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Ladder Logic Programming Tutorials

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Bit Instructions
Tags And Constants

The CIP series includes nine step-by-step videos that


demonstrate the CIP process while creating the program
that makes it work using ladder logic. CIP is an acronym for

Ladder Logic Rungs


Hello World, so what is Ladder Logic?

Clean In Place. CIP is an industry standard which is used in


processing and manufacturing plants globally. Clean In
Place means just that; automatically clean without
disassembling various components such as valves, tanks,
screens and other peripheral devices.
The CIP series is broken down into nine easily digestible video tutorials that step
through creating a simple yet working CIP sequnce. To get the most out of the series
start with tutorial one and follow along with the tutorials. If you dont have a copy of
RSLogix 5000 click here to get a copy. The lite version has some limitations,
however it will work just fine to follow along with the tutorials.
Tutorial 1
Tutorial 2
Tutorial 3
Tutorial 4
Tutorial 5
Tutorial 6
Tutorial 7
Tutorial 8
Tutorial 9

Ladder Programming Tutorial 1 of the CIP Series


T HE L ADDER L OGIC L IST
Ladder Logic Basics
Ladder Logic Bit Instructions
Ladder Logic Comparison Instructions

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Ladder Logic Conversion Instructions


Ladder Logic Counter Instructions
Ladder Logic File Instructions
Ladder Logic File Shift Instructions
Ladder Logic For Break Instructions
Ladder Logic Instructions
Ladder Logic Math Instructions
Ladder Logic Program Control
Ladder Logic Special Instructions
Ladder Logic Timer Instructions
Ladder Logic Tutorials

The first video in the tutorial walks through creating a project using RSLogix 5000
software. The project is created using version 20 of the software. You can get a free
lite version of the software here which will enable you to follow along. The free

Move / Logical Instructions


Uncategorized

software is version 17; however any version will do, newer or older.
In this first tutorial we will create some Boolean tags which will serve as our inputs
and outputs. In our case the I/O tags will communicate with an HMI program.
The HMI Program will be a graphical representation of our CIP_Tank, Valves,
Pump, Agitator, Start and Cancel buttons. The ladder logic will actuate all the
peripheral equipment seen on the HMI screen; the outputs of the ladder program.
The ladder program inputs are the Start and Cancel push buttons.
The ladder logic project will be configured to run on an emulator. The emulator is
nothing more than software that runs on a PC that emulates a PLC.
The following is the list of Boolean tags that will be used.
TNK_1_WASH_WATER_VALVE
TNK_1_DETERGENT_VALVE
TNK_1_AGITATOR

Output
Output
Output

TNK_1_DRAIN_VALVE

Output

TNK_1_DRAIN_PUMP

Output

TNK_1_START
TNK_1_CANCEL

Input
Input

Ladder Programming Tutorial 2 of the CIP Series

In the second tutorial we will be creating UDTs or User Defined Types. Placing tags

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into UDTs allows better tag organization, uses less memory and makes the code
more portable. A User Defined Type is merely a logical collection of tags.
After creating the CIP data type we will create a new tag named TNK_1 of the data
type CIP. Later if we decide to build another tank we can simply create another tag
named TNK_2 of data type CIP. The data type CIP is a structure defined by its
members. It is nothing more than a definition. The tag TNK_1 is an addressable tag
of type CIP.
Our UDT will be named CIP and will contain the following members:
.Control
.Output_Array
.Ouput
.Mask
.Step
The .Control tag is a Pre-Defined tag required by the SQO instruction. The control
tag contains 10 members. Our project makes use of the .LEN, .POS, and .DN
members.
The Output_Array[x] tag is an array of 20 DINTs. Addressing an element of an array
is done by addressing the index number of the array. For instance addressing the
fourth element in an array would look something like this: TNK_1.Output_Array[3].
Remember, arrays start with the fist element which is the 0th element in the array, 0
through 19 makes up 20 elements.
TNK_1.Output_Array[0].

1st element

TNK_1.Output_Array[1].

2nd element

TNK_1.Output_Array[2].

3rd element

TNK_1.Output_Array[3].

4th element

TNK_1.Output_Array[19]

20th element

The TNK_1.Output tag is the destination of the data that will be sequenced. Data is
sequenced into this tag from the TNK_1.Output_Array[x].
The TNK_1.Mask is required by the SQO instruction. A mask is nothing more than a
filter. In our case we will not be filtering anything so we will fill the mask with ones.
Basically the instruction runs data from the output array through the mask and
places the filtered data into the output word. Take a look at the following examples:
Array_[1] =
Mask

0010_0010
0000_0000

Output Word =

0000_0000

Array_[2] =
Mask

0010_0010
1111_1111

Output Word =

0010_0010

The filtering is done at the bit level. The data is checked bit by bit. This is nothing
more than AND logic. Bit 1 AND bit 2 must true.
The TNK_1.Step tag is used to enable and disable the SQO instruction. Enabling and
disabling the instruction increments the sequence by one step as indicated by the
TNK_1.Control.Pos tag.

