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# Port Performance

I. BERTH PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
Calculate what?
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Ship’s waiting time
Ships’ time in port

Their usage?
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To utilize berths in the port
To avoid delays to the ship
To optimize port capital and resource

Main berth performance indicators:
1. Berth Throughput (BT)
2. Waiting Time (WT)
3. Service Time (ST)
4. Time in Port
5. Grade of Waiting (GW)
6. Berth Occupancy Ratio
7. Berth Working Time Ratio
(1) Berth Throughput:
BT = Total units handled in a period of time (usually a year)
RO-RO berths: BT= Total vehicles (cars, trailers/ trucks…) or rolls/ year on the berth concerned
Container berths: BT= Total TEU/ year on the berth concerned
Bulk or general cargo berths: BT= Total tonnes/ year on the berth concerned
(2) Waiting Time:
The time a ship waiting for an available berth.
The delay between a ship’s arrival in the port and its tying up at the berth.
Waiting Ratio=

Time waiting for a berth
Service Time

Service time is the time the ship stays at the berth whether it works or not.

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However. all adequate service points had been occupied so the ship had to wait for an available berth until 5:00 am on the next day and then started loading.4 (3) Service Time: The time a ship staying at a berth whether it is working or not. Two ships leave the berth right after finishing their discharging. It finished loading work at 6:00 am in Nov 26th and was allowed to leave the berth 1hour later. with 4 hrs handling.5:00 am of Nov 24th): WT = 20 hrs Service time (5:00 am of Nov 24th – 7:00 am of Nov 26th): ST = 50 hrs 20 Waiting Ratio ¿ 50 =0. From the first line to ashore to the time the last line is let go.m. Ship A is served at the berth as soon as it arrives at the port at 1 p.1. Ship B arrives at the port at 2 p. Question: Determine Waiting Ratio for the ship.m. At 9:00 am. with handling time of 10 hrs. Solution: Waiting time (9:00 am of Nov 23rd .1 is not long enough to serve two ships at one time and the port operates 24hrs a day. assuming that Amsterdam Port operates 24 hours a day. a container ship arrived at Amsterdam Port to load the cargo. Solution: ST of Ship A = 10 hrs ST of Ship B = 4 hrs Service Time Ratio ¿ 10+ 4 =7 (hrs ) 2 (4) Time in Port/ Turnaround time: 2 . Question: Determine Service Time Ratio for Berth no. the ship arrived at the port. ( Average) Service Time Ratio= Cumulated Service Time Total Number of Ships Task: There are two incoming ships A and B to Berth no. assuming that the length of Berth no.1 for discharging cargo.Task: In Nov 23rd 2005.

219 ═ 21.750 ═ 0.750 hrs respectively. Ship B arrives at the port at 2 p.000 3 . with handling time of 10 hrs.1.m. Solution: Ship A: WTA + STA = 0 + 10 = 10 (hrs) Ship B: WTB + STB = 9 + 4 = 13 (hrs) Turnaround Ratio ¿ 10+13 =11. Question: Determine Turnaround Time Ratio for Berth no. with 4 hrs handling.The total time the ship spends in the port from arrival at the port to final departure ( Average ) Turnaround Ratio= Cumulated WT + ST Total Number of Ships Task: There are two incoming ships A and B to Berth no.1 for discharging cargo. Two ships leave the berth right after finishing their discharging.9 8. Question: a) Determine Grade of Waiting Ratio for Port X b) Evaluate the quality of Port X Solution: a) GW Ratio= 1.5(hrs ) 2 (5) Grade of Waiting: The comparison of the waiting time with the service time GW Ratio= Cumulated Waiting Time Cumulated Service Time 10% is acceptable Lower is better Task: In 2000. assuming that the berth is not long enough to serve two ships at one time and the port operates 24 hours a day.000 and 1. Ship A is served at the berth as soon as it arrives at the port at 1 p.m. Port X has cumulated Service Time and cumulated Waiting Time as 8.

