. a ballistic test firing of Raytheon’s Hypervelocity Anti-Tank Missile (Hatm) took place in Norway. with an uncooled IR seeker and a variable-thrust rocket motor. canister-launched. The concept technology demonstration phase is being conducted by Boeing teamed with SAIC. Aside from the Ckem. The Pam will be more like a conventional missile in configuration. a range of over 250 km. On 6 August 2002. (Armada/EHB) Complete Guide by armada 55 . and thus be transportable in a C-130 or its replacement. the FCS is to consist of up to 20 different manned and unmanned ground and airborne platforms. which houses a retractable fire control radar and 15 supersonic missiles in expendable tubes. as currently planned.The ground vehicles will weigh 16 to 20 tonnes.Complete Guide Caught in the act.3 million production contract for 108 Kems. and it receives target position updates from the launch vehicle by means of a laser beam. which. and it is planned that. The company is already producing 44 missiles and 13 fire units under the ACTD (advanced concept technology demonstration) programme. swing-wing Ucav with a loiter time of around 45 minutes. funded by the Darpa. vertically launched precision and loitering attack missiles (Pam and Lam).5 and a range of over 4000 metres. which is a good idea since there is nought but an up-armoured Hummer chassis to protect the instigators. leading to deliveries in FY2008. The SDD phase is expected to last «It may be explained that. Eight reloads can be carried on a trailer. The decision to go ahead is scheduled for 2003.5 tonnes and can be reloaded in less than ten minutes using an on-board materiel-handling system. one missile using millimetre-wave radar guidance and the other laser beam-riding. the Lockheed Martin Line-OfSight-Anti-Tank (Losat) sports four kinetic energy missiles that outrange tank guns. equipped with the Itas and mounted on a Hummer. The missile follows a lofted delivery to keep its exhaust plume above the line-ofsight. the FCS is to consist of up to 20 different manned and unmanned ground and airborne platforms.

which has two submunitions with metal wings that produce both retardation and rotation. and these shells have also been ordered by Greece and Switzerland. However. Term-KE The most important guided tank round in the near term may well be the 120 mm Alliant Techsystems XM1007 Term-KE (Tank Extended-Range Guided Mortar Bombs Russia appears to have led in the operational use of laser-guided mortar bombs. but the Giat Pelican is expected to carry five of these submunitions to more than 80 km. guided medium-range and guided extendedrange. a variety of warloads and a range of up to 50 km. entering service in the 1980s. fired the 152 mm 30F38 projectile. then the Soviet Union. has largely pioneered the firing of missiles from within a tank. The Swedish Army ordered the Saab Bofors Dynamics Strix in 1991. Munition-Kinetic Energy). which has a range of 22 km. by using the main armament of the vehicle itself. in this case with an MMW/IIR and radiometer sensor system. The Bonus 155 mm artillery round. KBP has also developed 100. leading to IOC (initial operational capability) in 2006. Missile trajectory correction takes place in the terminal diving phase. although the 1D20 laser ranger/designator (which is also used for the Krasnopol/Kitilov guided artillery rounds) has a designation range of only 7000 metres if the target is stationary and 5000 metres if it is moving. The smaller guidance components of the Kitilov were then applied to the larger round. The Smart has been described as the world’s only gun-fired. A multi-band infrared sensor by Intertechnique triggers an EFP warhead. and ATK is now promoting the Giws (Rheinmetall/Diehl) 155 mm Smart (Sensor-fuzed Munition for Artillery).Complete Guide Tank Barrel-launched Systems Russia. It provides a maximum firing range of 9000 metres. 155 mm smart submunition currently in production. Approximately 9000 are on order for the German Army for use from its PzH 2000. Nose-mounted thrusters provide control in the terminal phase. is responsible for the 155 mm XM982 Excalibur. T he US Army’s laser spot-homing 155 mm Lockheed Martin Copperhead artillery round was cancelled in 1990. and the system can engage targets 300 metres apart without adjustment to the mortar. (Armada/RB) 56 Gran Strix The KBP-designed Gran 120 mm guided mortar round made its Western debut at Eurosatory 2000. with the seeker sending firing commands to a crown of small reactive charges conveniently located around the body’s centre of gravity. Complete Guide by armada . The Mraas ammunition suite will consist of three types: anti-armour. which delivers two parachute-equipped submunitions with EFP warheads. an infrared-homing mortar round with a range of 5000 metres. and is working with Diehl and Krauss Maffei Wegmann (KMW) on the 105 mm Spear round. a rocketassisted munition with active millimetre-wave radar guidance and a long-rod penetrator. but its development may have encouraged Russia’s work on the 2K24 Santimetr (Centimetre) system. appears to be dead. the trend is now gathering momentum in the western world. which has GPS/INS navigation. The Sadarm programme from ATK and the Aerojet Electronic Systems Division of GenCorp. which. displacing it laterally until the seeker ‘sees’ the target centred in its virtual crosshairs. producing the KrasnopolM. which can be fitted with larger driving bands to suit Western 155 mm guns. tri-mode sensor. although this can be extended to 7000 metres through the addition of a sustainer motor. Krasnopol KBP has since developed the 120/122 mm Kitilov-2/-2M and the 152 mm Krasnopol. A 105 mm derivative has been proposed for the FCS. which was employed in Afghanistan in the 1980s. The concept has since been applied by Israel and now guided missiles are also fired from existing howitzers. by dispensing submunitions.ATK is also assisting Lockheed Martin in a competition with Raytheon to develop the Mraas (MultiRole Armament and Ammunition System) for the US Army’s Block 2 FCS. Bonus Another cargo round is the Bofors/Giat 155 mm Bonus. developed by Giat Industries and Bofors. A firing rate of over two rounds/min can be achieved. Smart Large calibre artillery rounds provide the possibility of killing two or more tanks with a single shot. with the 240 mm 1K113 Smelchak (Braveheart) system. 