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com

**Deep Excavation Tie-Back Wall Case History Analysis
**

1

Introduction

**The International Conference on Geotechnical and Geological Engineering was held in Melbourne,
**

Australia in November 2000. The conference is referred to here as GeoEng2000.

At the conference, a series of invited keynote lectures were presented. One of the keynote lectures was

titled, Computing and Computer Modelling in Geotechnical Engineering. This keynote paper was

prepared by J.P. Carter, C.S. Desai, D.M. Potts. H.F. Schweiger and S.W. Sloan. Highlights of the paper

were presented at the conference by John Carter, Challis Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,

University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. (a printed version of the paper is in the conference

proceedings, Volume 1 (Keynote Papers), pages 1157 to1252.

One of the topics of this keynote paper was Validation and Calibration of Computer Simulations. This

section describes some of the work by the German Society for Geotechnics, which has worked on

establishing some benchmark problems for validating numerical analyses. One of the benchmark

examples is about the construction of a tie-back wall for a deep excavation in Berlin.

Part of the numerical validation program included holding a typical analysis competition. Information

about the project was made available to those wishing to model the construction and make a prediction of

the wall performance. The lateral wall deflection was measured with an inclinometer and the main

objective was to see if the analyst could predict the lateral wall deflection. The measured results were not

made available to the analyst until the end of the competition. A total of 15 organizations (universities and

consulting companies) participated.

The objective here is to demonstrate that SIGMA/W can be used to do this type of analysis. More

specifically, the objectives are to:

2

•

**Demonstrate that SIGMA/W has sufficient features and capabilities to simulate the construction
**

sequence.

•

**Illustrate the procedures and techniques that are required to obtain close agreement between the
**

predicted and measured wall deflections.

•

Highlight the key modeling issues in a situation like a tie-back wall with pre-stressed anchors.

Configuration and setup

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the tie-back wall. The natural site conditions consist of sand

throughout, with the water table 3 m below the ground surface.

Basically, the design involves constructing a diaphragm wall, excavating down 16.8 m in four stages and

tying the wall back with three rows of pre-stressed anchors.

SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.docx (pdf) (gsz)

Page 1 of 26

GEO-SLOPE International Ltd, Calgary, Alberta, Canada www.geo-slope.com

Figure 1 Schematic of the Berlin tie-back wall

3

Geometric dimensions

When analyzing a field problem like this, it is usually adequate to round-off the dimensions. For this

analysis, a decision was made to work to the nearest metre. In the context of the accuracy with which the

material properties can be defined, there is no value in refining the dimensions to the nearest tenth of a

metre, for example. Moreover, it is highly unlikely that the contractor can make an excavation exactly to

14.35 m below the ground surface.

Good modeling practice dictates that the problem should not be unnecessarily complicated.

4

Diaphragm Wall

**The properties of the diaphragm wall were specified as:
**

E = 30,000 MPa = 30,000,000 kPa = 3 x 107 kPa (typical of concrete)

Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.15

Unit weight γ = 24 kN/m3

From a SIGMA/W analysis perspective, it is the flexural (bending) stiffness of the wall that is important.

This stiffness is best included as beam elements.

SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.docx (pdf) (gsz)

