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Math 252

C. M. Hughes

October 25, 2013

We have so far studied integration in a conceptual form in terms of left and right sums, and the

area between the graph of a function and the x axis. We have used the Fundamental Theorem

of Calculus to obtain anti-derivatives analytically, which as we have seen is a skill that requires a

thorough knowledge of differentiation.

The aim of this handout is to clarify the ideas and tools that we have dealt with so far. This handout

has been divided into categories that increase in complexity; we begin with the simple cases. We

shall assume throughout this handout that C is a constant of integration.

Anti-derivatives: simple cases

1 By far the most simple case that we can ever hope to come across are the power functions

and polynomials. We know that when we differentiation a power function, we simply use

‘The Power Rule’

d n

x = nx n−1 ,

dx

where n is any real number. Reversing the power rule to find an anti-derivative is equally

straight forward, and we have that

Z

x n+1

x nd x =

+ C,

n+1

where n is any real number except n = −1 (we shall deal with this case in due course). We

can always check our anti-derivatives by differentiating them- if we do not obtain the correct

result, then we need to review our answer (and perhaps our differentiation technique). This

is built upon in Table 1.

2 In the case n = −1, we are considering

Z

1

d x = ln(|x|) + C,

x

x 6= 0.

A quick mental check will show that this is the correct anti-derivative. Note the use of |x| to

show that we can not take the natural log of a negative number.

3 We have also considered anti-derivatives of exponential and trigonometric functions. In the

case where the argument of these functions is just ‘x’, or a constant multiple thereof, then

the anti-derivative is straight forward to find- see the examples given in Table 1. Note that

for each example, there is no product of functions, so reversing the chain rule simply comes

down to dividing by a constant.

1

so when differentiating (by the chain rule). so we don’t need to account for any other constants. Integral Z (3x + 2)10 d x Z 1 (3x + 2)11 + C 33 e2x d x e2x +C 2 e2x+1 d x e2x+1 +C 2 e3x+1 d x e3x+1 +C 3 e k x+b d x (k. so the integration (and differentiation to check the answer) is straight forward. Notes on Table 1 In each of the indefinite integrals of Table 1. as above we only have to account for the 2. Introducing a new function of x within the integral sign complicates things dramatically. Note that the argument of each example is never more than a constant times x. The argument of e kx+b is kx + b. we only have to account for the 2. sin(x)d x − cos(x) + C The argument of sin(x) is just x. The argument of e2x+1 is 2x +1. The argument of e2x is 2x. sin(x). The argument of e3x+1 is 3x +1. so we only need to account for the k when differentiating (by the chain rule). b constant) sin(kx + b) +C k Z Z Anti-derivative The argument of cos(x) is kx + b. 2 . Verify each one by differentiating the antiderivative. etc.Table 1: Some indefinite integrals. the integration would be a lot more involved. b constant) e kx+b +C k Z Z Z Z Notes Note that if there were anything more complicated than a constant multiple of x in the bracket. so when differentiating (by the chain rule). cos(x)d x sin(x) + C The argument of cos(x) is just x. so we don’t need to account for any other constants. so we only need to account for the 3 when differentiating (by the chain rule). We examine these next. so we need to account for the k when differentiating (by the chain rule). and their anti-derivatives. as does changing the arguments of e x . we could multiply by a constant and the resulting anti-derivative would simply be multiplied by the same constant. cos(k x + b)d x (k.

d (x 2 + 3)3 = 3(x 2 + 3)2 (2x) dx = 6x(x 2 + 3)2 . Making a substitution should make the integral more manageable. which is nearly the expression under our integral sign. We therefore use this function as the anti-derivative. but is out by a factor of 6. Consider the function (x 2 + 3)3 .e. so that du = 2x d x. and helps to ‘reverse’ the chain rule. but with a factor of 3 that we need to take of’. 4 Consider Z x(x 2 + 3)2 d x. 3 . 6 = 5 Let’s consider another example: Z x 2 cos(x 3 )d x.More complicated integrals: ‘The method of substitution’ or ‘Guess and check’ These methods rely heavily on the ability to ‘spot’ a useful substitution or to make an educated guess (respectively). the answer is ‘yes. but divide by 6. Then. then we make the substitution u = x 2 + 3. 6 If we wanted to use the method of substitution on this integral. (1) Notice that x is nearly the derivative of x 2 + 3.i. which is useful as we ‘guess’ that the chain rule will be used here. and in fact will often work even when the chain rule is not involved. which says Z x(x + 3) d x = 2 2 Z (x 2 + 3)2 |{z} xdx | {z } du u2 2 Z 2 u = du 2 u3 +C 6 1 = (x 2 + 3) + C. (2) The first thing we look for is a straight forward application of the chain rule. so that Z (x 2 + 3)3 x(x 2 + 3)2 d x = + C. did the first function come from differentiating the inside part of the second function? In this case. We now use this in equation (1). So let’s consider sin(x 3 ).

