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TEXT BY MAURICE RHEIMS

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century sculpture

19th

is

the largest

compilation ever published of the endlessly enjoyable, often fascinating

we can

still

monumental sculpture

see around us in parks, schools, and

town squares. Commemorating such

ideals as

heroism, patriotism, bravery, and such heroes as

Wellington, Washington, and assorted emperors,


inventors, and scientists,

it

was long considered

Now

old-fashioned and expendable.

reexamined and revalued by

it

is

being

and

critics

art

historians.

Maurice Rheims, also the author of The Flowering ofArt Nouveau, is an acknowledged expert on
French art who has recently been elected to the
distinguished Acadmie Franaise. No one could
better inspire a fresh appreciation of these realis-

and detailed 19th-centur>' works from twentythree countries. He selects sculptures by great
tic

artists

Canova, Saint-Gaudens, Rodin and by

others

who

are superb in technique but

times hilarious

in their effects.

The

some-

great person-

ages of the century are portrayed, from Napoleon


to Sarah Bernhardt to Balzac.

The works

are

grouped thematically Historical and Military,


Caricature,
The World of Work, Portrpi'
Sculpture

in

the Streets,

Art, and so on
for each one.

and

Thef

sh.

a catalogue

bibliography ano

the volume.

683

illustrations, including

plates in full color

,:^.

10 hand-tii

Animal

provided
empite

19

CENTURY SCULPTURE

19

CENTURY
SCULPTURE

MAURICE RHEIMS
TRANSLATED BY ROBERT E.WOLF

HARRY N. ABRAMS, INC, PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK

Patricia Egan, Editor

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


Rheims, Maurice.
19th century sculpture.
Translation of La sculpture au

XIX^

sicle.

Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1.
I.

Sculpture,

Modem

19th century History.

Title.

NB197.3.R4513
ISBN 0-8109-0375-X

735'. 22

Library of Congress Catalogue Card

75-39871

Number: 75-39871

Copyright (^ 1972 in France by Arts et Mtiers Graphiques, Paris


Picture reproduction rights where applicable reserved by S.P.A.D.E.M., and A.D.A.G.P., Paris
Published 1977 by Harry N. Abrams, Incorporated,
All rights reserved.

No

part of the contents of this

New York
book may be reproduced without the written

permission of the publishers

Gravure

illustrations

Text printed

Bound

in

and colorplates printed in France

England

in England

CONTENTS

Introduction

Neoclassicism

15

2.

Romanticism

41

3.

David d'Angers

77

4.

Realism or Positivist Art

85

5.

Carpeaux

101

6.

Symbolism

107

7.

Pre-Raphaelites

8.

Art in Fusion: Rodin and His Disciples

137

9.

The Eve of the Twentieth Century; Expressionism;


The Return to the Greeks

165

10.

The World of Work

181

1 1

Historical and Military Subjects

193

12.

Sculpture in the Streets

225

13.

Decorative Sculpture

237

14.

Portraits

249

15.

Caricature

285

16.

Animal Sculpture

293

17.

Sculpture and Religion

315

18.

Funerary Art

329

19.

Sensualism

361

Art Nouveau

377

20. Kitsch
.

The Unusual The

22.

Precious Materials

125

Bizarre

389

405

Bibliography

417

Index

419

Acknowledgments

431

Photographic Credits

433

INTRODUCTION
Then, while busying himself with lighting the stove,
he

set to

bewailing his fate in a voice bursting with rage.

What

a bitch of a trade, this sculpture!

The lowliest among the bricklajcrs had a

statue the administration

would buy for

the clay, the

and
in

some

3000 Jrancs

marble or bronze, plus


all that just Jor

it

to

better time

cost

oj

it.

him nearly 2000 Jor the model,

all the other expenses,

be stuck

official cellar with the excuse that there

away
wasn't room for

it.

The niches on the monuments were standing empty ;


there were pedestals just waiting Jor statues in the public parks, but never

There

No chance of jobs Jor

still

mind!

wasn't any room.

private persons, hardly more than a

Jew

busts,

a statue knocked out cheaply once in a while to be paid for by public subscription.

The noblest oJ the

arts, the

most manly among them, sure enough;

but the artjrom which you were surest to croak Jrom hunger.

M1LE ZOLA,

L'Oeuvre

wealthy middle class


their assumption of power and their wish to
emulate their predecessors together with the growth of cities help explain why
and how sculpture won back its popularity in the course of the nineteenth century.
Public squares were pressed into service as stage settings for huge monuments, dis-

The

rise of a

men.
than a hundred

play pieces erected to the glorv of the heads of state and famous

France had

known

nine revolutions or political upheavals in

less

years,

and was determined not to neglect the persons who had contributed to those mutations. It
was important that their appearance be made known and the account of their exploits engraved on bronze and on marble. This could best be done, it was thought, by a bust poised
on a column at whose foot nude persons symbolized Freedom, Glory, Poetry, Victory,
Electricity, Gas, Bicycle Racing, or The Four-cylinder Automobile.
Monuments to the war dead began to be erected the day after France's glorious defeat
at the Battle of Sedan in 1870. Also the faades of buildings, always a pretext for elegant decorative work, were offered to the ornamentalists' chisels between 1860 and 1910 more than
four hundred stonecarvers could be counted in Paris.
It was a splendid time for the arts, but difficult to judge in its entirety
like the Renaissance, it was a transitional epoch that also contained many contradictions. But the medieval
world had disappeared in fewer than thirty years of the sixteenth century, \\ hile the decline
of academicism in the nineteenth century took a very long time. And during these years our
great-grandparents witnessed moreover the triumph of Romanticism, the maturing of Realism, the birth of Impressionism. And there are other obstacles in the view of anyone wishing
to study the history of a discipline in a given period: for example, it is not easy to separate
out those works that should still be classified with the era preceding nineteenth-century
sculpture, and those that belong, as the year 1900 approaches, with twentieth-century art.
At the start of the century Bartolommeo Cavaceppi and Giuseppe Angelini in Italy,
Dannecker in Germany, Shchedrin in Russia, Jos Gins in Spain, and many others, from
Belgium to Austria, still belonged to the rear guard of classicism. Houdon, however, is more
difficult to place with relation to Canova than one might think. For the most part Houdon is
thought to be an eighteenth-century man. His name is used here only to point out the new
:

Ancien Rgime, who succeeded in scrutinizing the features and


thereby unveiling the characters of his models. Rodin said that "each of his busts is worth a
biography."
Canova needs no discussion his place is guaranteed in every manual of nineteenthcentury art. Yet the whole of his work gives the general impression that he, the official
sculptor of Napoleon, remained a disciple of the Ancients. If one remarks that Houdon, the
man of the Ancien Rgime, did not die until 1828, at which time Canova, the prime exemplar
of the early nineteenth-century style, had already been dead for six years, then one can appreciate the reluctance of the present author to exclude one and admit the other.
The same difficulties and uncertainties recur at the end of the century. It is accepted that
Rodin, who died in 1917, was a nineteenth-century man, whereas Maillol, Bourdelle, and
Brancusi, all of whom produced work of a classical stamp before 1900, are considered
modern.
We have decided against ejecting Houdon from the nineteenth century, as the current
mode would have it, and counting Maillol and Bourdelle as twentieth-century men, as is
customary; we avoid taking sides, and we include in this book various works made by these
artists between 1800 and 1900. The classical bust of Vitellius (p. 198, 38), modeled by
Brancusi in 1898, is an excellent academic exercise by a twentieth-century man who was
nevertheless born twenty-four years before the Grande Exposition of 1900 ushered the new

method of

a sculptor of the

century into Paris.

The

even more than of painting,

classification of nineteenth-century sculpture,

function of our personal feelings. Unlike most of the painters


the assigning of certain sculptors to one or another school

of most nineteenth-century painters conforms

work corresponds

is

who

often a

same period,
While the work

lived in the

anything but easy.

more or less with

is

the style they espoused (almost

Romanticism; likewise the canvases of


Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, and Sisley are Impressionist), the comparable classification of sculpture generally becomes a more subtle matter, especially when deciding whether certain works
are still Neoclassical or already Romantic. For this circumstance there are material and social
reasons that we shall discuss later. In a number of cases, though each work is executed according to academic canons, we are nevertheless permitted a glimpse of the sculptor's soul,
his sensibilities, his troubles, and his religious, social, or political aspirations.
This ambiguity persists throughout the century; it often has to do with the sculptors'
all

of Delacroix's

circumstances, for they,

more than

to our idea of

painters, are

bound

to the requirements of their materials

and thus inclined to a certain caution. David d'Angers, who was viewed by his contemporaries
as a Romantic, remained nevertheless decidedly prudent (he was scarcely what we would now
call a "committed" artist). Franois Rude, on the other hand, was reproached by the Romantics with inclining toward a disturbing realism, though often he was merely a Neoclassicist
swept by the winds of Romanticism. Carpeaux's contemporaries were divided; they admired
him, but with reservations for some critics he remained, even more than Houdon, a man of
the eighteenth century for others he was a realist who willingly slipped toward the licentious.
:

The

did not agree. For the Neoclassicists

more

compounded this confusion the nostalgias for the past


Rome, with its early Christians and its gladiators, meant

taste for the historical often

than did medieval Paris, whose bell towers and picturesque vagabonds were dear to the

hearts of the Romantics.

end of the century appears still more complex. Some writers claim
Rodin as the last of the Romantics, others hail him together with Medardo Rosso as the
inventor of Impressionist sculpture. The works of the German sculptors surprise us by their
romanticism (small letter) tinged with Wagnerian symbolism; likewise, we are disconcerted

The

situation at the

INTRODUCTION

by Maillol's abrupt return to Greek sources, and that of the Scandinavian sculptors in the
latter half of the nineteenth century. Thus it is useless and dangerous to insist on pigeonholing these artists into specific styles, because our own sensibility toward works of the
past continues to change from one generation to the next. Likewise we must be particularly
vigilant when now, a hundred years later, we find ourselves contesting not only the opinions
of connoisseurs and critics during an artist's lifetime, but also those of the artist himself concerning his own works. The reader examining the works in this book will be the best judge of
the ambiguity posed by many of the illustrations.

The material requirements that accompany the sculptor's work explain in part the slow evolution of that art as compared with painting. A sculptor demands certain financial resources,
while the working budget of a painter is generally minimal. The realization of a sketch into
marble demands a sizable investment tools and materials make a sculpture an expensive object
:

destined for a substantial clientele that

when

it

comes

therefore bourgeois, generally conservative in taste

is

to the arts.

Such reasons may have caused "advanced" artists finally to choose painting in preference
to sculpture, deciding that they could express themselves more easily in this way. When painters have made sculptures it has been "to keep their hand in," so to speak. Convinced that no
one would ever be interested in their experiments and unable to pay the costs of casting, such
painter-sculptors usually contented themselves with modeling in clay or plaster. It was in that
spirit that Gericault sketched a few pieces of sculpture for this reason Daumier's plasters,
now counted as masterworks of caricature, lay around neglected for years in a corner of his
studio. Considerably after his death certain amateurs, encouraged by the steady rise in prices
of Daumier's lithographic work, engaged Susse and Rudier to make casts of the sketches.
A result of these difficulties was that throughout the century many young sculptors continued to live as in the days of the guilds they remained for years in the service of a master,
acting as his assistant and filling the role of what is called in France a praticien. In this way, assured of a living, they could become initiated into the secrets of making casts and of founding.
The apprenticeship was a hard one it involved long hours on scaffoldings clamped to the
fronts of churches and buildings. The fourteen-year-old tex was kept at work by his master
in near-freezing weather: "I made Gothic capitals along with ornament carvers, crude types
whose habits inspired me with profound repugnance."
The respect inculcated by the professors of the cole des Beaux- Arts for Great Principles
and Grand Genre also imprinted on the mind and retinas of young students a conventional view
of the exercise of the plastic arts that went beyond the academic concepts. Painters and sculptors were expected to be equally proficient in both arts. For a long time Ingres insisted that the
young Etex, a brilliant Beaux-Arts student, should devote himself to painting rather than
;

sculpture.

Their apprenticeship completed, the young sculptors had two choices either to set
themselves up on their own or to resign themselves, by remaining attached to their master's
fortunes, to being considered only the equal of an artisan. Newspapers, literature, and memoirs of the time all tell us of the different social status of sculptors from that of painters. The
sculptors' merits were conceded, their manual skill praised as much as that of a blacksmith,
but unless they became recognized as great masters they had to submit to the caprices of fashion
and the demands of their clientele. When Fremiet's ^oan of Arc had already been installed and
inaugurated in 1874 on the Place des Pyramides in Paris, the sculptor, sensitive to the criticisms of theman-in-the-street, modeled and freshly cast a new horse for his heroine surreptitiously, in the dead of night, he replaced the humble but powerful beast of burden with a
:

10

high-stepping shovvhorse.
fatten

Who,

up the cat he was using

as

in 1960,

model

would have dared suggest

to Giacometti that he

1830 picture dealers were still few in number, and among these only two or
three consented to handle sculpture. To secure commissions the sculptor had no alternative
but to exhibit at the Salon, the onlv place he could make contact with possible purchasers. To
become "accepted" at the Salon, he had to please the members of the jurv. But those worthies, anxious to hold on to their following, ruthlesslv rejected anvthing that threatened to
upset the public's taste and habits.
Certain remarks bv Guizot, then Minister of Public Education, show well the bias in
favor of conventional art: "Monsieur Etex, when one does not rise in art, one descends."
Stubbornly the jurv, mostlv composed of professors at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts who were
members of the Institut de France, carried on a rear-guard combat against those who rejected
the "disciplines." In 1833 Romantic sculptors were admitted to the Salon, but the following
vear Fratin, Etex, and Prault found their entrv barred. In 1 8 37 Barve was excluded in 1846,
the pupils of Rude.
Louis-Philippe, the "Citizen-Kin^," plaved the role of a maecenas armed with pencil
and notebook and exuding good will, he paced the Salon looking for works worthy of enriching the national patrimony. Unfortunately his choices remained mediocre, requiring the countersignatures of Quatremre de Quincv, one of the most execrable intendants of Arts and
Public Monuments in the history of France, and Montalivet, who was concerned with
In the Paris of

balancing the budget.


Thiers,

first

the king's collaborator and then his republican successor, professed to be

the protector of the arts but feared to displease the

members

of the Institut: commissions and

honors depended on their good graces. After the July Revolution of 1830 the sculptor
Marochetti declared: "I don't give a damn about art, but in ten years I want to have a string
of decorations from here to there," pointing to the left side of his jacket.
Throughout Europe people of good society supported painting or sculpture. For some it
was an excellent means of displaying a noble-spirited Romantic enthusiasm while remaining,
at heart, profoundly reactionary. Charles Marochetti belonged to a patrician family; Henri
Triqueti, a baron, was also the son of the Sardinian king's ambassador to the court of Russia.
Flicie de Fauveau, daughter of a Breton gentleman farmer, enjoved the favors of everything
the international clientele valued most highly because throughout her life she championed the
cause of the duchess of Berrv and then of the count of Chambord. The count of Nieuwerkerke
practiced sculpture with success (he exhibited at the Salon of 842) before becoming an excellent surintendant of Fine Arts. Finally, the count d'Orsav, reputedly the most elegant man of
his century, made statuettes filled with a historical lyricism.
1

The financial situation of the sculptors w^as generally better than that of painters, though
many hired themselves out either to architects a nineteenth-century faade without some
decorative motifs is rare
or to contractors for funeral monuments. In 1825 Etex, a youth
and still unknown, could ask 500 francs for modeling a bust; when scarcely twenty-five, he
was swamped with commissions. At a ball at the Htel de Ville in 1833 he was presented to
the young duke of Orlans, who commissioned a bust from him; that year the Treasury paid
him 70,000 francs to execute two of the large trophies on the Arc de Triomphe in the Place
de l'toile. During that period Daumier was asking one franc for a drawing, Delacroix three

hundred
In

for a painting.

Rome

the sculpture industry was enjoying a

boom. People

traveled from

all

over the

A
"

INTRODUCTION

world to

visit

11

the studios of Canova and Thorvaldsen. Commissions flowed; earnings

were

considerable.

of certain "masters" reveals the importance of their honorariums. Grome, not content with presiding over the world of painting, did not disdain on occasion to
demonstrate his talents as a sculptor. But at a price Asked to carve a Combat of the Gladiators,

The way of

life

he reserved

on the Boulevard de Clichy at twilight, slept on the


the Naples Museum a few motifs which he needed to round

a carriage, left his studio

Paris-Naples express, sketched in


out his masterpiece, dined with Prince Caracciolo, and took the express back the following
evening.

But these were the exceptions. For the others, who had to be both sculptors and praticiens, the work was hard and the clients demanding. Stendhal wrote to Eugne Guinot in June,
1839, about B. E. Fogelberg, whom he held in high esteem: "The king of Sweden, or rather
his minister, not much of a connoisseur, only gives 15,000 francs per statue to a man who
works every day for six years to produce two works, and this despite the fact that H. D., on
his own, offered him 50,000 francs for the two statues plus a lifetime pension of 5,000 francs.
who makes himself out as an eccentric and claims to detest his natural heir to whom
Lord P
he wishes to leave the least possible sum, proposed to rent the Swedish sculptor's statues for
10,000 francs a year, and paid for the first four years in advance. But M. Fogelbert [sic] refused
everything out of respect for his prior engagements and love of his country."
Artistic life in Great Britain was much harsher than on the Continent. In 1848 Etex, in
London in the hope of expanding his clientele, reported that artists, among them Frenchmen
settled there for fifty years, were literally dying of hunger. Being very poor himself, he yielded
to a London merchant who promised to arrange an exhibition and turned over two of his
paintings the dealer, harassed by creditors and not endowed with scruples, pawned these for

his

own

accounts.

In contrast to their friendly


frightfully chauvinistic at

cosmopolitanism in Rome, the English proved themselves

home. The London

good will for the young Etex, rethe Prime Minister assured him of

press, full of

ported sadly: "But he is not English." Etex claimed that


commissions on condition that he would agree to be naturalized British.
Etex was hardly more satisfied by his sojourn in the United States. In thanks for having
taken the initiative of executing their likenesses, several persons of substance insisted on
his joining them for dinner; in this way they discharged their obligations. Disillusioned, the
French sculptor decided that "there is nothing to do in America for the true artist."

Most writers on the history of nineteenth-century art seem overcome with a sort of embarrassment when it comes to sculpture. After enumerating a dozen names and reminding their
readers that Canova, Carpeaux, and Rodin were geniuses and that David d'Angers had some
talent, they leave it at that, as if the plastic arts

had somehow disgraced themselves. Likewise

these writers are only too ready to dismiss as

^^

implies the conventional and

pompous

pompier''

many works of the

that

word

of opprobrium which

century because in their eyes,


drugged by today's abstract art, the concern to render every coat button and velvety texture
seems the sign of an outdated academicism. In reality, the true originality of nineteenthcentury sculpture lies in its public "utility"
for a public whose taste was not sophisticated
but still responded to noble actions and fine sentiments. Today we recognize that it is not so
much the sculpture itself which is old-fashioned as the sentiments it strains to express. Whence
our often excessive propensity to denounce as "silly" any moralistic subject. About 1760
there was already a similar disdain among amateurs of art with respect to the Baroque sculpture produced a century earlier in Austria, Italy, the Iberian Peninsula, and the Spanish colonies of South America.

last

12

It is

actually true that

some sculptures of the nineteenth century

give a mournful, imper-

The

sonal impression, especially those thousands of busts witnessing a conservative society.

chapter

title

Baudelaire selected for his review of the Salon of 1846,

ing," makes clear his comparable reactions.

And photographs

"Why

Sculpture

is

of the Salon in those years

Bor-

show

the halls of painting "black with people," while the central hall reserved for sculpture

is

empty the visitors are fewer than the personages frozen in stone or marble
who are assembled on the drab matting of the floors.
The discredit which generally befell sculptors rather than painters deprived them of the
support and interest of literary men. While Balzac, Flaubert, and the Concourt brothers
were concerned with the lot of painters, keeping a place for them in their descriptions of
society, no one, except for Zola, thought to describe that of a sculptor. Most critics gave
sculpture only a small part of their reviews, despite its importance. In their annual essays on
three-quarters

the Salons, Baudelaire and Gautier accorded

it

scarcely

more than

three or four pages. Bau-

was too "brutal" or too "positive"; he recommends that sculptors be banned from the community of the arts whenever they agree to
collaborate on the decoration of any useful monument: for him, "a singular mystery is not to
be touched with the fingers." Further, the author of Lesjieurs du mal, along with other critics,
is already concerned with the sculptor's difficulties in finding the best position for his piece.
The viewer risks being the victim of "accidents of light" a "lamp effect" may bring out
a beauty that differs from what the artist intended; there are "so many hazardous situations
from which painters escape."
delaire evidently despised sculpture that

similar lack of interest in sculpture

is

found,

as still today,

among museum

curators.

by the French government,


we have had to conclude that a certain bust, identified in its time in a museum or ministry,
has disappeared never asked for, never returned. Such negligence can only be explained by
the absence of interest in these works. Not only have they disappeared, but likewise any trace
of their authors. Certain sculptors who died less than fifty years ago are more ignored today
by researchers than are comparable artisans who lived in centuries past. Only a fortunate combination of circumstances permitted us to find, in a small village in Alsace, the traces of Rupert
Carabin, one of the most original and extraordinary woodcarvers in the history of sculpture.
It is also easier to recover the oeuvre of a painter than of a sculptor. In general, paintings
of some importance are "recorded" from the time the artists bring them into daylight; sales
catalogues, exhibition catalogues, and amateurs' memoirs permit us to follow them over the
In trying to rediscover evidence concerning sculptures acquired

years. This

is

rarely the case for sculptures;

most of those described

in the plethora of

albums published between 1880 and 1900, devoted to the Salons or retrospective exhibitions,
seem, literally, to have vanished. True, a good number of works, if only for their size and
weight, have never been shifted from the spot for which they were commissioned. But many
others, victims of changes of fashion, have found their way to the scrap metal yard, there to be

metamorphosed

into shell cases or

To undertake

war matriel.

a valid census of nineteenth-century sculpture, there will

have to be

change in fashion dealers will then become interested in this specialty and help to raise from
the depths a large number of pieces. Some of these will surprise us by their beauty or originality museum directors will devote retrospective exhibitions to little-known great artists
and catalogue the monuments forgotten in cemeteries everywhere. Then the sculpture of that
century will be revealed in its richness and originality, as important as that in the two preceding centuries.
;

Despite the
sculptors

title

of the present book, the reader will not find here an exhaustive

who worked

of

all

the

simple count of Stanislas Lami's Dic(Paris, 1919), itself incomplete, is enough

during the nineteenth century.

tionnaire des sculpteurs de l'cole franais du XIX^ sicle

list

INTRODUCTION

to

show

that the four

hundred-odd pages of

this

13

volume would not be enough

for even a

short biography of each artist.

Rather than accumulate names and assign them more or less arbitrarily to categories
far too rigid, we have preferred to ignore their present or past reputations and to trust our
own sensibility and understanding in assigning their works to the first seven chapters on the
Neoclassic, Romantic, Populist, Symbolist; we continue in chapters
chief artistic currents
8 to 10, as the twentieth century approaclies, with tendencies often modernist and contradictorv: was Rodin a Naturalist, as he was judged in his lifetime, or a survivor of Romanticism,
or the first Impressionist sculptor? In any event, if most of the sculptures of Canova, David
d'Angers, Carpeaux, Rodin, and Medardo Rosso elude standard classifications, it is because
those great artists were more often beacons (the term Baudelaire applied to certain great
creators) than heads of schools.
In chapters 11 to 18 we shall examine the importance of sculpture in the life of cities.
Once again sculptors took up the tasks of their forebears in the Renaissance the humanizing
of public squares the enlivening of dreary faades of buildings and making the approach of
death more bearable by lending a touch of paganism to funeral monuments.
The reader may think we have given more importance to Neoclassical and Romantic art
than to the rest, or that we have been overly insistent on funerary or decorative art. Actually
the length of any chapter reflects our concern not to b^'pass certain works that we find exemplary.
Since 1880 the prodigious interest aroused by Rodin's works brought about a transformation of sculptural vision. Sculptors no longer hesitated to follow the earlier example of
Michelangelo and to present works as final that had still an unfinished appearance. Amateurs and critics of painting shared the same interest in sketches and preparatory drawings
which once were thought unworthy of public exhibition. The way was opened to the informal art of our time.

Note

Given the diversity of photographic material that we have at hand,

it

seemed desirable

to

reproduce in this book not only known works in

public or private collections but also works which have disappeared, been destroyed, or whose whereabouts are unknown but whose photographs we have

found

in the course

reader's pardon.

of our research

Thus we have not been able in every case

Our aim has not been toward providing

the basis for further investigations.

to specify the

dimensions of the works reproduced ; for this we beg the

a complete identity cardfor each work illustrated but to give indications which would serve as

ANTOINE CHAUDET (1763-1810). Peace. 1805. Silver,


gilt, height 68". Muse du Louvre, Paris. See p. 407, 3
I.

silver

1.

NEOCLASSICISM
One who follows

others

never surpasses them.

GIORGIO VASARI.

Life

of Michelangelo

generation of nineteenth-century sculptors showed a

Each
nounced,
In

taste,

more or

less

pro-

for classicism.

And in the eighteenth century Greece welcomed more visitors than at any previous moment of its history, although Baroque and Rococo art remained triumphant. To each epoch its own brand of classicism.
1775, when the Romantic era was opening, Neoclassicism split into two currents:

one was severe and moralist, the other pleasant, elegant, even symbolist. The former looked
rather to Rome and the latter to Athens, but both drew upon Winckelmann and his archaeological discoveries.

Today it is difficult to imagine the surprise and amazement that attended the unearthing
of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Not unlike ourselves on the eve of moon landings, when we
succumbed to vague and indescribable hopes and awaited some revelation of a world perhaps

more developed than

ours, the contemporaries of Voltaire and Lessing thought that the dead

unexpectedly brought to light would divulge prodigious secrets. The gazettes of the
time tell us about the strange hopes that were nourished.
While the Germans, fired with enthusiasm by Winckelmann' s works, built their new
aesthetic on archaeological foundations, the French amateurs such as Cay lus, and architects
such as Soufiflot, wished themselves rather to be descendants of Plutarch.
The idolatry of Antiquity then already three centuries old reflects a number of motivations, often contradictory. Elegant society in the eighteenth century professed a taste for
the Beautiful and the Grand Style that brought with it certain advantages. The prince or general posing for his portrait willingly dressed himself up in a toga or Roman cuirass. For fear
of revealing to the world what might be the scrawny or pudgy figures of their wealthy sitters,
familiar to their fingertips with the canons of idealized Nature
the sculptors
were always
ready to supply a change of body, like the costumers in a theater. Bodies, in fact, were considered by portrait sculptors to be much the same as pedestals, and the sculptor was expected
to transcend the physical traits of his models.
Moreover, the lively success enjoyed by Antique symbolism was not unrelated to the restrictions imposed by censorship the crowds swarming to the Salons delighted in the academic spectacle
that is to say, the nudity. This appetite for the Beautiful and the Grand Style
was so contagious that its effects may be verified from Moscow to Philadelphia. Russian
sculpture remained for a long time, indeed until the October 1917 Revolution, under the
influence of Neoclassicism. Shubin, Kozlovski, or Shchedrin could have exhibited in the
Paris Salons without anyone being aware of anything foreign. Under the Tsars the taste for
everything that came from Paris was so well established that the Muscovites treated Russian
sculptors with disdain, even if the sculptors had studied with Lemoyne, AUegrain, or Pigalle.
When Shubin, as we read in the travel book published in 1796 by Count Alphonse Fortia
de Piles, was deprived of a studio he had to make do with scarcely more than a closet. His
clients paid him a miserly hundred rubles for a bust though the partially cut block of marble
cities so

15

16

cost

him

eighty, yet as a portraitist he was a

match

for

Houdon. The only

field for local sculp-

was funeral monuments; it was said of han Martos, an artist difficult to classify as Neoclassical or Romantic, that he "made the marble weep," and according to Louis Rau his
funeral monuments peopled the cemeteries of the Monastery of the Virgin of the Don at
Moscow and of the Alexander Neysky Monastery in Leningrad.
tors

Curiously, the art of

Houdon and Canoya, which determines

the transition from the eighteenth

century to the Romantic era, proyes to be most complex. Was Houdon, who suryiyed four
rgimes, a Neoclassicist or already a Naturalist? In the faces of his portraits we may read only
what his clients wished the world to see persons of elegance, conscious of their position,

who

refused to say

much though

they kept their

own

counsel. Canoya's genius consisted in a

successful alliance of elegance with sensualism, while feigning the appearance of a paragon

of classicism.

Canoya from Thoryaldsen and from certain of Thoryaldsen's


disciples was as deep as that separating the Roman sculptors, twenty centuries earlier, from
the Greeks of the fifth century b.c. Thoryaldsen made a real effort to carye like the Ancients;
Canova a Greek of the best period reborn two and one-half millennia later worked from
In reality, the gulf separating

nature.

Canoya, but, despite their accomplishment, some did


not enough
the German Dannecker, the Frenchmen Chinard and Bosio, the Englishman
Westmacott while others did too much; Thoryaldsen yainly droye himself to demonstrate
that physical perfection, wisdom, and modesty, all allied, vyere the customary sight in an
Countless sculptors stroye to

riyal

ancient city.
In France, contrary to logic, the reyolutionaries

than the occupants of Versailles had been around


painting, and the press

showed themseKes

as

more

classicistic

780. Reyolutionary literature, architecture,

Rome

symbolized the Republic and its yirtues. To the poor souls posing for posterity it was thought good
form to assume an expression in which perspicacity vied with severity. Under the Empire,
and later the Restoration, women before posing had their hairdressers curl them up la Cleopatra, Vestal Virgin, or Amazon. The toga was indicated for clean-shaven men or those with
full faces; for thinner men, the uniform or frock coat.
This taste for classical art persisted throughout the century. It corresponded sufficiently
with what elegant gentlemen sought as well as the man in the street: something handsome,
lofty in manner, and with a good likeness. Is that not what Thophile Gautier appreciated in
sculpture, "the most serious of the arts," when writing about the portrait of Soufflot by JeanPierre Dantan in the Salon of 1845? And likewise Baudelaire, on the same occasion, wrote
that "Dantan has done some fine busts, noble in manner and evidently good likenesses."
In Germany and as far north as Scandinavia entire cities were remodeled l'antique,
perhaps because countries less favored by the sun feel a certain nostalgia at the thought of the
Mediterranean world. Let us suppose .Munich had been buried at the end of the last century
by an earthquake and unearthed two millennia later: what archaeologist would not conclude
from those proud ruins that Bavaria had been ruled by the descendants of Roman occupants,
having remained a pagan state until the twentieth century?
The illustrations to this chapter will convince us of the desire of Neoclassical sculptors
to reproduce perfect anatomical forms. It is true that too much perfection dehumanized their
subjects, draining

all

expressed a passion for eyerything Antique. Ancient

them of

the primary sentiments

all

erotic or sensual suggestion. Similarly, the faces express only

meditation, fury, amazement, or physical or moral suffering.

To

achieve these the sculptor had to shift the gaze of his godlike or elegant personages; their eyes
turned toward Heaven or averted to the side, they disdain to catch the viewer's glance. Per-

NEOCLASSICISM

haps

it is

17

the same concern for isolation that makes the artists sometimes

wrap

their subject in

deep sleep.

works by sculptors generally classed among the


Romantics, But faced with David d'Angers' severe Racine disguised as a Roman, or Rude s
It

mav be

surprising to find in this chapter

Mercury Fastening

his

Winged Sandal, the reader will understand better the motives that

lie

behind our choice.

Romanticism and then of Realism better than


did painting, it was because sculpture's title to nobility would seem to date back further
than that of painting. We have no idea of Greek painting in the fifth and fourth centuries
If

Neoclassical statuary resisted the assaults of

except through ancient descriptions. On the other hand, our museums and collections
have sheltered thousands of masterpieces of ancient sculpture since the Renaissance. Surrounded bv all these models, Neoclassical sculpture was proud of its genealogy, over two
thousand years old, and held out against the modernists. Such prestige troubled the more
enlightened men. Around 1816 the confusion increased when David, seeing in London the
B.c.

marbles of the Parthenon, asked himself "if his career had not been one long misunderstanding, a permanent confusion between the truth he beheld and the life he aspired to attain," as
Elie Faure put

it.

seemed
to him the fruit of "sincerity." This did not prevent the poet from being unjust toward
Rude's Woman of Gaul in his review of the Salon of 1859 instead of "a person of grand bearing, free, powerful, with robust and untrammeled form, the strapping daughter of the
forests, the wild and warlike woman," the sculptor offered "a miserable figure whose breast,
Strangely enough, Baudelaire favored Neorealism in sculpture, perhaps because

it

sunken in." And he claimed


that the sculpture evoked for him "a dissecting table for cadavers ravaged by disease and forty
years of misery." For reasons of heart more than head, Baudelaire professed a great admiration for Clsinger, who was a proficient man but lacking in genius yet he nevertheless railed
against the sculptor's Oljmpus: "For some time now I have had all of Olympus at my heels,
and I suffer much therebv I have gods falling on my head the way other people have chimneystacks ... I can't take a step or sav a word without bumping into something pagan," And
further, with vast humor, Baudelaire questioned: "Will the god Crepitus brew us our
tisane the morning after our stupid ceremonies? Will Venus Aphrodite or Venus-For-Sale
bring relief for the maladies she will pass on to you? Will all these marble statues turn into
women to comfort vour hour of agony?
Do you drink ambrosia bouillon? Eat cutlets
from Paros? How much will the government pawnbroker lend us for a lyre?"
Stendhal often evinced contradictory feelings toward Neoclassicism. Sometimes he
showered Thorvaldsen with praise, at others he inveighed against persons who unreservedly
embraced the cult of Antiquity. He, earlier than Baudelaire, took a stand in favor of modernity "Nothing odder has ever existed than an assembly of twenty-eight million men all speaking the same language and laughing at the same thing. How long, in the arts, will our character
be buried under imitation? We, the greatest number of people that has ever existed (yes, even
after 1815), we imitate the little clans of Greece which could scarcely count two or three
million inhabitants. When shall I see a people brought up on a single understanding of the
useful and the harmful, without Hebrews, without Greeks, without Romans?" When he
wrote to Alphonse Gonselin on January 17, 1828, Stendhal saw clearly that "the art of Canova
marks the apogee of sculpture. Canova's tomb is also sculpture's tomb. The execrable statues
prove that the art has died with the great man."
Nonetheless, as late as 1839 he was still very responsive to the classical. In his correspondence he constantly proclaims "Fogelber"
B. E. Fogelberg, a name he spelled several
hips, thighs,

and

legs,

everything that should create

relief, are

18

Concerning the Swedish sculptor's


Apollo and Venus he wrote, in June of 1839, to Eugne Guinot that "the drapery is entirely in
the style of the antiquity of the Greeks the flesh passages are somewhat more finished it was
enormously difficult to render Nature, the noblest of the gods, on so elevated a level without having a resemblance to what the Ancients had done."
Neoclassical sculpture gives proof of the slow artistic evolution that took place between
1760 and 1840, a transitional period which finally showed itself to be quite negative. All
the effort made to shake off the Baroque and Rococo styles only ended, in fact, in hatching
a Neoclassicism which turned into a pseudo-naturalism before drowning at last in eclectiways

to be the greatest sculptor of his generation.

cism.

1.

JEAN-ANTOINE

Napoleon

HOUDON

Rude, the son of an

(1741-1828).

1806. Terracotta, height 20". Muse des Beaux-

I.

the teacher of Prud'hon.

Arts, Dijon
2.

PETER ANDREEVICH STAVASSER (1816-1850).

Museum, Leningrad

1849. Granite, over

lifesize.

Decorations of entrance

is

nothing uniquely Russian in

the superb material in which

this

very line

work except

PIERRE-CHARLES SLMART (1806-1857).


Jrom

Poetry.

This resolutely Neoclassical

artist

Art Beseeching Inspiration

from Devosge,

Dijon

who had been

Rude was obliged

to

bas-relief he

produced

in

JOHN FLAXMAN (1755-1826).


Petworth

the

1819-26. Marble. The National

Collection,

Sussex

a man of the eighteenth century. For


Thomas Lawrence, president of the Royal Academy,
Flaxman was a sculptor of sentiment much more than

Flaxman long remained


that Sir

said that
4.

years that

from the

Saint Michael Slaying Satan, c.

all

carved.

it is

at

1811, a year before receiving the Grand Prix for sculpture.

Trust,

porch, Palace of the Hermitage, Leningrad

There

able training, as can be seen

10.

ALEXANDER IVANOVICH TEREBENEV (1812-1859).

Atlantes.

The

Academy

spend turning out decorative work for Cartellier proved valu-

Boy Fishing (detail). 1839. Marble, entire height 46i". Russian

3.

artisan, learned his craft

the remarkable director of the

of form, the sculptor, like most of his contemporaries and

Muse des

1857. Plaster.

compatriots, was gripped by a passion for classicism.

Beaux- Arts, Troyes

in the sanctuary of the crypt

also

carved the Napoleon

behind the Emperor's tomb

in

the Church of the Invalides, Paris.


5.

LEONIDAS DROSSIS (1836-1882).

Penelope

JEAN-JACQUES Called JAMES PRADIER (1792-1852).

Muse des Beaux-Arts, Nmes


works by Pradier inspired guilty
It was said that certain
thoughts in the visitors to the Salon. The prudish critic Gustave
Planche accused the sculptor of "always lacking the sense

White marble. National Picture

(detail).

11.

Light Poetry. Marble.

Gallery,

of chastity."

Athens
Drossis followed the academic current so dear to the sculptors

of his country.

He

carved most of the statues and ornamental

motifs decorating the


6.

Academy of Arts and

Sciences in Athens.

FRANCISQUE-JOSEPH DURET (1804-1865).

Orestes, c.

his figures in the

academic

style following the

tradition of Falconet and Pigalle.


7.

SAMUEL IVANOVICH GALBERG (bom Hallberg

The Beginning of Music: Young Faun Listening


in the Reeds (detail).

Russian

Sweden;

in

to the

Murmuring

1830. Marble, entire height 59^".

in the face

little originality,

which reveals

by Sergei (see

p.

ANTONIO CANOVA (1757-1822).

that the

model,

except for something


like that for the Faun

19, 24), was not of Latin origin.

9". Pina-

critics

maintained caution

toward Canova. Henri Jouin, for one, was equivocal, first


stating that the sculptor's works would be applauded by generations

"enamored of

he not spread

his

which

beauty? His
the abyss.

wings

is

name," and then crying:


like

an eagle,

To

art

why not

"Why

does

from

light

rise

to say, from the beauty of forms to moral

flight is like that

The

art abased.

his

of the bird which wheels above

which does not arouse

please
is

is

a merit of the

noble thought

is

an

second rank, and often a

the sculptor's true mission."

JOHANN NEPOMUK SCHALLER (1777-1842).

Bellerophon Slaying the Chimera.

1821. Marble, height 6' 11".

Schaller, like

14.

VICTOR VAN HOVE (1825-1891).

Music.

Oesterreichische Galerie, Vienna

Leopold Kiesling (see

p.

19, 30),

remained an

academic, a follower of Canova.


9.

5'

coteca Comunale, Forli

danger; to elevate
8.

1795-98). Marble, height

Hebe. 1816 (original

to light,

Museum, Leningrad

Sculpture like this has

Venus of the Alameda de Osuna. 1793. Marble. Camillegas, Ala-

Throughout the nineteenth century,

1787-1839).

Wind

JUAN ADN (1741-1816).

meda de Osuna, near Madrid


13.

1833. Marble, height 25". Muse Calvet, Avignon

Duret treated

12.

1875. Marble. Royal Palace, Soestdijk (near Utrecht),

The Netherlands
15.

VACLAV PRACHNER (1784-1832).

The Moldau River. 1812. Prague

FRANOIS RUDE (1784-1855).