115 and 125 mm laser-guided rounds for tank guns. Initial deliveries to the US Army and US Marine Corps are due to begin in 2005. in other words. in a partnership with Primex Technologies. The range of the base-bleed Bonus shell is 34 km. dispenses two submunitions with metal wings and IR sensors by Intertechnique. Excalibur Raytheon. the turreted barrel.

which probably has a tweaked hollow charge to increase its penetration capability to the equivalent of 1000 millimetres of RHA. a BTR80 (twelve rounds) and a Humvee (nine rounds). The original Milan was followed in 1984 by the Milan 2. this has a price and a number of forces around the world are now wondering how targets of varying natures can be treated economically since the tank no longer appears to be a priority target in the new world order (see «What Next?» page 42). The latest literature shows the Kornet-E installed on a BMP-3 chassis (with 16 rounds). which made its Western debut at Eurosatory 2000. The older missile halves the minimum firing range of the Metis-M to 40 metres. but it also transmits imagery back to the launch station via 57 . There is a project in Germany the Milan AJ. Ground-based Missiles The Euromissile Milan series entered service in 1974 and shortly after saw active use in Lebanon in 1996. providing increased protection against countermeasures. More than 330. as one could be tempted to say.3 kg) 9M115 Metis (Mongrel) missile to a range of 1000 metres. now renamed Spike-MR. (Armada/RB) The 120 mm Lockheed Martin/Diehl XM395 PGMM (Precision Guided Mortar Munition) is a further development of the latter company’s Bussard technology demonstrator. is intended to enter service between 2010 and 2015. top-attack MBDA TrigatMR. Such marketing may be encouraging Raytheon to extend the firing range of the Tow series. Metis-M Russia’s equivalent of the Milan is the KBP-designed 9M131 Metis-M. a Trigan I in the form of a less expensive wire-guided version of the Trigat-MR missile will be fired from a modified Milan firing post. it is available with either a tandem or FAE warhead.8 kg and has a range of 1500 metres. with a coded xenon beacon. The baseline Gill. which has a range of 1500 metres and is also available with a fuel-air explosive warhead. Like the Metis-M. Kornet-E Russia’s competitor to the Trigat-MR (and its substitutes) is the laser beamriding KBP 9M129 Kornet-E. The longer range Spike. and may well be approved for longer ranges than its predecessor’s 2500 metres. versatility is also a virtue sought by other manufacturers. However.000 metres.Complete Guide PGMM Russia leads in the use of laserguided mortar bombs. It is also know to have been used in anti-aircraft skirmishes (during the Iran-Iraq war) and a Belgian Army fired round is reported to have sunk a boat in the Persian Gulf. The Milan is probably still the most popular man-portable anti-tank missile in the world and its concept has been applied to many others. However.000 firing units have been produced for 43 countries. can be used in the same way. reducing to 3500 metres at night. equipped with an imaging infrared seeker and four switchblade wings. is a 2500 metre fire-and-forget missile. no one in Europe being willing to commit any funding to a programme of this The KBP-designed Kornet-E is a laser beam-riding missile with an effective range of 5500 metres in daylight. which provide an effective range of up to 15. which is likewise available with a thermal imaging sight. but this programme was abandoned in 2000. and in 1991 by the tandem charge Milan 2T. but the same launcher can also be used with the much lighter (6. amongst which are more notably the Swedes and the Russians. like Bofors with the Bill 2. Milan It was planned that the Milan series would be superseded by the laser beam-riding. Interestingly. (Armada/RB) nature – as usual. using a CCD/IIR dual-mode auto-tracking system. which has a maximum range of 3500 metres at night and 5500 metres by day. (Armada/RB) Trigan Complete Guide by armada Russia’s equivalent of the Milan series is the KBP-designed MetisM. the Trigan project is now currently in the doldrums. It is used in conjunction with the Sagem Milis thermal sight. The later Trigan II with a more effective warhead and fibre-optic guidance based on a nose-mounted IIR seeker. The Milan 3. The US Army plans to field the PGMM in 2006. recently redesignated Spike-LR. which has been lightened and fitted with an improved sighting system. exemplified here by the KBPdesigned Gran 120 mm. Instead. and a fuel-air explosive (FAE) device. followed in 1995. Spike The Rafael Gill/Spike family is used in lofted trajectories for top attacks at ranges up to 4000 metres. T he Milan may also be able to claim a record for versatility as it has been successfully used as an antipersonnel weapon (by the British Army in the Falklands) and missile launcher destroyer (with the SAS in Iraq).000 Milan rounds and 10. which can detect targets at up to 4000 metres in night operations. The containerised missile weighs 13. The Metis-M employs two types of warhead: a tandem shaped-charge. which boasted an increased diameter warhead.