Page 2 of 26

then the saturated (below water table) unit weight is 20 kN/m3. Either E or A on the right side can be divided by the spacing.75 inches) in diameter. This equals 1500 mm2 or 1. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.0 x 0.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd.7 mm (1. If γw is taken as 10 kN/m3.8 m) I (moment of inertia) = bh3 /12 = 1. 5 Anchor Bars The anchors are steel bars about 43.8 x 1. The difference between the above and below water table unit weights (if indeed there is any) was ignored in this analysis.0 = 0. and (∆L/L) is the strain.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 3 of 26 . Calgary. A total unit weight of 20 kN/m3 was used throughout for the insitu conditions. 6 Soil Properties The soil at this Berlin site is medium dense sand with the following specified properties: Ø’ = 35 degrees γ = 19 kN/m3 Ko = 1 – sin Ø = 1 – sin 35 = 0. If L the anchor force F is to be normalized per unit length of wall (1 unit into the page) then the right side of the equation also needs to be normalized per unit length of wall. in this case metres). Canada www. The pre-stress anchor forces for the SIGMA/W analysis consequently are: Row 1: 334 kN Row 2: 700 kN Row 3: 726 kN The force in a bar relative to the strain is.8 m2 (thickness of wall is 0.43 The submerged unit weight was specified as 10 kN/m3. Alberta. the cross-sectional area A is divided by the spacing. F=E A ΔL where E is the stiffness modulus. E = 2. The horizontal spacing of the anchors along the wall is shown on the diagram in Figure 1Error! Reference source not found. A is the cross-sectional area.3 x 10-2 m4 The difference between the wall and soil unit weight is ignored in the analysis. Any small variations in unit weight are of little consequence in this analysis and approximate values are more than adequate. In this example. the actual pre-stress forces must be specified per unit width of wall. Poisson’s ratio is also not required for a beam type element in SIGMA/W.83 /12 = 4. For a 2-D analysis.geo-slope..5 x 10-3 m2 (all length units in SIGMA/W must be the same.com The parameters for the beam elements are: E = 3 x 107 kPa Cross sectional area = 0.1 x 108 kPa = 210 x 106 kPa = 210 GPa (similar to structural steel). The cross sectional area was specified as 15 cm2. Both sides of the equation need to be divided by the anchor spacing.

The minimum E-modulus near the ground surface is 35.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 4 of 26 . the E-modulus function adopted for this analysis is shown in Figure 3. The suggested Young’s modulus for the sand was: E = 20. and E = 60. Canada www. E (x 1000) kPa 0 200 400 600 0 -10 Depth . Below that. Alberta. A more gradual transition is more likely. Calgary.000 kPa.com The soil stiffness is a critical parameter in this analysis. It is the most difficult parameter to characterize and yet it has the greatest influence on the results. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.000 kPa. The sudden jump in stiffness at the 20 m level seems unrealistic. as illustrated in Figure 2. The maximum value at the base of the problem is 465.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. This is likely not representative of actual conditions.000 x z 0. This represents an increase in stiffness with depth.m -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 Figure 2 Specified variation of soil stiffness (E) with depth While some information was provided on the soil stiffness properties. the E-modulus transitions to the stiffer sand at depth. including other published results and experiences from other similar projects. The distribution is a function of the overburden. it was the intention that the competition participants would exercise their judgment as to appropriate values.5 (square root) for the first 20 m below the ground surface. The competition criteria did not require that the analysts use the values suggested. and then increases with depth (overburden) to about 20 m (400 kPa) below the ground surface. Some data was presented to the competition participants but the analysts were free to use and judge any data and information available to them.5 below the top 20 m. With the above as a guide.000 x z 0.geo-slope.

Alberta. The likely purpose is to prevent water from flowing up into the excavation. then it can be assumed that the ground behind the wall remains saturated and the water table elevation does not change. Calgary. the equivalent ν is equal to 0.000 kPa. 8 Initial insitu stresses One of the key issues in an analysis like this is the initial insitu stress state. Canada www. Ko = ν (1 −ν ) Ko can be estimated from K o = 1 − sin φ ′ For φ’ = 35 degrees Ko = 0. the hydraulic barrier is assumed to have a constant E-modulus of 100. The water table is only lowered inside the excavation.43. The wall performance is strongly related to the pressures the wall needs to retain.43 and for Ko equal to 0. The first step therefore is to do an Insitu-type of analysis. This is a key assumption when it comes to determining the pressure on the wall. In SIGMA/W the earth pressure at rest Ko is control through Poisson’s ratio ν.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 5 of 26 .GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. If this is true.geo-slope. and this is directly related to the stresses in the ground before construction starts.com E-modulus 500000 Total E-Modulus (kPa) 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Y-Total Stress (kPa) Figure 3 Soil stiffness (E) as a function of the overburden stress 7 Hydraulic barrier The purpose of the hydraulic barrier is not clear from the information provided. Recall that for a 2-D planestrain analysis. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. In this analysis.3.