Prague Prachner was the earliest exponent of a Czech sculp-

Mercury Fastening his Winged Sandal. 1828 (cast 1834). Bronze,

In

height 8' 2".

ture in the style current elsewhere at the start of the century.

Muse du Louvre,

Paris

19

NEOCLASSICISM

He

carved a certain

this allegorical figure,

number of

funeral sculptures, including

monument

and also the

Thun Hohenstein (1831)

of Bishop Lon

cemetery in the Mali Strana

for the

24.

JOHAN TOBIAS SERGEL (17401814).

Stockholm
Like most Swedish

district of Prague.

artists,

Sergei did his apprenticeship in the

He

ateliers of Parisian masters.

IVAN PETROVICH MARTOS (17541835).

16.

Tomb of

Princess E.

I.

5'

height

Leningrad,

Monastery,

Museum,

Russian

6i".

more Neoclassical than


contemporaries considered him a great sculp-

of Cinova, Martos seems

Romantic. His

"Russian Canova"

and

he dominated teaching in

Russia for almost half a century.

VICTOR SIMYAN

17.

Art

Etruscan

GUSTAVE CRAUK (1827-1905).


Youth and Love. 1884. Marble. Formerly Muse du Luxem-

25.

bourg, Paris

An emulator

the

height 49".

by

Muse

Seated

Woman.

1861.

Marble,

academic career.
26.

ION GEORGESCU (1857-1899).


Spring. 1879. Bronze.

Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus Victorious.

Galleria Borghese,

Canova exercised

FERDINAND LEENHOFF (1841-1914).


hyblis. 1879. Bronze. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

wear,

as if

Museum Simu,

Bucha-

rest

The German sculptor Karl Storck (1826-1887) was the

first

to

teach courses in sculpture at the school of fine arts in Bucharest,

The

instruction remained resolutely academic

for a long time. Carrier-Belleuse, Frmiet,

carried off

all

Western world

and Ettore Ferrari

28.

ceeded to the post vacated by Storck. The harmonious and

works of the native

continued to be very Neo-

artist

of his

artists

especially for the perfection of his

workman-

manner of carving marble.

JOHAN NIKLAS BYSTRM (1783-1848).

]uno and

the Infant Hercules (Origin of the Milky

Marble, length

6'

7". National

This Swedish sculptor settled in

the commissions until, under the pressure of

public opinion alerted by younger artists, Ion Georgescu suc-

skillful

on most

Canova deserves to be classed among the great sculptors of the

with a Lance. 1882. Bronze.

in 1864.

a decisive influence

born to them, the togas and chlamyses brought back

ship and his

founded

18058. Marble,

Rome

into fashion by those nostalgic for the century of Pericles. But

ION GEORGESCU (1857-1899).

Man

Bucharest

generation. His figures, generally draped in the antique fashion,

Leenhoff, Manet's brother-in-law, carved Manet's tomb.

Young

Museum Simu,

ANTONIO CANOVA (1757-1822).

length 6' 1"

Avignon

Calvet,

student of Pradier's, this French sculptor had a successful

27.

(1826-1886).

Represented

Nymph of the

18.

19.

for

thirteen years.

Leningrad

tor

Rome

subsequently lived in

Gagarina. 1912. Bronze, copy of plaster

(1803) in the cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky

original

Museum,

33". National

1774. Marble, length

Resting Faun.

Way),

Rome

JOHN WARRINGTON WOOD (1839-1886).

The

Sisters of

Bethany. Marble, height 57". City

Mary and Martha, the

1828.

in 1810.

29.

Art Gallery, Birmingham,

c.

Museum, Stockholm

Museum and

England

sisters

of the resurrected Lazarus.

classical.

30.

rVANOVICH DEMUT-MALINOVSKY (1779-1846).

20. VASILY

The Russian Mucius Scaevola. 1813 (cast 1861). Bronze, height


8'

9^". Russian Museum, Leningrad

Horse and Horse Tamer. 1839. Bronze.

and

Venus,

Cupid.

1809-10.

One

31. JOSEPH

of four sculptured

Perseus Freeing

Andromeda. Marble (unfinished), height

The majority of Russian

Even Chinard's works,

sculptors remained unshakably academ-

classicistic to the

end of the century. The influence of

who was

Falconet can be found in Klodt,


sculptor. Tsar Nicholas

I,

who was

justly

imbued with the

a remarkable animal

proud of these two

32.

had copies

law, the king of Prussia.

The

after

1800,

like

5'

11".

Houdon's, remain

spirit of the eighteenth century.

ANDR-FRANOIS TRUPHME (1820-1888).

Lesbia's Sparrow.

pairs of horse tamers,

2".

CHINARD (1756-1813).

Muse des Beaux-Arts, Lyons

and

7'

Oesterreichische Galerie, Vienna

groups on the Anichkov Bridge, Leningrad

ic

Marble, height

This Austrian sculptor was an early follower of Canova.

KARLOVICH KLODT (1805-1867).

21. PETER

LEOPOLD KIESLING (1770-1827).

Mars,

1874. Marble, height 47". Muse des Beaux-

cast as a gift to his father-in-

Berliners quickly

named one

"Progress Shackled" and the other "Reaction Roused."

Arts, Marseilles

33.

ANTONIO CANOVA (1757-1822).

Psyche.

ALEXANDER VASILYEVICH LOGANOVSKY (1810-1855).


Boy Playing Game of Nail and Ring. 1836. Plaster, height 6' 10".
Russian Museum, Leningrad

Marble, height 59". Kunsthalle, Bremen

22.

This statue

is

based on a

poem by

34.

The

WILLIAM RINEHART (1825-1874).


Woman of Samaria. 1859-61. Marble. Walters Art

Baltimore

Pushkin.

Rinehart was born in Baltimore and worked in

Italy after

1855.

JOHANN GOTTFRIED SCHADOW (1764-1850).

23.
Girl

Reposing.

1826.

Marble,

length

37".

35.

Nationalgalerie,

Germany, sculpture remained

architecture. Berlin, Dresden, and

for long the

handmaiden of

Munich were the

art sources

for the later empire. Italian influence vied with French taste.

The
tion,

HEINRICH IMHOF (1798-1869).

Eve Before the Fall.

Berlin
In

Gallery,

art of

Schadow, the greatest German sculptor of his genera-

seems often influenced by both the Frenchman David

d'Angers and the Dane Thorvaldsen.

1865. Marble, height

6'.

Kunstmuseum,

Berne

Throughout

his career the

Swiss-German Imhof remained

convert of Thorvaldsen.
36.
Eve.

TOMS COSTA (1861-1932).


1891. Marble. Museu Nacional de Arte Contempornea,

Lisbon

20

Without achieving the

Antonio Soars dos Reis

was technically an excellent sculptor.

(see p. 45, 8), Costa

37.

originality of

CHARLES-HENRI-JOSEPH CORDIER (1827-1905).

Muse de Douai
This is an early work; Cordier later became interested in
making sculptures of the different types of the human race (see
407, 7,8; p. 408,

38. JOS siMOES

Woman

Greek

d'almida (1844-1926).

Preparing to Enter Her Bath. 1835. Marble, height

interesting for the Hellenistic expression of the

is

and also for the "stage props"

these suggest the histori-

cizing taste for effective detail that

is

of Art,

Of

New

this fine

is

Museum

10". Metropolitan

York

American

artist,

lived and died in

severe. Powers'

"he ran
Florence." The judg-

Andr Michel

original-

ity.

ALEXANDRE SCHOENWERK (1820-1885).


Morning. 1879. Marble, height 39". Muse de
Amiens

In the

The Oracle

(d.

56".

height

Muses Royaux des

Neoclassical school

scarcely conspicuous for

is

good sculptors

1837), Jan Calloigne (d. 1830), or A.

men

(see p.

Salon exhibitor from 1840 to 1857, Deligand later entered

Ruxthiel

(d.

1866),

were, in general, boring.

DUPR (1817-1882).

Sappho Abandoned. 1857. Marble, height 55^". Galleria Nazio-

Modema, Rome

Giovanni Dupr, an

Italian sculptor

whose

born

in Siena

art oscillated

of French

between

He himself strove to
who worked around him renounce their

banal classicism and a lukewarm realism.

make

Auxerre

like

Ven

255, 38), from realizing works

parents, had as teacher Cambi,

1855. Marble, height 57". Muse d'Art

j.

its

inspired fundamentally by their great predecessor Gilles-

Lambert Godecharle

nale d'Arte

DELIGAND (1815-1874).

in the Fields.

et d'Histoire,

The Belgian

47. GIOVANNI
Picardie,

French sculptor, very popular during the Second Empire.


41. LOUIS-AUGUSTE

Marble,

1839.

as elegant as they

40.

Thodore

Beaux-Arts, Brussels

said that

works have an indisputable

as

LOUIS-EUGNE SI.MONIS (1810-1882).

originality. This did not prevent

away from himself and

ment

5'

later in certain

and Art Nouveau sculptors, such

Orientalist

Innocence.

POWERS (1805-1873).

found

Rivire (see p. 362, IS).


46.

Marble, height

in

53". Muse Calvet, Avignon

face,

imagination.

California. 1858.

mark
Germany

of a

45. JEAN-JOSEPH ESPERCIEUX (1758-1840).

The work

pi. X).

Museu Nacional de Arte Contempornea, Lisbon


Almeida, like his colleagues Elias Robert (Dom Pedro IV, Lisbon) and Alberto Munes, was a good craftsman ungifted with

HIRA.M

much

on Dannecker, who was one of the best sculptors

Puberty. 1877.

39.

too

left

at the start of the century.

Water Nymph. 1853. Marble.

p.

from Pajou often

lessons he received

the sculptors

taste for

grandiloquence. His

work

is

free of overemphasis

and

exemplifies his talent for making his personages human, and he

holy orders.

steered a course between Neoclassicism and a kind of natu42. CHARLES-ANTOINE


Innocence

Warming a

CALLAMARD (1776-1821).

Viper in

ralism.

Her Bosom. 1806. Marble, height


48. PIERRE-JEAN DAVID Called DAVID d'angers (1788-1856).

51". Muse National du Palais de Compigne

There

is

Monument

another copy of this work in the Louvre, Paris

to

43. JEAN-BAPTISTE-PAUL CABET (1815-1876).


The Awakening oj Spring. 1868. Marble, height 6' 6".

des Beaux- Arts,

Completed 1824, inaugurated 1833. Mar-

Racine.

ble, height 6' 7".

U Fert-Milon

The inauguration of this

Muse

birthplace,

Dijon

student of Rude's and his successor after his master's death.

49.

is

statue,

on the porch of the playwright's

described on page 78.

HERMAN VILHELM

BISSEN (1798-1868).

Thorvaldsen Leaning on the Statue oJ Hope. 1839. Marble, height

44.

JOHANN HEINRICH VON DANNECKER (1758-1841).

Ariadne Riding on a Panther.

1803. Terracotta (preparatory

6' 6".

Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen

This statue demonstrates the admiration

felt

by the Danes for

model), height 11^". Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart

their illustrious compatriot Thorvaldsen, and at the

The composition of the work is quite astonishing: a nude


woman, to enjoy better some sight that seems to fascinate her,
balances on the back of a panther whose expression is rather
that of a large grinning tomcat than of a wild animal. The

a certain casualness

toward Neoclassical

was to turn to more modernist

ideals

art.

museum, or Glyptotek,

at

Soon Denmark

under the happy impulse

of the wealthy industrialist Carl Jacobsen,


sculpture

same time

Ny

who founded

the

Carlsberg in 1888.

\
I

10

11

13

15

17

18

19

20

23

24

25

26

27

28

liiBte

-^^;

--:;,

-;^,V.

i^.

-f

39

40

44

47

ROMANTICISM

2.

A Romantic who has


Which

is

learned his art becomes classical.

why Romanticism ended up

in the Parnassian

movement.

PAUL VALRY

Writers end

like Baudelaire or Gautier,

in the

who attempted

to define

Romanticism, learned

that the difficulty consists in fixing the limits of the irrational. Instead

of trying to clarify the structures, they settled for re-experiencing

Romanticism for some was

its

a devastating cyclone, for others a cleansing

effects

and be-

neficent breeze.

Thus

it is

simpler to seek out the presence of Romanticism in a particular

work

of

sculpture than to state outright that a particular sculptor was really a Romantic, "an artist
who, in bringing into being his real self," says Luc Benoist in his La Sculpture romantique^

"succeeds in conserving his original personality instead of borrowing, as an academic does, an


ancient form which imprisons him and blocks his normal development." Stendhal used
this

meaning

to define the

Romantic

artist.

not always easy for our contemporaries, who in their way are somewhat mannered
Romantics, to judge the work and motivations of an artist who lived a mere fifty years ago.
True, our psychological and visual sensibility as well as our political and social conceptions
have evolved considerably since the days of July, 1830; the Romantic revolution did not correspond, in the minds of its instigators, with the notion we have of a modern revolution. For
It is

this

we

reason

are constantly surprised at finding that the sculptors called Romantics (the

one need only think of Balzac and Hugo) were, for the most part, defenders
of the throne and of religion. Felicie de Fauveau, who dreamed only of crushing the sons of
the revolutionaries and winning back the throne for the count of Chambord, was always
considered a Romantic sculptor. Perhaps it would be more accurate to classify certain sculp-

writers also

tors
life

among

the folkloristic or history-minded, those

around them the degree of supernatural that


In the special case of sculpture,

we

it

exercise

who were

incapable of distilling from the

conceals.
still

greater caution in accepting certain

Romantic, though they were considered so in their time; to our eyes, conditioned
by abstract art, they seem ponderous, often solemn, productions.
The gulf that separates so-called Romantic sculpture from painting is caused by the
choice of subject and, even more, by its "execution." Delacroix needed only a brush, some
paint, and a canvas to produce his Liberty Leading the People; Rude, creating his Marseillaise
from a number of blocks of stone (see p. 45, /), had to overcome innumerable technical
problems. Moreover, from the instant that a different hand, that of the assistant, intervenes
between the sculptor and his material, the artist's creative drive is in danger of being hampered. If this process occurs in an academic piece the artist's standard methods will suffice.
But what about the moment of creative passion, blocked by too many obstacles?

works

as

who

does not always seem at ease in judging sculpture, often revealed contradictory feelings in which his visual habits appear to clash with his poetical sensibilities. Thus
Baudelaire,

shown

enthusiasm over Bosio's Young Indian Girl at the Salon of 1845


(p. 47, 42), the following year he reversed his opinion and judged such pseudo-Romantic
statuary with great lucidity: "Romanticism does not rest precisely in the choice of subjects

after having

lively

41

42

nor

in exact veracity, but in the

manner of

feeling.

For

the most timely expression of the Beautiful. ...

To

art

that

is,

inwardness, spirituality,

me Romanticism

is

Romanticism
color, aspiration toward the infinite
say

the most recent,

is

modem

to say

expressed by

all

the means that obtain to the arts."

Well before the end of the eighteenth century in France, Neoclassicism already carried the
seeds of Romanticism. The monarchy was in power, but the police chief and the censor,
deprived of real authority, were both incapable of perceiving that the immoderate enthusiasm
shown by His Majesty's subjects for ancient Rome its monuments, its svmbols of power,
and

its

tribunes

might

ultimately conceal subversive and republican ideas.

translated everything into symbolic terms up to the days of the Revolution,

deference to the King and to the court nobles and city gentlemen
out protest, the bills of their tradesmen, painters, or sculptors.

Between 1760 and 1790 Falconet and then Houdon began


their sitters to

come through:

Falconet's Samuel Bernard

who

If
it

the artists

was

in final

continued to pay, with-

to allow the personalities of

thoughtful, racked with care over

is

the exchange rate of the franc; Houdon's Voltaire smiles, quizzically and without illusions,

witness of the silliness of the society in power. But

was not yet the time to discern the


stirrings of the soul. David d'Angers, in his profiles and busts, brought out the charming side
of his sitters. Only Daumier (a moralist, like Goya) would go beyond that, piercing the
faades of his sitters, laying bare whatever was atrocious, vile, or pitiful in men corrupted by
ambition or wealth.
The Romantic sculptors vied with the painters and engravers in reconstituting the appearance of mythical or historical heroes. When Rude, Bosio, or Triqueti decided to represent deceased monarchs, they claimed to have rediscovered the proper expressions and
appearance, thanks to descriptions in literature or legend. The artists' ambition was to produce in noble materials an image that would fulfill the current idea of these heroes. The day
after Frmiet's Joan of Arc was inaugurated, the press discussed seriously the resemblance of
the bronze face to that of the seven-centuries-dead heroine Frmiet, in fact, is still acclaimed
as the artist who best succeeded in recapturing her true likeness.
If certain sculptors, following the Restoration in 1814, began to show weariness in maintaining Antiquity, neither did they enter with passionate enthusiasm into the daily spectacle
around them. Lagging behind the painters as usual, the sculptors sought instead to reproduce
the new myths needed by the new bourgeois society. Seduced by a certain taste for the
out-of-the-way and wishing to be illustrators of the fashionable novelists, they could not help
carving idealized figures. How many Romantics, or those who wished to be, failed to recognize that the truly supernatural is ultimately within the grasp of anyone capable of recognizing
Was it not for this reason that many sculpit in the simplest acts and images of everyday life
tors, rather than visualizing the virtues of liberty or the fate of the workers on the basis of real
life, found it more elegant, and perhaps less compromising, to continue to express themselves with the help of allegories? It is equally possible that some Romantics, fearful of being
chose
a breed Baudelaire despised
relegated to the ranks of the populists or naturalists
deliberately to express themselves through precious and paltry artifices.
The end of Neoclassicism tolled the knell of paganism in art. Contrary to what happened
under the Ancien Rgime, when a society apparently submissive to the power of the Church
reveled in pagan imagery, the bourgeois society that grew out of the Revolution dismissed
Antique iconography as an outdated exercise. The Romantics finally revealed themselves as
more Christian than those of the previous century. The alliance of religion with the Romantic
ideal had effects on the historical taste painters and sculptors preferred Christian heroes to
heroes of Antiquity and austere Roman senators. The sons of the Revolution were enthusiastic
it

ROMANTICISM

43

about virtuous and exemplary personages who could satisfy both moralistic as well as middleclass ideals and David d'Angers announced that an artist's genius depended on his "virtues,
David d'Angers believed in the national mission of sculpture: "Every work of sculpture
is a witness. Whether it be witness to a living idea, to facts preserved by history, to beliefs
practiced, to customs, poetry, or dress, the work of sculpture must sum up, in some way,
the genius of a nation." At the request of the State or of the municipalities, sculptors turned

of the heroic Roland, of Franois Villon, Joan of Arc, Jacques Coeur,


and Etienne Marcel, each symbolizing liberty and liberalism, that is to say a certain "pro-

out multiple

effigies

gressive" state of mind.

The

sculptors

made themselves

the choristers of the national virtues.

of glorifying civil and military courage.

very

moment

They

of gunfire or of receiving the

seized Marshal

fatal bullet;

They took charge

Ney or General Grard

in the

mouths
eyes hollowed

the cavalry charges, their

howls to give themselves courage the dying choke cheeks sunk in,
in bedclothes rumpled with sweat. In connection with this come changes in the rendering of
physical suffering. Suffering, in the classical period, is noble: Laocoon and his sons agonize
in the stylized manner of Japanese Kabuki actors. With the Romantics, death takes place on
stage: gestures evoke pathos, even drama; a man reaches for his sword, a woman for poison

open

in

or the serpent's fangs.

Clothing and nudity became the subject of quarrels

as virulent as

those which formerly divided

The evidence of statues made between 1780 and 1830 emphasizes


the evolution of costume, showing the importance of those transformations on the social
plane. Earlier, under pressure from public opinion, Clodion had modified the classical drapery worn by his Montesquieu, replacing it with the magistrate's usual robe. The Romantics
the Ancients and Moderns.

repudiated the idea of reviving the traditional realism inherited from the eighteenth century
what Luc Benoist calls the "historical vein"
which was separated into two systems: in the

one even togas were removed from the statues in the other the figures were allowed breeches
or drawers, like those of the dragoon by Charles-Louis Corbet or, for the soldiers on the Arc
du Carrousel, heavy standard-issue cloaks and high boots it was the baron Gros transformed
;

into sculpture.

Even more than the

Anglo-Saxons showed a taste for the nude. Westmacott,


the author of the colossal bronze statue in Hyde Park in honor of the Duke of Wellington, did
not hesitate to portray the general nude, "like Achilles," despite London's inclement skies.
The figure is eighteen feet high upon a granite pedestal twice as high it was cast from the
metal of twelve cannon wrested from the enemy at the battles of Salamanca, Vitoria, and
Waterloo, David d'Angers, considered the paragon of Romanticism by his contemporaries,
found it far from easy to choose between the two alternatives, and his notes reveal his dilemma: "In reality the ideal would be to strip one's models of the garments that are only aids to
human infirmity; their sole purpose is to protect the body against the intemperateness of
outdoor air, and of this the human soul has no need,"
After declaring that the Ancients, who carved for eternity, represented their great
men nude, just as they came from the Creator's hand, David d'Angers modifies his remark
with a pinch of common sense "The needs of industry, which produces a continual supply of
new fashions, will plead the cause of the artist better than any other reason. The execution of
a statue takes two years. Fashion, during that period, will have changed several times. I
appreciate perfectly that painters render exactly the accessories of costume. They have the
right to inventory everything the resources that color puts into their hands authorize them
to vie with reality. But the sculptor, restricted to the monochrome material of marble which
renders so well the pallor of death, cannot pretend to the imitation of life."
Latins, the

44

But then the Romantic reappears in him, and he concludes: "The modeled work is an
apotheosis. What a sculptor must seek is the soul; what he must express are the luminosities
with which that soul illuminates itself, the great deeds it has done which have earned for the
person depicted the admiration of the ages."
In David d'Angers' proposition, laving down a number of rules, we realize to what extent
academicism was still present, dissimulated but readv to resume its powers. The intentions

seem ridiculous to us today had been expressed a hundred and fifty years
before by Felibien and Roger de Piles. He continues: "I should like to have certain rules set
up for the depiction of great men. Full-length standing portraits should wear the clothing of
of the sculptor that

men

their epoch, while

sometimes

of higher genius should be nude;

execute in

this, it

may be

said in passing,

is

century of ours, with gastronomy plaving so


role. Imperfect physiques, in consequence of a good table, do not go well with drapery

large a

difficult to

this refined

Grand Manner the ludicrous costume of the modern is better suited to those deformities. The sculptor can represent men of learning, poets, artists, and orators either nude or
draped, A skillfully chosen accessory, by indicating what distinguishes the person, permits us
to designate the epoch in which he lived. In any case, that fact counts for little in the image of
genius the genius has no age, he labors for all the human race." The question of the toga or
redingote remained until the time of Carpeaux a point of discord among academics, Neoin the

classicists,

and Romantics.

Bas-relief seemed to provide

requires on the edifice

Romantic

art

with

its

best

means of expression. The modest space

designed to decorate permits the sculptor to feign conformation


with academic principles while using his personal expressive means to assert, in a reserved
way, his taste for the modem style. Relief was given importance on monuments such as the

it

it is

Arc de Triomphe in the Etoile, the church of the Madeleine, and the Panthon, and it was
customary to entrust the larger work to an academic and decorated architect but to leave the
carving of the relief decoration to young sculptors like Rude or Barye. From this curious
alliance
the Marseillaise of Rude, an essentially Romantic work seemingly plastered onto the
fundamentally classical Arc de Triomphe
there soon arose the Eclectic style.

Henri Jouin in his Esthtique du sculpteur, written almost thirty years after the birth of
Impressionism, continued to insist that "the goal of art is the manifestation of the Beautiful,
that therein lies its essential and higher goal, that the Beautiful is in no way separable from
the Good, the two forming a unity." For Jouin, who curiously enough was the biographer of
David d'Angers which introduces even greater caution with respect to Romantic sculpture
"the sculptor is not free to invent a form. Imagine a strange hippogriff. Replace the winged
horse by the body of a reptile, the griffon's head by that of a leopard, and you will have produced a monster of no known species. Hoffmann will describe it, Callot and Gavarni will record it in drawings no sculptor will be able to model it."

At the end of a chapter devoted to Romantic sculpture, one has the right to ask if people were
to judge today most of the pieces carved or cast between 1820 and 1850, would these be found
not Romantic in style but Neoclassical works that had been adapted to the use of a bourgeois
public which enjoyed being accused of Romanticism. At the least, if deciding to place no limit
on Romanticism, one must admit that Carpeaux, the Symbolists, and even Rodin were the
real representatives of the movement. This would lead to the conclusion that Romantic
sculpture disappeared at the very

moment when

and the Expressionists, appeared on the scene.

Maillol and the Parnassians,

Bourdelle

ROMANTICISM

FRANOIS RUDE (1784-1855).

1.

bronze cast by

The Marseillaise: The Departure of the Voluriteers in 1792. 183336.

Stone, height 42'.

Arc de Triomphe, Place de

l'toile, Paris

Luc Benoist reports that "when Rude had his wife pose for the
vociferating figure of the Marseillaise he ordered her to scream
louder, louder

still

at

the same time that he was losing his

model and the


modern temperament expressed itself freely

yardstick, he was upsetting the

theories, and his

despite the An-

tique trophies of arms."

Here not only the

4S

height 51".

drama, but also

weapons and the cloth of their garments. Lines of force


one flows from the right through the
are differently drawn
sword held by the warrior to the left elbow of the young
their

exhibited at Salon of 1867. Bronze,

Muse du Louvre,

This statue was hailed in

Paris

1831 by the Romantic

perfect example of what the

new

critics as

own

the

should be.

art of sculpture

Unfortunately its author, yielding to his

turned

facility,

toward academic conformism.


8.

ANTONIO SOARS DOS

REIS (1847-1889).

1872-74. Marble. Museu Nacional de Soars dos

The Exile.
Reis,

figures join in the national

Chamod

F.

Oporto

Dying prematurely
counts

among

fortv-two,

at

Portuguese

this

The

the best of his century.

sculptor

subject

treated

is

here in the freest manner, and the various physical elements

have an admirable naturalness.

combatant, climaxing in the helmet brandished by the central


chieftain

the

and seem linked together

to reinforce the action of

9.

JOHAN PETER .MOLIN (1814-1873).

The

sword wielded by the Amazon from Marseilles.

Fighters.

Bronze.

1867.

Outside entrance to National

Museum, Stockholm
2.

RICHARD W'ESTMACOTT (1775-1856).


The Dream of Horace. 1823. Marble. The National Trust, the

This superb and truly Romantic group was executed in 1859 in

Petworth Collection, Sussex

cient Scandinavian duel, the adversaries belted together and

Returning from

Rome

Westmacott proved

in 1797,

one

to be

of the most exemplary products of the training of Canova.


received

many important commissions, such

as the

He

tomb of the

duke of Montpensier in Westminster Abbey, and a share in the

Arch

sculptural decorations of the Marble

Buckingham Palace, now


3.

in

Hyde

originally before

Park.

Marble,

11

18".

Muse des Beaux-Arts, Dijon


This

is

1865,

Edmond and

telling

me

that

Jules de

Concourt wrote: "Frmiet was

Rude amused himself by putting

beautiful horse's head

alongside the

by Phidias the head of a coach horse,

and pointing out that they were one and the same, except that
the coach horse's head was even
4.

more

beautiful."

to

Rudolf Ludwig Jenner.

10.

relief

below

is

one

ANTONIO CANOVA (1757-1822).

Flercules

and

Lichas.

1812-16

(original

11' 6". Galleria Nazionale d'Arte

1796). Marble, height

Modema, Rome

in the impossible so well that

whole seems an intermingling of the pleated

cloth, the wrinkles, and the skin.

ANTOINE-LOUIS BARYE (1796-1875).

Theseus and the .Minotaur.

184952. Bronze. Collection Alain

Lesieutre, Paris

Delacroix held Barye to be the most eminent of Romantic

work he

sculptors. In this

represents the combat of mythical

rather than actual creatures.


12.

1806. Terracotta, height

RIC.ARDO BELLVER (1845-1929).

Retire, Madrid

This altogether Romantic

18^". Historical Museum, Basel

The

The Fallen Archangel. 1876. Bronze fountain statue. Park of EI

JOHANN VALENTIN SONNENSCHEIN (1749-1828).

Monument

represents a form of an-

of four, with runic inscriptions from the Edda.

11.

an early work. Later, in their journal for February 17,

It

fighting to the death with short knives.

at first sight the

1811.

a Bull.

Sacrificing

Nuremberg.

Here Canova dares and succeeds

FRANOIS RUDE (17841855).

Winged Genius

Paris and later cast in

natural mass, imposing in proportion cind almost abstract,

serves here to accentuate the dramatic effect.

work

is

entirely

worthy of

Bellver,

one of the most original Spanish sculptors of the century.


13.

ANTOINE TEX (1808-1888).

Cain and His Race Cursed by God. 1832-39. Marble, height 6'
5.

DAMIAN CAMPENY Y ESTRANY (1771-1855).

9". Muse des Beaux-Arts, Lyons

Dying Lucretia. Model 1803, completed 1834. Marble. Aca-

demia de

Casa Lonja, Barcelona

Bellas Artes,

The veristic aspect of this


works of Campeny who,

Lucretia sets

like

it

Baudelaire said of tex,

who

carved Resistance and Peace decorat-

ing one face of the Arc de Triomphe,

apart from the other

most Spanish sculptors of

generation, remained faithful to the principles laid

his

down by

able to bring his

was very

that

works to completion, and

"he was never


if his

conception

felicitous, quite considerable parts always

mar

the

whole."

the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid.


14.
6.

STEFAN IONESCO VALBUDEA (1865-1918).

Michael the Madman. 1885. Bronze.

Valbudea studied

first in

Muzeul de Art, Bucharest

"he inaugurated the Romantic


work he expressed

current within Rumanian sculpture. In his

the revolt, extreme tension, paroxysm, and suffering of the

human drama. The forms

A
in

7.

are exalted, agitated, and tormented.

pessimism steeped in bitterness emerges from these sculp-

tures

which express the disharmony of the

artist

and the world

which he had to live."


JEAN DU SEIGNEUR (1808-1866).

Orlando Furioso.

Plaster

model exhibited

Arte

Salon of 1831:

Museo de

Modemo, Madrid

Inspiration, choice of subject, everything conspires in the success of this

monument

dedicated to those

ish

independence.

15.

EMILE-JOSEPH CARLIER (1849-1927).

Gilliat in the Coils

who

fought for Span-

of the Octopus. 1890. Marble. Formerly

Muse

du Luxembourg, Paris

The hero of Hugo's Les Travailleurs de la mer (1866), represented


in an episode of superhuman struggle.
16.

at

CUBERO (1768-1827).

The Defense oj Saragassa. 1823. Marble, height 6' 7".

the atelier of Karl Storck and, accord-

ing to lonel jianou's Brancusi,

JOS ALVAREZ

MATHIAS KESSELS (1884-1936).

The Deluge.

1836. Painted plaster, height 7' 1". Muses Roy-

46

aux des Beaux- Arts, Brussels

diverse works, one senses an intelligence or rather a tempera-

good example of a statue that is Neoclassical and


Romantic at the same time. During his lifetime Kessels enjoyed

ment always on

This

is

success in Belgium comparable to that of Thorvaldsen in

Denmark. At

government purchased the

his death the Belgian

contents of his atelier for the Brussels

museum.

ANTOINE AUGUSTIN PRAULT (1810-1879).


1876. Bronze, length 6' 7". Muse des Beaux-Arts,

25.

Ophelia.

An

admirable work, pointing to the future

ANDR-JOSEPH ALLAR (1845-1926).


The Death of Alceste. Marble. Formerly Muse du Luxembourg,

finest

Paris

26. PIERRE

works date

in the last quarter of the

nineteenth

ADRIANO CECIONI (1838-1886).

Ue

Suicide.

Modema,

1865-67. Gesso, height

7'

1".

1850. His Suicide, Mother, and

Bojr with

Cock are veri-

masterpieces.

Waiting. 1906. Marble, height 44".

This Belgian sculptor studied also in Paris.

The

Anna Marie Graves.

to

1819.

JOHANN JAKOB OECHSLIN (1802-1873).


Blind Belisarius. Museum zu Allerheiligen,

Schafifhausen,

Switzerland

Marble.

Waterperry

(Oxfordshire)

Swiss sculptor, Oechslin studied with Dannecker and Thor-

valdsen.

Chantrey's preciosity

only equaled by that of Pradier or

is

swooned before his statues


and funerary monuments. Certain of his works were cast in
bronze in thousands of copies. He left his immense fortune to
the Royal Academy, and the income from the Chantrey Bequest
Bosio. For half a century England

served to create the


as the

Muses Royaux des Beaux-

Arts, Brussels

28.

FRANCIS CHANTREY (1781-1842).

Monument

DE BRAEKELEER (1823-1906).

27. JACQUES

Florence

Italy after

palaces in Paris.

Galleria d'Arte

and from the pompous realism that was rampant throughout

museum

Millbank in London,

at

now

Tate Gallery.

29.

The

AUGUSTE-HYACINTHE DEBAY (18041865).


1845. Plaster, height 50". Muse des Beaux-

First Cradle, c.

Arts, Angers

Eve holding the


first in

30.

and Abel. Debay was

infants Cain

a prodigy,

painting, and after about 1823, in sculpture.

JOHANN GOTTFRIED SCHADOW (17641850).

The Princesses Luisa and Friederike. 1793. Marble, height S' 8".

ANTONIO CANOVA (1757-1822).

20.

Museum, Mer

Loison made sculptures for

student of David d'Angers,

numerous churches and

Cecioni succeeded in keeping his distance from academicism

known

LOISON (1816-1880).

The Young Convalescent. Salon of 1857. Marble.

A
18.

19.

announces the

it

Pre-Raphaelite and Art Nouveau sculptures.

(Loir-et-Cher)

century.

table

has the love of sculpture

in his guts."

Marseilles

17.

Allar's principal

man who

the alert, a

Nationalgalerie, Berlin (East)

The Repentant Magdalen. 1796, signed and dated. Marble, height

37".

Bianco,

Palazzo

Genoa

The

artist, a sensualist

Sergei,

21.

thou blessed"

Monument

to

Agnes Cromwell. 1800. Marble.

Of Flaxman, David d'Angers wrote: "Nature


and accentuated

making of

style.

in

art

stays in his

when he
22.

well understood,

her sentiment, leads quite simply to the

Flaxman lacked that nervous

gives certain artists the intuition of

who made

life.

with his head, like Poussin

sphere when he

strove "to

sensitivity

He was

which

philosopher

except

that Poussin

paints, while

Flaxman leaves

his

stops drawing."

31. LOUIS-ERNEST

The First Funeral.

Galleria d'Arte

AUGUSTE CLSINGER (18141883).


1847. Marble, length 31". Muse du

The model the sculptor's wife writhes on her bed of pain.


The success of this work was immense, and Baudelaire's criticism was unusually indulgent. His praises of the artist were

more temperate at the Salon of 1859 when he wrote "What a


devil of a man is Monsieur Clsinger The finest thing one can
:

on

his

account

1883. Marble, height 7' 1".

is

that

on seeing

Petit Palais,

figure,

transitional

succeeded

in

with liveliness

passing

finally, to

Art Nouveau.

SINDING (1846-1922).

Woman
S'

Carrying Her Dead Son from Battle. 188389.

11". Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo

in this

work.

JEAN-PIERRE HUGUENIN (1802-1860).

Charles VI Succored by Odette

this facile

production of such

de

Salon of 1839.

Champdivers.

Marble. Muse de Peinture, Dole


34.

ANTOINE CHAUDET (1763-1810).

Young Oedipus Brought Back

(1841-1905).

33.

of two, the other being Cain.

Louvre, Paris

say

BARRIAS

Romanticism, realism, and naturalism are admirably blended

1842. Bronze, length 7' 3".

by a Snake.

in

bear the body of their dead son, Abel. Barrias,

32. STEFAN

GIOVANNI DUPR (1817-1882).

Woman Bitun

sum up

Adam and Eve

Marble, height

24. JEAN-BAPTISTE Called

so as to

Paris

Barbarian

Modema, Florence
This work is part of a group

group that he

this

infinite variety of the expressions that pass across

This relief was Bastos' earliest exhibited work.

The Dead Abel.

about

said

a face."

Cholera Morbus. 1856. Marble. Castello da Pena, Cintra

23.

Houdon and

his generation to declare himself

He

from Neoclassicism to Realism, and

VICTOR BASTOS (1832-1894).

influences of

combine resemblance and grace

one aspect the

Chichester (Sussex)

Cathedral,

was one of the few of

against classical costume.

JOHN FLAXMAN (1755-1826).

"Come

marked by the

to

Life

by

the

Shepherd Phorbas.

model 1799, marble completed posthumously, height


Muse du Louvre, Paris
A man of the Ancien Rgime and subsequently a Canovian
academic, Chaudet had everything it took to please Napoleon
Plaster
6' 5".

I.

In 1810, at the decennial competition, he

the best sculptor in treating heroic subjects.

was proclaimed

ROMANTICISM

LAURENT (bom 1868).


Marble. Muse Municipal, Vendme

47

THORVALDSEN (1770-1844).

35. PIERRE-ANTOINE

43. BERTEL

Hero and Leander.

Hylas Stolen bj the Njmphs. 1831. Marble, 15^

Museum, Copenhagen
among the

valdsen

ALEXANDER MUNRO (1825-1871).

36.

Ranked

Paolo and Francesca. 1852. Marble, height 26".

Museum

City

and Art Gallery, Birmingham (England)

genius of Thorvaldsen consisted above

James Watt

Birmingham. Munro was important for the

Pre-Raphaelites.

DIEUDONN (1795-1873).
of 1853. Marble. Muse Fabre, Mont-

37. JACQUES-AUGUSTIN

common

method of work most


overwhelmed with commissions, Thorvaldsen modeled

with the Renaissance craftsmen but


times,

Salon

sculptors, the

all

in satisfying the pride

all

Actually, he had nothing in

him with Michelangelo.

Paradise Lost.

Thor-

of his contemporaries who, in return, were pleased to compare

A Scottish sculptor, Munro also carved the statue of


in Ratcliff Place,

greatest of

in his lifetime

X 29f'

his

maquette of the proposed monument and turned over to

work

helpers the

his

of cutting the marble.

44. CHARLES BELL BIRCH (1832-1893).

pellier

Wood Nymph. 1864. Marble and ceramic. Private collection,

vAcLAV MYSLBEK (1848-1922).

38. JOSEF

Ctirad and Sarka. c. 1881

London

Bronze, height 30". Narodni Gallery,

Prague

Birch learned sculpture in England, and studied also with Rauch

Germany.

in

long and

full life

enabled Myslbek, the greatest Czechoslovak

remarkably the evolution of sculpture

sculptor, to reflect

An

the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

in

episode

from the famous Bohemian legend of Sarka, the heroic queen


of ancient times.

45. CHRISTIAN

FREUND (1821-1900).

Picking Flowers.

1848-54. Marble, height 27^".

seum

for

Kunst,

46. BERTEL

Mu-

Statens

Copenhagen

THORVALDSEN (1770-1844).

Angel Holding a Holy-Water Basin. 1839. Marble, height 50".

CHATROUSSE (1829-1896).

39. EMILE

and Ahlard Reading Together:

Hlo'ise

Church of Our Lady, Copenhagen


The Seduaion.

Vendme

1859. Marble. Muse Municipal (Abbey cloister),

Salon of

pupil of Rude, Chatrousse was a critic as well as a sculptor.

40. ERASTUS

DOW

PALMER (1817-1904).

David d'Angers wrote: "Thorvaldsen, being

pure

Classicist,

was extremely reserved and calm, and allowed movement

in

work to only a slight degree. He subordinated gesture


to the harmony of lines, and their arrangement concerned
him far more than the expression itself."
his

The White Captive. 1859. Marble, height 5' 6". Metropolitan

Museum

of Art,

New York

Palmer started out

carpenter. After learning sculpture, he

as a

carved funeral and religious


his

works

York.