The trend seems to be catching on in Europe as would seem to testify the presence of the new airborne Javelin at Eurosatory 2002 alongside a Sagem Sperwer. Lithuania and an unspecified third nation selected the Javelin. and over 90 per cent of all tanks hit have been killed. An impact fuze is provided for direct attacks. Taiwan is to have joined the list of customers. In tests of more than 800 rounds.05 metres above the line-of-sight and is equipped with downward-look- The Spike missile family uses a CCD/IIR dual-mode auto-tracking system that is either locked on to the target before launch. having developed an ejection device called the Buet (Bat UAV ejection tube) for both the Predator and the Hunter. In 2001. The Spike-LR is in service with the forces of Israel and Singapore and has been ordered by Finland and the Netherlands. one of which is tilted from the vertical to compensate for the velocity of the missile. R ecently. benefiting from the smoke-piercing capability of the long wavelength used in the staring focal plane array.The round carries two downward-firing warheads. No details have been officially released since this operation was carried out by the CIA.Complete Guide an optical fibre. Northrop Grumman. Drones Although this now appears to be stating the obvious today. More recently. Maximum firing range of the Bill 2 is 2000 metres. By the middle of 2002. Minimum range is given in unclassified leaflets as 65 metres. or controlled via an optical fibre. Bill 2 One of the most sophisticated systems in this category is the saclos wire-guided Saab Bofors Dynamics Bill 2. which would carry two rounds.000 ordered) had been delivered. the manufacturer of the Bat smart munition. It can also be used in a non line-of-sight mode. (Armada/RB) ing optical (laser-ranging) and magnetic sensors to determine when it overflies a tank. Sponsored by 58 the Air Force’s UAV Battlelab. which is basically an overflight missile but can also be employed in a direct attack against an unarmoured target as well as an overflight anti-personnel weapon. by the time these lines will be published the US Army and Northrop Grumman should have completed similar tests at White Sands to prove the feasibility of launching Bat munitions from a Hunter. leading to service entry with the US Army in 1996 and with the Marine Corps in 1999. Other armed drone developments include fitting them with Bats. (on 3 November) a Hellfire-equipped Aeronautical Systems Predator was reported to have successfully destroyed a vehicle that carried a prominent al-Qaeda leader in Yemen. (Bofors) deployed the missile to Afghanistan. is currently engaged in this project. allowing the operator to make corrections to the flight path. a battery of tests at Eglin Air Force Base in Florida from a UH-1N helicopter equipped with a special rack have recently demonstrated the feasibility of releasing the Bat from a UAV. Javelin The Javelin is a joint project by Raytheon and Lockheed Martin and works in basically the same way as the Rafael Gill/Spike-MR. Both services have The Saab Bofors Dynamics Bill 2 is an overflight missile system with a laser-ranger and magnetic sensor to detect the tank and fire two downward-directed warheads. where the thermal imager of its command launch unit (CLU) has become the primary surveillance device for light forces. Maximum range is 2500 metres. Complete Guide by armada The Lockheed Martin/Raytheon Airborne Javelin was unveiled at Eurosatory 2002 alongside the Sagem Sperwer-LE UAV. The Predator can carry two AGM-114s. so that the whole length of the second jet passes through the same spot on the surface of the target after the first one has blown up the ERA if there was any. The missile is normally commanded to fly 1. Jordan. over 5000 rounds (of 21. (Armada/RB) . but the true figure appears to be classified. over 85 per cent of tank hits have been on the turret. with an IIR seeker providing lock-on prior to launch followed by a lofted trajectory for a top attack. An announcement by Britain (where it is competing with the Rafael Spike-LR promoted by MBDA) is expected by early 2003. A soft launch allows for firings from inside buildings. Production of the Javelin began in June 1994. mentioning the use of drones as armour attack platforms invariably made one look suspiciously insane only a few years ago. In addition.

