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Cavite State University

Don Severino de las Alas Campus
Indang, Cavite
College of Engineering and Information Technology
Department of Information Technology

Fundamentals of Computer and Programming
(CPEN 21)

Assignment # 1
Computer Fundamentals
and Programming Languages

Submitted by:
Richard Kenneth U. Bandiola
BSCE 2-1
Submitted to:
Sr. Rhommel R. Avinante
Instructor, CPEN 21
Date Submitted:
June 17, 2015, Wednesday

often called a software package. such as a spreadsheet package. such as a notepad software for writing and editing simple text. 2. CD. System software serves as the interface between hardware and the end users. Internal components . Examples of Hardware:     Input devices . It may also consist of a collection of programs. Secondary storage devices . and extend the processing capabilities of the computer itself. Types of Software:  System Software . is an electronic data processing device which accepts and stores data input.are designed to satisfy a particular need of a particular environment. . Compilers. which work together to accomplish a task. Interpreter. Some examples of system software are Operating System. Output devices .  Application Software . All software applications prepared in the computer lab can come under the category of Application software. A program is a sequence of instructions written to solve a particular problem. mouse etc. control. monitor etc. System software are generally prepared by computer manufactures. These software products comprise of programs written in low-level languages which interact with the hardware at a very basic level. Hardware – represents the physical and tangible components of a computer i.printer. motherboard.Hard disk. RAM etc. Assemblers etc. DVD etc. processes the data input and generates the output in a required a collection of programs designed to operate.keyboard.Computer Fundamentals Computer - is an advanced electronic device that is capable of performing mathematical and logical operations based on a set of programs and instructions to produce meaningful and useful output. Elements of the Computer 1. which is designed to perform a well-defined function.e.CPU. Software – is a set of programs. Application software may consist of a single program. the components that can be seen and touched.

All types of computers follow a same basic logical structure and perform the basic operations for converting raw input data into information useful to their users. Mini Computer .It is a multi-user computer system which is capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. interpretation. Software technology is different from minicomputer. Completeness .Information should be available when required. concepts or instructions in a formalized manner which should be suitable for communication.It is a single user computer system having moderately powerful microprocessor. For the decision to be meaningful. 2. Main Frame . It is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based.It is an extremely fast computer which can execute hundreds of millions of instructions per second. 3. the processed data must qualify for the following characteristics: 1.It is also a single user computer system which is similar to personal computer but has a more powerful microprocessor.can be defined as a representation of facts.Information should be accurate. Accuracy . Workstation . Stages of the Data Processing Cycle . Data . Data Processing Cycle .is organised or classified data which has some meaningful values for the receiver. Timely . Supercomputer . or processing by human or electronic machine.Information should be complete. Information .is the logical structure of processes that a data undergoes inside a computer in order to produce meaningful information.It is a multi-user computer system which is capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously.Kinds of Computers      PC (Personal Computer) .

z/OS. including application programs and other system software. according for resource using and mediating conflicting requests from different programs and users To provide efficient and fair sharing of resources among users and programs Characteristics of an Operating System:   Memory Management . AIX. Operating System . the most popular operating systems are DOS. For Personal Computers (PC’s). It is an integrated set of specialized programs that are used to manage overall resources and operations of the computer. OS/2. The input process are performed by input devices such as the keyboard.keeps tracks of primary memory i.It is a program that acts as an interface between the software and the computer hardware. and logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful information. The output processes are performed by output devices.    Input . It is a specialized software that controls and monitors the execution of all other programs that reside in the computer.e. The storage processes are performed by the following storage devices: primary storage devices.The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system. USB’s etc. Processing – the process of performing arithmetic. VMS. Output . such as ROM. CD’s. monitor etc. etc. Storage – the process of saving data and instructions so that they are available for processing as and when required. what part is not in use etc. Processor Management . RAM. and secondary storage devices. granting resource requests. etc. and allocates the memory when a process or program requests it. Objectives of Operating System:        To make a computer system convenient to use in an efficient manner To hide the details of the hardware resources from the users To provide users a convenient interface to use the computer system To act as an intermediary between the hardware and its users and making it easier for the users to access and use other resources To manage the resources of a computer system To keep track of who is using which resource. The processes in this stage are performed inside the Central Processing Unit (CPU).The process of producing useful information or results for the user. such as the printer. mouse etc. OS/400. DVD’s. such as Hard disks. Linux. .allocates the processor (CPU) to a process and de-allocates processor when it is no longer required. Windows. what part of it is in use by whom. such as a printed report or visual display.

This is also called an input-output controller that decides which process gets the device.Coordination and assignment of compilers.a software tool that translates source code into data that the computer can understand. Coordination between other software and users . does the corresponding action and informs the operation by a display screen.records delays between request for a service and from the system. Job accounting .Production of dumps.        Device Management . C. Error-detecting aids .is defined as telling a computer what to do through a special set of instructions which are then interpreted by the computer to perform some task(s). Security . The amount of different data types varies between languages. . The object code is then passed through a program called a linker which turns it into an executable program. and for how much time. a compiler is used to turn source code into object code. interpreters. Operating System acknowledges the same. Control over system performance . Algorithms are used extensively in computer programming to arrive at a solution for a problem. A computer goes through a set of steps whose purpose is to achieve something. Interaction with the operators .the actual text used to write the instructions for a computer program.keeps track of all devices. Source code . Computer Programming Fundamentals Computer Programming . and C++. assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems. Specifically.allocates and de-allocates the resources and decides who gets the resources. Typically. Essentialy. The process of creating an algorithm involves documenting all the necessary steps needed to arrive at the solution and how to perform each step. File Management . These steps are instructed to the computer by computer programs. This text is then translated into something meaningful the computer can understand. These instructions can be specified in one or more programming languages including Java. when.prevents unauthorized access to programs and data by means of passwords and similar other techniques. Data type . Programming Concepts:     Algorithm . Compiler .keeps track of time and resources used by various jobs and/or users.a set of steps for carrying out a specific task.The interaction may take place via the console of the computer in the form of instructions. computer programming is the process by which these programs are designed and implemented. there are data types for integers (whole numbers).the classification of pieces of information in a program. traces. error messages and other debugging and error-detecting methods.