From the statement we wrote in (3). This is nearly our integrand. dx f (x) Consider Z (3) ex + 1 d x. Therefore. the first thing to look for is an application of the chain rule on a function involving logarithms. but we’re out by a factor of 3. our instinct is to look for a logarithmic function. Our indefinite integral in (2) can now be written as Z Z x 2 cos(x 3 )d x = d x} cos(x 3 ) |x 2{z | {z } cos(u) du 3 Z cos(u) = du 3 sin(u) = +C 3 1 = sin(x 3 ) + C 3 6 In the case of the integrand being a rational function. Consider ln(e x + x). our answer is Z sin(x 3 ) 2 3 + C. then d ex + 1 ln(e x + x) = x dx e +x f 0 (x) = f (x) So this is our answer. and Z ex + 1 d x = ln (|e x + x|) + C. x cos(x )d x = 3 If we wanted to approach this using substitution. Recall from Math 251. you obtain the numerator. that f 0 (x) d ln( f (x)) = . as it is the ‘inside’ function. is that when you differentiate the denominator. ex + x The first thing to notice here. we would make the substitution u = x 3. 4 . ex + x This question could also be done by substitution. but that is left as an exercise. this gives d sin(x 3 ) = cos(x 3 )(3x 2 ) dx = 3x 2 cos(x 3 ). so that du = 3x 2 d x.and when differentiated.

experience coupled with trial and error will guide you. and therefore. using (4). Integration by parts We have encountered indefinite integrals that can be integrated directly. try u = 2x + 1. It is hoped that the following examples will also assist you. as the problem will become significantly more complicated. which can easily be integrated to give v = − cos(x). The technique relies on choosing the functions u and v so that the problem becomes more manageable. or by substitution. d v = sin(x)d x. 2x + 1 For this example. Z x sin(x)d x = |{z} x (− cos(x)) − | {z } u v Z = −x cos(x) + Z (− cos(x) (1) d x | {z } |{z} v du cos(x)d x = −x cos(x) + sin(x) + C. Based on these comments. 8 Consider Z x sin(x)d x. and have also seen how we can integrate by parts.7 The method of substitution can also be used for problems that have not arisen by differentiating using the chain rule. and bear in mind that • we need to be able to differentiate u • we need to be able to integrate d v • we need to be able to integrate the product vdu. 5 . We shall assume throughout this handout that C is a constant of integration. then du = d x. We notice first of all that this is not an obvious candidate for substitution as the two functions x and sin(x) are not related by the chain rule. for example Z x d x. du = d x. it will quickly become obvious if an unwise choice has been made. which would almost certainly simplify the next step • if we choose u = x. (4) which is derived by integrating the product rule for differentiation. v = − cos(x). so this seems like a good choice. Do not worry if you make the wrong choice at first. we have u = x. We use the formula Z ud v = uv − Z vdu. then we would have to choose d v = sin(x)d x. Generally speaking. Let us make the following observations about possible choices of u and d v • if we choose u = x.