This edge-effect is inherent in 4-noded elements.43 = 271 kPa The total horizontal stress should be 271 + (10kN/m3 x 57) = 841 kPa Both match the values at the bottom of the graphs in Figure 4. Initial stress profile 60 50 50 40 40 Y (m) Y (m) Initial stress profile 60 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 X-Total Stress (kPa) 0 50 100 150 200 250 X-Effective Stress (kPa) Figure 4 Total and effective horizontal stress profiles The effective stress profile near the ground surface curves to the right. In other words. it is the total stress that acts behind the wall after excavation. At the bottom. It does not have any significant affect on the numerical results. This separate dewatering step is not included in this analysis here.com The total unit weight is 20 kN/m3. Figure 4 shows the horizontal (x) total and effective stresses along a vertical profile. and the water table is 3 m below the ground surface. This is due to the negative porepressures (suction) above the water table. the effective stress profile bends back (stress becomes less). it will be assumed for analysis purposes that the dewatering will be such that the water table is always at the excavation level. even though this was not the procedure used during the actual construction. The excavation process is simulated in a finite element analysis by applying forces on the excavation face equal but in the opposite direction to. By removing the total stress. It is the total stress that goes to zero on the excavation face. Canada www. This is due to the use of 4-noded quadrilateral elements and constant stress and porepressure in the elements.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 6 of 26 .9 m before removing any soil.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. It is not trivial to simulate dewatering from a stress change point of view and the effect is relatively small on the overall lateral movement of the wall. Calgary. The unit weight of water is rounded-off to10 kN/m3. The competition participants were asked to simulate the dewatering down to 17.geo-slope. the excavation process removes both the soil and water at the same time. Alberta. 9 Simulation of excavation process During the excavation. the excavation simulation accounts for both the soil pressure and the water pressure. The effective horizontal stress at the bottom of the profile should be approximately: (20 kN/m3 x 60 – 10kN/m3 x 57) x 0. The effort involved SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. Stated another way. the forces present before removing the soil.

considering the dewatering to take place as excavation proceeds is closer to what actually happens during the construction. Figure 6 shows the same profile if the water table is ignored in the insitu analysis. The total pressure acting along the top 17 m of the wall prior to making the excavation is shown in Figure 5. Calgary.com is not warranted in this case. Canada www.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 7 of 26 .GEO-SLOPE International Ltd.geo-slope. Furthermore. the shoring system will be subject to this pressure. Initial stress profile 60 58 56 Y (m) 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 0 50 100 150 200 250 X-Total Stress (kPa) Figure 5 The total lateral pressure profile at the wall location when the water table is included SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. Once the soil has been removed on the left. Alberta. Note that the pressure is substantially less. The reason for asking the competition participants to do this initial dewatering step is not clear considering its minor effect on the wall lateral movement.