It has been designated Vosel. The principal competitor to MBT Law in Britain was a derivative of the Lockheed Martin Predator. Rafael is now developing a shortrange version of the Spike series (Spike-SR) to compete with missiles such as the Eryx and the Predator. have been around for a while. (Armada/RB) guided. Guided While shoulder launched. Eryx MBT Law The first of the third-generation of shoulder-launched anti-armour missiles. this is a 100 mm warhead calibre weapon. the novelty is to make these guided. Its rocket motor enables it to have a constant speed to a range of 600 metres. using an impact fuze. bazooka-like weapons have been in use for over half a century. This is an important feature because of another of the Alcotan 100’s very important characteristics – its sighting system. of which the shaped-charge warhead is shown here in cut-away form. Due to their sheer number it will not be possible to examine all types here. the Alcotan 100 can be fired from confined spaces thanks to its Davis principle counter mass. (Armada/EHB) Complete Guide by armada 59 . The MBT Law can also be used in a direct attack mode. However coverage is given of the most recent developments Army and deliveries are to have begun in late November 2002. hit a transversely moving target – but in a different manner. However. this sight incorporates a three-axis accelerometer which achieves a goal that is somewhat similar to that of the Swedish MBT Law – i. For night operations the Mirabel sight is clipped to the launcher. Malaysia and Norway. an inertially Unguided Missiles As said in the previous introduction. suitable for very short-range urban warfare.Another feature of the Eryx is that it can be fired from confined spaces through a soft launch. not the least being sophisticated aiming and sighting systems. and maximum range is 600 metres. France. It thus may not be regarded as a guided missile in the conventional sense. they have come a long way from the bazooka and can incorporate a number of features. the measured sightline spin-rate telling the missile where to go to overfly the target. hence the rocket motor is centrally placed. having been Stanag and Mil-STD typecertified by the Spanish Ministry of Defence in September 2002. Warhead calibre is 115 mm. The system has been selected for acquisition by the British and Swedish armies. The Eryx has a 136 mm diameter and tandem shaped charges. as indeed tanks and now even wheeled armoured vehicles have the ability to move crosscountry at quite high speeds. and apart from it being equipped with a laser rangefinder. for longer-range engagements (300 to 600 metres) the use of a tripod is mandatory. unguided rocket launched weapons. due to their restricted calibres they cannot be regarded stricto sensu as antitank weapons. The British-tailored version known as the Kestrel with a direct attack mode was proposed by MBDA. weapon of this sort. the Alcotan 100 is probably the latest weapon to have entered this category. As its name suggests.000 have now been sold. with the main warhead located in the rear of the body. The Saab Bofors Dynamics MBT Law is a slightly lighter fire-and-forget system. Armada has recently received confirmation that a first batch has been ordered in mid-2002 by the Spanish The Panzerfaust seen here is equipped with the new Mep concrete penetrator warhead being developed by Ruag Munition. final assembly will be performed by Thales Air Defence in Belfast. A s we shall see. For use by the British Army. It almost goes without saying with a new-generation Armour behind the battlefront may be attacked by UCAVs such as the STN Atlas Taifun. Canada. exhausting through angled nozzles with jet deflectors for control. in which the operator tracks the target for two or three seconds prior to firing. but rather as anti-light armoured vehicle armament. often called recoilless guns. Customers include Brazil. top attack. since it does not involve steering the projectile itself: the operator keeps the target in the cross-hairs and the angle Alcotan 100 Developed by Instalaza in Spain. of which over 50.e. was probably the saclos wire-guided MBDA Eryx. fire-and-forget missile with an EFP warhead and jet reaction controls.Complete Guide Shoulder-launched.