We shall try and use integration by parts. Notice that no matter what our choices of u and v. If we had chosen u = sin(x). we notice that we can use integration by parts on this integral with the following choices of u and v u = 2x. This now gives Z x 2 e x d x = x 2 e x − 2x e x − Z 2e x d x = x 2 e x − 2x e x + 2e x + C = (x 2 − 2x + 2)e x + C. d v = e x d x. no matter how many terms we integrate or differentiate. v = ex . 9 Consider Z x 2 e x d x. Based on our findings from the previous example. there is no obvious substitution or reversal of the chain rule that would progress us. d v = x d x. In both choices of u and v. du = 2d x. from which we only have to worry about the second integral. with the above choices of u and d v. du = 2x d x v = ex . Reducing the power of polynomials by choosing u as the polynomial function when integrating by parts is a often a good choice. So. the polynomial part of the integral ‘went away’. This example was slightly more involved as we had to use integration by parts twice. Using (4) with these choices would have given Z Z 2 x2 x x sin(x)d x = sin(x) − cos(x)d x. As with the previous example. we have Z Z x 2ex d x = x 2ex − 2x e x d x. 6 .Notice that with our choice of u = x. Observe that v and d v are exactly the same (properties of the exponential function). the trigonometric functions will always differentiate or integrate to give another trigonometric function. du = cos(x)d x. let’s choose u = x 2. then u = sin(x). v = x 2 /2. as du = 1. d v = e x d x. d v = x. 2 2 which has clearly not improved our situation. we would not have been able to change the exponential term. Given our experiences so far.

2 m+n m−n but with the restriction m 6= n. Similarly. cos(mθ ± nθ )=cos(mθ ) cos(nθ ) ∓ sin(mθ ) sin(nθ ). 7 . (6) Adding equations (5) and (6) gives 1 sin((m + n)θ ) + sin((m − n)θ ) . we have sin2 (θ ) = cos2 (θ ) = cos(2θ ) − 1 . 11 These identities can be used together in the case m = n = 1 to give cos(2θ ) = cos2 (θ ) − sin2 (θ ) = 1 − sin2 (θ ) − sin2 (θ ) = 1 − 2 sin2 (θ ). 2 12 These identities give sin(mθ + nθ ) = sin(mθ ) cos(nθ ) + sin(nθ ) cos(mθ ). (5) sin(mθ − nθ ) = sin(mθ ) cos(nθ ) − sin(nθ ) cos(mθ ). 2 R This provides an alternative (and easier) way of finding sin2 (θ )dθ . we have that Zπ Zπ x sin(x)d x = [−x cos(x)]π0 + 0 cos(x)d x 0 = −π cos(π) − (−0 cos(0)) + [sin(x)]π0 = −π(−1) − 0 + (0 − 0) =π Trigonometric functions The following three identities (among others) are often useful when dealing with trigonometric functions sin2 (θ ) + cos2 (θ )=1.10 Evaluating definite integrals using integration by parts is done in the following way. and therefore 1 − cos(2θ ) . 0 Then from our work earlier on this handout. sin(mθ ) cos(nθ ) = 2 This gives us a tidy way of finding Z 1 cos((m + n)θ cos((m − n)θ ) sin(mθ ) cos(nθ )dθ = − + . We consider Zπ x sin(x)d x. sin(mθ ± nθ )=sin(mθ ) cos(nθ ) ± sin(nθ ) cos(mθ ).

sin(x). If it looks more complicated than your original problem. which has an argument that is no more complicated than kx + b. (b) If the integrand involves a polynomial or power function. cos(mθ ) cos(nθ )dθ = 2 m+n m−n Z 1 sin((m − n)θ ) sin((m + n)θ ) sin(mθ ) sin(nθ )dθ = + . no matter how many times they are integrated or differentiated (d) You may need to use integration by parts more than once (e) You may get cases Rwhen you have to rearrange in terms of the original integral (see our notes on sin2 (x)d x for example). 2 m−n m+n Z both in the case m 6= n. Is the integrand a simple function (e. sin(x)). or a ‘guess and check’? • No: try integration by parts: (a) We need to choose u and d v so that we – can differentiate u – can integrate d v – can integrate the product vdu. consider changing your choice. but also be prepared to persevere. Is the integrand a product of functions? • Yes: can you spot a good substitution. 8 .g. remember that differentiating it will often be a good choice. try partial fractions. but not always (c) cos(x). e x . or in the case of polynomial functions. 2. we can show that 1 sin((m + n)θ ) sin((m − n)θ ) + . but remember to account for any constants that arise from the chain rule (see Table 1) • No: try the next question. and e x will always remain in the problem. where k and b are constant? • Yes: the anti-derivative should be straight forward. 3. Questions to ask when integrating 1. Is the integrand a rational function that has arisen from a natural logarithm function? • Yes: try a logarithmic function.13 Similarly. but be careful to account for any constants • No: there may still be a substitution that will improve things.

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