It is of interest that the sum of the anchor pre-stress forces is close to the total wall force represented by the above pressure diagram.com Initial stress profile 60 58 56 Y (m) 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 0 50 100 150 X-Total Stress (kPa) Figure 6 The total lateral pressure profile at the wall location when the water table is not included The area under the curves in the above two figures is an approximation of the total lateral force that will act on the shoring system. Alberta. as noted earlier. The application of the excavation boundary conditions is illustrated in Figure 7 when the soil between Elevation 50 and 47 is removed.geo-slope. and how the pore-pressure affects the lateral pressure on the wall. the total force represented by the wall pressure is 1870 kN. When the water table is included. Canada www.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 8 of 26 . Viewing these pressure diagrams provides a good reference picture for later interpreting and judging the results. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. The total lateral stress along the profile of the wall as given in Figure 5 follows a hydrostatic distribution. The sum of the anchor pre-stress forces per metre of wall is 1760 kN. Calgary. This illustrates how the effect of the groundwater comes into the analysis. the rate of increase is specified as -13. One y-stress boundary condition represents the removal of 3 m. and the other represents a removal of 2 m. the total force is about 1870 kN per metre of wall (into the page). pulling on the wall.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. then the rate of increase is about 13 kPa per metre with depth. This information is used in the SIGMA/W boundary condition that represents the removal of the insitu lateral stress acting on the wall. the negative sign indicates that the stress is. without the water table in the insitu analysis the total force is around 1230 kN. (It would be interesting know whether the designers gave this consideration when the anchor system was established). In SIGMA/W. If we assume that the pressure distribution is linear. The pressure at the 43-m level is 220 kPa. we should expect relative small wall displacements. The unloading at the base of the excavation is simulated with a y-pressure boundary condition. This being the case. in essence.

This second alternative works well for excavations with inclined side slopes – it does not work as well for cases with a vertical wall where there are high stress concentration at the base corners of the of the excavation.geo-slope.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 9 of 26 . Using specified boundary conditions as described above is the recommended procedure. Canada www. Calgary.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. The other procedure is to allow SIGMA/W to compute the excavation forces based on the stress state in the ground before the soil is removed.com 60 55 50 45 Figure 7 An illustration of the applied excavation boundary conditions SIGMA/W has two procedures for simulating the removal of soil. where the excavation forces are applied as specific boundary conditions. Alberta. It is for this reason that the second alternative is not recommended for use in a case like a tie-back wall. One procedure is as used here in this example. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.

The details can be viewed and studied by opening the related data file.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 10 of 26 95 100 .m Figure 8 The Berlin tie-back wall configuration 11 Analysis steps The analysis steps are: Step 1: Establish the insitu stress state conditions Step 2: Excavate 3 m down to 57 (depth 3 m) Step 3: Excavate 2 m down to 55 m (depth 5 m) Step 4: Install and pre-stress the upper anchor Step 5: Excavate 3 m down to 52 (depth 8 m) Step 6: Excavate 2 m down to 50 (depth 10 m) Step 7: Install and pre-stress the middle anchor Step 8: Excavate 3 m down to 47 (depth 13 m) Step 9: Excavate 2 m down to 45 (depth 15 m) SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. Canada www. Calgary.geo-slope. 60 55 50 45 40 Elevation .m 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Distance .com 10 Problem configuration Figure 8 shows the problem configuration used in the analysis. Alberta.

Interface elements are used on either side of the beam representing the diaphragm wall. Although time does not come into the actual analysis.com Step 10: Install and pre-stress the lower anchor Step 11: Excavate 2 m down to 43 (depth 17 m) The next diagram shows the SIGMA/W analysis tree.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. Each analysis is given a duration of one day.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 11 of 26 . Calgary. as illustrated in Figure 9. Figure 9 Illustration of the interface elements on either side of the wall (beam) SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. Alberta. the time is specified to give the steps some order and to plot results across all the analyses.geo-slope. Canada www.