He

ton Fish,

47.

monuments, and

1865 exhibited

in

Church of Divine Unity in New


number of works for the statesman Hamil-

in the hall of the

created a

among them

this

nude and bound maiden personifying

a popular tale of the sufferings of white

women

captured by the

EDWARD HODGES

Baily, a pupil of

41. ANDR-FRANOIS

took part

Young Girl

at the Spring.

Beaux-Arts,

1867. Marble, height 55".

Muse des

Lyons
BOSIO (1769-1845).

statue of Nelson
is

by

on the top of the column (1843)

Calvet,

The

Muse

Avignon

EDWARD HODGES

BAILY (1788-1867).

Eve at the Fountain. 1855. Marble. City Art Gallery, Bristol

A decidedly

mediocre work hailed

better the aesthetic problems that assailed an artist

who was

talented but without genius. David d'Angers was severe toward

the older master:

"Bosio sculpts

stammer express themselves


a faultless torso

as

he

then their tongue

easily at first,

when

jects

show

certainly a very pretty piece, but

and

this

it is

but he has no

to say of the

it

lacks

"The

somewhat

in

annoying that M. Bosio does not regularly

us pieces as complete as the one in the


his magnificent bust of the

in the

6' 5^".

Paris

in

1824 he received

a scholarship

from the

arts

fund of Maine-

et-Loire and acquired the rudiments of his future profession.

Maindron

first

learned

wood

sculpture, then stone, and then

entered the atelier of David d'Angers. Here the subject


druid
(1809).

princess

from

Vellda,

A Romantic who

Maindron was one of the

lived
first

Chateaubriand's

Les

is

the

Martyrs

on into the time of Naturalism,

to encourage Rodin's early efforts.

50.

LORENZO BARTOLINI (1777-1850).

Milan

bourg or

now

Muse du Louvre,

without thought." Baudelaire had

is

as a masterpiece.

model 1839; marble 1869-70, height

Faith in God. 1835. Marble, height 36".

originality,

time

MAINDRON (1801-1884).

wherefore the only things he has executed well are sub-

Young Indian Girl in his review of the Salon of 1845:

work

its

degree of feeling becomes neces-

sary. This artist has the instinct for fine pieces,


;

who

he worries while carving the head and almost

always breaks off just

soul

People

talks.

you hear only unconnected words. Bosio makes


;

in

Although Maindron's parents wished him to go into commerce,

dates of Bosio's birth and death permit us to understand

gets tangled and

in Trafalgar

Baily.

Vellda. Plaster

Young Indian Girl. Salon of 1845. Marble, height 27^".

success at the Salon of

execution of the faades of Buckingham Palace,

in the

49. TIENNE-HIPPOLYTE
42. FRANOIS-JOSEPH

first

and the groups on the south side of the Marble Arch. The

48.

TRUPHME (1820-1888).

Flaxman, had his

1817. Specializing in decorative and monumental sculpture, he

Square

Indians.

BAILY (1788-1867).

Young Girl Sleeping. 1859. Marble. City Art Gallery, Bristol

Muse du Luxem-

Queen"

{Marie-Amlie,

Muse de l'Htel Lallemant, Bourges).

Florentine sculptor

who was

Bartolini was a disciple of


for ten years in Paris

Museo Poldi

Pezzoli,

highly appreciated in his day,

Canova and Thorvaldsen. He lived

where he collaborated on the

sculptural

Vendme Column. Baudelaire considered


consummate master of his craft, and in reviewing the
Salon of 1845 he said of his Nymph with Scorpion: "Because of

decoration of the

him

48

qualities

somewhat

among our own


and grace, we consider M.

forgotten

notably taste, nobility,

works to be the outstanding piece


51.

JEAN-LOUIS VERAY

Sleeping Reaper.

(bom

in the salon

sculptors,
Bartolini's

of sculpture."

his

5'

6".

-Muse Calvet,

57.

5'

5". Galleria d'Arte

Fantacchiotti's success brought his

ambition was to be the singer in stone of the Nordic

10".

work

Moderna, Turin

as tar

away

of Jacques Coeur,

of his generation. Perhaps this explains

him

so vindictively.

Pariahs in 1834, and later the

ERNEST HIOLLE (1834-1886).

Ei-e.

Salon of 1883. Marble.

Muse des Beaux-Arts, Troves

Thophile Thor hailed him

HIRAM POWERS (1805-1873).


The Greek Slave. Clay model 1843; numerous marble editions,
this one 1869; height 5' 2". The Corcoran Gallery of Art,
Washington, D.C.
The Greek war of independence (1821-32) inspired artists as
well as writers. This charming young lady who seems to have
54.

just left her hairdresser does not appear to have suffered too
at the

hands of the Janissary

and wrote about

among
dates

Hecuba:

the juries

refused his

Roman Emperors and the Head oj

58. JOS

"Ah!

the singular contrast made,


his Hecuba,

which

PIQUER Y DUART (1806-1871).

Museo de Arte Moderno, Madrid

JEAN-PIERRE CORTOT (1787-1843).

The Triumph of

1810

Celebrating the Peace of Vienna.

sioned 1833. Stone, height

height 6' 7".

one of the greatest sculptors,

from twenty-five years ago!"

Saint Jerome. 1840. Bronze.

59.

as

modern productions, by

assassins.

55. JEAN-JACQUES Called JAMES PRADIER (1792-1852).

1848. Pentelic marble,

his

the banal and

l'toile,

Nyssia.

why

They

an Armenian Jew. In his review of the Salon of 1863 the critic

sculptor of individual figures and large decoration projects.

much

1860. Plaster, height 7'

Muse Fabre, Montpellier

Cincin-

Ohio.

c.

Prault strikes us as one of the most authentically Romantic


artists

as

the Statue

of the Salons pursued

53.

enjoyed

ANTOINE AUGUSTIN PRAULT (1810-1879).

Model for

Marble, height

nati,

he was,

Rome

of Canova. Frigid academician though

1820).

1855. Marble, length

ODOARDO FANTACCHIOTTI (1809-1877).

Eve.

pupil of Bosio, Fogelberg during his years in

myths.

Avignon
52.

a success equal to that

38'.

Commis-

Arc de Triomphe, Place de

Paris

Cortot does not deserve here to rank among the "reptiles of

Muse Fabre,

Montpellier

the Institut de France"

the term used by Prault

for Pradier,

David d'Angers, and Bosio.

Prault said rather unkindly of Pradier that he "left every

morning

for Athens and returned every evening to the

rue

Brda."

60. JOS

PIQUER

DUART (1806-1871).

Sacrifce of the Daughter of Jephtha. 1832. Marble. Real

Academia

de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid

BENGT ERLAND FOGELBERG (1786-1854).


Odin. 1830. Marble, height 10' 2". National Museum, Stock-

Piquer was one of the few academic

holm

Romanticism.

56.

works sometimes

artists

in Spain

strike us as already feeling the

whose

breath of

Il

13

14

16

23,

24,

25

30

31

32

35

40

II

LI

46

48

49

51

;l

1'

II

VI

Ai

>r^

^V

L^

57

58

3.

DAVID D'ANGERS

worthwhile to view the life and work of David d'Angers in some detail because his
contemporaries thought of him as the very model of the Romantic artist; furthermore,
the great number of his notes made throughout his life tell us about the' aspirations and
is

It

motivations of

wood,

sculptor during the

first

half of the nineteenth century.

Pierre-Jean David was born at Angers in 1788, the fourth child of a "sculptor in
marble, stone, and plaster" who was responsible for restoring the sculptures of the

Angers Cathedral. Although the boy was precocious, manifesting in adolescence a taste for
sculpture, his father was reluctant to allow him to follow the family career. In 1800 the
youngster was finally permitted to attend classes in the central school in his native town. His
father's opposition is easily explained: in those years most sculptors, and particularly "restorers," were treated as craftsmen and paid for piecework; having had to hunt for work all
his life, the good man did not want to see in turn "his son die of hunger." Besides, he added
superstitiously "My son, there is only one David who is a painter, and there is also only one
:

David

who

is

a sculptor."

The young man,

from finding this an argument against his vocation, chose to see in it


a sign of encouragement. In 1808 he found work decorating the cornices of the Arc du Carrousel in Paris, a triumphal monument being built on the plans of Percier and Fontaine, and
enough to buy a bit of bread. But after receiving a grant from
he was paid twenty sous a day
the city of Angers and some subsidies, he was finally admitted in 1811 to the Acadmie de
France in Rome. For five years he worked there in peace, with no worries and with the
masterpieces of Antiquity as his models. During those Roman years he was freely admitted as
a visitor to the studios of Canova and Thorvaldsen. The painter Jacques-Louis David, in giving
a letter of recommendation to his young namesake, had warned him about Canova: "Go
often to see that seductive worker in marble, but beware of copying him, because his false
and aftected manner is just what can ruin a young man. He is a master as dangerous as Michelangelo, though he looks very different." The partisans of David the painter, while admitting
that Canova was the most original sculptor of their century, looked on him as "a corrupt
artist," as "the Correggio of sculpture."
The end of David d'Angers' sojourn in Rome coincided with the fall of the Napoleonic
Empire. He spent the spring of 1816 in Paris and a few months later set out for London with
two aims in view: first, to admire the marbles of the Parthenon that Lord Elgin had recently
brought from Athens, a sight certain to enchant the young sculptor, and then to visit the
English sculptor Flaxman, considered the most "poetic" sculptor of the time. But despite a
letter of recommendation signed bv Canova, the eccentric and touchy Englishman barred his
door to the young Frenchman, perhaps because the name David evoked recollections of the
hated Emperor. On his return to Paris David d'Angers, under the protection of Franois
Grille, head of the Office ol Sciences and Arts, had the good fortune
when he was without a
sou to be commissioned for the monumental statue of the Grand Cond (16211686), to
decorate the bridge rededicated to Louis XVI (now Pont de la Concorde). David's clay model,
exhibited at the Salon of 1817, won him great applause; one woman, overcome with admiration, was heard to exclaim, "My heavens, it's like a thunderstorm!"
far

77

78

a model of his statue of Racine, a St. Cecilia, and a


His contributions to the Salon of 1822
attracted public attention, the execution responding to the demands of
series of bas reliefs

man

ists

are the stenographs of nature, but

in the street as

He himself wrote "Artdeaf! To render faithfully the

well as the generation of young Romantics,

the

how many

of

them

are

form of genius, one must have the sparks within oneself. Otherwise one will only depict a
skeleton." Nevertheless the eleven works he submitted to the Salon of 1824, among them a
round relief intended for the courtyard of the Louvre and representing Innocence Imploring
Justice, scarcelv seemed harbingers of Romanticism. Henri Jouin said of them: "This time the
return to Greek art is consummated. The cut of the costumes and their direct reflection of the
nature of the subjects indicate David's care to speak the language of Phidias in all its purity."
It was about that time also that the young sculptor had the idea to be the historiographer
of his epoch, executing medallions in many sizes which he turned out in quantity over the
next thirty years. Beginning in 1827, he modeled profile medallions of Marshal Jourdan, the

and the painters Ingres and Granet. From year to year the list grew longer.
Paris did not suffice him: he returned to London to do relief portraits of the painters Thomas
Lawrence and John Martin and the philosopher Jeremy Bentham. He went on from success
to success. People took him for an arriviste, one who has arrived.
All France admired his statue of Racine in La Fert-Milon, the poet's birthplace, rendered standing and in classical drapery, a work of imagination growing from the tradition
surrounding the great playwright: "For the coiffure I was inspired by the masses of hair of the
Tragic Muse." On September 29, 1833, the population of the departments of Aisne and
Marne invaded La Fert-Milon it was a triumph for the sculptor. When he passed a barber
Do you remember, Monsieur, that I shaved you when you came
ran out from a cabaret to say
here to see your 'child,' for you are the true father of Racine?" The commonfolk nudged
each other when they saw him and whispered: "Look, there goes Racine's father!"
After long travels through Germany and Italy, David settled in Paris in a house he bought
at 12, rue d'Assas, premises that made it possible for him to accept a large number of pupils.
A large court separated the building from the street; three studios adjoined, opening onto
a garden. The first was used by the assistants, the praticiens; the second was the master's atelier; the third was a sort of storeroom containing plaster and bronze casts, carefully labeled,
arranged on deep shelves that reached to the ceiling.
Commissions poured in. Every city aspired to possess a work by David. In 1835 he completed the sculptures for the Porte d'Aix in Marseilles. On November 17, 1839, the entire
population of the city of Angers inaugurated the halls of the Logis Barrault as a repository for
models of every work by the artist, his gift to his native town. After the local chorus had
chanted a "Hymn to David," the city authorities, preceded by a brass band and accompanied
by the National Guard, led a parade of the enthusiastic population. And other cities honored
him: Dunkerque changed the name of the rue de Chartres to rue David-d'Angers.
Like many of his contemporaries whose youth had seen either the French Revolution,
the victories of the Empire, or the "glorious three days" of the 1830 revolution, David d'Angers manifested throughout his life what may be called republican sentiments. He was obsessed by the image of his father who fought under the brilliant General Hoche in the campaign of the Vende. The esteem he enjoyed in intellectual circles, at home as well as abroad,
spurred him to join the struggle himself. At sixty he wrote "Before being an artist one must
be a citizen," and that year, 1848, he was named a member of the National Assembly.
As mayor and deputy of his district, he had to face the problems posed by the unemployment of tens of thousands of workers. Defeated in 1849 in the new elections, he decided to
return to his profession, but the winds had changed on December 9, 1851, two months after
the inauguration of his monument to the glory of Gerbert, David was arrested at 3 o'clock in
politician Gohier,

'

'

DAVID D'ANGERS

79

the morning at his house and taken to police headquarters. At the trial his judges, wishing to
show indulgence, offered the prisoner the choice of a sentence or exile from France. He

Belgium. After a few weeks in Brussels he decided to visit Greece, a voyage he


had dreamed of taking since his adolescence. For the old man it was a prodigious adventure.
Eager to visit everything, he rushed from one monument to another, but his home-loving nature soon began to sufter from living far from his loved ones. Edmond About, a student at the
Acadmie de France in Athens, and Charles Garnier, the future architect of the Opra, interchose exile

in

vened with the French authorities to


authorized to return home.

He

lived

lift

the ban on the great sculptor, and by 1853 he was

two

years longer, vanquished by age and exhausted by

undermined by illness. He rests in the cemetery of Pre-Lachaise, in the


company of Balzac, the generals Foy and Gobert (80, /, 4), the writer Charles Nodier, the
work,

his health

naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, the marshals Lefebvre, Suchet,

those

whom

he had perpetuated in

and Gouvion-Saint-Cyr

effigy.

The writings and opinions of David d'Angers are somewhat disturbing to anyone having a
definite idea of Romanticism. The man never ceased to demonstrate contradictions. He

claimed to be faithful to the classical tradition; he admired Poussin but lauds Delacroix. He
storms against the Romantics' statements about him and cannot understand the subtleties
contained in the slogan Beauty is ugliness, which circulated in certain studios around 1830,
whence his contempt frequently shown for caricatures: "Ah! I am no longer astounded that
these lepers of the arts, the caricaturists, should succeed in attracting the crowd who laugh
at others, but don't see that it is themselves who are being mocked!"
A similar versatility explains his charm for the bourgeoisie as well as for the heads of
government and the world of letters. On several occasions Victor Hugo hailed him with
." So it was that the
enthusiasm: "Go then, let our cities be filled with thy radiant colossi
sculptor came to supply statues to the French municipalities. But rather than impose his personality, as Gricault and Delacroix did (from the few plaster pieces left by Gricault one can
imagine that he would have been a true Romantic sculptor), David d'Angers preferred to
move with the habitus of the Salon, and so his Casimir Delavigne, his Larrey, his Grand Cond,
his General Gobert are works that could have been made by any excellent winner of the Prix
'

'

'

'

de

Rome

of the time.

Only in his medallions did David succeed in freeing himself with any degree of self-confidence
from Neoclassicism. The abundance of his output (he modeled more than five hundred portraits, some in several versions) and the fact that he habitually set himself to represent the
outstanding personalities of the Western World between 1820 and 1850 have certainly contributed to the survival of his works among the caprices of fashion. Those subjects were numbered in the hundreds. In this connection Henri Jouin repeats an anecdote told by Livy "The
sculptor Lysippus of Sicyon was in the habit of putting aside a gold coin for every piece he sold.
When he died, his heirs opened his strongbox and the sum of money they found in it permitted them to affirm that Lysippus had produced no fewer than 610 statues." Jouin assures
us that David d'Angers must have made twice that number.
David established a sort of hierarchy only the dead had the right to full-length statues
busts were reserved to outstanding men; medallions to the merely talented. But this did not
prevent him from reducing almost all of his sitters to the scale of the medal, regardless of their
importance. It was the profile that interested him "I have always been profoundly stirred by
a profile the full face looks at you, but the profile is in relation with other persons, it evades
you, does not even see you. It is more difficult to analyze; the profile is limited." David is one
of the few to succeed in rendering in bronze the coloration of his subjects, and this was thanks
:

80

On

David speaks more


like a painter than a sculptor: "When a sculptor models a blonde person, he must skim over
the features, define them very slightly, without letting them darken the form. Suave though
the contours may be, they must always be perfectly conveyed, though, in truth, more
addressed to the eyes of the soul than to those of the body."
to his skill in incising the material, in

For

a sculptor

surprising.

Of

making

it

"sing."

this subject

claiming to be a Romantic, David's idea of the position of the artist seems to us


the artiste maudit, the hopeless bohemian artist, he says that "the man bowed

under suffering and misery would not be able to create works of genius. In him, nature exhausts itself in repairing the losses of a depressed organism." What would Baudelaire have said
of this statement?

David displayed toward his colleagues the animal sculptors is further


proof of his attachment to certain academic ideals "Is it not absurd that men seek with avidity
the exact representation of animals, and yet seek with affectation to dissimulate the noble
structure of man, the most perfect work from the hands of the Creator, and that they should
strain their ingenuity to turn him into a puppet, a laughing-stock for the generations still to

The contempt

that

come?
His attitude toward costume was similar. Like the Ancients he thought that "the nude
the condition of sculpture, which is otherwise almost always miserable and vulgar."
A large gulf separated this Romantic sculptor from Carpeaux and Rodin.

1.

PIERRE-JEAN DAVID Called DAVID d' ANGERS (1788-1856).

6.

DAVID d'.\ngers.

Monument of General Gobert (d. 1808). 1847. Marble. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise, Paris (see below, 4)

Thodore Gricauk (1791-1824).


1830.
diameter 6". Muse du Louvre, Paris

The Napoleonic general who participated


tion to Santo Domingo (Haiti).

7.

2.

in the

French expedi-

Bronze, height 7' 8". Place Grenette, Bourg-en-Bresse

Doctor Bichat,

Strasbourg

early studies at the hospital in Bourg.

believed

to

have lived in Strasbourg in the


8.

1430s, and possibly to have invented his printing press there.


3.

DAVID d'aNGERS.

Madame Haudebourg-Lescot. 1829. Bronze medallion, diameter


6". Muse du Louvre, Paris
4.

DAVID d'aNGERS.

famous anatomist and physiologist, did

his

DAVID d'aNGERS.

Monument of King Ren d'Anjou. 1844. Bronze. Cours Mirabeau,


Aix-en-Provence

King Ren (1409-80) retired to Provence, where he fostered


a last

flowering of Provenal culture.

Among

other things, he

here.
(detail

Here we see the heroic general

at

of base;

Santo

freeing French soldiers from a house

5.

introduced the muscatel grape to the region, and holds them

Monument of General Gobert

shooting their native

medallion,

DAVID d'aNGERS.

Gutenberg, c. 1840. Bronze, height 10' 10". Place Gutenberg,

is

Bronze

Monument of Marie-Franois-Xavier Bichat (1711-1802). 1843.

DAVID d'aNGERS.

Gutenberg

is

see

Domingo

above,

/)

in the act of

mined with explosives and

jailer.

DAVID d'aNGERS.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). 1829. Bronze medallion, diameter 9". Muse du Louvre, Paris

9.

DAVID d'angers.

Mademoiselle Mars. 1825. Marble, height 22". Thtre Franais,


Paris

French actress (1779-1847), famous for her performances

Molire's works.

in

REALISM

4.

OR
The world

it

POSITIVIST
is

will never return to either the republic

We

in

ART

a revolution.

oj Antiquity or the monarchy of Louis XIV.

shall see come into being a fine constitutional rgime.

STENDHAL,

Museum

History of Painting in Italy,

1817

London one can admire a statue executed about


1760 by Louis-Franois Roubillac George Frederick Handel, seated in a Louis-Quinze
armchair, is seized by inspiration and strums a few chords on a Greek lyre at his feet a
naked child, a cupid, writes down the music on the marble. The work is in the taste of
that day except that the musician's feet are in bedroom slippers which seem as worn as
the dressing gown that swathes him. Hence the difficulty in deciding if the statue is Neoclasthe Victoria and Albert

In

in

the

and cupid or Realist, as the sitter's facial expression and dress suggests.
In the nineteenth century such ambiguity was at its finest. After 1850, total confusion
reigned. Realist, Naturalist, Populist, Symbolist
the difference is often difficult to establish,
and it would appear, on leafing through the illustrations in this chapter, that many works
could be classified under more than one heading. Faced with the impossibility of making clear
distinctions, we haye chosen this subtitle, Positiyist Art.
Already in the eighteenth century Diderot, little concerned vyith such subtleties, used
indifferently for Chardin, Greuze, or De Boilly the terms Populist, Materialist, or Realist.
Likewise, no one dreamed in the days of Callot, Le Nain, Teniers, or Brouwer that these artists did anything but paint the scenes offered by contemporaries. The unflagging success of
their works indicates the degree of pleasure that men haye always taken in obserying their
own lives. Likewise, today vye do not tire of the spectacles offered in darkened cinemas.
It was about the time when Delacroix's work was finally winning the attention of the
public that an expiring Romanticism ceded its place to Realism. For Courbet, the Funeral at
Ornans marked the funeral of Romanticism. The public now preferred to Baudelaire the literary Champfleury, the Positiyist philosopher Auguste Comte, and the experimental physiologist Claude Bernard. An end with Art for Art's Sake! From now on. Art for Everybody's
Sake The creative artist refused to be a mere decorator, as he had been for many centuries
he was determined to play a part in society, to be at the service of all. According to the advocates of Saint-Simon and Fourier, the artist should now collaborate with men of science
and demonstrate through his images the benefits of progress, that is, the machine.
Courbet's Stone Breakers and Millet's Gleaners, those workers and peasants held up to
public admiration, disconcerted most visitors to the Salons. The artists were accused of being
agents of socialism; Glevre, of also betraying his class. Yet the man in the street reacted to
these works quite simply, like his grandparents \yhen they went to admire the Greuzes in the
Salon of 1769. Rather than join in aesthetic or political quarrels, the ordinary individual
sical

lyre

yielded to the pleasure of identifying himself with the models.


Realist sculpture
fashions.

is

particularly interesting in that

The realism

it

aspires to actuality, even to change in

that flourished in the eighteenth century

had almost nothing

in

common

with Realism arising around 1850. Unlike the personages of Houdon, who aimed above all to
be well-bred and sociable, nineteenth-century portraits generally show us persons someyyhat
unsure of themselves, their expressions often betraying a degree of effort.

85


86

The spectator began

to prefer character to beauty of physique.

Preoccupations, he

thought, strengthened the features and ennobled them. In Rivalta's statue of a young woman
walking slowly while reading a letter, the face breathes serenity; whether the letter is from
brother or lover does not matter, the content satisfies and thus beautifies her. The ravaged
face of the old

grandmother carved by Dampt

is

superb, transfigured by the joy she receives

her arms. Chaste love now succeeds the coy loves of Neoclassicism and the passions of the Romantics in every case the subject matter plays the fundamental role. While the Romantics and Baudelaire inveighed against this taste "for rubbish, for the

from the child nestling

in

"I

understand," said the poet-critic, "the furies of the Iconoclasts and the
the Realists, aspiring to serve the people, put themselves at the
Muslims against images"

picturesque"

people's service.

work

of the Romantics

and Ablard, Orlando Furioso, The White


it is well to have been raised on the writings of Stendhal,
Lady, The Italian Intrigues, Halbert
Dickens, and Walter Scott. During the Restoration, however, the population of the Western
countries numbered at least sixty or seventy per cent illiterates. It was up to the Naturalists
or Populists, who undertook to serve the whole nation, to express themselves in simpler language. To heighten the efficacy of the mission they had assumed, the Populists exerted themselves to catch their models in the course of action, and one can read in their works the social

To

appreciate the

Hlose

changes that took place from one decade to the next.

The Great Exposition of 1851

England enjoyed a considerable success, contributing to the


progress of industry without, however, succeeding, as Prince Albert had hoped, in demonstrating to the peoples the benefits of peace. Participating nations viewed such expositions
nonetheless with utmost seriousness. Immediately following the Commune of 1871 the
Third Republic stepped up its commissions for works of art. The artist was expected to prove
that the national prosperity and the good of its masses depended on industrial progress.
The Church was uneasy, and the recently founded Assumptionist Fathers had plenty of
trouble resisting this new lay deity, the Great God Machine. The buildings of the international
expositions were baptized with such names as Palace of Industry and Palace of the Machines.
Even the peasantry was fascinated by industrial development. The steam engine first terrified,
then astonished, then filled people with admiration. The inhabitants of a village in the Nivernais region of France changed the name of their community to La Machine.
electricity, gas, or mechaSculptors had only to take their choice of what to glorify
nized locomotion. In 1885 the bronze-founder F. Barbedienne offered for sale a bronze sculpture representing a driver at the wheel of an automobile, homage to the winner of the race
from Paris to Versailles and back.
The real power was in the hands of the Schneiders, the Dubouchets, and their ilk who
controlled electricity, gas, and public transport. Mouret, owner of the Bonheur des Dames
store in Paris, ruled over the retail trade: "Flis population of women
He holds them
at his mercy by his continual stockpiling of merchandise, by his cut-rate prices and his rebates,
His creation
by his gallantry and his publicity. He conquered the mothers themselves.
bore a new religion the churches, more and more deserted by a wavering faith, were replaced
by his bazaar in the souls which had meanwhile been vacated." Art in some way realistic,
tinged with symbolist mystique and favored by a climate of seeming naivety, was patently the
best way to seduce the average man and woman. Laymen and churchmen set up the themes;
it was up to the artists to treat them.
in

With

few exceptions, the female figure could represent anything partially unclothed, more
buxom than she had been in the preceding century, always "a perfect lady," she could
a

REALISM

OR

POSITIVIST

ART

87

equally symbolize water, gas, steam, electricity, compulsory nondenominational schooling,


victory, defeat, birth, or death. As an inspiring muse she enchanted the poet, stimulated the
painter, immortalized the immortal.

Used

one finds her engaged in


pointing to the hour on clock faces, in shaking

for a thousand purposes,

supporting the marble shelves of fireplaces, in


hands w^ith Neptune on fountains, in brandishing banners, in cushioning the fall of victims.
Contrary to her reputation, this w^oman suggests silence. Her visage grave, her gaze fixed on

the fumes of glory exhaled by pantheons, she seems apparently without listening to enjoy
hearing the trumpets of fame, the ovations of the populace, apotheoses, and hosannas.

We must,

not so ridiculous and laughable as it may seem. When


time will have bestowed the allure of historical costume upon the frock coats of statesmen
we shall find charm in Miguel Blay's monument to Doctor Rubio in a Madrid park, grace in
the statues of Chopin or Gounod tucked in the flower beds of the Pare Monceau in Paris,
grandeur in the sculpture raised in Genoa to the glory of Mazzini. Monographs will then be
consecrated to Hildebrand, Dampt, Teixeira Lopes, Erastus Palmer, Adriano Cecioni, Augusto
though, take care

and many others.


What is more, totally

all is

Rivalta,

realistic

works reveal themselves

to be suddenly surprising

when

they prefigure certain aspects of Surrealist vision. Before many of the monuments in the
cemetery of Genoa we find ourselves thinking irresistibly of Magritte or Delvaux. And yet,

what characterizes these different naturalistic tendencies is their disregard for modernity.
Around 1880 one finds in sculpture the same confusion that reigns in the pictorial world.
Rather than choosing between historicism, realism, and symbolism, the tendency of the day
is to compromise, and all would be perfect if one also notes here and there a few classical
touches to reassure the habitu of the parks and the visitor to the Salon.
even more than in painting, there was borrowing from all sides. Some, such as
the Dutchman Stracke, the
the Hungarian Miklos Izso, turned to Mannerism; others
to a symbolical realism. In
Russian Klodt, and the Frenchmen Chapu and Gustave Dor
Great Britain the Lambeth School, founded by John Sparkes, a pupil of Dalou, reflected for
a long time the French predilection for symbolic naturalism.
In the United States, where the middle classes wanted surroundings that would make
them feel at ease, Neoclassicism momentarily recalled the Old Country to the uprooted
population, and at the same time a folkloristic realism gave them the impression of discovering a style worthy of their new homeland. Avid for rationalism, liberalism, and good will,
they needed to find a polemical style capable of expressing the proud assurance of an adolescent nation. The American Revolution and later the Civil War, together with the permanent
conquests of immense virgin lands, established for the Realists, until then dazzled by Neoclassicism, aspirations toward Naturalism. After the Civil War a theatrical and anecdotal
style succeeded the Romanticism and picturesqueness of the sculpture of William Rinehart or
Randolph Rogers. Yet in a curious way most of the statues, whether by Hiram Powers or
Thomas Crawford or Erastus Palmer, while strongly subservient to Neoclassic art, show
also an indefinable something that marks them as American works.
This impression becomes confirmed more specifically in the works of Augustus SaintGaudens. The confusion of styles, even more apparent in America than in Europe, troubled no
one. Saint- Gaudens saw nothing untoward in placing a classical Victory alongside a perfectly
realistic statue representing General William Sherman on horseback. Some sculptors, such as
Daniel Chester French or Frederick MacMonnies, gave free rein to Neoclassicism or to a
decadent Hellenism; others reveled in Orientalism.
In sculpture,

it

Rarely in the history of art has sculpture had such predominant importance everywhere
had between 1875 and 1900.

as

88

Always the disciple of his teacher Pradier, Chapu surpassed him


humanizing the Olympian gods and symbols so dear to the

HENRI-LON GRBER (18541941).


Emmanuel Frmiet. Bronze. Formerly Muse du Luxembourg,

in

Paris

artists

1.

In the realm of realism, observation of detail

work than

portant in a

artistic

quality.

more im-

often

is

is

The famous animal


15.

sculptor

is

standing in front of a skull, portrayed by a former

pupil.

16.

Terracotta 1862, bronze 1935,

Office.

S'ude

17.

Woman

in

naire.

well-known sculptor.

18.

The famous comic

actor,

Courbet made

younger brother of Coquelin

a'm.

19.'

few other sculptures during his

his life.

JEAN-AUGUSTE DAMPT (1853-1946).

The Grandmother's

Kiss.

Marble. Formerly Muse du Luxem-

bourg, Paris

1805

was able to reconcile Neoclassicism and Realism

Houdon though

in a rather provincial

in the

same

c.

Dampt, one of the best of the Art Nouveau


tended to reach for effect

manner.

20.

1895. .Marble, height

2".

5'

at

sculptors, often

any cost (see p. 362, 10; p. 407,

13).

PAUL DUBOIS (1859-1938).


Woman,

end of

exile at the

This Czech sculptor, author of numerous funerarv monuments,

Seated

among

this

.Malade Imagi-

JOSEF .MALINSKY (1752-1827).

as

GUSTAVE COURBET (1819-1877).

Boy Fishing for Chub. 1873-77. Bronze. Ornans (Doubs)

Bronze. Formerly Muse du Luxembourg, Paris

Valet, c.

YAKOVLEVICH GINZBURG (1859-1939).

ILYA

Armchair. Plaster. Petit Palais, Paris

Coquelin Cadet in the Title Role of Molire's Le

6.

Muse Royaux

ANTONI PLESZOWSKI (1857-1899).


Muzeum Narodowe, Cracow

Sorrow. Bronze, height 49".

des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

21.

FYODOR FYODOROVICH KAMENSKY (1838-1913).

The

First Step.

prolific Belgian sculptor.

Mlle Rachel before Going on Stage. Salon of 1882. .Marble. .Muse

des Beaux-Arts,

The famous
revival of

French

HERMAN

8.

Rouen

22.

classical

whose

talent aided the

tragedy (see p. 253, 15).

nale d'Arte

for Kunst,

23.

The

ALBERT-ERNEST CARRIER-BELLEUSE (1824-1887).

Alexandre

Dumas

The

Mme

.Alexandre Popoff, Paris

novelist (1802-70) portrayed posthumously by the prolific

Galleria

Nazio-

Rome

Moderna,

work which

is

both

realistic

and free of

ANTONIO TEIXEIRA LOPES (1866-1942).


Widow. 1890. Marble. Museu Nacional de Arte Contem-

24.

ODOARDO TABBACCHI (1836-1905).

Ugo

Foscolo after the Treaty of Campo-Formio. c.

1867. Bronze,

height 48". Galleria Nazionale d'Arte .Moderna,

sculptor.

The
ADOLF VON HILDEBRAND (1847-1921).

10.

I4"x39^".

pornea, Lisbon

1884. Terracotta (study for a bronze

Pre.

monument). Collection

5'

conventions.

Museum

Copenhagen
9.

1883. .Marble,

Cecioni has realized a

VILHEL.M BISSEN (1836-1913).

Lady. 1891. Marble, height 6'. Statens

Museum,

ADRIANO CECIONI (1836-1886).

The .Mother.

tragic actress (1810-58),

1872. .Marble, height 43^". Russian

Leningrad

LEROUX (1836-1906).

FRDRIC-ETIENNE

7.

Mu-

seum, Leningrad

LEOPOLD BERNSTA.MM (1859-1910).

way

1866. Marble, height 44". Russian

Boy Testing the Water. 1886. Bronze, height 36^". Russian .Mu-

DALOU (1838-1902).

fresh and informal piece by a

5.

FYODOR FYODOROVICH KA.MENSKY (1838-1913).

of the most important Italian sculptors of the nineteenth

AIM-JULES

4.

57^". Tretyakov

seum, Leningrad

century.

1858. .Marble, height

The Young Sculptor.

height 43". Galleria d'Arte Moderna, Florence

3.

Washing.

.Moscow

Gallery,

The Return from the Post

One

SERGEI IVANOVICH IVANOV (1830-1903).

Young Boy

AUGUSTO RIVALTA (1838-1925).

2.

of the Third Republic (see p. 112, 21). His portraiture

also successful.

bacchi

Frau .Maria Fiedler. 1882. Terracotta, height 27".

Kunsthalle,

Rome

disillusioned Venetian patriot comforted by his wife. Tab-

made numerous monuments

to heroes of the risorgi-

mento.

Hamburg
25. JEAN-JULES SAL.MSON (1823-1902).

LEOPOLD BERNSTAMM (1859-1910).

11.

.Monument

Pushkin and His Friend Dehig. Bronze. Collection

Mme

Alexan-

dre Popoff, Paris

This

Ny

1880. Bronze, height

\0y.

may be

the

his

companion.

his genius at observation in this unusual

26.

Pellegrino Rossi.

VINCENZO CEMITO (1852-1929).

Boy with Crab. Bronze. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

Nineteenth-century

most

conventional

Italian artists often

attitudes

competence, observation
14.

with

Balmat Commemorating the

tended to confuse the

simplistic

naivetv,

technical

true realism (see p. 379, 6).

HENRI-MICHEL-ANTOINE CHAPU (1833-1891).

Chamonix
a modern sport; de
shows the summit to

sculpture to extol

According to elderly

local

residents,

the

life.

PIETRO TENERANI (1789-1869).

piece.
13.

first

costumes and accessories are true to

Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen

Degas adds to realism

J.

of .Mont Blanc in 1786. 1887. Bronze.

Saussure, a Swiss physicist and geologist,

EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917).

12.

Schoolgirl Walking in the Street, c.

H.-B. de Saussure and

to

First Ascent

1869. Marble, height

d'Arte .Moderna,

Rome

The

and

Italian jurist

5'

5". Galleria Nazionale

political reformer, assassinated in

1848.

27. ALOYS STROBL (1856-1926).

Our Dear

.Mother.

1894. .Marble. Hungarian National Gallery,

Budapest
StrobI, like

most Hungarian

artists

Young Robert D. Salon of 1877. .Marble, height 55". .Muse du

his art in

Louvre, Paris

masters of Austria and Hungary.

of his generation, learned

the studios of the old Neoclassical and academic

10

11

12

15

16

17

18

23

24

25

CARPEAUX

5.

One

in particular

the uncouth

had a rough-hewn head,

and rugged head of a quarryman,


and hard brilliant

with the mustaches of a policeman

" WTjen

eyes:

we leave school," said he, "we are skinny as an iron wire.


It's

only at

Rome

that we get rounded out."

That one was Carpeaux, a young sculptor of great talent.


E.

and

J.

DE CONCOURT, >urna;, March

16,

1865

was bom in Valenciennes in 1827 to a modest family of artisans. When


Carpeaux
barely eleven, he attended the school of design annexed to the local Ecole des Beauxhe arrived in Paris he found work with Henri Lemaire, author of
the monumental pediment sculpture on the church of the Madeleine later he was
accepted as a praticien by Rude. In 1844, a student at the Paris Ecole des BeauxArts, he had already become a character; his fellow students insisted he resembled a starving
soldier on half-pay.
Sure of himself, and a devout Catholic, when competing for the Prix de Rome he was
seen entering the church of Saint-Sulpice with a gloomy air, coming out a few minutes
later to announce with a smile that "the blessed Virgin has promised me the prize." He was
but not until 1854. Before then, backed by a few friends from
right, she kept her promise
Valenciennes, he had produced in 1848 his first large commissioned work, a bas relief commemorating the Holy Alliance of 1815; in 1853 he exhibited at the Salon the Surrender of
Arts.

As soon

as

Abdu-1-Kadir.

the

was

Rome

Carpeaux revealed his true personality. As an heir of Michelangelo,


and still influenced by Romanticism, he produced the group statue Ugolino and His Sons,
based on the episode in Dante's Inferno of the count forced by starvation to devour his own
children. Romantic but equally Realistic, the statue met small favor in Paris. It was only in
1867, and then thanks to private subvention, that Carpeaux obtained the means to execute
It

in

monument

that

in marble.

between himself and Romanticism did not lead him toward


modernity, but toward a certain form of Mannerism tinged with a marvelous sense of realism.
His first busts brought him an immense success that of the Marquise de La Valette, wife of
the French ambassador to the Vatican, w^as soon followed by that of Princess Mathilde, daughter of Jerome Bonaparte and future friend of Marcel Proust. A great admirer of Houdon's
portraiture, Carpeaux was always passionately interested in the human countenance. A few
weeks before the French surrender at Sedan, during a dinner offered by the sculptor, a guest

The

distance he soon put

called out

"The day

will

come when our Republic

will cut off our heads as

it

did those of the

Girondins and Camille." Carpeaux took his injudicious guest aside and asked: "If your prediction should turn out all too true, wouldn't it be wise for me to do all of your heads in
advance? People a hundred years from now might consider them fascinating."
It

seem

has been said of his personages that they

were tortured not by the

spirit

they scarcely

and they smile readily but by the flesh.


In 1865, at the same time that the Empress ordered from him a statue of the Prince-Imperial, the State commissioned him for the decoration of the south front of the Pavilion de
Flore of the Louvre. For the latter, returning to his first inspiration, his love for the architecto have serious worries

101

102

ture and sculpture of the French Renaissance, he conceived a work which may seem overloaded but succeeds in conveying an impression of unity and grace, a work which easily rivals

the best of the French Renaissance or the eighteenth century.