5 hrs to repair.m.b) Port X is considered as an inefficient one with GW rate of 21. HANDLING OPERATION INDICATORS 4 .760 Task: In 2007. and started unloading the cargo.m.856 ═ 8.. Question: Determine Berth Working Time Ratio Solution: Total Service Time (4 a. the unloading crane was broken down and spent 1. The vessel finished unloading at 5 p.65 ═ 13 65% II.m. Because of the rainfall from 7 a.9% (6) Berth Occupancy Ratio: Berth Occupancy Ratio shows the level of demand for port services Berth Occupancy Ratio= Total Service Time Hours ∈aYear Hours in a Year: 8.) = 13 (hrs) Total Time Worked = 13 – 3 – 1.500 hrs.5 (hrs) Berth Working Time Ratio= 8.m. the total number of hours Berth X occupied was 7.5 = 8.m.m.. Question: Determine Berth Occupancy Ratio for Berth X in 2007 Solution: Berth Occupancy Ratio= 7. the vessel had to stop temporarily and then continued working.5 ═ 0.m.500 ═ 0. to 10 a.760 85. – 5 p.6% (7) Berth Working Time Ratio: The number of hours during which a ship is worked in port during the Total Service time on the berth Relating to the quality of services to ships Reasons for the idle time? Berth WorkingTime Ratio= Total Time Worked Total Service Time Task: A vessel arrived at the berth at 4 a. At 2 p. on the same day.

.1:30 p. .m.m. and then started loading the cargo.350 tonnes of the cargo.m. waited for a free berth until 7 a. After loading totally 1. the ship was let go at 5 p.m..Three Input resources for handling operations - Ship/ Shore Handling Equipment Yard Transfer Equipment Labor Force (1) Ship Output.2 = 10 hrs Total hours worked = 10 – 4 = 6 hrs Port SO = Berth SO = 1.5 tonnes/hr = 135 tonnes/hr 5 .m.350 10 = 112.m.350 tonnes Total hours in port (5 a. on the same day.5 p.350 12 1.) = 12 hrs Total hours on berth = 12.m.SO: - The rate at which the cargo is handled to and from a vessel - Showing how good the cargo handling operations are - Three Ship Output indicators: • Working Ship Output (WSO) • Berth Ship Output (BSO) ¿ • Port Ship Output (PSO) ¿ Total tonnagehandled Total hours ∈ port ¿ Total tonnagehandled Total hours worked Total tonnagehandled Total hours on berth Task: In the first week of January ship arrived at the port at 5 a. The crane was broken down from 9:30 a. Question: a) Determine Port Ship Output b) Determine Berth Ship Output c) Determine Working Ship Output Solution: Total tonnage handled = 1.

1 on the same day with the following information: Number of Gangs Ship Working hours Tonnage handled 02 X 16 1.200+1.5 (tonnes/gang/hr) = 3 (gangs) (3) Utilization Ratios: The effectiveness of resource utilization Number of worked hours Rate of Utilization of Cranes ¿ Number of available hours Number of man hours worked Rate of Utilization of Workers ¿ Number of man hours available 6 .200 04 Y 10 1.000 2 x 16+ 4 x 10+3 x 12 Average Number of Gangs/Ship = 9 3 = 43.500 03 Z 12 2.000 Question: Determine Average Output/Gang/Hour and Average Number of Gangs/Ship? Solution: Average Gang Output = 1.GO: What does ‘gang’ mean? • Tonnage handled Average Output/Gang/Hour ¿ Total gang x hours worked • Average Number of Gangs/Ship ¿ Total number of gangs Number of ships Task: The table shows the gangs used to handle the cargo in Port no.350 6 = 225 tonnes/hr (2) Gang Output.500+2.Working SO = 1.

assuming that its total available time for use is 147 hrs/week and the time it actually operates to handle the cargo is 86 hrs/week. Working Hours Ratio = Number of non−coordinated hours 24 hrs Task: Fill the blanks: 7 .2 days IV. STORAGE OPERATION INDICATORS Average Dwell Time: Dwell Time is the time that the cargo stays in the port (yard/ shed/ CFS…). Average DT = Total Tonnage x dwell time Total Tonnage stored per day Task: Containerized Cargo TEU Dwell time at CFS (days) X 20 6 Y 35 3 Z 30 10 Question: Determine Average Dwell Time Average DT = 20 x 6+35 x 3+30 x 10 20+35+30 = 6. Dwell Time determines the space required.59 = 59% III.Task: Calculate Utilization Rate of the crane in Port X. Solution: Rate of Utilization of Crane = 86 147 = 0. QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS (1) Working Hours Ratio: The co-ordination of all administrative and operational port service Need to reach a simultaneous working schedule for all services and departments.