geo-slope. more than twice the force removed. Canada www. Alberta. Moreover. This is better practically and numerically. steps and boundary conditions without complicating the analysis with numerical convergence issues. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. 12 Starting linear-elastic analysis In a case like this it is always good modeling practice to start with a linear-elastic analysis. Referring back to the lateral pressure diagram in figure. In fact. This represents the lateral force on the wall by removing the first 5 m. These elements make it possible to allow for some slippage between the wall and the soil. as opposed to a very thin slip surface. the pressure at the 5-m depth is about 50 kPa. As a minimum. however. In this case the interface material is treated as an elastic-plastic material with a reduced strength. The area under the pressure diagram is around 50/2*5 = 125 kN. Removing the first 3 m. the wall moves out (to the left) and then moves further out when the next 2 m are excavated (Day 2). the trends should be acceptable using linear-elastic properties. Note that the interface is treated as a relatively thin slip zone. This is rather curious at first. something like a thin zone of elastic-plastic material with a reduced strength is a better option. then it is highly unlikely that it will be possible to get a reasonable solution using elasticplastic properties. the wall is pulled back beyond the initial position. SIGMA/W also has ‘slip elements. This makes it possible to sort out all procedures. It is always good to remember that if it is not possible to achieve a reasonable solution using linear-elastic soil properties. Calgary. is 334 kN.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. When the upper anchor is pre-stressed.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 12 of 26 .com The interaction between the wall and the soil is modeled with interface elements in SIGMA/W. the wall is pulled back. This is the reason why the wall is being pulled to the right beyond the initial starting position. The use of the slip elements is not recommended in a case like this. it is unlikely that a paper-thin slip surface would actually form in the field – a thin slip zone is much more likely. 13 Computed Lateral Displacements Figure 10 shows the lateral displacements for the first two excavation stages and the installation of the upper anchor. but is logical when the pre-stress force is compared with the lateral confining force removed by excavating the upper 5 m. The actual displacements may not be all that accurate but the trends should be correct. The pre-stress force.’ These elements tend to be numerically unstable in a case like this where forces pull on the wall to simulate the excavation process. It also provides a good reference point against which to judge the final results. in reality.

Canada www. Calgary.001 0. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. Alberta.com Lateral displacements 60 55 Y (m) 50 45 40 35 30 25 -0.002 -0.33681e-019 -0.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd.002 0.004 -0.geo-slope.001 0.003 X-Displacement (m) Figure 10 Lateral wall deflections resulting from two excavations and the pre-stress of the upper anchor The wall then again moves out (left) as the next two excavation stages take place and then is again pulled back when the middle anchor is pre-stressed on Day 6.005 -0. as shown in Figure 11.003 -4.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 13 of 26 .

Alberta. The maximum displacement actually occurs before the lower anchor is installed (Day 8).com Lateral displacements 60 55 3 day Y (m) 50 45 4 day 40 5 day 35 6 day 30 25 X-Displacement (m) Figure 11 Lateral wall deflections for three excavations and the pre-stress of the middle anchor Figure 12 shows the wall deflections for the last four stages.geo-slope. Calgary.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 14 of 26 . SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. The maximum computed displacement is around 18 mm and occurs just below the base of the final excavation elevation (y-coordinate = 43). Canada www.

GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. that there is little yielding. The strength properties used are c=10 kPa (mostly for numerical stability purposes) and phi=35 degrees. It is reasonable. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.018 -0. Figure 13 shows the wall deflections for the last four stages when elastic-plastic properties are used.006 -0. Canada www. 14 Elastic-plastic soil properties Having obtained reasonable results using linear-elastic properties for the sand.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 15 of 26 .014 -0. Alberta.02 -0. it is encouraging to note that the trends in the deflected wall shape and maximum displacement are not unlike what was measured.004 X-Displacement (m) Figure 12 Lateral wall deflections for two excavations. Calgary. Comparing Figure 13 with Figure 12 above reveals that that there is virtually no difference between a linear-elastic and an elastic-plastic analysis. considering that the displacements and strains are small and that the anchor forces are essentially equivalent to the total lateral stress removed from the wall.geo-slope.012 -0. as will be discussed in more detail below. it was decided to move on to repeating the analysis using elastic-plastic properties for the sand.016 -0. This is logical. pre-stress of the lower anchor and the last excavation At this stage.com Lateral displacements 60 55 7 day Y (m) 50 45 8 day 40 9 day 35 10 day 30 25 -0.01 -0. The same parameters are used for the interface material. therefore.008 -0.022 -0.