His group statue of The Dance, for the exterior of the new opera house designed by Garnier, permitted him to express exuberance that until then had been controlled. Despite the

execution and rhythm, the work was judged audaciously suggestive, even
indecent. Some scandalized person threw a bottle of ink against the stone when it was still
white The Dance was ordered by ministerial decree to be removed from the faade before the
Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and Gumery was commissioned to make a replacement, but
after the French defeat no action was taken. In these years Dalou, Rodin, and Carrier-Belleuse

perfection of

its

ornamental sculptors and, to earn their living, turned out stone figurines
to decorate new apartment buildings many of the caryatids still adorning the neighborhoods
created by Baron Haussmann are by these great sculptors, though the works remain anony-

were employed

as

mous.
After the war of 1870, Carpeaux carved The Four Quarters of the Globe for the fountain in
the Observatoire Garden in Paris. The critics were mostly merciless, Jules Claretie among
them: "One asks oneself by what aberration of the mind, eye, and hand he could compose

group of savage, vulgar, and wrinkled dancers. A fig for correct and conventional art!
that is my firm opinion, too, but on condition that one does not substitute ugliness in the
place of grace, and does not take sickness for health." Claretie changed his mind at the Salon
of 1874, and said of the bust of Alexandre Dumas ^75: "Never has anyone handled and
gouged marble like this Indeed, it is life itself. One is tempted to cry out, like Michelangelo
before a portrait, 'Speak! Go ahead and speak!
At forty-seven, consumed by cancer of the stomach, Carpeaux wrote to Gounod on May
21, 1874: "I writhe on my bed of pain, crying out like a damned soul. It is hell on earth.
I say adieu to you, and thank you for the interest you
I am more exhausted from hour to hour
have so kindly shown your miserable Carpeaux." On October 12 of the following year,
having willed his works to the city of Valenciennes, he expired after exclaiming: "How
difficult it is to die!"
The work of Carpeaux was the first successful attempt to reconcile official art with free
art. Disciple of the great French and Italian portrait sculptors, he was the true precursor of
Rodin.
that

1.

JEAN-BAPTISTE CARPEAUX (1827-1 87S).

The Dance.

Opra,

The

Here Carpeaux pays homage

1866-69. Stone, height 10' 10". Faade of the

to the

most original French

archi-

tect of the century, the author of the Opra.

Paris

Carpeaux's work, especially The

critics sharply attacked

4.

JEAN-BAPTISTE CARPEAUX.

Portrait

Dance. Jacques-Emile Blanche, that society painter transformed

of Madame Carpeaux as Mater Dolorosa. Original plaster.

Collection Robert Lebel, Paris


into an art historian, persisted in accusing Carpeaux of allying
a certain materialism with the

wordly idealism of the Second

He emphasized "the Baroque and Bemini-like side,


decadent and Italianizing" of the man who will remain one of
Empire.

Lefvre, ne Soubise.

31^". Muse du

Plaster, height

Louvre, Paris

Carpeaux not only succeeded

extreme precision,
viewer
3.

his

own

like

in

reproducing

Houdon, but

still

facial traits

more

with

in giving the

interpretation of his sitter's character.

1869; Salon of 1869. Bronze, height 25^".

Muse du Louvre,
l'Opra, Paris)

Paris

5.

JEAN-BAPTTSTE CARPEAUX.

(plaster

Carpeaux's sculptural representation of his native city defending her industries and products in the Napoleonic campaigns.
6.

JEAN-BAPTISTE CARPEAUX.

The Four Quarters of the Globe.

1872-74. Bronze group on

fountain. Jardin de l'Observatoire, Paris (plaster sketch in the

JEAN-BAPTISTE CARPEAUX.

Charles Cornier.

bet.

height 2Ii". Muse des Beaux-Arts, Valenciennes

JEAN-BAPTISTE CARPEAUX.

Madame

thinks here of certain realistic portraits by Millet or Cour-

The City of Valenciennes Defending Her Ramparts. 1870. Bronze,

France's greatest sculptors.


2.

One

model

in

the

Muse de

Muse du Louvre)
The fountain was designed by Davioud; the bronze seahorses
and dolphins are by Frmiet.

V4-;
:^-

^^^mm^

%.T^^
5^-^

.^^

SYMBOLISM

6.

Philosophical art
to the

is

a return toward the imagery necessary

childhood of the

human

and ij it were rigorously faithful


it

would

restrict

itsef to putting side by side as

as are contained in any sentence

it

races,
to itself

many

might wish

successive

images

to express.

Nevertheless we have the right to doubt


that the sentence written in hieroglyphics

was clearer than the printed sentence.

CHARLES BAUDELAIRE,

AU

artistic creation bears

some

trace,

L'An

philosophique,

more or

less

18S9

evident, of symbolism.

The

livelier

the artist's sensibility, the greater will be his success in translating the inner
ing of things into images,

however

abstract these

may

mean-

be.

Rodin, in conversation with Paul Gsell, spoke of that supernatural presence


which, in taking the form of living reality, succeeds in arousing a religious emotion
"An artistic work can be considered a masterpiece only if it has the mysterious character that
can give a sensation of vertigo to whomever looks at it." This would mean that only when
one has arrived at a summit from which one feels the attraction of the void below can the
world of symbol be glimpsed through the mists of dream.
k-

To

designate symbolism,

its

origins and appearances,

we

have

a certain

often used inappropriately. In this area the explanations are hasty

among

seem

when

it

number of words,
comes to marking

symbol and allegory, figure and


emblem. For Maurice Denis, painter and theorist, there is a fundamental opposition between
symbolism, which proceeds by way of subtle analogy, and allegory, which tends to express its
message through the choice of subject. One might add that the former is the product of
certain intuitions, on condition that these are common to both the artist and the individual
viewing the work; the latter must be referred to a code known only to a minority.
The French Symbolist movement was born officially around 1885, but symbolism has
always had its part in the arts. Drawings by cavemen and children alike reveal more or less
precisely the deeper motivations that impel artists to express more about their anxieties than
they are themselves aware of. In sculpture likewise. Well before the Renaissance in France,
the sculptors of Burgundy and the Touraine produced innumerable examples of the profound
the differences

related terms that

concerns that agitated them


alism as Puget, Pigalle, and

as

close, such as

well as their models. Later such paragons of classicism or re-

Houdon modeled

faces

which were masks of

reality,

but whose

through the patina of bronze or shell of plaster.


Allegory, the elder daughter of classicism and academicism and always esteemed by
moralistic and authoritarian rgimes, triumphed at the start of the nineteenth century. But
in the measure that classical art declined, symbolism began to arise from the lethargy in which
it had rested since the Renaissance, summoned by the melancholy and poetic accents of the
Romantics. The novelty of the motifs seduced even the public of the Salons at last an end to
the "Gold Weigher,", his chin propped on his fist, who meditates with one eye on an hourglass, the other on a death's head. The new society had no taste for images which led to reflecting on the vanity of power or fortune, or cast doubt on its own spirit of enterprise. On
the other hand the middle class, science-minded, agnostic, and moralistic, appreciated the
allegorical style that was suited to serving its interests while giving a seemingly poetic twist
sensitivity filters successfully

to the Positivist ideals.

107


108

Claiming to be benefactors of the working class and believing in the virtue of technical
the
intercontinental ship canals, mechanical looms, engines for steam or gas
progress
middle class took pride in finding intercessors as flattering and prestigious as the Fine Arts.
The more time passed, the more stable became the confusion. In his rough project for an "art

philosophique'' Baudelaire rebelled against the equivocal in his Curiosits esthtiques:

more it
more that

that art aspires to be philosophically clear, the

will be

"The more

degraded and approach the

art detaches itself from instruction,


and on the contrary, the
the more it will rise toward a pure and disinterested beauty." Time was to prove Baudelaire
right, and it was certainly for such reasons that he scorned the sculpture of his time. Painting
which Gustave Moreau insisted is an impassioned silence is better equipped than sculpture to borrow what it needed from symbolism, while disciplining itself to discard the
cinders, the misleading but often seductive product of mannerism and of allegory.
The French Romantics, generally prudent individuals, took shelter behind the Latin
shield and were careful not to give in to the contagion of Anglo-Saxon enthusiasm. The sculptors in particular imagined that to be Romantic it sufficed to appear grandiloquent. But aside
from Prault, the Romantics did not easily overcome these problems.
infantile hieroglyph;

Forty years later Rodin, who defies classification, was to prove that in sculpture it is possible
to be a Symbolist without using allegory. The problem of Symbolism brought him both passion and anxiety; his Thinker and Ugolino demonstrate this. He believed that if a sculptor dis-

pensed with symbols, he would never have to remove himself from the spiritual, as, equally,
*'
.he will have the duty to give new reasons for loving life, new inner illuminations for
guiding oneself. He will be, as Dante said of Virgil, their guide, their lord, and their master."
Rodin also told Paul Gsell that "Michelangelo is great because he seems ceaselessly tortured
by melancholy. In the same way he admired the Messianic and symbolist side of Victor Hugo.
Throughout his life Rodin remained wary of Symbolism and of its excesses that might
trip him up with their manneristic tendrils. On the other hand he was the enemy of a certain
type of synthetism, and lent a deaf ear to the charms of the divinities of Hellas and Parnassus.
Medardo Rosso was similarly a Symbolist; like the painter Eugne Carrire, he rendered faces
or groups of figures by using arabesque-like forms which seem to originate in a single epicenter. If Rosso was a Symbolist Impressionist, Gauguin in carving in oak the bust of Meyer
de Haan proves that for all his declarations he too remained sensitive to Symbolism.
.

'

It

was only

Groupe des

'

after the

Symbolists joined the political protest movements, such

XX in Brussels,

to the extent that they

Most of those

that they

were able

were able

to affirm their true originality.

as in

the

They succeeded

to avoid the pseudo-Florentine pitfalls of Pre-Raphaelism.

participating in the Symbolist

movement were

equally versed in painting,

drawing, etching, and sculpture. Xavier Mellery, who remains one of the most attractive
personalities in the Groupe des XX, was thought of by his contemporaries as the painter of
night and silence. The titles of his works
Delicacy is the Daughter of Force, Dream at Eventide,
The Life of Things
tell us much about the phantasms that haunted him.
But Symbolism cannot be at the same time a Garden of Eden and a museum. Its disciples,
as the twentieth century drew closer, sensed the difficulty, even the impossibility, of creating
symbolic images that lacked the support of allegory that Symbolism was a trap behind which
lurked the shadow of fashion, ever ready to draw into its nets a Max Klinger or a Charles van
der Stappen.

Soon

all

would be over with symbolism and allegory

for a long time.

110

1.

WILLIAM RUSH (1756-1833).

Water Njrmpb and

copy, height
2.

1854 (wood

Bittern.

1809). Bronze

original

Museum

1". Philadelphia

of Art

Wood,

Academy
rectly,

Pennsylvania

of Fine Arts, Philadelphia

William Rush

is

called the

he was the

first

first

and one of the few, before the end of

from

life

and

his faces

and in some cases figures are done

American. Rush was

typically

Nouveau.

DENYS PUECH (1854-1942).

9.

American sculptor. .More cor-

the nineteenth century, to succeed in creating sculptures which


are both realistic

Museum

This Symbolist rendering of delusive hope tends toward Art


height 8' 10".

painted,

1889. Bronze, diameter 20^". National

Ignis Fatuus.

of Wales, Cardiff

WILLIAM RUSH (1756-1833).

Comedy. 1808.

HENRY ALFRED PEGRAM (1862-1937).

8.

carpenter

first a

Study for the Monument

to the Poet Leconte de Lisle (d.

894), Jardin

du Luxembourg, Paris. 1898. Formerly Collection Pozzi

Puech was among those sculptors forever


"effect."
ly

sensualism

exaggerated but

is

finally

in

search

evident in this work, which


saved by an infinite

of an
free-

is

and charm.

skill

and carver of figureheads for ships, and the two works shown
here do evoke the statues adorning the prows of vessels. The

Waur Nymph was


3.

originally a fountain figure.

PIETRO MAGNI (1817-1877).

The Cutting of the Isthmus of Suez. 1858-63. Marble, height 6'


3". Civico Museo Revoltella, Trieste

Mercury, god of speed and commerce, presides over the


joining of the Mediterranean and the

was completed

Red

Sea.

The Suez Canal

in 1869.

ANTOINE AUGUSTIN PRAULT (1810-1879).


Massacre, intended to resemble a fragment from a large basrelief. Plaster model 1834; bronze cast 1859. Bronze, 43 X
55". Museum, Chartres
10.

This

is

one of the most beautiful Romantic and Symbolist

works of the nineteenth century. Baudelaire wrote


ments on the Salon of 1859: "1

without blushing that whatever may h


developed by our sculptors,

4.

ALFRED STEVENS (1817-1875).

Valor and Cowardice, sketch

Monument

the

to the

am among

do not

those

in his

who

com-

confess

the cleverness annually

find in their

works (since

the disappearance of David d'Angers) the immaterial pleasure

model

group on

for a pedimental

Duke of Wellington

(d. 1852), St. Paul's,

have so often had from the tumultuous dreams, even

when

in-

complete, of Augustin Prault." While for most of his col-

London. 1856. Bronze, height 25". Private collection, Great

leagues the

Britain

Prault sculpture was the only

making of sculpture remained

way

a profession,

for

to illustrate fantasms and

whom

Stevens was one of the best sculptors of his generation and

passions. Quite the opposite of David d'Angers, for

learned his craft in the workshop of Thorvaldsen

natural often betrays the pose, Prault seems to seize his per-

on

his re-

turn to Britain, however, he became absorbed in decorative

and monumental sculpture.

Among

design for Wellington's tomb.

Romanticism that

is

other works he

He continued
down with

often weighed

made

the

sonages as

case in point

7i"x

how

young

girl,

overcome by

heard the sculptor shout at her, fascinated by what he saw:

11.

a crisis of nerves

while visiting Prault's studio,

ALFRED LENOIR (1850-1920).

Gallery, Prague
Inspiration.

5'

Jules Claretie's story of

to maintain a

GUSTAV VIGELAND (1869-1943).


1897. Bronze,

is

"Here's a hundred sous! Don't move!"

5. VACLAV LEVY (1820-1870).


Adam and Eve. 1849. Bronze. Narodni

Hell.

by chance.

excessive con-

cern with historical exactitude.

6.

if

the

Bronze, height 22". Collection Jean-Max Leclerc,

Paris

12' 5^". Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo

A muse

of painting inspires the

artist.

Despite their academic training, the art of Vigeland and his

compatriot Sinding (see p. 46, 32)


Rodin.
7.

WILLIAM

HAMO THORNYCROFT

"The Ploughman Homeward

4x9^".

City

is

often related to that of

(1850-1925).

Plods His Weary

Museum and

The

specific situation of

in a

Country Churchyard"

Way." 1895. Bronze,

ANTONi kursawa( 1843-1 898).


Adam Mickiewicz. 1890. Bronze, height 50^' Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw
The source of inspiration here is divine, as seen in this winged
12.

personage

who seems

to beat his brains for the poet's benefit.

Art Gallery, Birmingham

Thomas Gray's composing


in

1751

is

his

"Elegy

transposed in this relief

VINCENZO VELA (1820-1891).


Spartacus. 1847^9. Gesso. Museo Vela, Ligometto (Lugano)
13.

by one of nineteenth-century Britain's many Symbolist sculp-

Vela, anecdotal and realist in approach, devoted himself like

tors.

Constantin Meunier to illustrating the world of the working

SYMBOLISM

II.

JEAN-BAPTISTE

CALLED AUGUSTE clsinger (18141883). Study for

an allegorical figure of The Republic.

du Louvre,

class.

him

Gilded plaster, height 10". Muse

Paris

This statue of the classical slave-hero Spartacus symboliz-

ing social injustice brought

111

the plaudits of

all

Europe.

16.

AI.M-JULES

DALOU (1838-1902).

The French Chanson. 1893-94. Marble. Htel de Ville, Paris

For Rodin, Dalou had the


14.

GUST.WE .MOREAU (1826-1898).

The Apparition.

Moreau,

One

1876.

Red wax, height 14^". Muse Gustave

Paris

certain of Dalou's

works with the

finest

He compared

group statues of the

sixteenth century. But ambition destroyed him; Rodin said


that

of Moreau's early sculptural sketches, free and original.

stuff of a great sculptor.

"he aspired

to

become

the orchestral conductor of

the Le Brun of our Republic, like


all

contemporary

artists.

He

died

without achieving it."


15.

DO.MINIQUE .MAGGESI (1807-1892).

The Genius of Sculpture Roughing Out the Mask of Olympian Jupiter.

Muse des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux


Maggesi became a naturalized Frenchman and

17.

ERNEST CHRISTOPHE (1827-1892).


Salon of 1885. Bronze, height 7' 3". Formerly

Salon of 1838. Marble.

Fate.

Born

Luxembourg,

in

worked

Italv,

principally in Bordeaux.

Christophe

Paris

\sas a pupril

of Franois Rude.

Muse du

112

Marble. Pare .Monceau, Paris

CHARLES-REN DE SAINT-M ARCEAUX (1845-1920).

18.

The Vine. Plaster model, Salon of 1887. Bronze fountain. Htel

24.

de Ville, Reims

.Monument

Nature, Mysterious and Veiled, Unveils Herself before Science. Salon

of 1893. Marble. Faculty of Medicine, University of Bordeaux


The deliberately suggestive quality one finds in many works by

him to the French artists


grew
older, this type of
century
Nouveau. As the
one not excepted,

Barrias, this

of the

.Art

artist,

combining the

into silliness

real

relates

with the picturesque, easily slipped

society's petty revenge

on the Romantics. The

predilection for the "beautiful, the droll, the pretty, the pic-

turesque" against which Baudelaire had spoken out twenty

now became

years before,

the taste of the

majority of amateurs in Europe and the

New

overwhelming

the Palais

Grand

World.

25.

Palais, Paris

to the

ble. Pare

.Monceau, Paris

Night
26.

Monceau,

Palais, Paris

An

.Marble,

height with pedestal

c.

succeeded

in

sees

how

a half-unbelieving socie-

conveying a pleasing inwge of the

felicities

of

LOUIS-ERNEST BARRIAS (1841-1905) and JULES-FLIX cou-

.Monument

to

Thodore Ballu (d.

the Architect

1885).

Htel de

Ville, Paris
is

by Barrias, the bronze Genius by Coutan, and

the pedestal by Albert Ballu

fils.

Ballu was a Parisian architect

primarily of churches.

CORNEILLE THEUNISSEN (1863-1918).


to

trait figure.

Charles .Mathieu.

1901. Marble, with bronze por-

Lourches (Nord)

30'.

Mathieu was the founder of the Houillires


Lourches and Courrires

astounding work. The sculptor has succeeded in giving an

appearance of truth to what could be ridiculous, thanks to the


realistic face

Paris

monuments one

In these four

Monument

Steam. Executed for the Exposition of 1889; displayed in the

Grand

Composer Charles Gounod (d. 1893). 1903. .Mar-

to the

ble. Pare

ty

composer. Harmony reigns above.

.MARIUS-JEAN-ANTONIN .MERCI (1845-1916).

.Monument

28.

des .Machines.

listens to the

Third Republic.

HENRI-MICHEL-ANTOINE CHAPU (1833-1891).

Palais

Composer Frdric Chopin (d. 1847). 1906. .Mar-

The marble bust

work in which a certain sensualism is quite successallied w ith the educational moralizing that was the fashion

in the early years of the

21.

JACQUES FROMENT-.MEURICE (1854-1948).

TAN (1848-1939).

Executed for the Exposition of 1889; displayed in


des .Machines. .Marble, height with pedestal c. 30'.

curious

fully

1893). .Marble.

(d.

the afterlife.

LOUIS-ERNEST BARRIAS (1841-1905).

Electricity.

Guy de .Maupassant

Monument

27.

20.

Writer

the

to

Pare Monceau, Paris

LOUIS-ERNEST BARRIAS (1841-1905).

19.

RAOUL-CHARLES VERLET (1857-1923).

statues of a pit

boy and

timber structure

in a

in

northern

woman

(coal)

France.

companies

at

The marble

coal sorter are in front of a

coalmine.

of the female figure.


29. JEAN-JOSEPH-MARIE CARRIES (1855-1894).

coNVERS (1860-1915).

22. LOUIS

The Seasons,

c.

Convers was
23.

Self-Portrait

1900. .Marble. Petit Palais, Paris

to the

Plajwrigbt Edouard Pailleron (d.

the

Sculptor's

Tomb.

.Model,

Bronze, cast by the lost-wax method.

a pupil of Barrias.

Salon

of

1892.

Cimetire du Pre-

Lachaise, Paris

LEOPOLD BERNSTAMM (1859-1910).

Monument

on

Carries

1899).

1906.

is

256, S2).

best

known

for his remarkable portrait busts (see p.

UJJJJJJ^JiJjJjjJJju.

/.

I?

12

13

14

16

I 19

20

21

23

25

7.

PRE-RAPHAELITES;

ART NOUVEAU
During

the

first

half of the nineteenth century the sculptors

the poor re-

panted
the rhythm of poetry. The often

pejorative opinions of Baudelaire or Thophile Gautier on the

lations in the family of the arts

contradictory, usually

always

to live to

subject of statuary gave sculptors the idea that the world thought

them mere

stone-

carvers, artisans, praticiens.

With the return of allegorv the give-and-take among the arts suddenly seemed easier, for
manv themes, despite their occasional excesses, contained something of the breath of poetry\
The man in the street delighted in these themes; he found them easv to translate, and the
female nudes who seemed to be proposing them to the mind of the public were a most agreeable sight.

Once more we see the special influence of the powers-that-be over the art of sculpture.
To make a dignified presentation of the new secular and republican ideals, a search was made
among the outworn trappings of pagan civilizations. The diversity of motifs borrowed from
Athens, Rome, or Florence reflects the confusion which reigned in State and in Church,
Protestant as well as Catholic. Art, literature, and poetry

all

reveal the profound moral, social,

and intellectual disarray that prevailed as the twentieth centur\' approached. The
novelists denounced middle-class morality and the state of servitude imposed on woman as the
female object. It was the same in politics, where socialism snapped at the heels of paternalism.
Sensualism, drugs, and alcohol became the chosen themes of Symbolist poets and painters.
Charcot and the School of Nancy prefigured Freud and the Viennese School.
religious,

If

the Eclectic style provided the ideal image for the representatives of the upper middle class,

whether

or conservative, then the newer

Art Nouveau, was rather to translate the


uneasiness of a society which was still bourgeois but alreadv tormented by a guilty conscience.
Painters, striving toward the new and strange, discovered the disturbing effects of certain
shades such as emerald, ruby, violet, or opal. Sculptors too broke with academicism and
eclecticism bodies unfurled before one's eyes like flowers and stems that would not be out of
place among the roots of exotic jungle plants. Bowing to the whims of unseasonable winds,
the flower-creatures glide and melt, delicious prey to the caprices of rapacious typhoons.
Matter seems wholly subject to sensibility: gone are sharp thorns, rectilinear stalks,
broken angles; only liquified curves melted into vapor, losing themselves in the dusty light.
liberal

art.

form of goldsmiths' work the volumes cut into obsidian,


marble, precious materials
answered the need to struggle against mass production.
Like gnomes suddenly seizing the instruments of a symphony orchestra, sculptors, often
mediocre ones, played on the strings of realism, historicism, mannerism. An intellectual and
moribund Florence, still dreaming for a moment of the academies of Lorenzo the Magnificent,
wove her spell around precious Anglo-Saxon society. To the Middle Ages ("hideous century
real passion for sculpture in the

of faith, of leprosy, of famine," said Leconte de Lisle) people now preferred the earlier barbarian epochs. For knights who formerly were girded by steel the Englishman Reynolds-

Stephens proposed cuirasses of gold,

silver,

and bronze. The girl-flowers of

125

Max

Klinger are

126

superb, their bodies cut from white marble and wearing draperies of onyx disguised as barbarian princesses, they are enthroned on benches of burnished gold or mosaics of agate, jade,
;

theme the maidens carved by Dampt are ready to sing Pelleas et Mlisande; the Orientales of Thodore Rivire dream o Salammb; MacMonnies revels in reading
Petronius. For Leonardo Bistolfi, in his refuge in the Engadine, Death is a young girl with a
and opal. To each

his

virgin's face, as seductive as she

is

And

disturbing.

the Scandinavian sculptors strive ambi-

model in the cold marble the image of icy fogs.


There were Symbolists who, like Fernand Khnopff or Rupert Carabin (see pp. 391-92
/ /,
27, 28), were past masters of the art of projecting their fantasies into stone or wood;
there were the Impressionists, with Degas, Rosso, and Troubetzkoy the Expressionists, with
Rodin and Bourdelle different tendencies indeed, but all whipped by the still scorching
breath of Romanticism, so scorching that one even asks oneself if the last great epoch of
Romantic sculpture is not to be found in this Jin-de-sicle work. Would not Baudelaire have
preferred the works of Rodin, Minne, or Victor Rousseau to those of Rude and David
tiously to

d'Angers?

No more

than literature or painting could sculpture escape the climate of ambiguity

swept the West


Minne, or Bourdelle

Often very great artists Rodin, Degas, Gauguin,


are sometimes wrongly considered to be adepts of Art Nouveau, because briefly they were all contemporaries about 1900. It was not through artistic affinity that
these creative artists agreed to tie their fate to that movement, but only through solidarity
with those men of generous motives in Vienna, Darmstadt, and Brussels, who campaigned
with faith as well as unselfishness for an art intended to improve education, to foster the
general good, and to respond to the aesthetic needs of the popular masses.
that

at the century's end.

Gaudi, forever wandering at the boundaries of the dream, the fantastic, and the nonobjective,
occupies a place in the art of sculpture which will always remain poorly defined. The author
of the cathedral of the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, without ever throwing in his lot with Art

Nouveau, was willing to go with it a bit of the way. A creator, his only law was the limits of
his imagination. At a time when machines were threatening not only to reproduce reality with
no intervention by the hand of man but even to create "automatically," Gaudi explored
astounding universes, new modes of expression he thereby reaffirmed the value of individual
work. Willingly he remained a symbolical figure, as if it amused him to mask for a little longer
;

the entry of nonrepresentational art

upon the scene.

NOUVEAU

PRE-RAPHAELITES; ART

GEORGE JAMES FRAMPTON (1860-1928).

1.

Art Gallery, Liverpool

Weary

of academicism, the disciples of Rossetti


a

way of raising

hoped

to find

British sculpture

the rut into which the pupils of Bosio had steered

made

Medieval Art. 1909. Bronze, height 41". Metropolitan

of Art,

with the Pre-Raphaelites

later

HENRY LINDER (1854-1910).

8.

36". Walker

1892. Polychrome plaster, height

Mysteriarch.

it.

from

Frampton

127

New York

Another "goldsmith," but


in

Museum

an American schooled

in this case

Munich. The mlange of Hellenism and the medieval here

most

is

startling.

the statue of Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens.

CHARLES VAN DER STAPPEN (1843-1910).


The Sphinx. 1898. Marble, height 28". Muses Royaux des

9.

JOSEPH-GERMAIN GEEFS (1808-1885).

2.

Marble. Muses Royaux des Beaux- Arts,

The Angel of Evil.


Brussels

Van der Stappen,

Geefs was one of four brothers,


of these

tain

all

sculptors, in Belgium. Cer-

nineteenth-century

later

enough, to possess the true Romantic

works seem, oddly

Amor

Museum

Metropolitan
This
style

of Art,

8' 5".

a funerary stele,

is

in a

a disciple

of

Bust.

ALPHONSE MUCHA (1860-1939).


Bronze and

silver,

Mucha could

11.

The Glamour of the Rose. Exhibited at the Royal

1896. Bronze with gold patina. National

height 10". Private collection, Paris

pass without the slightest difficulty

cal realism to the

WILLIAM GOSCOMBE JOHN (1860-1952).

4.

been

said to have

Painter, goldsmith, sculptor, and especially poster designer,

New York

monument, intended initially as


more historical than American.

is

fluence of Victor Rousseau (see p. 168, 22).


10.

1887; bronze cast 1918. Bronze, height

Caritas.

a Belgian,

Constantin Meunier, but in this bust one sees, instead, the in-

spirit.

AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS (1848-1907).

3.

Beaux-Arts, Brussels

Academy

Museum

in

of Wales,

from

histori-

most legendary symbolism.

RAOUL LARCHE (1860-1912).

Statuette.

Bronze, height 18". In auction catalogue of March

9, 1970, Sotheby's,

London

Cardiff
12.

PIERRE-FLDC FIX-MASSEAU (1869-1937).

5.

The

Another version of
29",
6.

is

in the

work, made of ivory and wood, height

Muse des Beaux-Arts

bom

in Lyons.

Bat Woman. Bronze. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

The night creatures

that inspired the

Romantics

the Pre-Raphaelites, and equally the Art

also intrigued

Nouveau

artists.

ALFRED GILBERT (1854-1934).

Icarus.

Exhibited at the Royal

18^". Collection

this

Van Weydeveldt;

of

1841).

1900. Gilded bronze. Collection G. Levy, Paris

Secret, c.

AGATHON LEONARD (pscudonym

pupil of

J.

W.

Edgar

Academy

Boehm

in

England and

a graduate of the

was remarkable

often attempted unfortunately to produce

13.

CARL MILLES (1875-1955).

Youth. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

H. Crawford, Esq., London

Paris cole des Beaux-Arts, Gilbert

work but

in 1884. Bronze, height

in finer

monu-

The work of

the Swedish sculptor Milles,

by Art Nouveau, generally succeeded

somewhat marked

in preserving a certain

originality.

mental sculpture.
14.
7.

WILLIAM REYNOLDS-STEPHENS (1862-1943).

Guinevere and the Nestling, c. 1902. Gilded bronze. Private collection,

London

The Pre-Raphaelite
ly

an Infant Faun.

wit/i

Metropolitan

Museum

of Art,

1893. Bronze, height 6' 11".

New York

The women's temperance league received


style as

time went on took on an excessive-

Byzantine quality. Reynolds-Stephens, like Alfred Gilbert,

was more

FREDERICK WILLIAM MACMONNIES (1863-1937).

Bacchante

goldsmith than a sculptor.

creature with a storm of protest.

When

this

intoxicated

she was offered to the

Boston Public Library, the administration took fright and declined the

gift.

128

15.

CHARLES KORSCHMANN (bom 1872).

Desk Accessory. Gilded metal, height 19". In auction catalogue

of

November

11, 1969, Sotheby's,

London

19.

.MAURICE BOUVAL

Flower Woman. Bronze. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

JEAN-ANTONIN CARLOS (1851-1919).

20.

certain

VILLE

VALLGREN (1855-1940).

The Perfume. Bronze. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

JACQUES FLAMAND.

The Parisienne. Bronze. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

18.

for the trade, casting

Youth. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

17.

a great demand
number of sculptors produced these
them in as many as 15,000 copies.

At the close of the nineteenth century there was


for statuettes.

16.

(d. 1920).

FRANZ VON STUCK (1863-1928).

Bremen
The works of Franz von Stuck have a grace all their own. The
elegance and abstractness of some of his figures make us think
Dancer. 1897. Bronze, height 25". Kunsthalle,

21.

WILLIAM REYNOLDS-STEPHENS (1862-1943).

The Lullaby of Love.

22.

The

GIUSEPPE GRANDI (1843-1891).


Young

d'Arte

of Maillol.

Bronze and marble. Private collection,

London

Beethoven.

1873.

Modema, Turin

MARTILLY. .Madame de Feme. Varicolored bronze.


Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris. Probably portrays
the wife of the Art Nouveau artist Georges de Feure

III.

Bronze, height

27^".

Galleria

ri

f^K- -.*.--

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WE
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10

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19

20

ART IN FUSION:
RODIN AND HIS DISCIPLES
8.

Rodin beganKlagmann and Maindron, and among

his career very early at fourteen years old,

in

1854. For advice he

other places he worked at the Muse d'Histoire Naturelle under the eye of Barye. So it is not surprising to find,
especially in his first works, reminiscences of Prault or Daumier, the mark of so

turned to

Romantic an education. Rodin


Constant, a simple praticien

who worked

tells

from
decorative sculpture workshop

us that he acquired the sense of depth

alongside

him

in a

Constant told him: "Never consider a surface except as the extremity of a volume, as the
point more or less broad that it turns toward you."
The attention of the critics and sculptors was aroused very early by their young confrre.
Indeed, perhaps the greatest merit of the very academic Carrier-Belleuse, then director of
the national manufactory at Svres, was in having the perspicacity and courage to invite

Rodin to work with him. It was also due to him that Rodin later received the commission
from Gambetta to make the Gates of Hell for the future Muse des Arts Dcoratifs the subject which permitted Rodin to demonstrate his admiration for Michelangelo and sculptors of

the Quattrocento,

Despite the criticisms often directed against him (which, except for the Balzac affair, were
mostly restrained), Rodin did not present himself as a revolutionary. Instead, confident in his
genius, he undertook to impose his views
ture.

He took

risks

but he was sure of his

be an unsuccessful artiste maudit.


Like Victor Hugo, he amazed
unusual

to grasp

on

more

his

who

claimed to appreciate the art of sculpultimate triumph; he knew that he would never
all

contemporaries. His working methods were deemed

movement, he asked a number of nude


studio. For Rodin the "expression" of a statue

fully the universal aspect of

models of both sexes to move freely about his


was a function of the model's face as well as of his muscular efforts. When Paul Gsell remarked to him that, contrary to tradition, Rodin did not fix in advance a particular pose for
his models but waited to be seized by an unforeseen gesture, the sculptor replied: "I am not
under orders from anybody except those from nature."
Rodin was more like a kind of spy than a photographer. He had no ambition to reproduce
scrupulously what he saw but rather to underscore the traits of a motif and to accentuate
these where necessary. To him the artist was a seer, one whose eye and heart "read deeply
into the bosom of nature." When it was shown him that a group of visitors, especially the
ladies, averted their eyes from the sight of the lamentable and ruined body of his Old Helmetmaker, Rodin laughed and said: "My work must be eloquent indeed if it provokes such
intense impressions.

...

am

like that

Roman

chanteuse

who

replied to the jeers of the

populace 'Equitibus canol (I sing only for the knights!),' meaning for the connoisseurs."
Like the realistic painters, Rodin demonstrates that "what one commonly calls ugliness
in nature can come to have great beauty in art." For him every natural thing has character;
the artist's task

After he had been refused by the cole des Beaux-Arts he


wrote "It is I who follow tradition the cole des Beaux- Arts broke with it eighty years ago.
I am in the tradition of the primitives, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans.
I have simply
:

is

to discover

it.

137

138

applied myself to copying nature. ... I have not tried to arrange it, I have not applied to it
the lavv^s of composition, I have not forced myself to harmonize its movements. I have observed nature and I have seized her in the fullness of her riches, of her life, of her harmony."

He

laughed

at the critics

who complained

that he

was unwilling to

refine, to prettify his

works. To polish the toes of his statues, to dress the hair, did not interest him. And when he
reminds us that the same reproaches were once addressed to Rembrandt, we suddenly realize
that Rodin's art has a relationship with that of the artist of the Man with the Golden Helmet.
for Rodin and his disciples the
It is of no matter that many of his statues are headless
inception of a movement, the premonitory quiver, is often more revealing than the expression to be read in facial features. It was Rodin who at last realized a fusion of sculpture with
poetry. All of his work is steeped in a lyrical and naturalistic universe. For this reason he was
shocked by Baudelaire's opinions: "His criticisms are not fair," he wrote to Edmond Claris,
"sculpture is not an art of Caribbean savages."
:

Even before Paul Valry had proclaimed

work

in his Pices sur

Van

that

"each instant of the sculp-

threatened by an infinity of eventualities," Rodin had written: "It is not correct


to say that an accident of light, the effect of a lamp, can disclose a beauty which is not what
the artist himself had dreamed. When a work is well 'done' it contains all the forms necestor's

is

sary to render the expression and living

may

movement

that animates the subject.

form

It is

therefore

was not intended."


Not only did Rodin remain a master of light, but he even "carved" it, using dribbles of
plaster and blobs of clay whose function is both to reflect glints of daylight and cast zones of
shadow. The physical envelope of his statues evokes those volcanic lands which at any moment are in danger of being swept away by some convulsive movement whose epicenters lie
far below. Claudel saw rightly that "Rodin had the instinct of a colorist."
Rodin's name always tends to be associated with the Impressionist movement, with its
principles and its forms, although he scarcely seems a disciple of a Pissarro, Renoir, or Sisley.
His nude females, painted in watercolor, have nothing that can be compared with Renoir's
abundant Gabrielles and the peasant girls of ragny. Instead of breaking up the image and
assembling patches of color alongside one another toward the formation of "values," Rodin
splashes a few drops of watercolor on paper and, seemingly evanescent, they finally become
impossible, whatever the lighting

the flesh of a

woman

in

be, to find a

that

movement.

While the Impressionists,

concerned with the effects of light, seem disinterested


in problems of morals, society, or politics, Rodin and his followers strove endlessly to unmask the human creature and to show it in struggle with the rigors of life. One need only
compare the subjects of Impressionist canvases with those chosen by these sculptors on the
one hand, elegant little girls at the piano, elms on a riverbank, fruit trees in blossom, fields
of poppies, cathedrals in fog; on the other hand, dying children, sick people in hospitals,
unemployed workers, interiors of autobuses, mothers with withered breasts. Rather than
Impressionist, this is a sculpture at once realist, romantic, and, above all, introspective. Of
the Balzac by Rodin, Robert de la Sizeranne wrote that "his eyes seem to be gazing deep
into a spectacle that he alone sees."
In this art world that teemed with mediocre artists wearing government decorations and
with imbecile critics who were respected, Rodin succeeded quite rapidly in obliging the
official circles to acknowledge his genius. Although the press had inveighed only a few years
before against the Impressionists and continued their disdain of Czanne, Gauguin, and
Toulouse-Lautrec, the officials remained prudent and often abashed when faced with these
fragmentary torsoes and bronzes which seemed to have melted in the casting.
Those who spoke up generally did so on the score of Impressionism, always antagonistisolely

ART

RODIN AND

IN FUSION:

HIS DISCIPLES

139

Witness the statement of Armand Dayot "To my mind, Impressionism in sculpture can
only be the result of impotent eff^"orts. And, all in all, even if I am disregarded as an old fogy,
I still prefer the academic form in its cold correctness to all these attempts at convulsive and
grimacing sculpture, modeled like scums of lava by thumbs as agile as they are presumptuous."
callv.

DEGAS
Rodin and Degas have

little in

common:

the one seems to us a Romantic, the other an Im-

For Degas, sculpture was merely one more means of capturing the
ways of movement of his models; he saw no use in exhibiting his efforts in that medium. He
consented only once to show a piece of sculpture, at the Impressionist exhibition of 1885;
this was the large ballerina, to whose bronze body he added real hair and a gauze tutu. The
seventy-four pieces he modeled were only cast in bronze by Hbrard from 1919 to 1921 when
the wax figures were found in the artist's studio after his death.
Again unlike Rodin, Degas had no interest in the metaphvsical problems of his figures
but only in their epidermis and their movements. Where dancers were concerned, it was the
equilibrium of their bodies that preoccupied him. Is this not the reason why, in most cases,
the facial features seem scratched or rubbed out, as if to underscore the artist's indifference
pressionist

Realist.

to the very existence of these ballerinas

MEDARDO ROSSO
1880 Canova was still considered the equal of Michelangelo, and Canova's disciples, such
as Bartolini and Giovanni Dupr, were still enjoving a deserved success. But everything
changed when Medardo Rosso of Turin undertook to shake off the servitude of the Neoclassicists and academics.
After studying at the Accademia di Brera in Milan, Rosso first exhibited as early as 1882
works having social content, inspired by the naturalistic and progressive writers who were
In

then popular; his

show

The Drunkard, The Tlesh of Others, The Paralytic.


Fascinated by the visual approach of the Impressionist painters. Rosso concerned himself
titles

this aspect:

primarily with light. Rodin was impressed by the talent of the young Italian and offered

him

work. The mutual esteem of the two men and the influence that the master inevitably had on his disciple explain why Rosso is generally considered to owe everything to Rodin.
In reality his work, usually more pathetic in tone than that of the author of the Gates of Hell,
profitable

possesses

The

own

its

originality.

use of colored waxes enabled Rosso to obtain surprising effects

unreal, often

morbid

aspects.