from Israel Military Industries. one of them being developed by Ruag Munition. Fax: (858) 759 3552 e-mail: dianestevenson@cox.Spain Hans-Ruedi Fröhlich. the Heat 551 which will penetrate over 400 mm of armour at a range of 700 metres. without the operator even noticing it. CH-8050 Zurich ISO 9002 certified ISSN: 0252-9793 USPS 574450 ABC .ru Complete Guide by armada Western USA – West of the Mississippi River Diane Stevenson.5 kg and comes with two warheads: a dual anti-tank/anti-bunker tandem warhead which is able to penetrate 800 mm of armoured steel or 500 mm of reinforced concrete (precursor diame- Advertising offices: ARMADA INTERNATIONAL is published bimonthly in Zurich. Flatford Lane. In other words.ch Web Site: www.Complete Guide The Instalaza Alcotan 100’s Vosel fire control system enables the missile to be automatically aimed at the predicted point of impact. Fax: (+41 41) 760 72 79 e-mail: fairspace@topweb. The Panzerfaust 3 is also reusable. this round will penetrate cleanly into 25 cm of sollid concrete to explode inside the a building. e-mail: margiespub@erols. if the name is old. and a dual mode anti-bunker/anti-personnel munition with a reinforced concrete penetration capability of 300 mm and a follow-through charge that explodes inside the building thereafter (both 100 mm calibre). Luxemburg Peter Stierlin. Switzerland. as determined by the rangefinder. Ltd. e-mail: cndil@netvision. Kfar Bin Nun 99780.il United Kingdom Aerospace Media. FL-9490 Vaduz.5 kg fire control system. but it has also been exported to Denmark. The US Army has ordered well over 600. Fax: (+41 1) 308 50 55 e-mail: mail@armada.Scandinavia. The ultimate version is the 3-T 600.elmes.ch Publisher: Caroline Schwegler Publishing Director: Peter Stierlin Editor-in-Chief: Eric H. Smoke and illumination rounds are also available. Fax: (540) 341 7582. on the other hand. finstabilised munition is fuzed for impact or delayed action simply depending on which way the round is loaded into the gun. December/January 2002/2003 Head Office: ARMADA INTERNATIONAL Thurgauerstrasse 39.The Alcotan will be available with different warheads. Michael Elmes. has a Davis counter-mass system. The Shipon is in an advanced stage of development.Switzerland. Doug Richardson. the HE441B which can be fuzed to either burst in the air or into soft targets. certified by ABC/WEMF. 96. but which bares little resemblance to its initial models. Arming range is as short as 15 metres. England Phone: +44 (0) 1206 299211. devised for urban warfare this dual-purpose. The latter charge is a development of the 84 mm warhead used by the B300.armada. from Germany’s Dynamit Nobel. Pia Kraft ter unknown. which is capable of redesigning 425 mm of ERA-protected armour at a range of over 500 metres after travelling through bushes (having a bush safety fuze).The total system weighs 9. Biass Editor: Johnny Keggler Art Work: Johnny Keggler Regular Contributors: Roy Braybrook. (Instalaza) rates are recorded by the accelerometers and. CH-8050 Zurich Phone: (+41 1) 308 5050 Israel Commercial News Distribution. The very latest version ads a T to the suffix. This loadable 84 mm gun can fire a wide variety of charges. the Netherlands and Brazil. Copyright 2002 by Internationale Armada Aktiengesellschaft. Unlike the tandem hollow charge follow-through grenade design of the Bunkerfaust. CH-6300 Zug/Switzerland Phone: (+41 41) 760 72 78. the projectile is automatically fired in the direction where the vehicle will be at time of impact. is working on a Shipon 2 but the programme is highly classified – which gives one every reason to believe that development is customer-funded. Yuri Laskin. (Armada/EHB) Volume 26. Russian Federation. however. East Bergholt. However.net. David Kreizelman.uk 60 Panzerfaust This is another die-hard weapon. Fax: +44 (0) 1206 299212 e-mail: mike.Germany. of course. Fax: (+7 095) 912 1260 e-mail: ylarm-lml@ntu-net. Brian Walters Administration: Thomas Schneider. which carries an integral laser rangefinder and a computerised sighting system into which wind speed can be entered for corrective aiming.co. PO Box 51. the warheads are not. Aeulestrasse 5. main 100 mm). If the anti-personnel mode is selected. Annual subscription rates: Europe: SFr. Phone/Fax: (08) 9 797 008. Novoriazanskaya Street 31/7. Franz-Rittmeyer-Weg 5. Principality of Liechtenstein Austria. the AT4CS is the penultimate version of this 300-metre range Swedish weapon the new suffix standing for confined space. Carl Gustaf This Bofors veteran might look completely out of place in a modern weapon survey.Finland. Phone: (+7 095) 912 1346. Warrenton. CA 92024. warheads separate and explode above the target area. IMI awaits a launch customer to complete the full-scale development that could be completed in about 18 months. Phone: (858) 759 3557. but the oddity of the design is that the warhead hangs outside the launch tube enabling out-of-calibre warheads to be fitted.ch France. The AT4 is an 84 mm calibre one-shot weapon that was developed in the wake of the renowned Carl Gustaf. Thurgauerstrasse 39. 132 + 24 (post) Overseas: US$ 132 + 24 (post) Controlled circulation: 21 449. but perhaps the most interesting of the stack is the HEDP 502 munition. valid from 13 June 2001 Printed by Karl Schwegler AG. meaning Davis. App. signifying tandem-charge.@aerospacemedia. uses a dispensable composite material canister – the only reusable part being the 2.000 units.com All other countries: contact the Head Office.net Eastern USA – East of the Mississippi River Margie Brown & Associates. RF-107060 Moscow. It is also in service in Sweden.. presents him with a corrected aiming point. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) LAGUK Co. Shipon The Shipon. 6. IMI. CH-8050 Zurich/Switzerland Phone: (+41 1) 308 50 50. Colchester CO7 6UJ. 4775 Mallard Court. Virginia 20187-2500 Phone: (540) 341 7581. Belgium. No. Now the Panzerfaust is being given a very nasty effectiveness for urban warfare through the new warhead developed by Ruag Munition (see the Warhead Technology section). 810 Val Sereno Drive Olivenhain. having been in con- stant development at the Karlskoga works. The Netherlands. like the Heat 781 with a precursor. in other words whether the white dotted line painted on the body is facing upwards or downwards – a graceful embodiment of simplicity itself. It uses a disposable glassfibre launch tube and is manufactured in the Unites States by ATK. Margie Brown. AT4CS Son of the ubiquitous Bofors AT4.