018 -0.004 X-Displacement (m) Figure 13 Lateral wall deflections when using linear-elastic soil properties but no reduced strength for the interface material 15 Slip along wall It is difficult to imagine that there will be slippage between the wall and surrounding soil. Canada www.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd.006 -0.014 -0.01 -0. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.008 -0. an analysis was done where the interface material was given a lower strength and a lower E-modulus.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 16 of 26 . considering the movements are so small.000 kPa. Alberta.com Lateral displacements 60 55 7 day Y (m) 50 45 8 day 40 9 day 35 10 day 30 25 -0. Calgary. The phi value was reduced to 25 degrees and the E-modulus was set at a constant 10. This results in a slight off-set in the vertical displacement in the lower corner of the excavation. Nonetheless.geo-slope. as shown in Figure 14.02 -0.016 -0.022 -0.012 -0. This has the effect of creating a softer interface material than the surrounding soil.

Comparing this with previous figures reveals that the lateral displacements are slightly larger – about 3 mm. Calgary.004 X-Displacement (m) Figure 15 Lateral wall deflection when interface elements with a reduced stiffness and strength are used SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd.com Figure 14 Off-set of the upward movement on either side of the wall when interface elements with a reduced strength are used Figure 15 shows the wall deflection profiles when the interface material is given softer properties.012 -0.014 -0.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 17 of 26 .008 -0.016 -0. Lateral displacements 60 55 7 day Y (m) 50 45 8 day 40 9 day 35 10 day 30 25 -0.geo-slope.022 -0.01 -0. Canada www. Alberta.018 -0.006 -0.02 -0.

Most of the scatter can be attributed to the adopted soil stiffness properties.geo-slope. The maximum deflection is just over 20 mm and occurs at about mid-height of the wall. 10 m below the ground surface. Even the 11 best predictions presented in Figure 16 show considerable scatter.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. At the top of the wall. Canada www. the deflection is about 10 mm.com 16 Competition results Figure 16 shows the best predictions presented by the competition participants. Alberta. Of further interest is the fact that many of the competition participants used the same commercially available computer code and used the same constitutive soil model. Calgary. Superimposed on Figure 16 is the actual measured wall deflection. This further demonstrates that the predictions are very closely tied to the specified soil properties and not so much to the software and associated constitutive model. Three other predictions showed much larger lateral deflections – up to 225 mm. Figure 16 The published completion results and actual measured deflection profile SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. These are not included in the figure.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 18 of 26 .

Canada www. Most of the competition deflection profiles have a shape not unlike that of the measured profile.geo-slope. The SIGMA/W computed deflection at the ground surface is 10 mm.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 19 of 26 . the SIGMA/W deflection profile is remarkably close to the actual measured profile. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. For the measured profile to show zero displacement at the base makes one think that that the inclinometer data was not corrected for base movement. for all practical purposes. 17 SIGMA/W comparison Figure 17 compares the measured wall deflection with the SIGMA/W computed deflections upon completion of the excavation. Alberta. The maximum lateral deflection is in essence identical – just over 20 mm. or was the inclinometer data not corrected for possible movement at the bottom? Most of the computed profiles in Figure 16 show some displacement at the base. If the inclinometer data was corrected for base movement. Did the wall base actually not move. Of more significance than the magnitude of the displacement is the shape of the deflection profile. in the measured deflection profile. identical. In the context of all the parameters involved and the accuracy with which the soil properties can be characterized. All factors considered. which also matches the measured deflection. The reason for this is unknown.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. which is what often happens in cases like this. particularly the shape of the profile. the difference is only about 7 mm. Calgary. then the measured displacement profile may be shifted to the left slightly and fall more in the middle of the computed results in Figure 16. the value is zero at the bottom of the wall.com It is interesting to note that. the computed and measure profiles are. At the base of the excavation the SIGMA/W deflection is somewhat higher than the indicated measurement.