By

his

manner of scratching on the

his faces take

on

surfaces he succeeded not

only in rendering the expression but also in strengthening the colors.

him

Edmond

Claris reports

where he himself had stood while executing a female portrait. Then, removing the wet cloth from around
a still moist clay head, he asked Claris to describe how the woman must have looked "I shall
always remember the sculptor's joy when, after described the character that to me seemed
clearly discernable in the figure before me, I declared that this plain clay sculpture gave me
the impression of a blonde with golden hair and a white, milky complexion."
Even more abstract in his outlook than Rodin, Medardo Rosso denounced the use of
praticiens, the artisans whose job it was to execute the details of a statue in the style of the
that,

during

a visit to

Rosso's studio, the sculptor asked

to take the place

140

master of the studio. For Rosso, one should no more walk around a statue than around a
painting because the form, he said, has nothing to do with the impression. For him "nothing
is material in the space"; from this he came to declare that art was an indivisible entity.
"There is not painting on the one hand and sculpture on the other. What must be sought
above all, bv whatever means, is the realization of a work which, by the life and humanity
emanating from it, communicates to the viewer everything that would evoke in him the
grandiose spectacle of powerful and healthy Nature."

1.

ASMUS JAKOB CARSTENS (1754-1798).

7.

The Fate Atropos. 1794. Plaster, height 19". Stdelsches Kunstinstitut,

Frankfurt-am-Main

thread of
2.

who inexorably

he shows the Fate

cuts the

life.

1817. Terracotta, height 9". Russian

Museum, Lenin-

leading sculptor in Russia of his era, Prokofiev studied in St.

was remarked

Georges Petit which

rue de Sze, an

artist

of

first

represen-

its

rank

who seldom

Knox Art

Gallery, Buffalo, N.Y.

Gericault lived in

1816-17, and

Italy

his classical studies date

Satyr and Bacchante.

is

Muse Rodin,

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

move ahead

within the most remote Antiquity.

wish to

link again the past to the present, to spread abroad the

memory

Terracotta cast of stone original in the


[of

Muse des Beaux-Arts, Rouen.


Sculpture

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

The Burghers of Calais. 1884-86; installed 1895. Bronze, 6' 11"


X 7' 10" X 4' 11". Htel de Ville, Calais

"I

THODORE GERICAULT (1791-1824).

much

Paris
9.

that period or slightly thereafter.

is

aroused."

Tonrait of Madame F. 1898. Marble, height 23'

'Symph and Satyr, c. 1817-20. Terracotta, height 6". Albright

4.

at the Galerie

it

frequents the Salon and whose glor\- has not yet spread beyond

8.

THODORE GRICAULT (1791-1824).

from

1887,

the circle of professionab and amateurs whose curiosity

Petersburg and Paris.


3.

concerning an exhibition

tative, in the

grad

In the Gazette des Beaux Arts, January,

included works by Rodin that "sculpture has as

rVAN PROKOHEVICH PROKOFIEV (1758-1828).

Fighters.

Muse

Rodin, Paris

Carstens, a Dane, was primarily a painter, and lived mostly in


Italy. In this statuette

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

Mother and Trying Daughter. 1908. Marble, height 41".

to judge and to add to

it],

its

completion. .Men are led by

Private collection, Paris


sjTnbols. These are something other than lies"

(Rodin).

The

exceptional in the oeuvre from Gericault's short


six hostages are led off

from

Calais during the English siege in

life.

1347.
5.

GEORGE FREDERICK WATTS (1817-1904).


Varnished plaster,

'Sude Figures.

cast.

Watts Gallery, Compton

10.

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

Monument

to

Victor

1889 (unfinished). Marble. .Muse

Hugo.

(Surrey)

were

Artists' sketches

often reveal
sions, in

Rodin, Paris
for long looked dowTi upon, yet they

more of an

artist's creative

which everything

is

genius than

final

Rodin

said:

it; for

my

ver-

HONOR DAUMIER

The Migrants,

c.

part

(1808-1879).

1870. Bronze, 11

perfection that she

statues."

26". Private collection,

in a

garden to beautify

believe that Nature, sovereign mistress and in-

perfectly realized.
finite

6.

"Usually statues are placed

Commissioned

is,

has

all

for the

power needed to beautify


Panthon, this work was rethe

jected on the score of nudity.

Milan
In this prodigious sketch the

set before us.

No

one

else,

whole world of migrant labor

11.
is

before Rodin, was capable of defin-

ing the silhouette of a worker, of suggesting the state of misery


in

which he subsisted

until the

end of the century.

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

Orpheus. 1889-96. Bronze, height 59'


12.

.Muse Rodin, Paris

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

The Sculptor's Dream. Bronze, height 26". Kunsthalle,

Bremen

ART

13.

IN FUSION:

RODIN AND

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

16.

The Prodigal Son. 1885-88. Bronze, height 55".

Muse Rodin,

14.

17.

Muse Rodin,
Sick

Paris
15.

Muse Rodin,

Paris

MEDARDO ROSSO (1858-1928).


Person in Hospital. 1889. Wax, height

9".

Museo Medardo

Rosso, Barzio (Como)

CAMILLE CLAUDEL (1856-1920).

Rarely has an

Muse Rodin, Paris


and strangest works in all the

The Gossipers. 1895. Onyx, total height 18".

This

CAMILLE CLAUDEL (1856-1920).

second version, in a different medium.

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

Pygmalion and Galatea. 1889. Plaster, height 31".

141

The Gossipers. Bronze, height 10".

Paris

HIS DISCIPLES

is

among

the most original

history of sculpture.

Claudel,

sister

of Paul

Claudel,

was

artist

succeeded

in illustrating the

circumstances

of the ordinary person with such realism and poetry; he excels


equally in resolving problems of light and shadow. In this re-

spect he surpassed Troubetzkoy and even Rodin.

He

has been

Rodin's student.

IV.

EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917).

Rearing

Bronze (lost-wax method), height 12".


Rheims, Paris

1870-80.
Collection Maurice
Horse,

c.

il

142

called the "Carrire of sculpture," but that painter never suc-

ceeded

groups the structure that one

in giving to his

finds

with

The Daughters of Satan. Before 1904. Marble, 6'

Wax

The Golden Age. 1886.

Nazionale d'Arte Moderna,

over plaster, height 17". Galleria

Rome

GEORGE GREY BARNARD (1863-1938).

Adam and
The Concierge. 1883.

Wax,

height 14^". Galleria Internazionale

31.

make him

skill,

J.-G.

Rueff,

but his facility and his taste for

closer to the painter Boldini than to

GEORGE GREY BARNARD (1863-1938).

The Struggle of Two Natures

Si". Metropolitan

Man. 1888-94. Marble, height

in

Museum

Barnard's

Mother and Daughter. 1911. Bronze, 32

20". Galleria Nazio-

Rome

work was modeled

8'

New York

of Art,

Based on Victor Hugo's statement, "I

PAUL TROUBETZKOY (1866-1938).


Moderna,

part of Barnard's sculpture for the Pennsylvania

is

Paris

Eugne Carrire.

nale d'Arte

1904-6. Marble, height 23^". Taft Museum,

State Capitol at Harrisburg.

Madame Anernheima. Bronze. Collection


worldliness

work

This

PAUL TROUBETZKOY (1866-1938).

Troubetzkoy had great

Eve.

Cincinnati

d'Arte .Moderna, Venice

21.

57"

seau.
30.

.MED.ARDO ROSSO (1858-1928).

20.

This group parallels certain works by Rodin or Victor Rous-

MEDARDO ROSSO (1858-1928).

19.

9"

42". Muses Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

Rosso.
18.

GIDE RO.MBAUX (1865-1942).

29.

feel

two men

in

myself,"

in Paris.

.MILE-ANTOINE BOURDELLE (1861-1929).


The Siesta. 1894. Bronze, 8^ X 16i". Private
32.

collection,

Paris

PAUL TROUBETZKOY (1866-1938).

22.

HENRI

33.
Elegant Creature. Bronze. Private collection

(1869-1954).

Muse Henri Ma-

The Slave. 1900-1903. Bronze, height 36".

JEAN-LOUIS-ERNEST MEISSONIER (1815-1891).

23.

.MATISSE

Le Cateau-Cambrsis (Nord)

tisse,

Dancing Muse. Muse de Peinture et de Sculpture, Grenoble

Based on Rodin's style, Matisse's sculpture

This sketch by Meissonier recalls certain works by the Czech

solidly.

Myslbek. Comparable similarities among seemingly different


artists are

found throughout the nineteenth century

whence

the difficulty of assigning an artist to one or another school.

34.

is

balanced more

GIUSEPPE GRAND! (1843-1891).

Marshal Michel Ney. 1880. Bronze, height 13^". Galleria d'Arte

Moderna, Milan

JOSEF VACLAV .MYSLBEK (1848-1922).

24.

Music. 1895. Bronze, height

25^" Narodni

Gallery, Prague

See preceding illustration.

Grande Arabesque, Third Time.

a sculptor

There

who
26.

is

no

1882-95. Bronze,

height 16".

Degas remains isolated,

as

sensuality about his dancers

he does

as a painter.

they are ordinary girls

1879-80. Bronze, height

has before one, caught just as in

life,

the graceful

squirming of the movements and gestures of those

28.

(E.

and

J.

than had Franois

Napoleonic marshal

Rude

in

1852. His

precursor of the so-called Impressionist

sculptors.
35.

EMILE-ANTOINE BOURDELLE (1861-1929).

Carpeaux had died

36.

Dancer Looking at the Sole of Her Right Foot. 1882-95. Bronze,


height 18". Lefvre Galleries, London

monkeys"

the

in

1875; Bourdelle also made a represen-

tation of Rodin at Work (1910).

EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917).

"And one

Commemorate

Arts, Lyons

28^". Lefvre Galleries, London


27.

to

Carpeaux at Work. 1909. Bronze, height 9". .Muse des Beaux-

EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917).


the Dressed Ballet Dancer.

more sober manner

in a

technique makes him

have chosen a hard trade.

Nude Study Jot

Monument

fine

Five-Day Insurrection of 1848 (against the Austrians; executed

Lefvre Galleries, London

As

Grandi, author of the

in 1874), in .Milan, treated the figure of the

EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917).

25.

picturesque interpretation of Napoleon's famous marshal.

EMILE-ANTOINE BOURDELLE (1861-1929).

Young Girl Picking Apples.

1895. Terracotta. Muse Antoine

Bourdelle, Paris

"To
I

you. Matre Claude Monet,

think of your great moving

uork

that assures

vou of eternity,

little girl-

de Concourt, yournai, February 13, 1874).

EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917).

in the

form

human

itself.

sense of the word, since everything must trans-

think of your bust, v\hich must be created, and the

portrait, that sculptured Architecture

which

is

the great battle

Spanish Dance. 1882-95. Bronze, height 17". Lefvre Galleries,

of the sculptor of statues" (extract of a letter from Bourdelle to

London

Monet, August 20, 1925).

^''

10

11

14

I
I

17

20

n^

25

26

27

28

II

>i

Vh

#
i;

mV

30

3i

tv-

33

34

35

THE EVE OF THE TWENTIETH


CENTURY; EXPRESSIONISM;
THE RETURN TO THE GREEKS

9.

1880 sculpture like painting thirty years earlier was racked by trends as
diverse as they were contradictory. The academicists did everything they could to
impose their primacy once more. Some of these, such as Dalou, excelled equally in
naturalism and symbolism; others, among them Falguire and Antonin Mercie, both
remarkable technicians, tended toward the historical approach, most readily to a
pseudo-Florentinism. Among the approaches to the new art the anecdotal realists had a faithful
following; social awareness, with Paul Dubois, Alfred Lenoir, Thodore Rivire, and Jean
Dampt, took on a missionary tone. In those years, Rodin alone was proving himself one of the
greatest creative geniuses of all time, and later he was followed by a number of disciples.
Some of the works that illustrate this chapter were done by sculptors then young men
who would later gain great fame. What they produced
like Bourdelle, Brancusi, and Maillol

After

before the turn of the century scarcely permits, except perhaps for Bourdelle, a prediction of
their genius.

Gauguin's sculptures, like those of Degas, are important in the sense that they offer proof
again that painters are more easily attracted to modernity than are sculptors. But as with
Gericault and Daumier, sculpture remained for these great artists a

pawn on

their creative

chessboard, a supplementary means of expression and relaxation.

Gauguin clearly distinguished between the academic sculpture of his early years and what he strove to realize in
Oceania. There everything was different, as he explained in a letter to Daniel de Monfried in
1897: "Sculpture! You must admit that it's very amusing, and either very easy or very
difficult very easy when one looks at nature, very difficult when one wishes to express something a bit mysteriously by association. Tojind the forms
what your friend, the little sculptor
from the Midi, calls to deform.**
In transposing the Polynesian style, Gauguin has a more savage accent in his sculptures
than in his paintings. But as a European he could not prevent himself from giving his works,
though barbarous and bizarre, a Western imprint. He took pains to tone down at least the
expression if not the facial features, as subsequently was done by Lehmbruck and Barlach in
Germany.
:

As early as 1895 certain young sculptors, pupils or disciples of Rodin, broke with the master,
convinced that it was impossible to go further in the direction he had chosen without falling
into excess and mannerism. Some, like Bourdelle, retained a Romantic quality; others,
Maillol for one, strove to rediscover the sources of a Latin and Mediterranean tradition.
Bourdelle was no revolutionary, but in drawing away from Rodin and by leading sculpture toward the paths of Expressionism he was responsible, unconsciously or not, for the
prodigious revolutions soon to explode in the plastic arts. Initially the muscular efforts of his
figures remained half concealed, but soon the impression of semidivine power which emanates
from his works accentuated the grandeur and nobility of his compositions. This son of a shepherd, this man of the soil infinitely sensitive to the profound vibrations that agitate everything
that has form, aspired to express these effects more than anyone had done.
In 1921 Waldemar George marked Bourdelle's importance for the twentieth century:

165

166

"Initiated into the art of sculptural manufacture, he then used every effort to abolish

it

and,

means of planes. The simple


play of surfaces juxtaposed to one another took the place of depth for him. On that score, and
on many others too, he is the successor of stonecarvers of the twelfth century and the predecessor of those 'Cubist' sculptors named Jacques Lipchitz and Henri Laurens."
instead of modeling, so often risky, to substitute construction by

At the century's end, sculpture reflected a trend that is also found in literature. Turning away
from Romantic symbolism, a number of artists preferred the serenity of the Parnassian movement.
Following the Dreyfus scandal there arose a new society that was atheistic, intellectualized, and virtuous, the enemy of a dying morality. It was a society that found in the image of
the past not the sources of rapture that had produced a false medievalism, but, rather, themes
for meditation and inner calm. Maillol, like certain other painters and sculptors, by using what
seem the simplest means, succeeded in becoming a Hellenist while also refusing to yield to
academic conventions. Scorning aestheticism, he proclaimed himself a humanist. He strove
soberly to rediscover the sources which had nourished the Greek artists of the sixth century
B.c., and recreated in clay the most simplified forms he could see. Free from any combination
of pseudo-intellectual or moralizing principles, his work exudes a sense of happiness and
serenity.

During that time sculpture in most countries of the West is marked by similar contradictions.
Germany, in the wake of its victories at Sadowa and Sedan, was seized by an embarrassing
admiration for all matters historical. Reinhold Begas, a passionate admirer of the painters
Boecklin and Feuerbach, continued to be a mannerist in sculpture. Only Adolf von Hildebrand, along with Hans von Mares in painting, disdained patriotic and anecdotal subjects. As
sculptor and architect Hildebrand created in Munich the fountains of the Wittelsbachs and of
Saint Hubert, still among the most important sculptural works of the nineteenth century. By
the simplicity of line allied with his feeling for the monumental, Hildebrand has much in
common with certain twentieth-century sculptors. But Max Klinger, on the contrary, attached himself more willingly to the Art Nouveau movement by his excesses in using and
combining precious and strange materials some of his works are among the oddest in the
entire history of sculpture. Klinger's striving for effects through his materials often interferes
with his dramatic sense. His Beethoven, for example, despite its exoticism, is less moving than
the portraits of Beethoven carved by Bourdelle.
Around Hildebrand there flourished a group of young talents, such as Louis Tuaillon and
the more precious Franz von Stuck. Only Wilhelm Lehmbruck, taking his inspiration first
from Rodin and then from Maillol, would orient German sculpture in a new direction.
In Belgium the verve of Jef Lambeaux served to counter the exquisite genius of Victor
Rousseau, tinged with aestheticism, and the sometimes too insistent simplicity of George
Minne. The latter artist, first a disciple of Rodin and then an admirer of Constantin Meunier,
in 1898 gathered around him at Laethem Saint-Martin, near Ghent, a small coterie of artists
whom he tried to inculcate with his own taste for pursuing the study of his materials to the
point of stylization. In his last years however, after having been one of the great precursors of
contemporary art, Minne returned again to medievalism.
In the United States, particularly in Chicago and New York, a new era had arrived in
architecture, especially that by Louis Sullivan. Sculpture, however, remained resolutely conventional, and it had to wait for the maturity of Paul Manship to initiate a sculptural expression capable of raising American art from its decadent lethargy.
;

THE EVE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY; EXPRESSIONISM; THE RETURN TO THE GREEKS

167

At the close of the nineteenth century, Bourdelle, Maillol, and Lehmbruck were opening the
way to Lipchitz, Laurens, and Zadkine. But it was especially Bourdelle, and Brancusi after
him, both born in a peasant world, who would be the gravediggers for the "cadavers," their
name for academic works.

EMILE-ANTOINE BOURDELLE (1861-1929).

1.

Large

Warrior (detail).

War

Franco-Prussian

10.

1898. Study for the memorial to the

this

The Lovers,

c.

1909.

men
A refreshing study

(1870-71). Bronze. Montauban

There are many studies for

ADOLF VON HILDEBRAND (1847-1921).

famous work.

PAUL GAUGUIN (1848-1903).


BE IN LOVE AKD YOU WILL BE HAPPY (SOYEZ AMOUREUSES
ET VOUS SEREZ HEUREUSES). 1889. Panel designed to deco". Muse
rate a lintel carved and painted wood, 39^" X 7'1

Wax

study, height 12". Kunsthalle, Bre-

in contrast to Hildebrand's earlier controlled

style.

2.

du Louvre,
There

is

Paris

11.

YANNOULIS CHALEPAS (1854-1937).

Perseus

and Pegasus. Plaster. National Picture Gallery, Athens

Perseus, with the help of Athena, cut off Medusa's head, and

from her head was born the winged horse Pegasus.

another version of

this subject in the

Museum

of Fine
12.

Arts, Boston

GEORGES CLRE (1819-1901).

Hercules Strangling the


3.

PAUL GAUGUIN (1848-1903).

Lechery. 1889.

length

JEAN ESCOULA(1851-1911).

5.

c.

1870.

Black marble,

34^". Muse des Beaux-Arts, Nancy

ALBERT BARTHOLOM (1848-1928).

Little Girl

1897. Bronze. Muse des Beaux-Arts, Valenciennes

Suffering.

Lion.

Bronze, height 11". Private collection, Paris


13.

4.

c.

Nemean

Crying.

ceived art, and sculpture

MILE-ANTOINE BOURDELLE (1861-1929).

Head of Apollo. 1900. Bronze. Private collection,

New York

Muse d'Art Moderne,

1894. Bronze.

Despite their close friendship,

fundamentally

in particular, in a

ferent manner. Bartholom,

Paris

Bartholom and Degas con-

who began

as a

painter but

dif-

became

Rodin's disciple and was a friend of Bourdelle and Charles


6.

GEORGE .MINNE (1866-1941).

Despiau, became in the end an isolated figure.

Mother Weeping over Her Dead Child. 1886. Bronze, height 18".

FRANZ VON STUCK (1863-1928).

Muses Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

14.

As the nineteenth century waned, an

The Athlete. Bronze, height 25^". Kunsthalle,

art

developed which,

rather than following the various Romantic currents, attempted


to stylize in the

most simplified manner the deeper torments of

the psyche.
7.

15.

Bronze,

1898.

height

26".

Muses

Royaux des

thin and unstable forms are typical of Minne's Expression-

ism.
8.

Head (study for Kneeling Woman),

c.

1911. Plaster, height 17".

sculpture after he

moved

up

to Italy.

ADOLF VON HILDEBRAND (1847-1921).


Archery Lesson, left wing of a triptych. Model 1887/88, cast in
1954 in cement; 51 X 36". Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne

of Art, Raleigh, N.C.

As with Bourdelle and Maillol,

this

work done

shortly after the

end of the nineteenth century shows the modernist


aspirations of the
9.

sammlung, Basel

16.

WILHELM LEHMBRUCK (1881-1919).

Museum

KARL STAUFFER (1857-1891).

Painter, printmaker, and sculptor, this Swiss artist took

Beaux-Arts, Brussels

The

Painter as well as sculptor, von Stuck formed his style on that

of Boecklin and Lembach.

Adoring Figure. 1888. Bronze, height 40". Offentliche Kunst-

GEORGE MINNE (1866-1941).

Solidaritj.

Bremen

new

spirit, the

century.

ARISTIDE MAILLOL (1861-1944).

An admirable sculptor but often too intellectual, Hildebrand


like Hugo Lederer and Max Klinger aspired to be an apostle
of the pure vision.
17.

AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS (1848-1907).

Washerwoman. 1896. Bronze, height 5". Collection Dina Vier-

Diana. 1892. Gilded bronze, height 9' 4". Metropolitan Muse-

ny, Paris

um

Full-size version

is

47 inches high, 1917.

of Art,

New York

Here Saint-Gaudens'

style

somewhat resembles

that of Hilde-

168

the tower of Madison

The Diana originally topped


Square Garden in New York.
brand.

26.

FLIX-DOUARD VALLOTTON (1865-1925).

Motherhood. Bronze. Private collection, Switzerland

Bom
HER.MANN HAHN (1868-1942).

18.

The Young Horseman. Bronze, height 22^". Kunsthalle, Bremen


The German school of the end of the nineteenth century was

in

Switzerland and naturalized in France in 1900, Val-

lotton was a painter, engraver, and sculptor. His sculpture

is

not unlike the pieces modeled by Matisse in those years.

fundamentally the opposite of the French style of Rodin and his

27. ARISTIDE .MAILLOL (1861-1944).

disciples.

Standing Bather. 1899.

Wood,

height 24^". Stedelijk

Museum,

Amsterdam
LOUIS TUAILLON (1862-1919).

19.

Amazon. Bronze, height 33^'- Kunsthalle, Bremen


Despite his Roman training the Berlin sculptor Tuaillon turned
his

back on both Naturalism and Romanticism.

Like the Germans, Maillol too strove to return to the Classical


source.
28. AIM-JULES

DALOU (1838-1902).

The Broken Mirror.


20.

FRANZ VON STUCK (1863-1928).

Amazon. 1897. Bronze, height 25". Kunsthalle, Bremen

The

stylistic diversity

This sculptor's classical style has great elegance.


artist,

LUDWIG VON HOFER (1801-1887).


Horse Tamer. Bronze. Muse Cantonal des Beaux-Arts, Lausanne
21.

student of Thorvaldsen, von Hofer usually has mythological

subject matter.

VICTOR ROUSSEAU (1865-1954).

The

Secret.

1917. Marble, 19

12

8". Muses

Royaux des

prolific Belgian sculptor.

ADOLF JERICHAU (1816-1883).

Seated Mermaid, c. 1865. Terracotta, height 16^".

Ny

Carlsberg

dedicated

classicist,

Jerichau studied with Thorvaldsen and

then returned to Denmark.


24.

height 24^". Kunsthalle,

in the Water.

1896-97. Bronze,

Bremen

before KJinger turned to his lavish Art Nouveau

30.

FREDERICK LEIGHTON (1830-1896).

height 2O2".

Shown at the Royal Academy, 1886. Bronze,


The Fine Art Society, London

Well educated and widely traveled, Leighton was encouraged


at age 14 toward sculpture by Hiram Powers, whom he met in

31.

EDMUND STEWARDSON

5'

7". Kunsthalle,

32.

(1865-1892).

worked

GEORGE MINNE (1866-1941).

The

Little Relic Bearer.

Museum

of Art,

New

ARISTIDE MAILLOL (1861-1944).

Crouching Woman.
lived and

25.

Beaux-Arts, Brussels

MAX KLINGER (1857-1920).

Female Bather Looking at Herself

York

Female Figure. 1904. Tinted marble, height

Bremen
German sculptor

7". Private

all classification.

Bather. Marble, height 46". Metropolitan

ARTHUR VOLKMANN (1851-1941).

This

Florence.

Glyptotek, Copenhagen

12

of the works of Dalou, a greatly talented

him outside

The Sluggard.

Rousseau was an outstanding and

13

productions.

Beaux-Arts, Brussels

23. JENS

29.

puts

A work made

22.

Painted bronze,

collection, Paris

in

Rome.

Marble, height 26". Muses Royaux des

Viemy,

1899. Plaster, 39

41". Collection Dina

Paris

33. ARISTIDE .MAILLOL (1861-1944).

The Spring. 1896.


Paris

Wood,

height 16". Collection Dina

Viemy,

nr

III

fF

10

11

12

13

20

21

fl

]l

im

23

25

Ill

Tfl

33 <4l

lO.

THE WORLD OF

Workers
accompanying

WORK

were already depicted in ancient Egypt among those


the deceased in this way the owners paid homage to men who
spent their Hves and talents building tombs and pyramids. In the Middle Ages
masons, carpenters, stonecutters, ironmongers, and peasants were among those
in their activities

by including humble artisans the Church demonstrated that, though it could not improve their lot, it was
obliged to help them endure an existence inexorably chained to misery. To join others on the
great religious monuments, to see one's everyday acts sanctified in stone or bronze, did this
not earn a laissez-passer, a certificate of good conduct for the beyond?
About the close of the sixteenth century one finds again in certain works this wish to
"return to the people," in accordance with the spirit of the Counter-Reformation. A laudable project, but stamped with prudence by such as Bassano, the Carracci, or Louis Boulogne.
Some artists dared to show workers in their customary sordid surroundings and wearing their
everyday shabby clothing, but they never appear to be suffering from their lot. And the artist,
to avoid upsetting the sensibilities of art-lovers, often brought in supernatural elements, such
as Venus visiting the forge of Vulcan. Nor did the artist turn easily to portraying himself in
his daily occupation when he did, he used the pretext of the old and often-treated theme, the
peopling the capitals, portals, and

lintels of the cathedrals;

legend of

St.

Luke painting the Virgin.

Dutch sculptors in the seventeenth century did, in fact, portray their clients in working
clothes, but this was at the express wish of their sitters, craftsmen grown wealthy, who put
on make-believe costumes and then struck conventional poses, as in the ensemble executed for
the tailors' guild in

Hoom.

The world of work is excluded from Versailles to symbolize work in the fields or at the
forges it was thought more elegant to enlist the gods of Olympus. Only the surintendants of
building
Lebrun or Mansart were deemed worthy of the king's notice. The court, oversensitive toward labor, preferred to ignore the hundreds of men and women employed in dig;

ging the ditches of the chteau,

workers appeared on works of

who

lived and died in drudgery.

From time

to time chance

but in submissive postures such figures are on the base of


the monument Pigalle raised to the glory of Louis XV.
During the first half of the nineteenth century the few sculptures depicting the world of
work show us romanticized workers in their activities. Their gestures, costumes, and poses
often give a ballet-like quality to the scene. No one thought of denying the existence of a
profound inequality in the conditions of men, but neither did anyone know how to bring an
end to the unavoidable and shameful evil that is poverty.

When Queen

art,

came

workers numbered more than a


quarter of the population of her realm. Children, adults, and even the aged worked fifteen or
sixteen hours a day earning miserable wages. But the Anglo-Saxons, who spared few thoughts
for the fate of the proletarians living and dying in factories or deep in the mines, willingly
sympathized with the fate of the Negro slaves on plantations in the former colonies in America. The issue of Negro emancipation and the myth of the good black
"the faithful dog"
was readily taken up by painters and sculptors. The touching subject appealed to the RoVictoria

to the English throne,

181

182

mantic and early socialist leanings of certain inhabitants of the New World. In addition, the
"ideal Negro" had a noble bearing that made him worthy of representation in the eyes of the
Neoclassicists.

Ultimately the unending quest for the Beautiful took precedence over any reactions to
political or social movements. If amateurs and critics were offended by the idea of replacing

was because misery is hideous, the rabble ugly; at


best, they could be picturesque. To depict human misfortune was contrary to the Neoclassical
conception of art. Later in the nineteenth century one still finds Henri Jouin writing: "Beauty
is the expression of goodness, and art which records for the future should not represent the
Sculpture should depict only great actions; every time it shows itself
errors of nature.
forgetful of its sublime task it becomes like those priests who preach about frivolous matters."
Daumier, as lie Faure put it, was conscious of that "pity which rises from the centuries to
accompany the passers-by" and was the first to engrave, paint, and carve the "tragedy of hunger which roars like a storm." His Romantic temperament helped him stress the epic accents
that misery can assume.
Courbet's declarations accentuated the importance of the ideological level of his work.
During his time a genuine social conscience began to awaken among painters and sculptors.
This was especially true in Belgium, where the workers found in the ranks of the socialist
party a good number of intellectuals and artists who organized the conspiracy between art and
the political revolt. The foundation in 1885 of a Workers' Party in Brussels and its acceptance
into the government coincided with the campaigns led by Emile Verhaeren and Octave Maus
toward the emergence of a social art.
Certain ideological ideas already expressed by Charles de Groux found their echo in the
sculpture of Constantin Meunier. After what he saw during a visit to the steel mills at Seraing
in Belgium, Meunier discovered in the distress of the working class themes he would continue
to pursue for the rest of his career. The same approach is seen in Alexandre Charpentier,
Aim-Jules Dalou, and Vincenzo Vela, though in their work the social effect is less convincthe monument on the
ing. French sculptures became encumbered with too many symbols
the Republic has
Place de la Rpublique in Paris is handsome, but it scarcely suggests action
already triumphed. Italian sculptors used too much realism, too much virtuosity, in bringing
out the drama, which prejudices the intensity of its effect.
In the final analysis artists like Charpentier, Meunier, or Wilhelm Lehmbruck are less
important for their aesthetic quality than for their fraternal and supportive attitude toward
the mass of workers. This was scarcely the case with such as Gauguin, Van Gogh, and Ensor,
who remained firmly asocial likewise the Impressionists, most of whom came from the lower
middle class and concerned themselves very little with social problems other than their own.
Realistic and socially oriented sculpture often takes on documentary interest when executed for a particular occasion, such as a strike or mine disaster. It can reveal the conditions
of the proletariat and of the general attitude of people at large concerning the workers.
Chizhov's sculpture of a muzhik and his child, slumped in despair and physically incapable of
revolt, seems like an illustration of a character from Dostoevsky or Tolstoy. Similarly, certain
groups of workers modeled by Vincenzo Vela evoke the climate of anarchy and poverty during
those years in Italy. Dalou's workers and Meunier's miners are proof that in Belgium the
working class, finally conscious of the power it possessed, appeared ready to challenge the
police force that serve-d a reactionary owners' class.
Curiously, one gets a glimpse here and there of the eventual assimilation of the proletariat into the bourgeoisie: in his derby hat and shaggy woolen jacket, the little Parisian
bookkeeper modeled by Carabin waltzes with his Lisette, dreaming of the felicities of the

models with poor people

in their rags,

it

'(

consumer society

still

to

come.

>

THE WORLD OF

WORK

183

United States the problem had already been solved. The economic situation of
workers, who were much more integrated into the social system than their European counterparts, and the privileged position they enjoyed in a young nation in full expansion, explain the
absence of a realistic and revolutionary art in that country.
In the

BARTHLMY-FRANOIS CHARDIGNY (1757-1813).


Harvesting Olives. Commissioned 1802. 29^ X 39^". Muse
1.

7.

GIORGIOS FYTALIS (1832-1880).

The Shepherd.

White marble. National Picture

Gallery, Athens

des Beaux-Arts, Marseilles

The

illustrations for this chapter give

8.

an idea of the social

evolution that took place in the course of the century. As far

along

as

1820 the labors of the peasantry were treated

of ritual ballet

those

who

work was

practiced

it

still

thought of

as a

of

as a gift

were assured of their reward

kind

God and

at the gates

of Heaven.

Muse-

Statens

African Water Carrier. 1897. Marble, height 5' 10".

Picardie,
9.

Muse de

Amiens

SERGEY TIMOFEJEVICH KONENKOV (1874-1971).


1898. Bronze, height 41". Tretyakov Gallery,

StonecTusher

and would be perfect

The Carter.

Bronze, height 23^". Galleria Nazionale d'Arte

Modema, Rome

PAVEL MALINSKY (1790-1853).

Workers Constructing a Bridge. 1823. Plaster,

34

29". Muze-

Realistic faces of proletarians supplanted full-length figures of

"good" workers.

Narodowe, Warsaw

Thorvaldsen's student Malinsky returned to his native Poland


11.

and did sculptures and

in attitudes of resignation

illustrations for a Tolstoy novel.

ACHILLE d'orsi (1845-1929).

10.

Evens, a successful Danish sculptor, studied with H. V. Bissen.

reliefs for

churches and palaces in War-

saw.
4.

871-1902).

Konenkov's Russian peasants posed

OTTO EVENS (1826-1895).


Man Watering a Horse. 1883. Bronze, height 30".
um for Kunst, Copenhagen

um

(1

Moscow

2.

3.

GEORGES-HENRI GUITTET

MATVEY AFANASYEVICH CHIZHOV (1838-1916).

Despairing Peasant. 1872. Bronze, height 43". Russian

Museum,

Moscow.

HARALD CONRADSEN (1817-1905).

Young Girl
Statens

at

Well.

the

Museum

Before

for Kunst,

1854.

Bronze, height

11".

12.

GIULIO MONTEVERDE (1837-1917).

Edward Jenner Inoculating His

Copenhagen

This Danish sculptor was famed especially for his portrait

Injant Son with Smallpox

1873. Height 50^". Galleria Nazionale d'Arte


This sculpture caused a sensation

medallions.

when

Vaccine.

Modema, Rome

exhibited in Paris in

1878.
5.

MiKLOs izso (1831-1875).

Grieving Shepherd.

1862. Marble. Hungarian National Gallery,

Budapest

13.

FRANCOIS-RUPERT CARABIN (1862-1921).

Parisian

Hungarian sculptor, Izso specialized

picted not in the

field

in peasants

whom

he de-

but often in the village square on

Sundays, dancing the czardas.

Couple Dancing. Bronze.

Collection Alain Lesieutre,

Paris

Not only was Carabin the equal of the greatest sixteenth-century


German sculptors in the art of working the hardest woods,
but he was also a prodigious sculptor of social realism. His

6.

JEAN-JACQUES (called JAMES) PRADIER (1792-1852).

Maid

Ironing, c. 1850. Painted plaster, 13

et d'Histoire,

6".

personages seem to step from the pages of novels of Jules

Muse d'Art

Laforgue or Emile Zola.

Geneva

Here Pradier, elegant

as usual, strove to

reveries, while testing her iron, of a

convey the romantic

chambermaid working

her employer, some upper-class woman.

for

14.

ROGER BLOCHE (bom

1865).

The Cold. Bronze. Formerly in courtyard.

bourg, Paris

Muse du Luxem-

184

15.

themselves the interpreters of the sufferings of laborers.

CHARLES VAN WIJK (1875-1917).

Harvesting

Woman.

Royal

Bronze.

Palace,

Soestdljk

(near

16. MARI ANDRIESSEN (bom 1897).


Study for the monument The Docker

17.

AIMi-JULES

in

Amsterdam. Bronze.
21.

18.

The Iron Puddler. 1886. Bronze, height 57^". Muses Royaux

DALOU (1838-1902).
method), height 6". Collection

22.

CONSTANTIN-MILE MEUNIER (1831-1905).

Firedamp. Bronze, height 5' I".

DALOU (1838-1902).
Bronze (lost-wax method), height 4". Collection

AIM-JULES

Muses Royaux des Beaux-

Arts, Brussels

A miner

lies

dead after

a disaster

from combustible gases

CONSTANTIN-iMILE MEUNIER (1831-1905).

23.

VINCENZO VELA (1820-1891).

Glass Blower. 1889. Bronze. Muse Constantin Meunier, Brus-

The Viaims of Labor. 1882. Bronze, 7' 10"

sels

Nazionale d'Arte

Andriessen, Dalou, Hoetger, Vela, and Meunier, often with an


intensity of

emotion beyond

in a

coal mine.

Maurice Rheims, Paris


19.

CONSTANTIN-EMILE MEUNIER (1831-1905).

des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

Maurice Rheims, Paris

Potato Picker.

Alain Lesieu-

tre, Paris

Boymans-van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam

Ditch Digger. Bronze (lost-wax

BERNARD HOETGER (1874-1949).


Coalman. Bronze (lost- wax method). Collection

20.

Utrecht)

that of

Rodin or Bourdelle, made

Monument

to

Modema, Rome
the laborers who died

10' 7". Galleria

in building the St.-Gott-

hard Tunnel in Switzerland (1872-80).

c^tv

11

12

r.i^n

13

wt

21

11.

HISTORICAL AND MILITARY


SUBJECTS

Throughout time,

men

have always thrilled to military success. In Athens and

Rome

sculpture immortalized the features of great generals. The Christian world remembers the names of certain men who seconded their princes in jousts, leaving to the
populace the obligation to kill one another for the greater glory of those princes.

Since the French Revolution the masses tend to identify themselves with the idea
of the Nation; and every schoolboy is made aware of the calling up of the citizenry to defend
its

territory, even to the final sacrifice.

The writers Stendhal, Hugo, and Zola have described those prodigious and dramatic
confrontations where a people, convinced of the justness of its ideals and commanded by those
judges to be best, clash on the battlefield with another people equally convinced of the
merits of their cause. In principle such conflicts have the objective of guaranteeing the fronit

tiers of

each and achieving a better

life

for each citizenry.

The Napoleonic wars caused the development throughout Europe of nationalist sentiments that were quickly pushed to the extreme. For the first time artists who belonged to
different nationalities refused to meet because their countries were in a state of war. In 1802
the English sculptor Flaxman, during the truce following the Treaty of Amiens, broke oft

all

French painter Jacques-Louis David and refused to meet Napoleon; and


fifteen years later, as we have noted, David d'Angers, because of his friendship with his
namesake, the painter of the Coronation of Napoleon, got no response when he knocked on
Flaxman's door.
The powers-that-be became more and more interested in historical sculpture. Between
1820 and 1900 tens of thousands of statuettes in all dimensions were cast in bronze or lightweight alloys portraying Louis XVIII, George Washington, Adolphe Thiers, Louis-Philippe
and his family, Abraham Lincoln, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and successive tsars. Within
twenty years of his death Napoleon became the object of a veritable idolatry; his effigy invaded mantlepieces, offices, street corners. "We've got enough of Napoleon on our public
squares!" shouted Louis-Philippe, exasperated when Duchtel, his Minister of the Interior,
proposed the commission of yet another monument to the glory of the Emperor. Thiers, a
witness of the monarch's reaction, remarked to the sculptor Etex "My dear Etex, they are
too idiotic [a polite translation of an obscenity] to set up a Napoleon I on a public square at
this moment; you and I together will turn out that monument, but later."
Following the lead of the monarchv and then of the Second Empire, the Third Republic
coined its own myths. Bruno's Tour de France par deux enfants (Two Children's Trip Around
France) became within months a bible for French youngsters: with 500,000 copies printed,
it soon put the new generation into the psychological, political, social, and artistic frame of
mind to understand and admire the symbols of the new regime.
This was also the age of monuments to the war dead. The military sculpture produced
throughout the century reveals the evolution of public sentiment with regard to war. Until
1812 the Emperor is generally surrounded by his troops. Paintings and reliefs depicting his
battles demonstrate the standard scheme Napoleon on horseback, spyglass in hand, dictates
instructions to his marshals who pass them on to the regimental commanders. The results
relations with the

193

194

seem immediate,

since

we

see already the survivors of the battle just ordered,

now

divided

foreground the victors, faces transfigured, salute Napoleon at either


side the wounded staunch with one hand the blood pouring from their wounds, while raising
the other hand in a gesture that seems to bless the organizer of this display in the background
amid dismantled pieces of artillery and broken gun-carriages, the dead, generally in enemy
uniform, seem to call with their open mouths for the gravediggers. After the burning of
Moscow in 1812, the Emperor is portrayed quite alone, melancholy, wrapped in his greatcoat,
and shivering. On foot, on horseback, or ensconced in his armchair, yesterday's hero seems
to ask if his defeat was "a fatal blow, or a mere episode?"
1814, Waterloo: the French, who weep for their sons, raise monuments only to their
marshals and generals, and this remains so for the later campaigns in Algeria, Mexico, and
Italy. Not until the defeat at Sedan and the siege of Paris, in the Franco-Prussian War of 1 871
a debacle that affected the entire nation, did the painters and especially the sculptors finally
render homage to the victims. Nationalistic and chauvinistic sentiment grew ever stronger.
The symbols changed military leaders were no longer dressed as heroes of ancient Greece or
Rome, for the generation of the Third Republic thought of themselves as steadfast Gauls. Just
as Winckelmann's archaeological discoveries had contributed to the late-eighteenth-century
taste for Hellenistic and Roman antiquity, so the discovery of the Gallic sites at Alessia and
Gergovia, the writing of Michelet, and, more particularly, the Rcits des temps mrovingiens
(Tales of Merovingian Times) by Augustin Thierry- developed among the French the myth of
their resistance to foreign oppression. The Gallic general Vercingetorix and his companions
their torsos bare, their mustaches borrowed from Maupassant's heroes, their right arms
raised to warn the enemy to advance no further
began to challenge even Joan of Arc in popuinto three groups

in the

larity.