Array . to accessing and retrieving data from a database. Loops are used to perform tasks repeatedly a certain amount of times. Conditionals are used to test expressions and perform certain operations accordingly. Can do anything from putting plain text on a webpage.used for creating and editing pages on the web.The core language of the world wide web that is used to define the structure and layout of web pages by using various tags and attributes. but unlike HTML. Constant .a set of code used to carry out specific tasks.the same thing as a variable with one major difference . To distinguish between different data types.       floating-point numbers (numbers with a decimal part). Web Languages . Class . Conditional . and actually. The value of a variable can change all throughout a program.the value of a constant does not change.  Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) . create . HTML is used to specify the content a webpage will contain. There are limitations. while the value of a variable can change all throughout a program.a segment of code that executes repeatedly based on a certain condition.a template for a real world object to be used in a program.a special type of variable used in many programming and web languages including PHP. allows for custom tags that are defined by programmers. and text strings. A function can take parameters which will affect its output as well as return values. and single characters.  Javascript – a language developed by Netscape used to provide dynamic and interactive content on webpages. single characters. Function . and Java that contains a list of related values. not how the page functions. a computer uses special internal codes. Loop .a container which represents a value in a program. XML allows for the transmission of data between applications and organizations through the use of its custom tags. Different Kinds of Programming Languages Not any computer programming language can do anything. Although a fundamental language of the web.content created with it does not change.  Extensible Markup Language (XML) – a language developed by the W3C which works like HTML. The different types of programming languages are as follows: According to Use: 1.a set of code that will execute only if a certain condition is true. Functions prevent unneccesary redundancy because you can use them as much as needed instead of retyping some code over and over. HTML is static . With Javascript it is possible to communicate with HTML. Javascript. Vary greatly in terms of power and complexity. Variables can store different types of data including numeric values. Variable . different languages are used for different tasks.

 C . PHP was originally created in 1994 By Rasmus Lerdorf. Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) . and more. Javascript is often confused with Java. Software languages . Things you can do with Java include interacting with the user.a language developed by Microsoft based on the BASIC language . make calculations. Java is often confused with Javascript. but they are two different languages. interact with the user. and even games. Things you can do with Java include interacting with the advanced programming language used for software application development. The difference between the two languages is that C++ is object-oriented.used for creating executable programs.a powerful and flexible language created by Sun MicroSystems that can be used to create applets (a program that is executed from within another program) that run inside webpages as well as software applications. Visual Basic is used for creating Windows applications. but they are two different languages. creating graphical programs. C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs and is a very popular language for graphical applications. engineering programs. reading from files. and more. validate forms. The VBScript language (also developed by Microsoft) is based on Visual Basic.a language developed by Microsoft that works only in Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser and web browsers based on the Internet Explorer engine such as FlashPeak's Slim Browser. and more. Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript) .  Visual Basic . and more. and form validation.a powerful and flexible language created by Sun MicroSystems that can be used to create applets (a program that is executed from within another program) that run inside webpages as well as software applications. database access. Can create anything from simple console programs that print some text to the screen to entire operating systems.  Java . create calculators. but they are two different languages.  C++ . The UNIX operating system is written in C. Java is often confused with Javascript.a powerful language used for many tasks such as data encryption. VBScript is based on Visual Basic. creating graphical programs. VBScript can be used to print dates. Originally developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the 1970's and designed to be a systems programming language but since then has proven itself to be able to be used for various software applications such as business programs.   animations. reading from files. Vary greatly in terms of power and complexity. but it is much simpler.a descendant of the C language. 2. Java . According to Orientation: .

the languages syntax has become easier to understand and more human-readable.the syntax used in 4GL is very close to human language.are currently being used for neural networks. and C.a type of programming where a structured method of creating programs is used. Fifth generation languages (5GL) . Fourth generation languages (4GL) .a type of programming where data types representing data structures are defined by the programmer as well as their properties and the things that can be done with them. Allow for the use of symbolic names instead of just numbers. Third generation languages are known as "high level languages" and include C. had syntax that was much easier to understand. among others. primitive computer languages that consisted entirely of 1's and 0's . Code written in an assembly language is converted into machine language (1GL). among others. In each generation. C++.1. and Javascript. 4GL languages are typically used to access databases and include SQL and ColdFusion. Second generation languages are known as assembly languages. The Different Generations of Languages There are currently five generations of computer programming languages. Second generation languages (2GL) . Example: C++.represents a step up from from the first generation languages. programmers can also create relationships between data structures and create new data types based on existing ones by having one data type inherit characteristics from another one. a problem is broken up into parts and each part is then broken up into further parts. an improvement from the previous generation of languages. Java. With object-oriented programming. words and commands (instead of just symbols and numbers) were being used. Example: COBOL. Procedure-oriented programming . Java. A nueral network is a form of artifical intelligence that attempts to imitate how the human mind works. .with the languages introduced by the third generation of computer programming. Third generation languages (3GL) . These languages therefore.represents the very early.      First generation languages (1GL) . Object-oriented programming .the actual language that the computer understands (machine language). FORTRAN. With procedure-oriented programming. 2. and PHP.