0 Wall displacement ‐ mm Figure 17 Final measured and SIGMA/W-computed deflection profiles Figure 18 shows the SIGMA/W computed deflection profile on the published information discussed earlier.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 20 of 26 . Still. Calgary.0 ‐20. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.geo-slope. It could be argued that this is not surprising. the SIGMA/W deflections are close to the measured values. Canada www. the SIGMA/W results and profile fall within the range presented by others.0 ‐10.com Measured Computed 60 55 Elevation ‐ m 50 45 40 35 30 ‐30. since the measured profile was known prior to doing the SIGMA/W analysis. Moreover. Alberta. Once again.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. the SIGMA/W profile shows the best match with the measured deflection profile amongst all the other deflection profiles presented by the competition participants.0 0. and is as good or better than the others.

com Figure 18 SIGMA/W-computed deflections relative to the completion results 18 Wall bending moments A key component in the design of a retaining wall like this is the maximum bending moments. Calgary. This is an illustration of the type of data available from this type of SIGMA/W analysis.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. Canada www.geo-slope. Alberta.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 21 of 26 . Figure 19 shows the bending moment variations during the construction of the shoring system.

Canada www. Alberta.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd.com Moment 60 55 Y (m) 50 45 40 35 30 25 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 Moment (kN-m) Figure 19 Wall bending moments Moment 60 55 Y (m) 50 8 day 45 9 day 40 35 10 day 30 25 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 Moment (kN-m) Figure 20 Wall bending moments for the last four construction stages SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall.geo-slope.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 22 of 26 . Calgary.

1 m (100 mm). but then decreases as the middle anchor is pre-stressed. The middle and lower anchor exhibit similar behavior. the force in the bar is close to the initial design pre-stress force. 19 Forces in Anchors Figure 21 shows the forces in the free (unbonded) length of the upper anchor. not evident at the actual site.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 23 of 26 . The force in the bar increases as the next two layers are excavated. of course. In the exaggerated view. as exhibited in Figure 20. and again slightly decreases when the lower anchor is prestressed. Canada www. Then the tension in the bar again increases as the excavation proceeds. since the excavators keep removing materials to the design elevation. Basically. The maximum at the excavation base is only about 0. The maximum moment occurs on Day 8. the movement results from rebound due to the unloading. but in actual fact it is relatively small.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. Alberta. The rebound along the excavation base is. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. Calgary. Bar -320 -330 Axial Force (kN) -340 -350 -360 -370 -380 -390 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (day) Figure 21 Forces in the upper anchor 20 Surface movements Figure 22 shows the movement (exaggerated 20x) of the soil outside the excavation. Again the important response demonstrated here is that the force in the bars varies during the construction sequencing and the maximum may not occur at the end of the excavation. it looks like the rebound is significant.geo-slope. The starting force is -334 kN (negative indicates tension) which is the pre-stress.com Of considerable significance is the observation that the maximum moments do not occur when the last material is excavated. Finally. not on Day 10 when the last material is removed. This is typical of this type of shoring system.