without dissolving HSLLC. AH-64D Apache Longbow by the US and British armies. the baseline AGM154A with 145 BLU-97 CEBs is in series production and provides some capability against lightly armoured vehicles. but (as in the case of the DWS24/39 sold to Sweden) is now also available with GPS. It should be explained that. three Locaas could be carried in the Lockheed Martin AGM-158 Jassm (Joint Air-Surface Stand-off Missile). work-shares were reassigned. Development of the dedicated anti-armour AGM-154B with six P3I BLU-108 submunitions from the SFW has been completed. in February 1999. one of the most potent. (Armada/EHB) multi-mode warhead by Alliant Techsystems (ATK). and the US Navy may purchase it at a later stage. producing. Hellfire Today. although originally developed by Rockwell. Mokopa and Vikhr Two other long-range laser guided missiles are the Kentron (Denel) Mokopa and Russia’s KBP Vikhr.The AFDS was originally fitted with only inertial guidance. formed by what are now Lockheed Martin and Boeing. Maximum range is 100 km. delivering and supporting the Hellfire weapon system. which would have a 256  256 MCT (mercury-cadmium telluride) imaging seeker. the Locaas is a swing-wing turbojet-powered missile combining GPS/INS mid-course navigation with a ladar terminal seeker. a US Air Force project that is currently in the advanced technology demonstration (ATD) phase. As in the case of the laser-homing version. laser-homing Lockheed Martin AGM-114K Hellfire II. in May 1955 this programme became the responsibility of Hellfire Systems (HSLLC). with Lockheed Martin assuming 52 total responsibility for future marketing. The 49 kg AGM-114L Longbow Hellfire employs millimetre-wave radar guidance and is the joint responsibility of Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman. as an aerostable slug for longer stand-off distances or in a multi-fragment mode for softer targets. Jsow The Lockheed Martin WindCorrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD) tailkit allows armaments such as the Sensor-Fuzed Weapon to be released from medium and high altitudes. and the 5000th was completed in March 2002. The Mokopa The Kentron Mokopa is one of the latest helicopter-launched missiles to have entered the antibunker/tank scene. it can lock on to the target either before or after launch. A turbojetpowered Jsow has been flight tested. (Armada/RB) The somewhat more refined shape of the Raytheon AGM-154 Jsow (Joint Stand-Off Weapon) provides a range of up to 130 km.000 in FY98 values. However.This is basically an EFP warhead.000 Hellfire IIs for the US services and twelve international customers. the rotary-wing aircraft became a ‘must’ platform for anti-armour warfare throughout the world.Complete Guide wing glide dispenser with GPS/INS navigation and a variety of submunitions. a lifting body with stub wings that provide a range of around 10 km from low-level release and 20 km from altitude. Lockheed Martin has so far produced over 16. The Locaas could also be delivered by the US Army MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System) or Atacms (Army Tactical Missile System). but it can also be made to function in a long-rod penetration mode for close-in heavily armoured targets. The US Air Force plans to buy 3000 and the US Navy 8800.The Israel Military Industries Msov (Modular Stand-Off Vehicle) is a swing- One of the most advanced submunitions is the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control Locaas (Low-Cost Autonomous Attack System).The RAH-66 Comanche will use the AGM-114K and the -114L.000 are on order for use on the Complete Guide by armada The AGM-154A was first used operationally over Iraq in January 1999. Its light weight (45 kg) allows 16 Hellfires to be carried on the US Marine Corps SuperCobra. HSLLC continues as the legal entity for sales and support of the system. Meanwhile. helicopter-launched anti-armour weapons is the supersonic. AFDS & Msov Locaas Other submunition dispensers include the Eads AFDS (Autonomous Freeflight Dispenser System). (Armada/RB) . From that moment. automatic target recognition and a Helicopter Armament The French Army pioneered the use of missiles from helicopters during its conflict in Algeria in the 1950s. In essence. Combined GPS/INS navigation is used. but at 50 kilograms also one of the heaviest. If development is successful. Unit price for the Locaas is expected to be approximately $ 33. which has a remarkably long range (over 8000 metres) and was recently been selected by Australia to arm its new Tiger. four in a TMD and ten in the proposed Lodis dispenser. Over 13. Lockheed Martin is currently studying a possible 49 kg IR Hellfire.