Across the Rhine Kaiser Wilhelm, the Rhineland industrialists, and the Berlin bankers
and their daughters all wished to be shown as descendants of the Nibelungs. Torsos snugly
sheathed, helmets

plumed from

sinister birds, the

Teutonic knights mounted on huge and

savage steeds surveyed their frontiers.

After 1880 the annual Paris Salon was invaded by patriotic sculpture which aspired to
equal realism. Sculptors and painters gave proof of their strong consciences: according to

costumes his personages had


worn. To depict Napoleon at the time of the French campaign he obtained from the Army
Museum the loan of one of the Corsican's gray redingotes; lest he damage the precious relic,
Meissonier ordered a military tailor to make an exact copy of it, fold by fold, button by
button. Furthermore, when he thought it necessary he did not hesitate to make models in wax
and, for hours on end, to try to establish how the folds of a rider's greatcoat might fall over
his horse's rump.
Artists in other countries were no less punctilious. The uniforms about the chests of
German or American soldiers were reproduced in the tiniest detail only their poses differed
from one country to another. In Italv Romanticism continued to triumph; in Great Britain,
as in France, symbolism vied with naturalism. Certain American sculptors, notably John
Rogers, excelled in casting historical anecdotes into bronze often the rendering of the subject
is so simplified that it seems rather to treat some other action.
In Spain, likewise, nationalist sculpture flourished throughout the century, as witness
the monument to the glory of Christopher Columbus erected in Madrid in 1885 by Jeronimo
Sufiol, or the equestrian monument to Queen Isabella the Catholic by Manuel Oms, put up in
that city in 1883. The same story from Portugal to Romania. The birth of new countries encouraged patriotism. Soon after Romania became an independent state in 1859, there arose
statues of their ancient heroes Michael the Brave and Stephen the Great.
Jules Claretle, Meissonier searched ceaselessly to find the exact

mm

HISTORICAL

AND MILITARY

SUBJECTS

that military sculpture enjoyed almost

The success

19S

everywhere

is

explained by

its

power

from
Mans
remain so

to reconstitute a scene. Painting cannot re-create the dramatic intensity that emanates
such as the Marshal Ney of Rude or, perhaps even more, Croisy's monument in Le

erected to the glory of the Second Army of the Loire (p. 200, 57). And this was to
until sculpture itself became outclassed by the ultimate in colossal spectacles, the films of an

De

Abel Gance or a Cecil B.

Mille.

AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS (1848-1907).

1.

Monument
height

to

Admiral Farragut (d. 1870). 1879-80. Bronze statue,

marble pedestal. Madison Square,

8';

c.

New York

The Duke of Orlans. 1844. Bronze. Chteau of Versailles

An

elegant sculptor, Marochetti was Romantic because

work inaugurated

This monumental
curious.

The Admiral

in

1881

is

as beautiful as

superbly natural, the wind whip-

is

ping his old greatcoat; the pedestal looks like the

some

future adept of Art Nouveau,

work of

nation.

Of

FLICIE DE

FAUVEAU (1799-1886).
to

Gustave Planche said that

to

Tsar Nicholas

I (r.

1825-55). 1859. Bronze. Mari-

inskaya Square, Leningrad

Spare the Life of Her Equerry

GUSTAV BLASER (1813-1874).

8.

wood

The Painter Karl Friedrich Lessing (1808-80).

21". Muse Municipal, Louviers (Eure)

Alive today, Mile Felicie de Fauveau would probably be called

her

a dissident; in

own

bom

bank

failed the family

took refuge in

Besanon. At the death of her royalist father, she came to Paris

and was much admired.


la

Rochefoucauld.

In

1822 she opened

de

a studio in rue

passionate enthusiast for Walter Scott,

Dante, and Romantic literature, Felicie painted, modeled in

wax, and conspired against those


Imprisoned for her part
a fresco

who would

usurp Charles X.

in the revolution of 1830, she painted

on the wall of her jail

after

her release she returned to

Paris

The noted writer and astronomer (1736-93), who was


dent of the National Assembly

at the

10.

HORATIO GREENOUGH (1805-1852).

Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington,

Greenough studied under Binon,

Monument

to Cervantes (detail):

in

Don Quixote and

the Lions.

1835.

Frenchman who had

Boston and traveled frequently

in

work, unprecedented

in

attractive

settled

Europe. This pompous but

America for

its

size

and

grandeur, was commissioned from him in 1832 by Congress for

Madrid

The

time of the Tennis Court

George Washington. 1832-41. Marble, height 11' 4". National

D.C.

DUART (1806-1871).

presi-

Oath (1789).

life.

JOS PIQUER Y

Muse des Beaux- Arts,

oj Jean-Sylvain Eailly. Bronze.

Nancy; Chambre des Dputs,

Florence in 1839 and remained there for the rest of her long

3.

Bronze,

JEAN-PAUL AUB (1837-1920).

9.
in Florence,

Portrait

father's

1838.

height 16". Nationalgalerie, Berlin

time she was a militant monarchist.

Descendant of an old Breton family, she was

when her

expresses

PETER KARLOVICH KLODT (1805-1867).

Monaldeschi. Salon of 1827. Terracotta-colored plaster in gilt

frame, 13^

it

command."

to
7.

Queen Christina of Sweden Refusing

this statue

"the farthest bounds of grandeur and the boredom of having

Monument

but

was

perhaps an adolescent

Bourdelle.
2.

it

the fashion, not because he possessed passion or great imagi-

City.

it is

CHARLES MAROCHETTI (1805-1867).

6.

statue of Cervantes

is

two pedestal

sculptor of the

by Antonio Soli; Piquer

is

the

the

sum

Italy,

reliefs.

of

five

thousand dollars. The sculpture was done in

and shipped to Washington to be unveiled

in the

rotunda

of the Capitol in 1841.


4.

JOHN FLAXMAN (1755-1826).

Monument
lege,

William Jones.

to Sir

1798. Marble. University Col-

A work

JEAN-FRANOIS ETCHETO (1853-1911).

Franois Villon. Salon of 1881. Bronze.

Oxford
both moralistic and well composed. The famous

and philologist

11.

is

jurist

"Imaginary portraits" of

here collating Indian languages.

Formerly Place Monge,

Paris
this sort

were

satisfying

on condition

they corresponded to the idea held in the nineteenth century


5.

LOUIS-ERNEST BARRIAS (1841-1905).

about famous personages of the past, such

Lavoisier Explaining the Role of Oxygen in Air. 1900.

Bronze relief

formerly on the statue of Lavoisier (1743-94), Place de

Madeleine, Paris
All the reliefs

were removed and destroyed

as this representation

of the fifteenth-century "vagabond poet."

la

ERNST RIETSCHEL (1804-1861).


Monument to Goethe and Schiller. 1852-57. Bronze,
12.

in 1942.

figures over

II

196

&

V.

EMMANUEL frmiet (18241910).

Saint

George Slaying the Dragon.

1871. Gilded bronze, height 19". Muse du Louvre, Paris

lifesize.

Theaterplatz,

Weimar

The great "pair of poets of


13.

The monument

the fatherland."

Scott (181 1-78).

to J.

Cugnot, Inventor of the Automobile. Bronze.

Void

(Meuse)

The gentleman commemorated here


invented in 1771

The

whole was designed by George Gilbert


14-foot bronze statue of Prince Albert

is

by John Henry Foley (1818-74), and the frieze of 178 marble

DSIR FOSSE (1862-1913).

Monument

as a

a horseless carriage

is

credited with having

panels around the

podium includes

architects, and sculptors of

all

painters, poets, composers,

time; the

Henry Hugh Armstead and John Bimie

reliefs are

due to

Philip (182475).

powered by steam.
AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS (1848-1907).
Abraham Lincoln. 1887. Bronze, height 38" (reduced
16.

14.

The Albert Memorial (portion).

Unveiled 1876. Marble. Kensington Road, London

The marble

relief frieze of The Painters by

(1828-1905)

is

surmounted by

ing Manufactures by Henry

Henry Hugh Armstead

marble statue group represent-

Weekes (1807-77).

Newark Museum, Newark, New

Painted or sculptured portraits of statesmen remained necessary until such time as color photographs could be printed in
vast

15.

The Albert Memorial.

1863-76. Marble, colored stones, mosaic, bronze

replica).

Jersey

numbers. Saint-Gaudens knew Lincoln's appearance, and

the original of this portrait, in Lincoln Park, Chicago,


feet high.

is

IIJ

HISTORICAL

17.

AND MILITARY SUBJECTS

THOMAS BALL (1819-1911).

20. AR.MAND-JULES LE VEL (1821-1905).

Lincoln the Emancipator. 1874. Bronze. Lincoln Park,

D.C.
Modeled in

Washing-

work was unveiled in 1 875


Greenleaf Whittier wrote a poem for the occasion.
Italy, this large

to

Pushkin

(1799-1837).

1899.

21.

Bronze on granite

KARL-ALFRED LANZ (1847-1907).

Equestrian Statue of General Cuillaume-Henri Dujour.

Bronze. Place Neuve, Geneva

General Dufour,
in

who

fought under Napoleon, defeated the

1847 and opened the way to the federal con-

stitution of Switzerland.

Centenary oj the Revolt of the Estates of the Dauphin

ADOLF HUSZAR (1843-1885).

Monument
187984.

to the

(1788). 1890. Grenoble.

22.

Sonderbund

1857. Bronze. Place Napolon,

HENRY-.MARIUS DING (1844-1898).

Memorial

base. Pushkin (formerly Tsarskoe Selo), U.S.S.R.


19.

I.

John

ROBERT ROBERTOVICH BAKH (1859-1932).

Monument

Equestrian Statue of Napoleon

Cherbourg

ton,

18.

197

to

the

Poet Sandor Petof

(1822-49).

1882. Bronze.

Petofi Square, Budapest

After working in Vienna and Munich, Huszar specialized in

academic portrayals of the notables of


Petofi

was killed

in the revolution of

inspired by his poetry.

his native

Hungary.

1848, which was partly

198

Monument

VINCENZO VELA (1820-1891).

23.

Napoleon.

Dying

The

Marble,

1866.

57",

height

Gardens,

sculptor's aim was to surprise Napoleon,

whose gaze

is

the

59^".

height

work shows

great favorite with the Russian public, this

own

Tsar overcome with his

the

misdeeds.

Falguire was one of the great Realist

great chemist, Berthollet (1748-1822) was also a native son.

36.

1886. Marble. Hungarian National Gallery, Buda-

Liszt.

mon moulin)

he lived nearby

CHARLES MAROCHETTI (1805-1867).


Monument to Claude-Louis Berthollet. 1843. Bronze. Botanical

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS WARD (1830-1910).

Monument

25. ALOYS STROBL (1856-1926).

Franz

de

as

Gardens, Annecy

Moscow

Tretyakov Gallery,

Marble,

1875.

(1530-84).

Terrible

(^Lettres

bom in Nlmes and locally known,

35.

MARK MATVEJEVICH ANTOKOLSKY (1843-1902).

Ivan

Couronne, Nlmes

sculptors.

already fixed on the next world.


24.

la

Daudet was

Chteau of Versailles

The

de

Alphonse Daudet (1840-97). 1900. Marble. Square

to

Ward

Henry

to

Beecher

(1813-87).

1891.

Bronze

Plaza, Brooklyn,

New

Instead of following the Italo-American current deriving

from

figures, height of portrait 9'.

Cadman

York
pest

This resolutely academic

work

exemplifies the taste of the

Canova, Ward, an Ohio farmer's son, was

Hungarian bourgeoisie of the time.

a naturalist. In his

way of presenting the men who defended national


Ward is probably the most typical
example of a certain American Romanticism.

particular

26. JOAO-JOS DE AGUIAR (1796-1841).


King Joo VI (r. 1816-26). Marble. Marine Hospital, Lisbon

Defeated by Napoleon, Joo

Regent

as

with the royal

fled

family to Brazil (1808-21) returning as king of Portugal. Aguiar

was a pupil of Canova.

commander, who fought the

Portrait of the great French naval

English on the Indian Ocean.

and

its

38.

Vienna

architects, painters,

and sculptors outdid each other in

CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI (1876-1957).

Portrait

GUILLAUME GEEFS (1805-1883).


I

Friedrichstrasse,

imaginative conceptions.

Tropez (Var)

King Leopold

ARTHUR STRASSER (1855-1927).

Triumph oj Mark Anthony. 1898. Bronze. In front of the Sezes-

By 1890 Vienna was being shaken by new modernist currents,

(1729-88). 1865. Bronze. Saint-

Pierre Andr, Bailli de Suffren

28.

37.

sion Building,

MONTAGNE (1828-1879).

27. PIERRE

ideas or general principles,

(1790-1865). Marble. Muses Royaux des Beaux-

of

Vitellius.

1898. Plaster, height 24". Muzeul de Arta,

Craiova, Romania
The date of this work by the modernist Brancusi
inclusion here, and the expressive head

Arts, Brussels

is

justifies its

already evidence of

the young sculptor's talent.


29.

JOHANNES THEODORUS STRACKE (1817-1891).

Willem Bilderdijk. Terracotta, height 35". Rijksmuseum,

Am-

sterdam
Popular Dutch poet (1756-1831).
30. EMMANUEL FRMIET (1824-1910).
Mounted Torchbearer. Model, Salon of 1883. Bronze, height 9'

Ville,

burned

Commune

in the

of 1871, was re-

Storck taught the academic rules to generations of students in


Bucharest. French sculptors, however, were brought in to

built in 1882.

make
31.

THOMAS CRAWFORD

(1 81 3

his art

during a long sojourn in

as

in the

United

one of the pedimental

Italy,

and his

States. This

figures

work

on the Capitol,

Washington, D.C.

monument

is

unknown scribe who, probdown the early history of

Carrier-Belleuse for that of Mi-

33. PETER

into

from Jianou's monograph on Brancusi,


modem sculpture before Brancusi and

then Dumitru Paciurea

(bom

1873).

JOHN ROGERS (1828-1904).


to the

Rear"

One More

Museum

Shot.

of Art,

1865. Bronze, height

New

York

Black soldiers fight alongside the whites, but the black


rests at the feet of the

40.

KARLOVICH KLODT (1805-1867).

to Ivan

Krylov was

man

white man, perhaps to attenuate the

Andreyevich Krylov.

famous writer of

1855. Bronze. Leningrad

GIACOMO SPALLA (1755-1834).

An Episode

in the Napoleonic Wars.

Galleria d'Arte

1812. TerracotU, 23

41. FRANCIS

CHANTREY (1781-1842).

ment, located next to the children's playground,

Monument

Major General Ford Bowes,

fables,

is

decorated

his fabled animals.

34. JOHN-ALEXANDRE-JOSEPH FALGUIRE (1831-1900).

Cathedral,

to

37".

Modema, Turin

some original, others


adapted from Aesop and La Fontaine. The base of this monuwith

come

impression of equality.

Hungary.

Monument

learn

23i". Metropolitan

dedicated to the

ably in the twelfth century, set

we

there was no genuine

"Wounded

Anonymous. 1902. Bronze. City Park, Budapest

This

19, 26) did a true national sculpture

19,

being, and, as

39.

MIKLOS LIGETI (1871-1944).

32.

monuments

maturity of Ionesco Valbudea (see p. 45, 5) and Ion Georgescu


(see p.

was much appreciated

was made

Historical Society,

City

Crawford learned
talent

New York

the public

chael the Brave, Frmiet for Stephen the Great. Only with the

?-1857).

The Dying Chief. 1856. Marble.

New York

and for more than thirty years Karl

teach the plastic arts,

4". South Escalier d'honneur. Htel de Ville, Paris

The Htel de

Romania until 1864 was virtually a feudal state. There was


monumental religious sculpture in Wallachia and Moldavia,
but the Orthodox Church forbade the representation of the
human face; sculptors, who were generally peasant artists, were
obliged to make only geometrical forms. With the institution
of a Romanian state in 1859, German artists were called in to

c.

1812.

London

42. JEAN-LOUIS-ERNEST MEISSONIER (1815-1891).

St.

Paul's

HISTORICAL

Napoleon on Horseback.

15".

Patined bronze, height

AND MILITARY SUBJECTS

Private

FRDRIC-AUGUSTE BARTHOLDI (1834-1904).

Lafayette

HERMAN VILHELM

and Washington. Model, Salon of 1892; unveiled 1895.

Bronze. Place des tats-Unis, Paris

The two heroes met when

the Marquis

first

arrived in Philadel-

Museum

J.

English sculptor,

Wills.

1865. Bronze.

of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia

men

expired on the

(186061).

Summers, an

Explorers of central Australia, both these

way back from

more

their

who

expedition

died in

Rome,

realistic

and nationalistic

specialized in portraiture.

Certain of

effects.

works are not without analogies with those of the

American John Rogers. This

O'Hara Burke and W.

.Memorial to Robert

Denmark

perpetuate the spirit of the master while also introducing into

Bissen's

44. CHARLES SU.Vl.MERS (1825-1878).

Bronze. Fredericia,

Though Thorvaldsen was more Roman than even Canova, the


Danes counted him among their greatest national glories. A few
of his disciples, among them Bissen and Jerichau, strove to
their art

phia in 1777.

National

BISSEN (1798-1868).

Soldiers Burjing Their Dead. 1851.

collection, Paris

43.

48.

199

relief

commemorates

the Danish

victory over the Prussians concerning the status of Schleswig-

Holstein in 1849.
49.

LISA

Monument

BLOCH (1848-1905).
to

Colonel Rolland, Defender oj Le Bourget in

870. 1896.

Stone. Cemetery, Le Bourget (Seine)


45. PIUS

WELONSKI (1849-1931).

Gladiator Saluting. Bronze, height 5' 11".

Muzeuni Narodowe,

Cracow
Welonski was thoroughly trained
Paris,

in

Warsaw,

St.

Petersburg,

and Rome.

46. ADRIEN-ETIENNE

The ancient Roman custom of raising monuments to the war


dead was revived by both the Germans and the French after the
Franco-Prussian War and lived on to the eve of World War II.
This stele marks the grave of a participant in the fierce and
ultimately unsuccessful battle

GAUDEZ (1845-1902).
50.

Louison the Flower-Vendor Leading the Market


tion

Women

in the Revolu-

of 1789. Salon of 1891. Marble. Muse des Beaux-Arts,

Tours
47.

in the

Bronze. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

environs of Paris.

JOHN HENRY FOLEY (1818-1874).

Norseman. 1863. Bronze, height 31^".

The Fine Art

Society,

London
Like Bell and Gilbert, Foley was a sculptor

RAOUL LARCHE (1860-1912).

Lafayette.

waged

his life

who devoted

and talent to reducing on an industrial

cating reproductions of large

basis

part of

and

fabri-

monuments, often those orna-

200

meriting public places. Thousands of copies of this Norseman

were manufactured and, presumably,

sold. Foley

most noted,

is

however, for his fourteen-foot seated statue of Prince Albert

on the Albert Memorial


the sculptured group of

(see p. 196, IS) for

which he

also did

JANOS FADRUSZ (18S8-1903).


Monument to King Matthias Corvinus. 1902. Bronze, height 43'
54.

including monumental base (not shown). Cluj, Romania

This remarkable

work

consists of an equestrian statue of the

king guarded by four warriors, the whole surmounting a castel-

Asia.

lated pedestal Matthias Corvinus


.

51.

ALFRED GILBERT (1854-1934).

The Kiss of Victory. 1882. Marble, height 39". City

Museum

Gilbert

is

in the latter half

at his best in

and

a feeling for the

and should have worked in the applied


52.

An

Museum,
1958

castle

to

Castle,

1".

set

up on the terrace of the

in

1475 against

Louis XI of France.

Lachaise,

BOHUSLAV SCHNIRCH (1845-1901).


Tiiga. Model for a three-horse chariot on the National Theater,

Prague. 1873. Bronze. Narodni Gallery, Prague


57.

ARISTIDE-ONSIME CROISY (1840-1899).

lower portion of Monument

1902).

1904.

the Loire.

1885. Bronze. Place de

Cimetire du Pre-

the Second

Rpublique, Le

These groups by Croisy are below the statue of General Chanzy


by Gustave Crauk

to a hero of the Franco-Prussian

la

to

Mans

Paris
is

Mo-

dema, Turin

Aimy oj
53. FRDRIC-AUGUSTE BARTHOLDI (18341904).

The monument

CALLANDRA (1856-1915).

Attack and Defense,

(d.

time.

von Bubenberg was the great

hero of the family dynasty, defending Spiez

Tomb of Sergeant HoJ

at that

to create a

Hungary. Cluj,

56.

the Bubenbergs (dynasty 1338-1516) in Spiez

in the canton of Berne. Adrian

first

The Conquistador. Bronze, height 8' 7". Galleria d'Arte

Spiez, Switzerland

second cast was made and

owned by

Fadrusz was one of the

fine.

art of sculpture in his native land,

formerly Klausenburg, was in Hungary


55. DAVIDE

arts.

Adrian von Bubenberg. 1890. Bronze, height 6'

Basel;

monumental

excellent

monumental

KARL STAUFFER (1857-1891).

Monument

In

was especially

of the nineteenth century,

ornamental sculpture.

craftsman, he lacks creativity

crusader against

as a

the Turks, and as a patron of learning and science; his library

and Art Gallery, Birmingham, England


Like many sculptors

was king of Hungary ( 1 458-90)

and Bohemia (1478-90). He was famous

War.

they represent the unsuccessful

battle

(1871) to relieve Paris during the Franco-Prussian War.

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12.

SCULPTURE IN THE STREETS


You pass through a great
civilization,

and your

grown old

city

eyes are

sursum, ad sidera, because on

in

drawn upward,

the public squares,

at street crossings, motionless individuals,

far

taller

than those who pass by at the level of their feet,


recount to us in a silent language
the solemn legends of glory,

of war, of science, and of martyrdom.

CHARLES BAUDELAIRE,

"Salon of 18S9"

monuments are as old as the cities they decorate. They are scattered among the
Public
streets of ancient cities, they animate the campi of Venice, the Florentine piazzas, the

Monuments erected to the glory of sovereigns, statesmen, national


they satisfy the eternal human need to recognize fame, pride, the will to

bridges of Paris.

triumphs

survive.
In the nineteenth century, acceleration of changes of regime, the new^

munities, and the expansion of urban areas contributed to popularity of

Romantics judged

it

wealth of the com-

monumental

statuary.

right for nations to exalt the virtues of their finest citizens, and for

Baudelaire the "divine role" of the sculptor consisted in recounting "in a silent language the

solemn legends of glory, of war, of science, and of martyrdom."


Similarly, the display of art in public thoroughfares corresponded well with the concerns
of the Naturalists and Positivists whose slogans were "Art is a public matter" and "The
sculptor must be at the service of the workers." For the Romantic and socialist disciples of
Saint-Simon nothing could better humanize a public place than a statue. Sculptors should dedicate their works to the people. In his Esthtique du sculpteur of 1888 Henri Jouin asked:
"Where should one place statues and their granite pedestals? On the sand of the seashore, or
in the middle of freshly turned furrows? No, a statue needs a rock that will not yield it needs
the tested ground of the great cities, the noise of the public square and the street; the street
belongs to the people.
Let us imitate the Greeks in their cult of the beautiful which they
made into a popular cult. Every day there are laudable efforts whose aim is to better the lot
of the people. Narrow sunless streets are replaced by long promenades. There is sun, there
are great shadows, there is pure air and, with it, health. Names with nothing classical about
them are used as titles for those useful creations called 'squares.' What is needed is that these
squares should be ornamented with works of art. With such works these places of repose will
;

enable the soul of the people to inhale the Beautiful."


Private initiative together with the spirit of enterprise of certain municipal councils ac-

counts for the flourishing of commemorative monuments. Etex tells us of a visit he received
one day from a Monsieur Balnette, "a worthy gentleman of means," who, although speaking
in his own name, described the pleasure to the inhabitants of his town of Cognac in having

monument

erected to the glory of King Francis I, a native son. The financing had already
been worked out the municipal council would vote the project a credit of 20,000 francs the

large brandy distillers in the Charente region

were

and the
city 20,000 to these sums would be added the subscription of 3,000 petitioners, each pledging 10 francs. Unfortunately the merchants of Cognac backed out, victims of a poor vintage
year; Etex's equestrian statue was not erected until later.
;

22S

offering another

60,000

francs,


226

The inauguration of any monument was the excuse for a pubHc turnout. The great day
an occasion to spread the
arrived, the statue would be unveiled by the government official
good word and submitted to the judgment of the citizenry.

Following the proclamation of the Third Republic in 1871


i
f^

new

republican, secular,

on the newly macadamized streets. Essentially middle class and


always reactionary, the style was burdened with heavy symbolism but claimed as the herald
of progress. Bombast competes with naivety, yet the style is not without interest; it is not impossible that in the near future the talent of Barrias or Chapu will be recognized. Certain of
patriotic style of statuary arose

their sculptures such as Electricity or Steam (p. 112, 19, 20) are remarkable for the genius
shown in realizing works whose originality symbols intermingled with technical apparatus

handsome on the sculptural level as it is unusual in composition. The progress of science


so fascinated Etex that he dreamed of raising a monument to the glory of the men whose work
had contributed to the betterment of mankind in the course of the nineteenth century. To
is

as

symbolize Genius he proposed a half-dressed woman leaning against a factory smokestack and
the front of a locomotive in her right hand she would brandish a torch ending in a star lit
by electricity; with her left she would point to an electric generator. To enhance the effect,
steam mingled with jets of water would spurt from the lower plinth. The ensemble was to
rest on a pedestal adorned with profile medallions of the century's great inventors.
If ornamental sculpture was slow to reflect the changing mode throughout the century,
this was because it was intended for the man-in-the-street, a conservative by nature. Thus
monuments of the beginning of the century seem touched by the Baroque as the decades
passed they became Romantic, and then out-of-date
they were full of symbols when Art
Nouveau was already in the making. In 1900, when the schools of Vienna, Glasgow, and
Darmstadt were already resolutely turned toward the future, Raoul Larche, invited to design
an outdoor pool for the north wing of the Grand Palais in Paris, conceived a monument which
is certainly charming but has an archaic eighteenth-century grace scarcely reflecting the

modern Art-Nouveau

style.

Throughout the Western world one

finds the

same phenomenon.

In the parks of

London

and Brussels, in the public squares of Oslo, St. Petersburg, Madrid, and Lisbon, space is given
to hundreds of works, usually decorated, like set pieces, with the help of the most disparate
decorative elements. But despite the excesses of some of these
the equestrian Vittorio Emmanuele II by Ercole Rosa erected on the vast square before the cathedral in Milan or Johann
Schilling's thirty-four-foot Germania looming over the Rhine near Riidesheim
and even because of their exuberant singularity, these sculptured masses perhaps confer to the personages
represented a semidivine majesty that was beyond the powers of a Neoclassical work.
Through the richness of the monuments that they harbored, Milan, Rome, Turin, and

Naples became virtual conservatories of nineteenth-century sculpture. The Italian sculptors


Marochetti, Carenica, Sangiorgio, Vela, Palagi, Bogliani, Pietro Costa, Sacconi, and Zocchi
are the equivalents of the stonecutters who did so much in earlier times to beautify European
cities.

What would

the eclectic architecture have been like without this prodigious efflores-

cence of sculpture? Let us imagine the Opra of Paris deprived of all those stone figures that
populate its pediments, approaches, roofs, and faades! How manv mediocre buildings owe
their life to those Rubensian divinities who, plump as balloons, buoy up the faades of ministries and banks, and seem to keep the buildings from sinking into their cellars, victims of
their

own

weight.

SCULPTURE

1.

PAUL GUSTAVE DOR (1833-1883).

The Readers, portion of the

monument

to

THE STREETS

4.

Alexandre Dumas

pre

monuments to Dumas
Dumas pre, and Dumas Jils (the first monument
destroyed in World War II). Dor made sculptures only at the
Originally one of a group of three

grand-pre,

5.

LUDWIG SCHWANTHALER (1802-1848).


Anif (Salzburg). Bronze. The Hofgarten, Munich

NOL GIRAUD (1816-1886).

FRANOIS RUDE (1784-1855).

Monument
2.

rVAN IVANOVICH TEREBENEV (1785-1815).

Resurreaion of the Russian Fleet (detail).

1840-45

Fountain of the Vintager. 1852. Bronze. Dijon


6.

his life.

227

Fountain of the Nymph. After the marble original of


in Schloss

(1802-70). Bronze. Place Malesherbes, Paris

end of

IN

Gaspard

to

Monge.

1848.

Bronze,

Place

Monge,

Beaune

1811. Gypsum. The

Monge (1746-1818) was

a physicist

and mathematician, the

Admiralty, Leningrad

inventor of descriptive geometry. European cities devote often

Part of the decoration of this vast building (1806-15) by A.

large

Zakharov.

nowned

sums

for

monuments

raised to the glory of their

citizen or to the local industry that

is

most

re-

the mainstay of

their wealth.
3.

HEINRICH MEILI (1827-1882).


7.

The Elizabeth Fountain. Basel

As

in earlier times, nineteenth-century public

generally like splendid picture books

monuments

open for the delectation of the passersby. They

reflect the taste

of each generation for great periods of the past. Here, with


Elizabeth,

we

are

whose pages are forever

are in full medievalism.

'^(XiO^l^'i^^

St.

8.

_--

PIERRE-JULES CAVELIER (18141894).

The Durance River Between Corn and Wine, central group on the

watertower of the aqueduct. 1860. Bronze, colossal


lais

=-

LOUIS-JOSEPH DAUMAS (1801-1887).

The Genius of Navigation. 1846. Bronze. Quai Stalingrad, Toulon

scale. Pa-

Longchamp, Marseilles

Yc

i/i

Pr KP

cl"i

.(^'^C

ill

228

9.

JOHN-ALEXANDRE-JOSFPH FALGUIRE (1831-1900).

Fontaine Sainte-.Marie (the city reservoir). 1879.

The

architectural part

personification of
10.

Rue de

la

R-

Rouen

publique,

by Roger-Edouard Deperthes. The

is

Rouen

is

seated in an antique boat.

Created for the

Exposition of 1889. Lead. Place des Terreaux, Lyons


11.

Monumental Fountain, Place Royale, Nantes.

granite fountain

is

186S.

The

by the architect Henri-Thodore Driollet

(1805-63), the white marble statue personifying Nantes by

Henri-Joseph

Ducommon du

Locle (180484), the thirteen

work, for the Columbian Exposition of 1893 in


Chicago, was some 65 feet high and made of impermanent
original

CONSTANTIN-EMILE MEUNIER (1831-1905).


Monument to Emile Zola. Completed by Alexandre Meunier and
erected in 1924. Bronze figures. Formerly Avenue Emile
17.

Zola, Paris (melted

minimum

18.

(181682), representing the Loire (enthroned) and

Basin of the

12.

principal

and Loir.

an

playing his harp

sea,

hear the River Spirit

allusion to Stockholm's location.

to

King

statue and frieze;

Vittorio

marble

Fmmanuele

II.

Erected 1896. Bronze

Duomo, Milan
monument is not lacking

lions. Piazza del

Piedmontese troops into Milan, 1859.

it

calls to

mind, with

the great novelist.

Palais, c.

1900. Marble. Grand Palais, Paris

19.

ADOLF VON HILDEBRAND (1847-1921).


on

Sea-Horse,

portion of the

Wittelsbach

Fountain,

An

admirable

monument conceived by

an artist

who succeeded

completely original work within the tradition of

the most eminent sculptors, from Michelangelo to Canova,

from Rude to

Maillol. See also below, 21

MIGUEL BLAY (1866-1936).


Monument to Doctor Rubio. Marble and bronze. Parque
Madrid
20.

PIETRO COSTA (1849-1901).


to

Grand

in creating a

Monument

that

work of

RAOUL LARCHE (1860-1912).

Youth

Though heavy with symbols, the


in
dash and vigor. The frieze represents the entrance of French and

14.

of affectation, the

1890-95. Marble. Maximiliansplatz, Munich

ERCOLE ROSA (1846-1893).

Monument

1942)

with a sense of proportion.

Stockholm

The daughters of Aegir, god of the

in

A perfectly satisfying work; Art Nouveau knew how to borrow


from eighteenth-century sculpture its feeling for fantasy allied

JOHAN PETER MOLIN (18141873).

Fountain. Bronze. Royal Garden,

13.

its

down

A completely successful monument in

bronze statues and statuettes by Louis-Guillaume Grootaers


tributaries: Svre, Exdre, Cher,

The

material, gilded.

FRDRIC-AUGUSTE BARTHOLDI (18341904).

Fountain oj the Rivers Flowing into the Ocean.

DANIEL CHESTER FRENCH (1850-1931).


The Republic. Gilt bronze replica, made 1916. Garfield Park,
Chicago
16.

Giuseppe Mazzini. 1882. Marble. Piazza Corvetto,

work seems decadent, but

del Oeste,

Genoa

At

Mazzini (180572) was

expression of the face recalls certain figures treated in the same

a native

of Genoa and a patriotic revolu-

KASPAR ZUMBUSCH (1830-1915).

Monument

to

lianstrasse,

The

King Maximilian

II (detail).

look the

way by Hildebrand or

tionary and associate of Garibaldi.


15.

first

the naturalistic

Maillol.

ADOLF VON HILDEBRAND (1847-1921).


Nymph Riding a Sea-Bull, portion of the Wittelsbach
189095. Marble. Maximiliansplatz, Munich

21.

1875. Bronze. Maximi-

Munich

small bronze figures represent the four Bavarian tribes

the large figures are Justice, Strength, Light, and Peace.

Fountain.

See also above, 19. These groups flank a central fountain, and
represent the fertilizing and destructive aspects of water.

jl

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19

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13.

DECORATIVE SCULPTURE
Here then we have the art which,
in order to improve itself, turns back to its infancy.

The first sculptors did not bring out

The only
not they

who evaded

STENDHAL,

difference

detail,

it

is

that

it

details.

was

was detail that evaded them.

Historj of Painting in Italy,

1817

power an emperor-president

person of
III, and with him a thoroughly middle-class society, the academic jury of
the Salon reared its head. Now, in the twilight of Romanticism, could academicism
not shed its light again .upon the arts? Napoleon III and his artistic adyisers were
aware of the battle between two modernist currents. Naturalism and the new
Impressionist school, but remained noncommittal. If they found it repugnant to reyiye Neo-

After
Napoleon

the plebiscite of 1853 brought to

classicism, too obyiously symbolizing reaction, they

many

of

\Nhom boasted of being "Socialists"

be practical jokers.

On

in the

were equally wary of the

Naturalists

and of the Impressionists whom thev took

to

which was not without amwealth and spirit of enterprise

the artistic plane the established society,

bitions, aspired to Hying in dcors that suitably reflected

thev ur^ed their suppliers to invent

new

its

forms.

By 1860 the Paris press was already speaking of a ''style Napolon III.'' The court adroitly
let it be known that this was not a "Napoleonic" style but the artistic expression of the age.
Soon the new style, so well matched to the aspirations of its time, seemed so satisfactory that,
baptized "Napoleon III," it survived the fall of the Empire and remained in favor until the
First World War, though termed from time to time ''style jules-Grvy'' or even "style ArmandFallires'' in honor of current presidents of the Third Republic.
On the whole, for all that it proclaimed itself hostile to the neomedievalism which had
served for more than half a century, the new style did not succeed in shaking off the images
of the past. From "Gothic" the taste now passed to "Renaissance." The nineteenth-century
middle class, nourished on historical novels, felt satisfaction in being identified with the notables who, four centuries earlier, had ruled the rich and proud Hanseatic cities.
In addition the demolition of Paris carried out by Baron Haussmann was followed bv the
remodeling of at least a tenth of the area of Paris, which accounts for the need to discover a
new style. There was a dream of reviving the dcor of the chteaux of Fontainebleau and the
Loire, Sculptors caressed blocks of marble with their chisels in the hope of bringing forth
female figures as chaste and sensual as those carved bv Germain Pilon, Upon architects and
decorators it was incumbent to translate those outmoded visions into a new decorative design.
The product of these amalgams did lighten the massive aspect of a good many public monuments and was not always as disastrous as one might imagine.

Between 1850 and 1890 Lefuel first, and then Garnier, excelled in realizations in which the
functional, the pompous, the orientalizing, and even the scientific, blended in various ways,
affecting the decoration of the Louvre, the Opra, and the Cercle de la Librairie in Paris, and
the Casino in

Monte

Carlo.

237

238

ALBERT-ERNEST CARRIER-BELLEUSE (1824-1887). Fireplace with


bronze enriched with malachite, and marble. Traveller's Club,
VI.

239; p. 240,

9,

In Great Britain it

10,

Paris.

See also p.

11

was the same

search for a composite st^le.

Caryatids. Silvered

To

their

the taste of the wealthy British cHentele also led to a

amalgam of

all

the classical styles the Victorians added

Queen Anne.
In Germany and Austria Boecklin and Feuerbach, the greatest influences in painting, affected comparably the official style of sculpture. Germany found the new style wholly to its
liking; it corresponded well with the ambitions of a people whose new buildings were erected
in the wake of a series of military successes. The middle class was transported by dramatic and
that of the

Wagnerian echoes, together with the most grandiloquent (and

disastrous) pastiches.

The

Rundbogenstil species of round-arched architectural leprosy attacked palace faades,


railway stations, cathedrals, and town halls. Encouraged by its military victory over France,

Germany now intended


inauguration of the

to reign over the arts, or so Prince Friedrich Karl

Museum

proclaimed

at the

of Decorative Arts in Berlin.

where the architects, urged on by Emperor Franz Joseph,


practiced an art of synthesis which seemed to embody the aspirations of the variety of communities forming the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Not until the advent of the Jugendstil, the
Austrian version of Art Nouveau, were the severe buildings in the "Bureaucratic" style finally
It

was the same

in Vienna,

replaced by houses with lively and colorful faades.