Service Opening hours Non-coordinated hours Tugs/ pilots 06:00 – 22:00 ? Handling 00:00 – 24:00 ? Customs clearance 08:00 – 18:00 ? Delivery/ receipt 06:00 – 20:00 ? Port office 07:00 – 17:00 ? Total ? Working hour Ratio ? Solution: Service Opening hours Non-coordinated hours Tugs/ pilots 06:00 – 22:00 08 hrs Handling 00:00 – 24:00 0 hr Customs clearance 08:00 – 18:00 14 hrs Delivery/ receipt 06:00 – 20:00 10 hrs Port office 07:00 – 17:00 12 hrs Total 46 hrs Working hour Ratio = 46/24 (2) Punctuality Ratio: The port’s ability to respect the forecasted times and schedules as plan The ratio is the difference between planned and actual arrival and departure times and the number of ship calls made. Punctuality Ratio = Total delayed×¿ Number of ship calls ¿ 8 .

Annual Max Berth Capacity = tonnes/service hour x 24 hours x 365days x maximum occupancy ratio x number of berths Cargo-type and packing methods influence a berth’s capacity: Type of packing Gang output (tonnes/gang-hour) Cases and boxes 12-15 Bags 20-25 9 . Question: Determine Punctuality Ratio Solution: 10 75 Punctuality Ratio = = 13. Total delayed times of these calls is 10. BERTH CAPACITY Annual Maximum Berth Capacity: 1. U. Port X had to stop working temporarily. Port had 75 ship calls. Tonnes/service hour = tonnes/ship-worked hour x worked hour/service time 3.S.3% (3) Reliability Ratio: Popular factors affecting the reliability of a port? Reliability Ratio = Number of effective days worked Number of scheduled working days Task: In 2005. Tonnes/ship-worked hr = tonnes/gang-worked hr x average number of gangs/ship 2. Because of 2 strikes lasting for 28 days and 10 days respectively.Task: During the first month of 2013. Port X has total scheduled working days of 350 days. Question: Determine Reliability Ratio of Port X Solution: Reliability Ratio = 350 – (28+10) 350 = 89% V.

6m3/ton.74 x 6 = 1.400.000 Task: In Port X. Maximum berth occupancy ratio: 74% Question: Calculate the maximum capacity of the terminal for general cargo Solution: Tonnes/Ship/worked hour = 20 x 3 = 60 tonnes Tonnes/Service hour = 60 x 0.198. there are 6 berths in the general cargo terminal with the followings: Tons/gang/worked hour: 20 tonnes.Pre-slung bags 40-50 Pallets 25-40 Containerized cargo: Gantry crane 200-250 Ship crane 120-150 RO RO 300-500 Dry bulk 1. Port X throughput is 2.4 tonnes for the 6 berth terminal VI.000 tons. Stowage Factor of the cargo in Port X is 1. Number of gangs/Ship: 3 gangs.000.6 = 36 tonnes Annual Maximum Berth Capacity = 36 x 24 x 365 x 0. Total Dwell time of the cargo is 100 days. STORAGE CAPACITY Storage Capacity: Storage Capacity = tons throughput / year x Stowage Factor x dwell time 365 What is Dwell time? What is Stowage Factor? Task: In 2012. Worked time/Service time: 60%. 10 .

712 tonnes 11 .6 365 = 876.Question: Calculate the Storage Capacity of Port X Solution: Storage Capacity = 2.000.000 x 100 x 1.