000 have been used in combat). upgrading the M151 70 mm rocket with a laser guidance unit and aerodynamic controls. it seems likely that Raytheon will add a lock-on after launch (Loal) facility. Other precision-guided bombs include the Rafael Pyramid glide weapon. In its most basic form the AASM is a guided bomb. but US Air Force AGM65Gs are being taken out of storage and re-equipped with CCD (charge-coupled device) seekers. Although it will 47 S o d r T 4 c c 1 0 a c a i d F S b o b 8 ( 4 . Completely new Mavericks are not currently being manufactured. the Sagem AASM (Armement Air-Sol Modulaire) will provide precision (metre-class) accuracy for a 250 kg warhead such as the Mk 82. «For many years the US Army has been interested in developing a range of guided missiles that can penetrate armour by virtue of kinetic energy…» Guided Rockets One of the weapons traditionally used by both fixed. which carries ten BLU-108/B submunitions. The RAF is buying AGM-65G2s with software modified to suit smaller targets. The French services have ordered a total of 3000 units. Guided Bombs Although precision-guided munitions. the Russian equivalent of the Maverick is probably the supersonic ZvezdaStrela Kh-25M (AS-10) series. The Elbit Opher employs a low-cost IIR-homing terminal guidance kit and is to be used in conjunction with a modern weaponaiming system on the aircraft. giving three times the acquisition range of the first-generation TV camera. (Armada/RB). and the GBU-22 in Paveway III form. although Russia has for many years employed the 57 mm S-5. ZvezdaStrela is the core of Russia’s new Tactical Missiles Corporation. In Raytheon’s series of LGBs (of which more than 40. to produce an extended range (ER) version with GPS/INS midcourse navigation and either the CCDTV or IIR seeker for the terminal phase. The most widely used calibre is probably 2. which combines a Mk 82 warhead with a TV camera feeding imagery back to the launch aircraft over a data-link. The Loal concept would permit internal carriage on aircraft such as the F-35. BLU-111 or Cbems. laser-guided bombs for example. shows the general layout of the rocket-become-missile. which now appears to have been superseded by the 80 mm S-8. fitted to the AGM-65A/B/D/H and a 136-kg penetration/blast warhead arms the AGM-65E/F/G/H/K. One of the principal anti-armour dispensers is the Textron Systems CBU-97/B Sensor-Fuzed Weapon. The GBU-22 weighs 326 kg and has enlarged fins and a two-stage guidance system for longer standoff range. Whether or not a turbine engine is introduced. the Mk 82 becomes the GBU-12 in Paveway I and II forms. the round then being redesignated AGM-65K.e. All existing Mavericks are locked on to the target before launch and used in a fire-and-forget mode. are generally discussed in relation to hard targets. using the company’s new low-cost weapon data-link to combine man-in-the-loop guidance with an extended maximum range of around 40 km. Strela In terms of operational employment. even small bombs such as the 227 kg Mk 82 can disable a main battle tank with a direct hit. possibly using the improved laser seeker from the Enhanced Paveway III LGB.75 inch (70 mm). but its modularity will allow the use of a rangeextension kit and a rocket motor. each with four Skeet warheads. of which half will be the day/night precision version (rather than the earlier all-weather ten-metre class weapon). The Paveway II/III Enhanced adds a satellite/inertial guidance unit with two GPS antennas.The Elbit Lizard 3 LGB kit is claimed to be superior to the Paveway II. The US Navy is reportedly interested in Raytheon restarting production of the AGM-65E (or modifying AGM-65Fs). The Raytheon document to the right. This APKWS (Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System) is proposed by Raytheon.and rotary-wing aircraft against armoured fighting vehicles is the high velocity rocket. rather than relying on shaped charges. (Armada/EHB) Complete Guide by armada In its later (2007 delivery) form. For a number of years the US Army has been interested in developing a range of guided missiles that can penetrate armour by virtue of kinetic energy.Complete Guide C b c i T d 2 e i There is a massive potential market for laser guidance kits to be added to 70 mm rockets. One result is the Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System (APKWS). especially from low-level delivery. and would provide a good indication of likely damage to the target. i. one of which appeared to represent the laser-homing S-13L. It may be noted that at Berlin’s ILA-2002 the Yak-130 and Mi-35M were both exhibited with five-round pods of 122 mm S-13 rockets. bridges and bunkers. and the more recent TV-guided Kh-25MT and IIR-guided Kh-25MTP. exemplified by the laser-homing Kh-25ML. The IIR seekers being removed are fitted to stored AGM-65As for international sales. The manufacturer is also considering adding a strap-on fuel tank and turbojet engine. to fulfil a need established in Kosovo for a missile that can attack below low cloud and with low risk of collateral damage.