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Ladder Programming Tutorial 3 of the CIP Series

We are on the third video in the series and its finally time to start putting some
ladder logic together. Rather than using the default main routine our ladder code
will be placed in a routine called TNK_1_CIP. In order to call this routine we will
need a JSR or Jump To Subroutine instruction placed in the main routine.
Ladder programs contain a main routine that is called automatically when the
program is triggered. As a general rule I use the main routine only to call other
routines in the program. This is done simply by placing a JSR instruction in the main
routine which calls out subsequent routines.
At the heart of the CIP program is the SQO Sequencer Output
instruction. The purpose of this instruction is to load data into
PLC Video an output word in a stepped sequence. The data loaded into the
PLC Softwareoutput word then turns on/off our various valves, pump and
PLC Programagitator.
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In the previous video we created a database. The database is nothing more than an
array of DINTs 20 elements in length, 0 through 19. Each time the SQO instruction
is enabled the control tag TNK_1.Control.Pos is incremented. Data from the array
pointed to by the TNK_1.Control.Pos tag is loaded into the TNK_1.Output tag.
The first time the instruction is enabled the TNK_1.Control.pos member will
increment from 0 to 1. The SQO instruction will load the data from the tag
TNK_1.Output_Array[1] into the output word TNK_1.Output. The data in the output
word will then be used to turn our tank valves, pump and agitator on and off.

Ladder Programming Tutorial 4 of the CIP Series

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In the fourth video in the series we will add logic that will run our outputs. Once data
is sequenced into the TNK_1.Ouput tag the data will be used to turn outputs on and
off. This is done utilizing simple ladder logic. The output word will be examined at
the bit level to turn the following outputs on and off: wash water valve, detergent
valve, agitator, drain valve and drain pump.
To finish off this tutorial we will add a XIC Examine if Closed instruction that will
enable and disable the SQO Sequencer Output Instruction. Every time the SQO is
enabled the instruction will load data from the array to the output word at the
position of the sequencer control position.

Ladder Programming Tutorial 5 of the CIP Series

In this tutorial we will place data into our array of DINTs. By default the Radix of
our database is decimal; however we want to enter our data at the bit level. So first
thing we will do is change the Radix of our database to Binary.
Next we will manually place 1s and 0s into the database to turn our outputs on and
off. Remember the first five bits are the only ones we will be using for this project.
Refer to the following table for the cross reference of output word to output:
TNK_1.Outpt.0

TNK_1.Outpt.1 =

TNK_1_WASH_WATER_VALVE
TNK_1_DETERGENT_VALVE

TNK_1.Outpt.2 =

TNK_1_AGITATOR

TNK_1.Outpt.3 =

TNK_1_DRAIN_VALVE

TNK_1.Outpt.4

TNK_1_DRAIN_PUMP

Ladder Programming Tutorial 6 of the CIP Series

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In the previous tutorial we added data to our database and changed the Radix to
make the data visible. This enabled us to manually step through the sequence and
turn various outputs on and off.
In this tutorial a timer is added to automatically step through the sequence. We will
use a simple recycling circuit to create a timed pulse. A TON Timer-On instruction
preceded by an XIO Examine If Open instruction addressed to the timers done bit
will complete the circuit. The idea is that the timer will run until the accumulator
reaches the preset time triggering the done bit which resets the timer and the cycle
restarts. What we end up with is a pulse every 1.5 seconds. This pulse is used to
trigger the SQO instruction to sequence to the next step.

Ladder Programming Tutorial 7 of the CIP Series

The next logical step in our project is to allow each step of the sequence to have a
different time. Luckily for us we know exactly how to extract data from an array and
use it to make things happen.
The first thing we will do is add another array to our CIP tag. Next we will add
another SQO instruction in parallel with the original SQO instruction. The
instruction will use the same control word (TNK_1.Control), this way the time and
data files will stay synchronized.
Rather than loading time from the array into an output word we will configure the
instruction to load the time directly into the timer preset.
The last thing we need to do is populate the time database and run the process. Each
step now gets a different time loaded from the time array.

Ladder Programming Tutorial 8 of the CIP Series

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Our little program is looking good, there is just one problem and that is it never stop
it just runs and runs. In this tutorial we will add a simple seal in circuit. The circuit
will start and stop our process.
A Start push button on the HMI will start the process, and a Cancel push button will
stop the wash cycle.
To finish up the tutorial the done bit from the sequencer control word is used to stop
the circuit, and a RES Reset instruction is used to reset the sequencer control word
TNK_1.Control

Ladder Programming Tutorial 9 of the CIP Series

This program is shaping up, it now turns on and off when the sequence is complete
and when canceled from the HMI.
In this tutorial some logic will be added that clears the output word TNK_1.Output
as well as the timer preset.
When the timer is reset from either a cancel or a cycle completion the preset retains
the last loaded value. When the program is started an appropriate time value will be
loaded into the preset, however for demonstration purposes this program will clear
the timer preset when the wash cycle is off.
The next thing to do is insure the output word TNK_1.Output is clear of data. This is
especially important as the data turns outputs on and off.

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{ 1 comment add one }


Kalleeweed

July 13, 2014, 1:31 pm

Please put more complex ladder programming videos


For some reason you make so very simple, in the way how you write and
Explain the programs
Thank you very much
R EPLY

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19/06/2015 06:15