The commemorative monuments erected

time in Eastern Europe reveal, as in


France, the philosophy, aspirations, and dogmas of the bourgeoisie. Pagan as well as Christian
divinities make way for statues of seminude females with open faces and thoughtful expressions
at that

DECORATIVE SCULPTURE

239

young girls whom the upper classes sent to be nicely educated in


strict boarding schools. And was it for the pleasure and enlightenment of little boys rolling
their hoops in the parks and avenues that these statues of lightly clad young women were
placed at the base of monuments raised to the glory of poets once misunderstood and today
forgotten? These lovely creatures, pure of visage, who accidentally offer us a glimpse of bare
bosom (usually the left), seem assigned to their posts to recommend to the Creator the beautiful soul of the deceased, designating with their forefingers his mustached and bearded head.
Other females, crowned with laurel, appear to have as their ultimate mission the consoling of
the deceased for having had to surrender his beautiful soul and his seat in the Acadmie.

who seem

It

was

to be sisters of the

in interior decoration that the Eclectic style really excelled.

The

lavish materials, their

and the addition of exotic minerals, malachite in particular, charmed a clientele


whose power and wealth seemed ever to increase. The great cocottes, the biches of the highest
level, often had unlimited means at their disposal and were among the chief promoters of the
new style. The private house of La Pava on the Champs-Elyses, for example, has remained
practically intact since its construction in 1860 (presently the Traveller's Club) and gives us
proof of the taste and means of some of these women, so richly supported. Zola's Nana, at
the height of her fortune, feels in herself the soul of a decorator: "Her townhouse was in
Renaissance style and looked something like a palace, a fantasy of interior distribution where
all modern conveniences were provided in a setting of deliberate originality. Twice she had
had her bedroom redone, the first time in mauve satin, the second in lace laid over blue
silk
the furniture was in white and blue lacquer inlaid with threads of silver
against
the hangings of pale pink silk, a faded Turkey red brocaded in gold thread
two statuettes
in biscuit- ware, a woman in her chemise hunting for fleas. ..." Decorators and fine cabinetmakers were equally enamored of the Renaissance, whether Italian or German; Beurdeley,
Roux, and Boutemy were among the sculptors' best clients. To avoid any reproach, the architect-decorator amalgamated into the same building whatever was most beautiful of the
products made between 1480 and 1560: women perched on the top of fireplaces, embraced
mantlepieces, "caryatided" at either side of doorways, held up ceilings.
diversity,

And

ing;

able

many

showed more originality than painteveryday it seems clearer to us that the Paris Opra, which literally teems with remarkand original motifs, is one of the most unusual and perfect monuments of the capital.
yet, despite these

excesses, statuary often

GEORGES RECiPON (bom 1860).


Quadriga, c. 1900. Bronze. Grand Palais, Paris
The monumental ensemble, one of the quadrigas towering over
the roofs of the Grand Palais, will some day be classed among

sculptor of the court, and Napoleon

the masterworks of sculpture.

Clodion.

1.

2.

JEAN-JACQUES called JAMES PRADIER (1792-1852).

Dawn and

Night. Bronze. Palace of the Senate, Palais

du Luxem-

4.

ALBERT-ERNEST CARRIER-BELLEUSE (1824-1887).

Caryatid. Before 1875. Bronze.

5.

Opra, Paris

pupil of David d'Angers, Carrier-Belleuse was the favorite


III

hailed

him

as a

second

ALBERT-ERNEST CARRIER-BELLEUSE (1824-1887).


Before 1875. Bronze. Htel de Ville, Paris

Torchre.

bourg, Paris
6.

ALBERT-ERNEST CARRIER-BELLEUSE (1824-1887).


Summer and Spring, caryatids, c. 1865. Bronze. Casino, Vichy
3.

GAETANO CALLANI (1736-1809).

Caryatids, c. 1778. Marble. Hall of the Caryatids, Palazzo Reale,

Milan (virtually destroyed in 1943)

240

The

architect of this remodeled hall (1771-78) was Giuseppe

Traveller's

Piermarini.

priestess of Apollo

is

fountain in gallery of vestibule.

\'ille,

shown

in the act of delivering

her

good
eclecticism from Art Nouveau.

differentiates

Despite the exuberant appearance, the details are

still

is

very con-

halls in the

crowned by

Hotel Waldorf-Astoria,

9'.

New York
Made by

the Goldsmith

Company, London,

for the Chicago

World's Fair of 1893. Purchased by the Waldorf-Astoria and


first

exhibited in their old hotel, 34th Street and 5th .\venue.

Medallion portraits of Queen

pedestal, and the floral motifs in the vault of the niche.

American presidents; scenes of sports and bridges.

PIERRE-ALBERT LAPLANCHE

Fireplace with marble

(bom

figures,

1854).

ornaments

AI.M-JULES

13.
in

white and red

Htel

a small replica of Bartholdi's Statue of

1893. Gilt bronze, height

trolled; thus the symmetrical disposition of the massive tripod-

9.

con-

the city hall of Paris (see 5, 7, 14).

Clock

12.

Libert/.

oracle in the subterranean sanctuar)' at Delphi. This

example of what

who

the private mansions

htels,

covered also the nobility and originalitv of the


de

Before 1875. Opra, Paris

The

Paris

ceived the decoration in the small

1836-1879).

Pytbiar} Priestess on the Tripod,

ceramic.

of Paris, which are gradually disappearing. Then will be dis-

.MARCELLO (pseudonvm of Adle d'Affry, Duchess of Casti-

glione-Colonna;

and

enamels,

Htel de Ville, Paris

Torchre. Before 1875. Bronze.


8.

Club,

malachite,

People will someday come to appreciate the sculptors

DOMINIQUE-JEAN-BAPTTSTE HUGUES (1849-after 1931).

7.

Bronze,

Fireplace.

11.

.^fusic.

Victoria,

Franklin,

and six

DALOU (1838-1902).

Decorative bronze plaque. Traveller's Club, Paris

marble, and frames in enamels. Traveller's Club, Paris

Dalou worked for

This private club occupies the mansion decorated in the most

Meunier, and Charpentier, he remained fascinated by the work-

lavish taste in
first a

as

1860 for La Palva,

marquise and then

a Polish

a countess in the

Jewess

who became

course of her career

courtesan, adventuress, and spy.

10.

AI.M-JULES

Dalou

is

DALOU (1838-1902) and henri-alfred-marie

Traveller's Club,

stag hunt.

in

Great Britain. Like Rodin,

world. But while Rodin's vision

is

transcended by roman-

and epic poetry, the motivations of these naturalistic sculp-

seem rather

to respond to the generous aspirations of a

paternalistic societv'.

preciosity of a
Paris

Jacquemart for the bronze

long time

work

Dalou was

like this in

just as

which he

much

inclined to the

imitates, with infinite

grace, the French sculptors at Fontainebleau and the chteaux

responsible for the sculptures in the upper part of the

fireplace.

tic

tors

JACQUE.MART (1824-1896).
Fireplace.

ers'

relief plaque depicting a

of the Loire.
14.

EUGNE DELAPLANCHE (1836-1891).

Clock, c.

1875. Bronze. Htel de Ville, Paris

14.

about 1830,
Before
everyday clothing.

PORTRAITS

people of note disliked the idea of posing for a sculptor in their


Although in France the toga and coiffure l'antique tend to be rare

in the sculptor's studios, ancient

Rome

still

exercised

its

seductions in Germany,

Great Britain, and, most of all, the United States public figures wished to emulate
those who had contributed to the glory of the Roman Republic. The toga went well
with the faces of American generals and law^^ers. One could swear that their busts came from
the atrium of some Roman villa each bears his special garb like an actor who willingly poses
in his costume. Europeans of Latin or Germanic background, ever conscious of uniforms and
medals, posed in them for posterity. The Revolutionary fur hat decorated with the tricolor
cockade, worn by Philippe-Egalit, cousin of Louis XVI, tells us much about his character;
and neither the Order of the Holy Spirit nor the royal ermine could refine the cowlike face of
Charles X.
;

Only when the middle

had become aware of their power did they dare to be represented in their ordinary apparel. Farmers-general and parvenus had already done so in the
eighteenth century, wearing rich but bourgeois garments and displaying a goodhearted and
decent appearance.
To the degree that Romanticism yielded to Realism and Naturalism, the formal pose
seems to yield to the instantaneous. Writers are caught at their desks; painters, palette in
hand, seem to say, "Don't interrupt me, I'm working!" women, more prudent, are getting dressed
often in evening gowns with pretty, lowcut necklines. Toward the end of the
century, oddly enough, men took to baring their chests to mark their nonconformity. This
practice was no longer a matter of borrowing the torso of some handsome model, as had been
the custom since Antiquit)'. The sitters for Rodin and Bourdelle display their often defective anatomy as if a certain deterioration was proof of the struggles they had to endure to bring
classes

their ideals to success.

was many years before the daguerreotype supplanted the painted or sculptured portrait.
Before that occurred it was the ambition of each generation to discover the artist who made
the best likeness. Every personage of national or local fame, whether in arts, letters, or politics, and every well-off bourgeois thought he had a duty to leave behind him the image of his

It

presence.

1820 David d'Angers, who saw the profit to be made from the portrait medal,
offered places in his Pantheon to various important people. The writer Alfred de Vigny sat
for him in 1 828 sometime later, in thanking the artist, he said "I have my medals before me
my eyes keep passing from glory to glory and from friendship to friendship while glancing from
the face of my dear Victor to your own name." Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine, Delacroix, Gricault, the mathematician Monge, and the scientist Ampre were among the celebrities, Chateaubriand utilized the hours of his sittings to dictate his Final Advice to the Electors; the portrait finished, he offered a reception in honor of the artist, who noted on the
following day "1 dined yesterday at the home of Chateaubriand, who had assembled an elegant

Soon

after

249

250

and choice group for the inauguration of the bust I made in homage of him. All through the
evening the great man was distracted, ate little, his head bent toward his left shoulder, looking
at the ceiling with a contemplative air."
To each sitter David offered two bronze proofs of his portrait mounted in a panel of oak
or ebony. And not only did he accept every commission, he also solicited them. To meet
"Monsieur de Goethe," who was not alwavs approachable, David did not hesitate to present
himself unannounced at Weimar, on the chance of seeing him. "A lost cause," he said after
a few tries, "a weird, bad-tempered fellow, one doesn't know which bug has bitten him."
Finally the door was opened and the two spoke to one another. The poet, after accepting a
gift of portrait medallions of Victor Hugo and Delacroix, at last consented to pose.
All this success ended by exposing David to the attacks of fellow artists and critics. The
Romantics, Petrus Borel in particular, had it in for the artist who, in his Young Greek Girl
(p. 334, 42) and his Monument to General Fay (Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise), had betrayed the
Romantic ideal and had "copied nature and cultivated tradition."
Throughout the century the importance of a good likeness remained fundamental, and
one can scarcely imagine how Balzac would have welcomed Rodin's Balzac. But one gets a
good idea from reading through the letters he exchanged with David d'Angers when the artist
proposed in 1842 to add the profile of the illustrious novelist to his gallery of famous men.
At first the writer declined the offer. He loathed, he said, having his likeness taken, adding
that in his negative reply should be seen "neither ungraciousness nor conceit." David, accustomed to such replies, returned to the charge: "I know how precious every instant is to
you." Balzac agreed to pose, and the two medallions so delighted him that he dedicated his
novel Le Cur de Tours to the sculptor in the most gushing manner: "Will not future numismatists be perplexed by so many crowned heads in your studio w^hen, from the ashes of
Paris, they unearth those existences perpetuated by you beyond the life of nations, which they
will assume to be entire dynasties?"

Rodin was often concerned over the problem of resemblance and considered it an indispensable element. He was indignant when Henner thought it witty to reply to a woman who complained about her portrait: "Madame, when you are dead your heirs, happy to own a fine
portrait painted by Henner, will scarcely worry any more about whether it looks like you."
For Rodin, "the facial features must be expressive, because they must never be in discord
with the soul. This is why there is no artistic activity which demands at the same time as much
manual dexterity as intelligence."
The sitter was not to be surprised at the vision the artist had of him. People generally
have an idealized conception of their own appearance, and Rodin fulminated against everyone
in his generation whose sole ambition was "to look as if they had come from the hairdresser."
What matter if they find themselves handsome or homely: "Nature is always beautiful," proclaimed the author of the Burghers of Calais; "every face is interesting; the most inexpressive
will conceal some spectacle that is the more odd because the spirit forces itself to hide within
the shadow."
Although the

profound evolution during the century, it is no


less true that the classic portrait, the painstaking copy in marble or bronze of each facial trait,
continued to satisfv the clientele of the Salon. To leave nothing to chance, certain sculptors
even requested their clients to undergo the few moments' torture of making a plaster cast.
In this connection it was said that the sculptor Desseine, a deaf-mute, anxious to reproduce as
faithfully as possible the effigies of David d'Angers and his wife, did not hesitate to exhume the
wife's body so he could make a cast of what remained of her facial structure.
art of portraiture

underwent

PORTRAITS

2S1

VII.

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917). Young Woman

ered

Hat.

c.

Colored

1864.

plaster,

with Flow-

height 16".

Muse

Rodin, Paris

Those who so long confused

resemblance for an ** expression" of truth had


plenty of excuses. Faithful to the Neoclassical and academic doctrines, they undertook to
reproduce exactly what they saw while applying themselves to render the face in the most
graceful manner, free to omit discreetly any natural imperfections. By acknowledging this the
artist gave proof of knowing how to operate on the artistic plane as well as on that of good
manners. Thus he earned the title of "society artist," a term still in use which indicates that
the prime ambition of the artist consists above all in satisfying a privileged clientele. In his
Curiosits esthtiques Baudelaire makes much of the middle-class attitude by which "in the arts,
it's only a matter of pleasing."
Houdon was the first, by a mixture of genius and skill, to succeed in giving a new dimension to the art of portraiture. On many occasions Rodin showed his admiration for that
sculptor whose busts, he said, "were worth biographies." For Rodin, Houdon was "the
personification of malice" better than a painter or a pastellist, he knew how to render the
"transparency of the pupil of the eye" these he perforated, pierced, incised; bringing out in
a painstaking

252

and odd macules which, by catching

by darkening, imitate to the life the scinThrough the eyes he deciphered souls." Houdon's main
tillation of daylight in the pupil.
effort consisted of doing what was in his power to make the personality of each sitter break
loose from the envelope of flesh which, over the centuries, had taken on the fixed aspect of
a mask. But Houdon remained a man of the Ancien Rgime in insisting on maintaining a distance between the model and himself. Respectful of the truth, he exploited everything hidden
behind the visible mask but knowing that he was the sculptor of a protected w^orld, he undertook to reveal of his sitter's character only what the model allowed to show through. Yet a
certain manner of giving life, both Neoclassical and realist, to his portraits, of letting through
a flash of joy or a wave of sadness, makes Houdon a modern man.
it

'

'

lively

light or

found

work

of David d'Angers.

The

commissioned
statues remain hopelessly Neoclassical, whereas the medallions suddenlv betray his Romantic
passion and bear witness to a profound change that had occurred in the sculptor's status. It was
no longer the possession of money that infused the Romantic artist with passion, but rather
the independence that a sure source of income could bring him. Having acquired his materiand we have already shown that the price of basic materials requires the sculptor, more
als
than any other artist, to seek commissions
and solved these problems, the artist was free to
carve what he pleased according to his inspiration. "The best works," said Rodin, "those
that come closest to the truth, are often those which were made gratuitously. To work freely,
by suppressing a certain obligation toward the client, permits the artist to carr\' on as he thinks
similar duality

is

to be

in the

faces of his

best."

From

moment David d'Angers

and gave himself not only the luxury


of making their profiles free of charge but also of repaying them by a certain number of copies,
he reserved to himself the right to treat their likenesses as he wished. This was also to be true
of Carpeaux, whose work seems like a last displav of fireworks set off to celebrate the obsequies of a delightful but outmoded French sculpture.
the

chose his

sitters

Daumier and, even more, Rodin were to push on to a new and difficult phase. With them, the
time and manner of posing had altogether changed. The artist, before making the face in clay,
prowled around his prey for hours, sometimes months. The model, growing tired, would let
then the artist could steal behind the mask, seeking to discover the deeper
reasons that suddenly impress upon a face traits that reveal his confusion, his anxiety, his

his attention lapse

dullness.

H^-

PORTRAITS

FRANCIS CHANTREY (1781-1842).

!.

Sir

Walter Scott.

King George IV was so


ordered

Leontine Radziwill. 1836. Plaster, height I62". Nationalgalerie,

his treasurer to

room;

with his portrait bust that he

satisfied

add another hundred guineas to the two

hundred agreed on. This head of the famous

British novelist

was so widely appreciated that Chantrey had hundreds of copies


cast in bronze.

Whatever

Chantrey got off

his public acclaim,

the hands of David d'Angers

who wrote

less easily at

"1 have just examined

with scrupulous attention the marble bust of James Watt done

by Chantrey. This bust


fulness

it is

worked out with

is

a sort of stereotype of nature.

few steps away one sees only

which appear

very great truth-

But

if

one moves

Our

art

make an impression from

Chantrey has not underis

called

upon by

a distance, to

its

very

be appreciated

Although Rauch

in his lifetime

was

David d'An-

as successful as

gers, people soon recognized the mediocrity of most of his

works

in

finitely

charming bust

which anecdote

predominant

plays a

role. This in-

exceptional in his oeuvre.

is

10. ANTONIO CANOVA (1757-1822).


Madame Kcamier. 1813. Plaster, height 18". Gipsoteca Ca-

noviana, Possagno (Treviso)

Here

a portrait

evidence of the

is

treated l'antique and the mantle

artist's

reverence for Hellenic

is

further

art.

JEAN-BAPTISTE Called AUGUSTE

11.

CLSINGER (1814-1883).

Madame ApoUonie-Agla Sabatier. 1847. Marble, height 32".


Muse du Louvre, Paris
The past century was no different from ours when it came to
cliques and mutual-admiration societies. Baudelaire, in review-

by the future."
2.

Berlin

block of very white marble on

slight traces of a tool.

stood the object of statuary.


nature to

RAUCH (1777-1857).

CHRISTIAN

9.

1820. Marble. Mansion House, London

All fashionable society flocked to Chantrey's waiting

253

ing the Salon of 1859, wrote that

JOHANN GOTTFRIED SCHADOW (17641850).

grasps the

Madame de Reibnitz. 1800. Marble, height 23". Kunsthalle,


Bremen
Schadow was of the same stock as Houdon and his followers.
he makes the viewer see the

sitter's

face,

ambitions, intelligence,

"M.

Clsinger sometimes

[but] he never attains complete

gance," but most often,

like Gautier, the great

ele-

poet went off

into dithyrambs over the talent and originality of this artist.


It

Reproducing the myriad ripples that cross an animated

movement

should be remembered that Clsinger's favorite model was

none other than Madame

Sabatier, a

"La Prsidente"

by some

well-known beauty called

for her Sunday evening gatherings.

cuid sensual intensity.

12.
3.

WLADYSLAW OLESZCYNSKI (1807-1866).

Henryk Levittoux.

1861. Bronze, height 21".

Muzeum Naro-

dowe, Warsaw

friend of Schiller, Goethe,

court sculptor
4.

at

and Canova, Oleszcynski was

Wurttemberg.

HENRI-.MICHEL-ANTOINE CHAPU (1833-1891).

Dumas Pre. Marble. Thtre Franais, Paris


The famous novelist (1803-70); compare the portrait by CarAlexandre

rier-Belleuse (p. 88, 9)

Several works in this chapter (nos. 12, 14, 15, 16, and 57)
are in the Thtre Franais, built

JOHANN HEINRICH VON DANNECKER (1758-1841).

Home

Victor Louis.

between 1786 and 1790 by

Comdie

of the

Queen Kathaiina of Westphalia. Marble, height 242". Staatliche

and foyer contain numerous portraits

Kunstsammlungen, Kassel

writers,

Of Dannecker

as a portraitist,

David d'Angers had

this to say

13.
a

cardboard nose, eyes drawn after those of the Apollo,

glum and sulky mouth. The

in sculpture

of French

and of famous actors and actresses shown

out-

in

ANTOINE AUGUSTIN PRAULT (1809-1879).

Louis Desnoyers.
a

vestibule

its

standing roles.

(about the sculptor's bust of Schiller): "Dannecker gave his

model

Franaise,

1837. Bronze medallion. Cimetire du Pre-

overall expression of the face

Lachaise, Paris

The head

is

callous; yet Schiller had such tenderness of soul

is

not well attached to the shoulders; the symmetrical hairdress

makes one think of wet


that bust
5.

is

string; the skull

is

small. In brief,

horror."

1803. Plaster, height 24".

who

7.

dramatist, novelist, and poet (1778-1842).

Marble. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Europe must be lurking

a great

number of

such portraits, competent but lacking in personality.


8.

Kcamier.

c.

1802.

Marble.

Muse des Beaux- Arts,

Lyons

From

first this

portrait of the famous society beauty and wit

(1777-1849), perhaps the

finest

up

to the

am among

those

do not

find in their

14.

by the tumultuous dreams, even

if

JEAN-BAPTISTE Called AUGUSTE CLSINGER (1814-1883).

writer,
15.

me

unfinished, of Auguste Prault."

George Sand.

who

Marble. Thtre Franais, Paris


figure corresponds to

our idea of

this

woman

was, incidentally, the artist's mother-in-law.

FRANCISQUE-JOSEPH DURET (18041865).

Rachel in the Role of Phdre. Marble. Thtre Franais, Paris

tragedienne.
16.

the

lived

See p. 88, 7, and p. 407, 2, for other portraits of the famous

JOSEPH CHINARD (1756-1813).

Madame

who

confess, without blushing, that whatever the skillfulness

The massive

PAULUS-JOSEPH GABRIEL (1785-1833).

Cornelis Apostol. 1815.

was one of those

pleasure so often given

breath of Romanticism animates this handsome likeness of the

In attics throughout

friend of the

definition of art as "immaterial pleasures."

Nationalgalerie,

Berlin

German

in particular,

Romantic poets and of Grard de

work, since the decease of David d'Angers, the immaterial

left

French novelist. Prault,

deployed each year by our sculptors,

CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH TIECK (1776-1851).

Clemens Brentano.

Baudelaire wrote of the Salon of 1859: "I

Anna Paulowna. 1829. Marble, height including base

34i". Muses Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels


6.

Nerval

Romantic

JAN LODEWYCK VAN GEEL (1787-1852).

Princess

Desnoyers was

entire generation of French

work by

this excellent artist

from Lyons, has enjoyed considerable success.

GABRIEL-JULES

THOMAS (18241905).

Mademoiselle Mars in the Role ofClimne. Marble. Thtre Franais,


Paris

See page 80, 9 for

a portrait

bust of the famous comedienne.

254

Trained by his father Joseph Rush, William Rush was appren-

MARCELI GUYSKI (1830-1893).

17.

1869. Bronze, height 29^".

Andrzej Zamoyski.

Muzeum Naro-

dowe, Warsaw

ticed as a carver of figureheads for the vessels built in Philadel-

The way he presented

phia's busy shipyards.

of the great Swedish botanist


Nikolai

RAMAZANOV (1818-1867).

ALEXANDROVICH

NIKOLAI

18.

Gogol (detail). 1854. Marble, entire height

Vasil^evicb

Museum, Moscow

18". Russian

Gogol (1809-52) was the

for the spirit he gave the face

founder of the Realist school

the physiognomy

reminiscent of his training, but

Rush

fully

deserves to be consid-

ered the earliest of the genuinely American sculptors


as the

brilliant

is

as

well

culmination of the American woodcarving tradition. (See


110,

also p.

2.)

/,

of Russian literature.
25. FRANOIS-JOSEPH BOSIO (1768-1845).

DALOU (1838-1902).
Gustave Courbet. Marble. Muse des Beaux-Arts, Besanon
Courbet, the famous realist painter, made a few exceptional
AIM-JULES

19.

sculptures at the end of his life; see p. 88, 18; p. 255, 50.

Goethe.

1821-22. Bronze, height 232". Kunsthalle, Bremen

Here Schadow proves himself the peer

as

well as the precur-

monarchy led

to his

The Marquesa de

prud'hon (1759-1823).

27.

Terracotta (unfinished).

Muse des

unusual sculpture by an artist otherwise

22.

OLIN LEVI

WARNER

Museum

17^". Metropolitan

ries,

as a painter.

the

of Art,

23. JOSEPH

life

after

twelve years after Chief

and

four-month-long

a reservation.

aristocrat-revolutionary

diameter 9^". Muse des Beaux-

the

crafty, full

28.

HIRAM POWERS (1805-1873).

the

life in

1838 while
Slave,

Due d'Orlans before he


of good will, but prudent when

29.

34V.

height

Metropolitan

New York

"Make me
in

It

in 1835,
as

when

was cut into marble by Powers himself

Wood,

height 25'

The

in

American sculpture.

REIS (1847-1889).

Museu Nacional de

Soars dos

The work seems a small masterpiece of lifelikeness presuming the model had as much simple good nature as he appears to
show here.

RAUCH (1777-1857).
Marble, height 22^". Museum der Bildenden

30. CHRISTIAN

Compare David d'Angers' medallion,

Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

in

shortly afterward he did The Greek

Oporto

Leipzig

RUSH (1756-1833).

President Jackson was

am, Mr. Powers, and be true to

Rome, where

ANTONIO SOARS DOS

Goethe.

1812.

Marble,

one of the most important works

lotine.

Linnaeus (Carl von Linn j. c.

1835.

White House

nature always."

he had to be, although he eventually lost his head to the guil-

24. WILLIAM

of Art,

sixty-eight.

Reis,

CHINARD (1756-1813).

his title

Marble, height 20". Galleria Nazionale d'Arte

Trotti.

Count de Ferreira. 1876. Marble.

Arts, Lyons

renounced

Count

New York

thousand-mile,

confinement on

Philippe Egalit. Terracotta,

The

LORENZO BARTOLINI (1777-1850).

Museum

Joseph surrendered his small band to the U.S. Cavalry

flight to escape

Palacio

Madrid

Liria,

This bust, which launched Powers' career, was modeled from

number of Indian chiefs


Metropolitan Museum, New York. This

medallion was executed from

white man's rule

1830.

1889. Bronze, diameter

profile likenesses of a

in

in

CUBERO (1768-1827).
Ariza. Marble. Duke of Alva Museum,

Andrew Jackson.

two-year trip through the Northwestern Territo-

modeled

many now

known

(1844-1896).

Joseph, Chief of the Nez Perc Indians.

Warner, on

overthrow

Modema, Rome

Beaux- Arts, Beaune

An

well illustrate certain pages

26. JOS ALVAREZ

de

de Joursauvault.

work could

of Chateaubriand's autobiographic Mmoires d'outre-tombe (see

mann.

Baroness

1824. Marble. Muse National de

Versailles

This cruel and realistic

sor of the strong portrait artists Kriiger, Menzel, and Lieber-

21. PIERRE-PAUL

of France.

also p. 318, 8). Charles' attempt to restore the absolutism of

JOHANN GOTTFRIED SCHADOW (1764-1850).

20.

King Charles

Kiinste,

p. 80, 5.

d'angers (1788-1856).
Muse des Beaux-Arts, Angers

31. PIERRE-JEAN DAVID Called DAVID


Niccolo Paganini. 1833. Bronze.

PORTRAITS

MARKOS FYTALIS.
Old Woman of Tinos. 1887.

42. VIKTOR

32.

33. IVAN

Russian

Plaster.

Museum, Tinos, Greece

Basin

(detail).

Bronze,

1872.

height 30".

Museum, Moscow

Academy of

St.

Petersburg, Basin

died in 1877.

Oesterreichische Galerie, Vienna

I.

Karl Hillebrand.

1883-84. Bronze, height 15".

Kunsthalle,

Hillebrand (d. 1884) was a scholar, author, and critic, por-

A Woman of Berne. 1816-18. Terracotta, height 16". OefFent-

Basel

Swiss sculptor and painter

father by carving

37. CYPRIAN

Madame

wooden

who

saints

received his training from his

and animals.

1865.

Servais-Godebska.

Marble,

height

28".

celebrated personages, especially Poles.


38. GILLES-LAMBERT

revilly,

Artist's Wife.

GODECHARLE (1750-1835).

Church of

Saint-Sulpice, Paris.

ADRIANO CECIONI (1838-1886),

Modema, Rome
GAUGUIN (1848-1903).
Madame Gauguin. 1877. Marble, height 13". Courtauld

Salon of 1872.

Bronze.

Petit

Insti-

London

classicism of the sculpture by Gauguin, Courbet, and Mori-

sot (see below, 49, SO)

medium

RODO

shows how

tended to remain

de

as

traditional

compared

niederhusern

and unchanging

to painting.

called

niederhusern-

(1863-1913).

The Poet Paul Verlaine. 1892. Bronze, height

2U".

Oeffentliche

Kunstsammlung, Basel

Palais, Paris

49. berthe

AUGUST LEONARD ROUNBLOM (1823-1858).

The Swedish Bell-Founder Anders Mathias Rounblom. 1850. Bronze,

height 18". Collection

Gunnar

W.

Lundberg, Paris

morisot (1841-1895).

Head ofJulie Manet. 1875. Bronze, height IO2". North Carolina


Museum of Art, Raleigh, N.C.

The

d'Arte

292". Institut Tessin, Paris

pupil of Rude, Franceschi did the statue of St. Sulpice for the

48. AUGUSTE

CARPEAUX (1827-1875).

The Painter Jean-Lon Grme.

41. ERCOLE

diabolical fantasies portrayed here looks as if he

Jules Verne. Marble, height

that

bust that equals Houdon's finest works.

Giuseppe

Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte (Manche)

tute of Art,

Colored plaster, height 21". Muses Royaux

39. JEAN-BAPTISTE

Muse Barbey d'Au-

might be the ancestor of Salvador Dali on more counts than

The

des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

40.

44. ZACHARIE ASTRUC (1835-1907).

47. PAUL

French sculptor of Polish origin, he made busts of numerous

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).


Madame Monla-VicuBa. 1884. Marble, height 22^". Muse

The Poet Giosu Carducci. Terracotta. Galleria Nazionale d'Arte

GODEBSKI (1835-1909).

Zofia

numerous

43.

46.

Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw

The

sculptor of portrait busts, fountains, and tombs in

45. Louis-juLiEN called jules franceschi (1825-1893).

JOSEPH-ANTON-MARIA CHRISTEN (1769-1838).


Kunstsammlung,

1875. Bronze, height 292".

one.

trayed here with psychological insight.

liche

The writer of

Bremen

36.

c.

Barbey d'Aurevilly. Salon of 1876. Bronze.

ADOLF VON HILDEBRAND (1847-1921).

35.

Fiihrich.

Rodin, Paris

ANTON FERNKORN (1813-1878).

Emperor Franz Joseph

The Painter Josef von

Austrian towns.

Professor of painting at the

34.

OSKAR TILGNER (1844-1896).

Oesterreichische Galerie, Vienna

IVANOVICH PODOZEROV (1835-1899).

Vassilyevicb

Peter

255

girl is the artist's niece, the

daughter of Edouard Manet.

ROSA (1846-1893).

Garibaldi.

Plaster,

height 47".

Galleria

Nazionale

Modema, Rome

Rosa fought with Garibaldi


trian statue of Vittorio

at

Mentana, and later did the eques-

Emmanuele

Cathedral (see p. 228, 13).

II

in front of the

Milan

50. GUSTAVE

COURBET (1819-1877).

Madame Max

Buchon.

1869.

Bronze.

Collection Mouradian-

Vallotton, Paris

Mme

Buchon was the recent widow of Courbet's

friend

Max Buchon,

a liberal political essayist.

lifelong

256

51.

CHARLES-REN DE SAINT-MARCEAUX (1845-1915).


Head of a Woman. 1880. Terracotta, height 15". Formerly

58.

Collection Pozzi, Paris

Galleria Nazionale d'Arte

JEAN-JOSEPH-.MARIE CARRIES (1855-1894).

52.

ERNESTO BAZZARO (1859-1937).

The Journalist Augusta Mazzucchctti

Paris

Kodin. Bronze, height 19". Collection

Gunnar W. Lundberg,

Paris

The poet (1853-1903) began

Parnassian,

as a

later turning

toward Symbolism.
53. AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS (1848-1907).
Jules-Bastien Lepage. Cast in 1910 from a sculpture executed

1880. Bronze

relief,

Hj x

IO2". Metropolitan

Museum

Saint-Gaudens was born

He

in

of

cameo

New

York, then studied uith Jouffroy (1867-70)

learned the trade of

Arts in Paris, and later worked in

cutting in

at the

Beaux-

Rome. This form of portrai-

ture in lou relie! with decorative inscriptions was something

new

to

tween 1903 and 1908: "Poking through

Muse Granet, Aix-en-Provence


Mistral

\\

rote about Provenal

life,

is

here surrounded by

long beard,

that goes with a


as

imagine the

Jules de

Concourt,

beard of yellowish

his

to be

emerging from the

used to see his faun's ears pointing above a clump of

in

our garden.

." (Paul Morand, Venises).

MEDARDO ROSSO (1858-1928).

60.

Head oj
and

me

white, his priapic nose seemed to

prickwood shrubs
1881. Bronze medallion.

(Edmond and

people, with

lids, a

such

1886).

17,

JEAN-BARNABE AMY (1839-1907).

The Provenal Poet Frdric Mistral.

A man

is

With age Rodin must have changed much, and it was no


longer a disciple of Christ that Paul Morand encountered be-

pubis;

American sculpture.

April

common

round head, the head

his hair close-cropped, a

gentle and obstinate persistency.

Dublin but was brought to America

young

entirely

those of the

beneath unhealthily red

in

Journal,

He

to visit the sculptor Rodin.

disciples of Jesus Christ"

as a

child.

"Bracquemond took me
man whose features are
light eyes blinking

New York

Art,

54.

Rome

Moderna,

PAUL TROUBETZKOY (1866-1938).

59.

The Poet Maurice RoIIinat. Salon of 1883. Plaster. Petit Palais,

1910. Bronze, height 26".

a Child. Bronze. Private collection, Paris

See also pp. 141-42, 17, 18, 19.

local flora.

BOURDELLE (1861-1929).

61. EMILE-ANTOINE

HONOR DAUMIER

55.

(1808-1879).

Beethoven

1853. Original plaster, height 282". Private col-

Self-Portrait.

lection, Milan
In its daring

this

work

is

one of the most impor-

of

The Pianist and Statesman Ignace Paderewski. c. 1900? Bronze,

122".

1889.

City

Museum and

Art Gallery, Birmingham,

Muse Antoine

Bronze.

can isolate myself,

lose myself in a corner. But the impression falls

bare,

ALFRED GILBERT (1854-1934).

height

Flowing Hair.

"1 do not reallv understand music unless

and modernity

tant in the history of sculpture.

56.

with

Bourdelle, Paris

it

my

shatters

being an

my

head and

infinite

my

on

repercussion which destroys

harvested the harmonious words ot Beethoven;


give

life

to the

brow

my

soul laid

heart, bringing to every part

in the faces of

him

as

am

it

is

it.

have

they that

constructing,

England

they that direct their gazes, they that bring order to his hair"

Paderewski became prime minister of Poland after World

(Emile-Antoine Bourdelle, January,

War

I.

JOHN-ALEXANDRE-JOSEPH FALGUIERE (1831-1900).

57.

Victor

An

62.

Hugo. Bronze. Theatre Franais, Paris

admirable piece

level

of Rodin.

in

which Falguire succeeds

in attaining the

1903, Paris).

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

Muse Rodin, Paris


With
him the door beRodin went even beyond Daumier.
tween the classical world and modern art was breached once
Balzac.

and for

1892-98. Plaster, height

all.

9'

10".

^^

ft

14

19

41

21

1^

24

25

30

31

I'

32
33

35

38

39

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xpT^. -'

.<S'

45

46

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ill

47

49

51

52

53

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WIS^F
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|v

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54

^s

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^^^^^I^^I^^^^^^B^Lw

55

56

57

58

59

61

CARICATURE

15.

Laughter
It is

wan

in

is

satanic;

it is

therefore profoundly

the consequence of the idea of his

CHARLES BAUDELAIRE,

The

burlesque portrait

the

caricature

human.

own superiori^.

Curiosits esthtiques

already existed

in antiquity.

The Romans

monstrous effigies. In the seventeenth century the Venetians


were amused by the faces of the crouching figures carved in wood along the walls of
the large hall in the Scuola di San Rocco. But these are a matter of exploits to make
people laugh when it came to a portrait few artists would have dared to exceed the
limits of realism to the point of ridicule, truly an unpardonable affront. It took the independence of spirit and the genius of Frans Hals or Goya to succeed in imposing upon wealthy
especially appreciated

unbearable sight of their ovsti effigies.


Neoclassical conceptions, opposed to any representation of ugliness, did not encourage
artists to unveil the monstrous that human countenances could hide. The grotesque was permitted if confined to a decorative role. It was left to the Romantics, especially to Baudelaire,
followed by
to elevate caricature into art. From the moment that Daumier took it over
sitters the often

Forain and Steinlen

caricature began to demonstrate

its

importance

as a

redoubtable weapon

and religious conflicts.


Under the Restoration the French police, more liberal than under Napoleon, became less
repressive, and caricature became accepted. Baudelaire made it clear that earlier notions of
caricature were tiresome and conservative he found nothing in common between the works
of Charlet, Carle Vernet, Trimolet, and Travis, generally lacking in originality and tainted
with too much good humor, and Daumier's, which reveal "everything a big city contains
in political, social,

in the

way

of living monstrosities."

Baudelaire was probably the

first

to call attention to the genius of

Daumier. Concerning

Daumier's busts of the French peers he wrote in the Curiosits esthtiques: "The artist revealed
here a marvelous understanding of the portrait for all that he loads and exaggerates the original traits, he remains so sincerely based on nature that these pieces can serve as models for all
portraitists. All the poverties of spirit, everything ridiculous, all the manias of the mind and
the vices of the heart can be clearly read and seen on these animalized faces." Daumier, like
Bosch, Hogarth, and Cruikshank before him, succeeded in creating believable monsters
which, despite the atrocity of their faces, remain "imbued with humanity," in Baudelaire's
words. Like those artists he uncovers in every human being what the face may reveal of the
ugly and the odd. But he alone succeeded in modeling in clay these "explosions of expression," as Baudelaire called them.
Raymond Escholier reports the admiration that Rodin expressed for Daumier when he
saw a bronze cast of Daumier's Ratapoil in Escholier's home: "His imperious eyes could not
be taken from that Ratapoil with its hooked moustache, pointed beard, hat cocked to one side,
frock coat flapping against his skinny hams," and Rodin, putting down the statuette, exclaimed "Ah the Daumier I knew when I started out with Carrier-Belleuse, that Daumier,
what a sculptor!"
;

285

di

286

M
Curiously enough Daumier, like Poussin two centuries earlier, very often used sculpture
to help work out a judicious composition. Geoffroy de Chaume was an eyewitness: "Once
those little manikins were set up, he took his pencil or brush and set his easel in front of the

working from life, he had swiftly made into a living image." He used
exactly this procedure for his famous plate of the Legislative Belly. Perhaps it was to Augustin
Prault, whom he met about 1828 at the Acadmie Boudin, that Daumier owed his decision
to model some of his subjects it has also been suggested that he was amused by Dantan's little
caricature statuettes and got the idea to try something of that sort.
For his terracottas, of no great importance in his eyes, Daumier used the coarsest clays;
full of bits of chalk, they began to flake off as they dried, cracking and falling to bits at the
slightest shock. Thus the pieces in the Malherbe collection have disappeared, broken even
before being moved. These clay models had for Daumier no purpose other than to be useful
tools for his work. And who would have dared offer for sale these ferocious effigies that were
images of individuals in high places? Publicly exhibited, they would have been confiscated
immediately. Madame Daumier was so afraid of the police that the Ratapoil remained camouflaged for a long time in a straw bottle-basket hidden in a corner. Determined to rid herself
of it, she was delighted to offer it to their friend Geoffroy de Chaume.
models

clay

that,

Alongside Daumier's sculpture there flourished another form of sculpture that was realistic,
caricaturing, and popular, and had a moderately comic vein freely resembling that of the

Except for Dan tan,

form was generally the concern of


provincial sculptors Franois Alais, who displayed his medallions at the door of his house in
Vire in the Calvados country Pierre- Adrien Graillon, whose studio was in his shop on the
Grand-Rue at Dieppe he asked under five francs to make portraits of his fellow townsmen
or the "bathers" from Paris who came to Dieppe's beaches on holidays.
David d'Angers, describing Graillon's workshop, tells us about the way of life of most of
these modest popular sculptors at that time: "Except for the shop, which is very clean, the
rest of the house is extremely primitive. The back of the shop serves as dining room, and in an
obscure little corner, near the very dark staircase leading to his workshop, there is a stove
where the meals are cooked. The studio looks like the most complete mess I've ever seen.
Some thirty pieces of sculpture, none of them completed, are there under damp rags pictures are nailed on every wall; even the rafters have these decorations, because Graillon is
His public is made up of foreigners and ordinary people who stop in front
also a painter.
of his shop windows. The local bourgeoisie reproaches him for not making statuettes like
Pradier's. A member of the town council, administrator of the welfare office (a job that makes
him a somebody in his town), said to him 'Why do you make us figures of poor people? We
"
get tired enough of seeing them all day long.
^

Dutch

Little Masters.

a Parisian, this

'

who had

much fame

David d'Angers and more than


Daumier, made more than a thousand busts and statuettes between 1827 and 1869. People
came from all over Europe to pose in his studio. More adept at detecting his subjects' "tics"

Dan tan

the Younger,

as

in his lifetime as

of attitude than their characteristic expressions, his gentle caricatures "had the
pleasing certain of his victims."

of his

own image

reported that Talleyrand

"It goes too far for a portrait, not far

Eugne Guinot, Dantan's


tor.