000 fitted with Lockheed Martin Wind-Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD) inertial navigation tail kits.8 kg. following US Air Force orders for 2700 baseline SFWs.000 feet.5s or 248 PTAB-1Ms. but also artillery shells or rockets. and is known as the Gator weapon system. which can be released at speeds from 370 to 1300 km/hr. The original objective was to achieve an accuracy of 25 metres in drops from up to 40. but there have been reports that much better results have been achieved in tests.5 kg and equipped with dual infrared sensors. Prime contractor for the SFW is Textron Systems. full-rate production of the upgraded P3I SFW was approved. (Armada/RB) Complete Guide by armada . CEB. and now even drones. In early 2001. The service is also considering the purchase of around 7500 examples of an extended-range version (WCMD-ER) with GPS navigation and folding wings.000 CBU-103s based on the CEM. The P3I variant introduces a multi-faceted blast-fragmentation ring that adds a shotgun effect against smaller. The smaller RBK-250 can carry 30 PTAB-2. 5000 CBU-104s based on the Gator. In SUU-66 form with ten BLU-108/B submunitions. can carry up to four KMG-U dispensers.2 metres and a range of 6. The CEB has a shaped charge. but on the other hand the APKWS is intended only to destroy lightly armoured targets. Dispensers and Submunitions In dealing with groups of armoured vehicles. with a unit cost of approximately $ 9000. and descends on a parachute. designated CBU-89/B by the US Air Force and CBU-78/B by the US Navy. at climb angles up to 30 degrees and in dive angles up to 60 degrees. the TMD becomes the CBU-97/B SensorFuzed Weapon. The Air Force plans to buy over 300 P3Is annually until 2011. These can be air-launched dispensers. Modern Russian helicopters. to deploy its Skeet warheads. The ORD (operational requirement document) was approved in March 2000. and an improved radar altimeter. metal wings rotating it to scan the ground with dual-band infrared sensor. to reach out to 60 km. 268 PTAB-1M shaped charge warheads. Bazalt SPBE-D WCMD The Russian equivalent of the TMD is the Bazalt RBK-500. It will be inexpensive in comparison with the $ 80. the US Air Force is having up to 40. The fragmentation crown mentioned in the “Warhead Technology” section of this survey is clearly visible. The RBK-500U version houses 15 Bazalt SPBE-D sensor-fuzed EFP warheads.5 shaped charge warheads. an accuracy of 1.000. such as the Mi-28 and Ka-50 series. each weighing approximately 470 kg and typically housing 96 PTAB-2. which can carry Returning to America’s TMD-based series. each weighing 14. at heights from 200 to 40 000 ft. each with four IR sensor-fuzed skeet EFP (explosively-formed projectile) warheads. In SUU-64 form the TMD carries a combined total of 94 BLU-91/B anti-tank and BLU-92/B anti-personnel mines. each weighing 0.Complete Guide be suitable for use from fixed-wing aircraft and ground vehicles the. each weighing 2. S ubmunitions are thus called because they are in effect clusters of warheads enclosed in various forms of frames. with IR sensors to detect tanks and fire their explosively-formed projectiles. some form of dispenser may be employed to provide area coverage by means of a number of guided or unguided submunitions.000). The basic American dispenser is the 450-kg class Alliant Techsystems Tactical Munitions Dispenser (TMD). The US Air Force plans to buy a total of 22. The Textron Systems BLU-108/B submunition is retarded and spun.000 Hellfire. The modified warhead allows almost twice the ground area to be covered effectively. to allow Lrip (low-rate initial production) to begin in 2005.0 km. following which the service invited Raytheon and BAE Systems (having private-ventured developments for The broad aims of the APKWS programme are to achieve an upgrade unit cost of less than $ 10. (Armada/RB) fragmenting case and a zirconium ring for incendiary effects. it becomes the Alliant Techsystems CBU87/B Combined Effects Munition (CEM). The P3I is estimated to provide a 140 per cent improvement in targets killed for only a 20 per cent increase in cost (from $ 300. and 4000 CBU-105s based on the SFW. In SUU-65 form with 202 BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomblets (CEB) and optional FZU-39/B proximity fuze. The Bazalt SPBE-D sensor-fuzed warhead is dispensed from the RBK-500U container.000 to around $ 360.94 kg and capable of penetrating 240 mm of armour. APKWS is intended primarily for helicopters. SFW etc. The SDD (system development and demonstration) phase is due to begin by January 2003. a 48 the Low-Cost Precision Kill technology demonstration phase) to provide trials examples at their own expense by October 2002. softer targets.