Figure 22 Surface movements In the case of a carefully constructed diaphragm wall where there is likely little or no loss of ground behind the wall. there may indeed be a slight amount of rebound outside of the wall. it is reasonable that the soil will rebound when it is unloaded. however. but in the field it may be too small to be noticeable.com Of more significance and interest is the rebound of the ground surface just outside of the wall. The modeling unfortunately cannot capture this aspect of the shoring behavior. As a very broad principle in this industry. Ignoring the up base uplift.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. there may be some settlement before the lagging picks up the load.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 24 of 26 . a major concern is the settlement that often occurs behind the retaining wall. results in a deflection profile that does not match the measured deflection. more expensive shoring systems like diaphragm walls are used in cases where settlement outside the wall is a major concern. Less expensive systems like piles with lagging are used when settlement is less of a concern. From a modeling perspective. Alberta. Furthermore. The analysis results seem to suggest that it is not an issue. Canada www. The point is that the potential for settlement is related to the shoring system behavior and the installation procedures. the results should not be dismissed because of the small rebound behind the wall. it is necessary to consider the base rebound. Upon further reflection. however. where portions of the excavation face are exposed for a period of time before the lagging is installed. To match the measured deflection. The apparent uplift is not evident in the numerical results if the excavation base upward pressure relief is ignored in the analysis. At a first glance. slack in the system. This can be particularly problematic in a pile-lagging system. Calgary. as discussed below. that is. it would seem that the numerical model has not provided the correct response. Usually. indicating it should not be ignored.geo-slope. The results related to aspects like lateral deflections and structural stresses are useful in the shoring design. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. Why does the modeling not match the observed field behavior? One aspect of shoring wall construction that the modeling does not capture is the loss of ground behind the wall.

The actual wall deflection will be directly related to the soil properties specified.008 -0. It is essential to obtain a reasonable solution from a linear-elastic analysis before moving onto a non-linear analysis. then it is highly unlikely you will obtain a reasonable solution using non-linear properties. ignoring the uplift forces related to removing the soil results in significantly different deflection profiles. and that the vertical uplift forces can be ignored.018 -0. This mismatch indicates that it is important and essential to include the uplift along the excavation base.006 -0.016 -0.012 -0.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 25 of 26 . 22 Concluding remarks The two most important aspects of an analysis like this are: • The numerical modeling techniques and procedures. but the shape does not match the measured wall deflection as shown earlier in Figure 15. The material properties could be adjusted until a good agreement SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. since it does not involve convergence difficulties associated with non-linear constitutive relationships.004 -0.002 0 X-Displacement (m) Figure 23 Wall deflection profiles when the base excavation uplift is ignored The magnitudes of the deflections are less. However. A solution is always available. it was possible to obtain good agreement between the measured and computed wall deflection because the actual deflections were known ahead of time.014 -0. In this case.geo-slope. Based on the deflection profiles presented by the competition participants as shown in Figure 16 on the left side of the plot. Lateral displacements 60 55 Y (m) 50 7 days 45 8 days 40 9 days 35 10 days 30 25 -0.01 -0. The numerical modeling techniques and procedures should be developed using linear-elastic properties. as illustrated in Figure 23. it appears that some of them may have only applied the lateral unloading forces and ignored the base uplift forces. Alberta. Canada www. If you cannot obtain a reasonable solution using linear-elastic properties. Calgary.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. and • The soil properties.com 21 Without the uplift on excavation base It could be argued that only the removal of the lateral insitu forces on the wall are important in the wall behavior.

Calgary. It is always important to start simple and then move to the complex. especially in a case like a tie-back wall. as it is in getting the correct shape and form of the deflection. Canada www. If it is deemed necessary. The value in modeling a case like this is not so much in predicting the exact magnitude of the wall deflections. the computed predictions are only as good as the certainty with which the soil properties can be defined. such an advanced analysis should only be done after obtaining reasonable results using a linear-elastic analysis. of course. for example. SIGMA/W Example File: Berlin tie-back wall. In actual project work this is. not the case. Being able to predict the correct shape and form of the wall deflection infers a good understanding of the wall behavior and the key issues in the wall performance. The need for and value of using more sophisticated non-linear constitutive relationships are questionable in a case like this.GEO-SLOPE International Ltd. and the analysis results must always be interpreted in this context.docx (pdf) (gsz) Page 26 of 26 .com was obtained. This makes it possible to create a model with. the correct boundary conditions and loading sequences without having to deal with convergence. Alberta. This analysis demonstrates that SIGMA/W has all the features and capabilities necessary to simulate the staged construction of a tie-back retaining wall with pre-stressed anchors.geo-slope. In the end.

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