It is

murmured

enough

gift

of dis-

irritably at the sight

for a caricature."

friend, takes us into the studio of this fashionable Parisian sculp-

The apartment, located near

the rue Saint-Lazare, consisted of a small waiting

room

"furnished in an altogether artistic taste" Dantan received visitors in his working costume,
"a long Turkish dressing gown with Kashmir designs and on his head, in the easy-going studio
manner, a little velvet Greek bonnet." On the walls six shelves held 400 small plaster busts,
;

CARICATURE

287

of writers, scholars, poets, academicians, playwrights, lawyers, pianists, and composers, almost everyone (with a few exceptions) who had made some sort of name for himself
in the preceding twenty years or so; there was an tagre for counts, duchesses, marquesses,

a gallerv

another for members of the House of Lords and one for the artists and administrators of the Opra. When you had spent an hour or two of laughter in his caricature-room,
he would invite vou to relax in his bedroom, its walls papered from top to bottom with
Chinese paintings, pictures by old and modern masters, a head by Rubens, sheep by Brascassat,
a sleeping girl bv Vien, the portrait of Mademoiselle Joly painted by David, and many other

and baronesses

treasures."

Like most portrait

artists,

Dantan did not necessarilv work from

life.

If

the bust of a

deceased person was desired, the family would bring in a daguerreotype, a painted portrait,
or a pencil sketch. Occasionally the situation could be somewhat more bizarre, as one can
judge bv the following anecdote (Mrime would have made a short story of it). One morning
Dantan was visited by a distinguished man whose face bore the signs of deep sorrow. After

Viscount d'Anglade, he said: "Monsieur, I have a sister on her deathbed, and I have come to ask you to do her bust. We have a portrait of her w hich may help you,
but for vour work to be as perfect as we wish, you must see her in person. But to bring vou
introducing himself

as

to her, and to ask her to pose for her bust at such a

know

moment, would be

to reveal her true con-

we

have no more hope of saving her." Monsieur d'Anglade and


the sculptor agreed on the scene to be enacted; the next dav the viscount entered the sickroom, a smile on his lips, and said to her: "Dear sister, I wish to give vou a present for your
dition and let her

first ball.

Here

is

that

clerk from Fossin's

who

has brought vou several pieces of jewelry.

You

must choose the one that becomes you most." Whereupon Dantan for it was he playing the
spread out half a dozen jewel boxes on the bed, and while the sick
role of jewelry clerk
girl examined the jewels and her pale and charming face was fleetinglv brightened by their
beauty the watching sculptor made himself fix his model in his memorv. Some time later the
girl died, leaving behind her a completed bust, a living image in marble.
The following year a noble and sorrowful old man presented himself: "I am the father of
the young man vou received last year. Monsieur, my son is on his deathbed and I have come to
ask you for a portrait of him.." Dantan required a sitting to recall to memory the dying
man's features; father and sculptor sought a plan. Thev planned that his bedroom should be
redecorated; Dantan, disguised as an upholsterer's helper, his head and face covered with wig
and false beard, looked at the dying young man, who did not recognize the workman approaching his bed and pretending to measure it. Not long after, the bust of the brother took

its

place next to that of his sister.

288

HONOR DAUMIER

1.

Wilhelm Busch Museum, Hanover

(1808-1879).

Ratapoil. 1850. Bronze, height 18". Private collection, Milan

Of

this,

bearded figure

who

'

'

Ratapoil

is

a monstrous, scrawny,

evokes the ragtag and bobtail of the mer-

cenary- legions of the first

Napoleon, half-starved, their pay

forever in arrears. As an agent of the secret police, he scours


the provinces. Discharged from the

army

for theft, he

hero in the troubled atmosphere of the times

who

candidate.

fat

paunch

becomes

shady figure

passes for a respectable citizen, an ex-convict

judge on his

vice

one of Busch's comic

illustration of

stories.

one of the most original works of the nineteenth

century, Robert Rey wrote

An

who

he urges him to vote for the

as

pats a
official

Never before had insolence, ignominy, hunger, and

been more compactly fused than

Daumier fashioned, which had

in

to be kept

the clay figurine

from public view

6.

LEONETTO CAPPIELLO (1875-1942).


Muse Carnavalet, Paris

Yvette Guilbert.

Cappiello was

painter and graphic artist of Italian origin,

naturalized French.

Here

is

the famous chanteuse (1868-1944)

of the 1890s, in her characteristic stage costume.


7.

JEAN-LOUIS FORAIN (1852-1931).

The Jewish Republic (Marianne as a Jewess). Bronze. Collection


Alain Lesieutre, Paris

Marianne has been the familiar name of the French Republic


since about 1854.

To our knowledge

this

the only piece of

is

sculpture by Forain, the famous painter and graphic

artist.

for a long time."


8.

JOSEPH MENDES DA COSTA (1863-1939).

2.

HONOR DAUMIER

(1808-1879).

of Marshal Soult, Minister of War and Foreign Affairs in


Louis-Philippe's Cabinet. Bronze, height 6". Formerly private

Portrait

Almsgiving (GeeJ HandgiJ)

c.

Gemeentemuseum, The

1893.

Hague

collection, Paris

PIERRE-ADRIEN GRAILLON (1809-1872).

3.

Card

many

In

This series of four figurines has

1849. Terracotta. Muse, Rennes

Players.

were

provincial cities there

of this

artisan-artists

who thought of

Graillon had been a shoemaker

type

sculp-

ture as a pastime. These caricatures of ordinary people are in


line

done

with Romantic ideas of observation and the comical.


as a lithograph,

this caf

If

scene could illustrate certain

much

in

common

with the

works of Goya. Daumier was the inventor of expressionistic


and caricatural sculpture. It was at the request of the journalist
and caricaturist Charles Philipon that Daumier,

produced
the office

number of
windows of

terracotta busts that

in

1832,

were exhibited

in

the magazine La Caricature, in Passage

Vro-Dodat. Baudelaire called them "animalized visages."

chapters of Balzac, George Sand, or Barbey d'Aurevilly.


9.

4.

JEAN-PIERRE

DANTAN (known

Dantan the Younger;

as

1800-1869).

Muse Carnavalet,

art.

Gautier said of Dantan that

'

'he

as

knew how

which

folklore
to

make

10.

The

Cellarer

1832.

Bronze, height

and

the

Devil.

1870.

DAU.MIER (1808-1879).

HONOR

DAU.MIER (1808-1879).

Portrait of Persil.

Terracotta,

height

9".

Bronze, height 7i". Formerly

private collection, Paris


11.

WILHELM BUSCH (1832-1908).

HONOR

Portrait of the Financier Ganneron.

sculpture laugh."
5.

c.

Paris

a clever caricaturist. His small terracottas,

enchanted his contemporaries, interest us more


than as

DAU.MIER (1808-1879).

7". Formerly private collection, Paris

Hector Berlioz. 1833. Terracotta.

Dantan was

HONOR

Portrait of Bailliot (L'infatu de soi),

tion, Paris

Bronze, height 7i". Formerly private collec-

E^r HAl'O

1/

10

16.

ANIMAL SCULPTURE

undergone various fortunes since the most remote antiquity, and most
civihzations offer innumerable proofs of man's genius at reproducing the fauna
around him. But for centuries in the Occident, however perfect the execution might
be, those who professed classical art were partisans of the Grand Style and disdained
animal sculpture. In the hierarchy of types it had the lowest rank, beneath historical
sculpture, portraiture, and of course below what was called Grand Statuary: no one could
experience emotion before even the finest masterwork of animal sculpture because it represented a soulless creature. The author of such a work was considered a hackworker. Often, it
is true, the artist scarcely deserv^ed more, as witnessed by that immense zoo of stone, marble,
and bronze created since the late seventeenth century to decorate the palaces and avenues of
European cities. In 1866, in the pages of L'Illustration, Thophile Gautier justly lampooned
those tiresome tigers,
those carved poodles wearing marble
"those academic lions,
Their dbonnaire faces, with almost
wigs la Louis XIV, of the sort called 'folio-sized.'
human features, look like the masks of noble fathers in the old comedies; their bodies
have neither suppleness
flabby, rounded, without bones or nerves, as if stuffed with meal
nor vigor; and one raised paw rests on a globe in a gesture which, one must admit, is scarcely

Animal

art has

leonine."
This

is

sculpture characterized by the fundamental inexpressiveness of the models and by

and conventional manner of noting movement. The horse, a "noble beast," was made
to prance in a sort of broken goose step, or else to rear up to its highest as if that were its most
normal attitude. This makes it easier to understand the reasons for the discredit suffered by
this genre in the early nineteenth century. In 1830 certain persons acknowledged Barye's
skill, but he remained a "maker of animals, a species deprived of human nobility." Such was
the judgment of the critics, promptly launched when it was proposed to entrust Barye with
the decoration of the Place de la Concorde. Rather than submit to such complaints, the prefect.
Monsieur de Rambuteau, aligned himself with the arguments of "those who would not consent to the Place de la Concorde becoming a branch of the zoo in the Jardin des Plantes."
In 1837 tex, indignant that the jury for the Exposition had rejected Delacroix's paintings and Barye's animal sculptures, addressed an open letter to the members of the Cercle des
Arts, denouncing the judges as "blind enough to prefer so many paintings of any sort to a
canvas by Delacroix, and the insignificant figures we see in the sculpture halls" to the animals by Bar^^e.
Released at last from their task of being "parade horses" for symbolic persons, Gricault's battle steeds, Delacroix's Arab chargers, and Barye's wild beasts suddenly acquired
individual personalities. Thophile Gautier describes the effect produced by the bronze
Lion with Serpent, one of Barye's masterpieces: "At the sight of that terrible and superb
animal his tangled mane bristling and his muzzle drawn up with a calm that is full of disgust
keeping beneath his bronze claws the hideous reptile which rears up in a convulsion of
impotent rage, all the poor marble lions pulled their tails between their legs and accidentally
let slip the globe that held them up."
a static

293

294

There was not an evolution in the art of depicting animals during the nineteenth century,
but rather the emergence ot various tendencies, dominated in almost every case by the Neoclassicism which still held favor with the Salon public. A great number of animal sculptors
showed talent, but Barye alone had genius.
Barye, the son of a Paris goldsmith, enrolled in Bosio's studio when hardly twenty years
old, right after the Napoleonic wars. Later he entered that of Gros. Impassioned, like most of

ANTOINE-Louis BARYE (1796-1875). The Bull. Terracotta,


5". Muse du Louvre, Paris. Collection Edmond de Rothschild

VIII.

the Romantic artists, by exotic fauna, he


in Paris. In

1831 he exhibited

at the

worked from

life in

height

the zoo of the jardin des Plantes

Salon his Tiger Devouring a Crocodile and Lion nith Serpent,

two works which provoked simultaneously the

liveliest criticism

from the academics and the

greatest enthusiasm of the Romantics.

time Barye escaped from his self-imposed servitude, the study of animal anatomy, and
his models, especially the lions, became treated with more simplified means, proving in this
the artist's independence from tradition. To earn his living Barve made drawings for great
numbers of small bronze statuettes and had them cast, though his knowledge of foundry
methods soon led him to process his favorite subjects himself. It was these pieces, to which
the artist's touch gave a surprising density, that shocked the critics accustomed to a "proper"
sculpture; for a long time they were dismissed as "paperweights," these works that belong
among the masterpieces of sculpture.
Barye remained the uncontested master of animal sculpture throughout the century.
After 1830, when he exhibited for the first time at the Salon, until his death in 1875 at an
advanced age he never ceased to demonstrate that a certain form of Romanticism was suited
to this special art. But the style died with him; most of his confreres continued to treat the
subject as it was done in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
In

ANIMAL SCULPTURE

Mne, who today

295

regaining part of the appreciation he had in his lifetime,


succeeded in eluding the grip of Neoclassicism without turning to a Romanticism for which he
was not made. Realistic yet tempered with elegance, he excelled in all subjects relating to
Pierre-Jules

is

horse racing and the hunt.

Watts, and Stark in England and Davide


Calandra in Italy, confined his art within rather narrow limits. A conscientious artist beloved
by the public, his originality and talent are shown by his manner of presenting the drama of
men and animals in their mutual dependence or antagonism. His horses, like those of Meis-

Emmanuel Frmiet

sonier and so

in France, like Landseer,

many European

sculptors,

seem

to

come from

stud-farms specializing in sup-

plying superb animals for use in parades. This was also true of Charles Cordier, Christophe

Edouard Delabrieu, Emile Gouget, Auguste Cain, and Henri-Marie Jacquemart, all
knowledgeable in anatomy and observant of animals in motion but in most cases not endowed
Fratin,

with genius.
Painters too, such as Rosa Bonheur, espoused this genre; others, such as Fratin and

Charles Jacques, preferred

like certain

Dutch painters two centuries before

to specialize

and farmyard animals, often attaining a skill close to perfection.


numbering tens of thousands
Fashion also had much to do with the prodigious output
of animal sculptures in all sizes. Along with the Romantic taste for wild nature, the idea of
depicting animals with utmost lifelikeness, especially horses and dogs, was closely tied to the
growing vogue for the hunt and also to the upsurge of interest in natural science. The British
enthusiasm for country life and their passion for horse racing and hunting explain the mass
production of artistic bronzes thousands of bronze birds and quadrupeds crossed the Channel
to be placed on British tables and shelves.
Great Britain produced a number of excellent specialists, among them Sir Edwin Landseer, whose sculptured lionsproudly mount guard at the foot of the Nelson Column in Trafalgar
Square. But except for G. F. Watts, who succeeded in catching animals in surprising
poses (as witness his Physical Energy), most English artists remained faithful to the Neoclasin cattle

sical

formulas.
In the

United

States, the Civil

history and anecdote.

War provided

The horse, with

its

the source for innumerable scenes mingling

military role and

its

long-lived importance as the

best means of transport, especially excited the American imagination.

One

Adolf Hildebrand and Max


Klinger, at once Neoclassical and modern. The strange Amazon by Franz von Stuck evokes a
quality of Maillol. In Russia the figurines of Troubetzkoy and Antokolsky show the ascendancy
of Rodin's influence on Slavic sculptors.
finds in

Germany an

art of rare elegance in the circle of

At the close of the century the sounds of class struggle finally reached the stables the horses
of Constantin Meunier are unmistakably workers, and their fate seems even more miserable
than that of the workers of the time.
In Georges Gardet, who strove to return to the Romantic tradition of Barye, Art
Nouveau found its finest representative in this genre, but like many of his contemporaries he
was readily inclined to anecdote or superficial symbolism. With Franois Pompon there at
last appeared a modem animal sculptor who conformed to twentieth-century taste.
:

296

ANTOINE-LOUIS BARYE (1796-1875).

1.

Tiger Devouring

Muse du Louvre,

Barye was justly hailed by Delacroix as the greatest of the

1831-32.

Crocodile.

Bronze,

40^".

unflagging patience every

when

animals in the zoo, and

at liberty.

movement

of the

they died he turned up promptly

to measure their muscles and bones with the

sion as an aid in gauging

more

most minute preci-

accurately the amplitude of their

movements.

plaster, I82

After

new

New York

of Art,

sketches to help in the preparation of a

destined for the

fragment

Museum

Painted

destroyed the contents of Hunt's studio in Boston,

fire

he made

28^". Metropolitan

1846.

new

in plaster

work

Here we have a
drawn from a Persian

is

Draft Horse Led

The few works

Wax

bas-relief. Private collec-

to survive destruction

who

digious genius, as a sculptor, of this artist

Romantic art, for


manner of Rodin, realistic in
sentative of

11.

that he

all

was romantic

in the

forced by the necessities of

is

Rome,

Kunsthalle,

is

Max

life

to

abandon pure

art.

Son

14.

their disdain

for the

of witches' sabbaths and hobgoblins

''diable-

which were

and after having scoured Great Britain and

work, he returned to

March of

Paris. In

1849, desperate at his unrelenting failure, he shot himself to


death.

16.

Bronze. Private collection, Paris

JOHN GIBSON (1791-1866).

Head of
Gallery,

a Horse. Marble, height 25". City

Settled in

Rome, Gibson was

teacher, Canova.

Bronze, height 36". Muses Royaux des Beaux-Arts,

in Italy, a little too

He

GEORGE GARRARD (1760-1826).

much

perhaps, and

The

Wild Horses of Duncan.

mannerism with

Club, Paris (see p. 238,

CHRISTIAN RAUCH (1777-1857).

19.

PIERRE-JULES

Nationalgalerie, Berlin

Private collection, Paris

Schadow, was con-

sidered the equal of the greatest artists of his generation, today

considered to have

little

more than anecdotal

in

Scotland.

fireplace.

Southill

whom Mne,

Traveller's

VI).

1861. Patined bronze, 21

Alongside Barye there were a few naturalistic

Jacquemart, and Auguste

29

artists

14".

among

Cain in particular

proved themselves remarkable observers of the animal king-

20. lEVGENY

ANTOINE-LOUIS BARYE (1796-1875).

panel.

dom.

value.

19

Overdoor

MNE (1810-1879).

Fox Hunt

a pupil of

1797.

Bronze relief plaque above

The Young Girl oj Tanger miinde. 183132. Bronze, height 17".

Angelica

Robert Peel for West-

HENRI-ALFRED-MARIE JACQUEMART (1824-1896).

monuments of Belgium.

7.

Victoria for the

(Bedfordshire)

Stag Hunt.

is

Queen

his native

Nevertheless, his works decorate most of the great public

work

Sir

17.

18.

his

Art

to inherit the clientele of his

did the statue of

Flemish liveliness ended up in poorly equilibrated works.

Rauch,

Museum and

Birmingham, England

Houses of Parliament and that of

in his lifetime

many

Narodni Gallery, Prague

Brussels

Though

spent

minster Abbey.

JULIEN DILLENS (1849-1904).

Latin

who

EMMANUEL FRMIET (1824 1910).

Sick Dog.

the mlange of a certain

Klinger,

notable for works marked by a great refine-

JOSEF vAcLAV MYSLBEK (1848-1922).

Horse. Bronze.

1833 encouraged him to seek commissions. Soon enough,

much

Bremen

Hound. Private collection, Paris

15.

in search of

the

achieved a worldwide

ANTOINE-LOUIS BARYE (1796-1875).

fabricating fake antiques. His success at the Salons of 1831 and

showed

much about

us

tells

the prime example of the

of an artisan, like the sculptors of the Renaissance, he began by

officials

who

life.

Bronze, height 26".

years in

13.

by posterity. He

for his painting The Siege

LOUIS TUAILLON (1862-1919).

Basset

of Meissonier,

talent

This disciple of Hildebrand and


the Salon

6". Muses
II

wax study

after the

reputation during his

Horse.

at

19

Brussels

1884. Muse de Peinture et de Sculpture, Grenoble

Paris.

12.

1890. Bronze, 14^

JEAN-LOUIS-ERNEST MEISSONIER (1815-1891).

Dealt with harshly by his contemporaries, Moine has been un-

6.

admired

life.

CONSTANTIN-.V1ILE .MEUNIER (1831-1905).

10.

des Beaux-Arts, Tours

Dillens learned

7".

way of dramatizing animal

in particular his

ment.

Perseus.

cault and rose to great success. His contemporaries

20". Muse

Belgium

10

relief,

remains, along

that of Degas.

of 1831. High relief in burnished plaster; I62

specialty,

got away from convention.

immense

ANTONIN-MARIE MOINE (1796-1849).


Falling Florseman. Cast from the original exhibited

5.

for once

This study, not destined for the public,

4.

his

Bronze. Veterinary School, Tou-

prove the pro-

with Prault but with infinitely more freedom, the true repre-

reliefs

beyond

Fratin learned his painting and sculpture in the studio of Gri-

Gricault tried his hand at sculpture, as Carpeaux tried his at

Slaughter.

1864. Bronze

of

however, the

is

CHRISTOPHE FRATIN (1800-1864).

The Bull.

Wounded Horse,

ries"

to

tion, Paris

artist

group statue

louse

Royaux des Beaux- Arts,

THODORE GRICAULT (1791-1824).

Equestrian Statue from the Antique.

justly forgotten

this

EM.MANUEL FRMIET (1824-1910).

8.

The Old Mine Horse.

painting.

Rude, did not always manage to do

state Capitol in Albany.

whose subject

poem.
3.

Naturalism

Barye, like David d'Angers and even

question the quintessence of Romanticism.

9.

The Horses of Anahita or The Flight of Night.

In escaping the leaden grip of

something

Here Frmiet

WILLIAM MORRIS HUNT (1824-1879).

2.

Romantic sculptors.
or Realism

Barye aimed at a perfect portrayal of wild beasts

He observed with

16

Paris

and Roger Fleeing on

the

HippogriJ[.

27^". Muse du Louvre, Paris

1846.

Bronze,

ALEXANDROVICH LANCERAY (1848-1886).

Muzhik on Horseback. Bronze. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris


Russian sculpture remained fundamentally Neoclassical and, so

ANIMAL SCULPTURE

?V:

CVi Vj^'-^-^

'?)

to speak, Latin until the group calling themselves

Mir

Iskusstva

(The World of Art) attempted to revive the luster of the old


Slavic folkloristic

Klodt

to

the

and peasant

art.

From

the very academic

Troubetzkoy,

impressionistic

Russian

animal

sculptors enjoyed great success, no doubt because the Russians,


like

297

the Americans, appreciated

good

drawings he sent back to Harper's he showed his penchant for


preserving authentic detail,
sculpture late in his
cast,

life.

and these survive

as

which ultimately led him into

Numerous

copies of his statues were

documents of the dress and habit of

vanished era in American history.

likeness of their famil-

25.

iar animals.

EMMANUEL FRMIET (1824-1910).

The Basset Hounds Ravaget and Ravageole. 1853. Bronze. Guard


21.

THOMAS THORNYCROFT (1815-1885).

Room, Chteau

of

Compigne

Queen Victoria on Horseback. 1853. Bronze, height 21^"; reduction of the large original
collection,

22.

shown

at the

1851 Exhibition. Private

London

Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, ne Princess of Prussia, on Horseback.

Bronze,

height

\9^".

Staatliche

Kunstsammlungen,

Dresden
23.

FRANOIS POMPON (1855-1933).


Beetle.

1874. Terracotta sketch,

^h"-

Muse des

Beaux-.^rts, Dijon

GUSTAV blXser (1813-1874).

1835.

26.
Stag

Pompon
in

studied with Rouillard and Falguire and later

Rodin's studio for twenty years.

27. PIERRE-JULES

HENRl-ALFRED-MARTE JACQUEMART (1824-1896).

worked

MNE (1810-1879).

Hares. Bronze. Private collection, Paris

Camel Driver oj Asia .Minor (Souvenir oj Upper Egypt). 1869.


Bronze, height

5'

I2".

28.

Muse des Beaux-Arts, Nantes

AUGUSTE-NICOLAS CAIN (1822-1894).

Hunting Dogs. 1880. Bronze. Park of the Chteau of Chantilly


24.

FREDERICK REMINGTON (1861-1909).

The Mountain Man.

c.

1903. Bronze, height 28". Metropolitan

of Art, New York


Remington traveled the West

student of Franois Rude, Cain was regarded as one of the

best animal sculptors of the nineteenth century.

Museum

aware that he was recording

in the

1880s and 1890s

vanishing scene. In the

fully

numerous

29.
Bull.

ROSA BONHEUR (1822-1899).


Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

298

30.

THEODOR

1892. Statens

Bull.

31. ISIDORE-JULES

Museum

for Kunst,

Copenhagen

inhabit that

BONHEUR (1827-1901).

Bronze. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

Sheep.

The sons of the pioneers who


immense continent continued for long to be moved
by the sight of art works recalling life on the prairie. Likewise
they appreciate the work of their animal sculptors, among
the United States as late as 1920.

PHILIPSEN (1840-1920).

whom

brother of Rosa, Bonheur did the stone lions on the

way of

stair-

the Palais de Justice, Paris

this

2". In sales catalogue of

Novem-

rated one of the best.

first real

deep

opportunity to express

came with the Columbian Exposition

in

1890, where he

did thirty-five models of animals of the American wilderness.

His Stalking Panther brought him national prominence, and later

ber 20, 1969, Htel Drouot, Paris


33.

is

love for the wilderness. His

32. JULES .MOiGNEz (1835-1894).


Snipe. Patined bronze, 3

Proctor

Proctor grew up in frontier Colorado and developed

was chosen

LOUIS-GUILLAUME GROOTAERS (1816-1882).

as a farewell gift to

Teddy Roosevelt by

his cabinet.

ANTON FERNKORN (1813-1878).

Greyhound with Wounded Leopard Underfoot. 1858. Cast metal.

38.

Saint-Cast (Ctes-du-Nord)

The Lion oj Aspern f Memorial for the Aspern-Essling Battle, 1809 J.


1858. Sandstone, height without pedestal 6', length 15^".

34. ISIDORE-JULES
Stag.

35.

is

the Leash, c.

copy of the

to Austrian troops fallen in the battle of Aspern-

1889. Bronze, height 15". Private


39.
lifesize original

commissioned by

Lord Wemyss for Gosford House, and there


plaster in the Tate Gallery,

Vienna)

Essling against Napoleon.

London

a small

(east of

Monument

HARRY BATES (1850-1899).

collection,

36.

Aspern

Muse du Prigord, Prigueux (Dordogne)

Hunting Dogs on

This

BONHEUR (1827-1901).

is

a version in

London

AUGUSTE-NICOLAS CAIN (1822-1894).

Tiger Family. Bronze.

40.

Gardens of the Tuileries, Paris

CARL MILLES (1875-1955).

Elephants. 1904. Stone, height 16".

National

Museum, Stock-

holm

ARTEM LAURENTEVICH OBER (1843-1917).

Polar Bear. 1898. Plaster, painted; height 16i". Russian

Muse41.

um, Leningrad

EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917).

Horse Walbng. c. 1870-80. Bronze, height 9". Lefvre Gallery,

37.

ALEXANDER PHIMISTER PROCTOR (1862-1950).


Stalking Panther. 1892. Bronze, height 6i". The Corcoran

London

Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

for his early racecourse paintings. Renoir insisted that Degas

The

influence of Frmiet and Antonin Merci was

still felt

in

Degas'

first

sculptural studies

were of horses, perhaps

as studies

was the greatest sculptor of the nineteenth century.

o-

Il

11

12

m
^^^^^^^^^'m
,f?T

.....

^H

V*

14

16

17

AX,

18

19

20

25

26

27

28

30

>0

31

35

38

39

41

17.

SCULPTURE AND RELIGION


How

otherwise can one explain the fact

that in a century which counted so

many great

artists,

a Rude, a Carpeaux, a Rodin, a Bourdelle, a Maillol, a Despiau,


it

was never

to

them that the

instead, to the

ecclesiastical authorities turned but,

marble-masons of cemeteries and washbowls,

suppliers oj spineless simulacra ?

PAUL CLAUDEL,

Throughout
Should

it

Positions et propositions, le got du fade

the nineteenth century the question of religious art was being debated.

modern trends ?
Gothic churches, not Greco-Roman edifices,

return to the images of the past? Should

it

give in to the

The medievalists insisted that


conform more faithfully to the spiritual needs of ordinary men's

Chateaubriand w^rote in his Mmoires d'outre-tombe that "there is nothing marvelous about
a temple one has w^atched being built and whose echoes and domes have taken shape before one's
eyes" to the medievalists, it was wrong to claim that a wagon driver, for example, would
always feel at home when entering any house of God, no matter what its form or decoration.
The churches built by Soufflot and Chalgrin in Paris during the second half of the eighteenth century were still reflections of ancient Roman temples. The Revolution was no threat
to Neoclassicism, and Napoleon built no churches. The church of the Madeleine, built in
Paris as a temple dedicated to Napoleonic fame and then destined to lodge the stock exchange,
was completed only in 1842 under the July Monarchy. With the reconstitution of the empire
the Church, backed by the monarchy, took steps to win back the power Napoleon had seized.
Despite its reactionary ideas and taste, the Church abandoned academicism and sought to ally
itself with the tastes of the day.
Between 1820 and 1830 new churches opened in Paris: St-Pierre-du-Gros-Caillou,
Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, St-Vincent-de-Paul, and Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle. King
Louis-Philippe gave his personal attention to the building of St-Ferdinand-des-Termes (rebuilt
in 1937) and corrected the plans for Ste-Clotilde. The appearance of these churches is generally cold and harmoniously arranged, with a measured richness which has a degree of charm.
The commission in charge of these works expressed the hope for "the good of art"
and "the advantage of the artists"
that harmony and clear order would reign in the decoration of churches, and that the paintings and the statues would be made expressly for use in the
places they would occupy it declared itself opposed to the principle of crowding together,
as in public exhibitions, works that were not designed to enrich the edifice. These wise counsels generally proved to be dead letters.
souls.

Following the Nazarenes in Germany, Ingres, Chassriau, and Prault demonstrated that they
found no incompatibility in being at once Christian and Romantic. Baudelaire, in L'Art
romantique, aisserted that "an artist can produce a good religious picture provided his imagination be capable of raising itself up to death" it was important to know how to recognize the
presence of God wherever found, and to reject the Romantic fakers. In all events, anything
;

315

316

would be better than

to ask the faithful to kneel before those "fatuous platitudes"

and
"monkey tricks" of Ary Scheffer, and those "Descents from the Cross" and "Penitent
Magdalens" by many other artists in which Baudelaire and Gautier denounced the ambiguity,
silliness, and danger of the resurgence of this type of religious art.
The Neomedieval current was able to triumph so much the more easily because lovers of
art had been rediscovering since 1760 the importance of Gothic architecture, and the
faithful were discerning an authentically religious atmosphere in the cathedrals and chapels
built centuries before. For some time the word "medieval" had evoked the idea of a sincere
and naive faith.
The most determined adepts of this new religious art were the fashionable sculptors Marochetti, Triqueti, Felicie de Fauveau, and Count de Nieuwerkerke (the future Director of
Fine Arts under Napoleon III). Within a few years everything turned Gothic, as thirty vears
later they would turn Neo-Renaissance. Entire districts of Paris, such as the new Plaine
Monceau and the fringes of what would soon be the XVIth Arrondissement (centered on the
Trocadro), became studded with town houses that looked more like small fortresses built in
the Touraine countryside than functional houses designed for a great city.
The interiors of these new old houses corresponded to the exteriors. In his town house
in the new rue Tronchet, Count Pourtals set up a Neo-Renaissance chapel to house the
monument to Dante by Felicie de Fauveau. The Rothschilds also had a medieval oratory built
in the fashionable style.

At the outset some versions of the new style contrived to preserve an indisputable originality.
It was not a matter of pastiches but rather a moving or slightly humorous way of poetizing the
art of the past. These, however, were exceptions, of which more examples are found in Italian
cemeteries, especially Naples, than in the choirs of churches.

own

Generally speaking architecture and, even more, sculpture were unable to hold their
against this style. The architects responsible for some two hundred churches built

between 1 840 and 1 860


w^ith paintings
ill

in

and statues

Europe settled for constructing dreary, soulless buildings decorated


which not only lack any trace of feeling but make the visitors feel

at ease..

Incapable of changing their ways, the architects could change their epochs:

down with

the thirteenth century, up with the sixteenth. Decorators, sculptors, and painters seemed
scarcely able to imagine any alternative. At a time
life,

when

poets hailed the beauty of

Baudelaire said in L'Art romantique of the Salon of 1859

"One would say

modem

that politeness,

and the flat calm of fatuity have taken the place of ardor, nobility, and
turbulent ambition." No one seemed capable of defining the forms of a contemporary and

puerility, incuriosity,

original art.

Despite Baudelaire's critical remarks about eclecticism

no

"a weak man

is

man without

no sculptor, seemed able even to propose a truly modern and untraditional building. In 1845 eighty-nine churches went up in ogival style; in 1852, some two
hundred churches or chapels in Romanesque-Gothic or Byzantine-Medieval. We know from
Madeleine Ochse's book, Un Art sacr pour notre temps, that it cost 121,181 francs 47 centimes
to build a handsome country church.
love"

architect,

After having too long neglected addressing the masses, the Church in France, which had deprived itself of help from its following, was reduced throughout the nineteenth century to

be dragged in the wake of reaction. For these reasons religious art remained
conformist for a long time. Only the new order of Assumptionists succeeded in galvanizing
the mass of the population and in bringing together quite considerable sums. To them and in

allowing

itself to

SCULPTURE AND RELIGION

particular to their priest


as

Amry

Picard

we owe

317

those innumerable mission churches, as ugly

they are soulless.

then of the Symbolists, scarcely improved


matters. The cathedral of Marseilles, built in 18S2, already prefigured the basilica of SacrCoeur in Paris. Nostalgia for the Middle Ages was succeeded by that for the Byzantine and
for Ravenna and Constantinople, but wholly redesigned.
Carolingian epochs

The

arrival in force first of the Orientalists,

was the same in the West. Saint Stephen's Church in Philadelphia and Trinity Church
in New York, both in Neomedieval style, or Trinity Church in Boston, built between 1872
and 1 880 in the eclectic style, suffice to give us a discouraging idea of the creative imagination
of American architects. So much pomp, barely concealed beneath false humility, makes these
It

houses of prayer look more like headquarters of religion.


To replace the medievalizing decoration fostered by the Nazarenes and the bas-reliefs

on the faade of St-Sulpice

attempted to link their buildings with nature by avoiding the arbitrary application of motifs based on stone to architectural
surfaces. Their ideal w^as to provide for the faithful the image of a church like a greenhouse:
foliage, boughs, and flowers were cut directly into the pillars and walls or set into the stainedglass windows, seeming to lighten the edifice without, for all that, making it pagan.
Under the influence of Art Nouveau theorists, themes and symbols which had now lost
their meaning were abandoned in favor of floral motifs. But one must seek elsewhere than the
basilicas and chapels of France, with few exceptions, for a translation of the spiritual message
into artistic terms. In England W. Reynolds-Stephens, in decorating the interior of the small
church in Great Warley, Essex, covered the vault in aluminum and surrounded the choir with
a screen composed of metal tree trunks that support a horizontal band of flowers. The naturalistic motifs (rosebushes and foliated scrolls) were treated with a graceful reserve there ended
the imitation of Gothic or Byzantine. In Vienna members of the Secession movement such
as Otto Wagner and Koloman Moser were even bolder. The extreme sobriety and the rigor of
lines and volumes they provided for the church of Sankt Leopold in the Steinhof hospital give
the building a profoundly religious character.
Gaudi achieved the same result in his church of the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, but in a
fundamentally different style in which medieval reminiscences intermingle with a Cubist play
of volumes. What the English and Austrians contrived to suggest by rigorous force and discipline the Catalan expressed spontaneously in an architectural and decorative language of
inexhaustible variety. In his Troisime Belvedere Andr Pieyre de Mandiargues calls Gaudi "a
sculptor as much as or more than an architect or decorator, and his conception of the relationships of volumes with space, which was revolutionary at the time, has not ceased to be exemplary.
What is more, one will find that of his real sculptures the most original, the most
elaborated, the most admirable are those which simply clothe the tips of shafts, the chimneys,
the ventilation openings."
like those

in Paris, certain architects

318

FRANOIS BAILLIARG (1759-1830).

1.

Angel with a Book.

Wood, diameter

6.

31". National Gallery of

Canada, Ottawa

For

a long

naivety of

To be

1892. Marble. Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris

Paris.

time Canadian sculpture was of interest only for the


its

ADOLPHE-VICTOR GEOFFROY DE CHAUME (1816-1892).

Funeral Monument of .Monseigneur Louis de Quelen, Archbishop of

themes and the

rustic simplicity of

its

The archbishop had died long

execution.
7.

acceptable to the religious authorities

it

had to remain

prudish, to express a limited symbolism, and to arouse no pas-

AUGUSTE-HYACINTHE DEBAY (18041865).

Funeral Monument of Monseigneur Denis-.Auguste Affre, .Archbishop of

1865. Marble. Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris

Paris.

sion that did not keep alive the faith of the descendants of the
colonists

before, in 1839.

Throughout the century

from Brittany and Normandy.

religious sculpture in France

resolutely Neoclassical and academic, as in this

URBAIN BRIEN

2.

Called

DESROCHES (1780-1860).

Saint Luke and His Symbol.

Wood

relief,

ate killed

height 172". National

8.

The Massacre of the Innocents.

FRANOIS-JOSEPH BOSIO (1768-1845).

Wood,

painted. Real

Academia de

de San Fernando, Madrid

Paris

review of the Salon of 1845 Baudelaire said that Bosio "is

In his

Spanish religious art in the nineteenth century rediscovered the

much

emphatically dramatic accents of earlier times. Jos Gins and

taste

Jos Piquer y Duart had the merit of returning to the old

added

medium

in originality." In this statue,

recalls

of polychrome sculpture, and the

the prodigious pasos,

so

much

work seen here

feature

of Spanish

church processions.
4.

prel-

The Apotheosis oj Louis XVI. 1825. Marble. Chapelle Expiatoire,

JOS GINS (1768-1823).

Bellas Artes

tomb of a

Paris in the insurrection of June,

1848.

Gallery of Canada, Ottawa


3.

on the barricades of

remained

like Bartolini in the high qualities

from the

uhich distinguish great

taste for the excessively true-to-life" but

then

that his Young Indian Girl (p. 47, 42) "is a little lacking

made

for the chapel built

between

1815 and 1826 by Louis XVIII to expiate the guilt of the Rev-

(who resembles the Abb Edgeworth, the


king's last confessor) exhorts the executed king: "Son of Saint
Louis, mount to Heaven
Below one can read the royal last
olution, the angel

VACLAV LEVY (1820-1870).

' '

Christ with

Mary and Martha. 1858. Marble. Narodni Gallery,

will

and testament.

Prague
as in

Poland which

9.

in the grip of Tsarist censorship, sculpture

was generally

Funer-al

In Czechoslovakia before Myslbek's

was

restricted to the
5.

work,

most faded academicisms.

Christ Healing the Blind.

1828. Marble, height 24z".

eugene viollet-le-duc (1814-1879).

Monument of Monseigneur Le Clerc de Juign, Archbishop of


Marble. Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris

Paris (d. 1809). 1865.

JAKOB TARTARKIEWICZ (1798-1854).

Narodowe, Cracow

After

10.

Muzeum

JEAN-PIERRE CORTOT (1787-1843).

Queen .Marie-.Antoinette Succored by Religion. 1827. .Marble. Chapelle Expiatoire, Paris

ifc

SCULPTURE AND RELIGION

Religion bears the features of the king's sister


guillotine in 1794, and inscribed
is

the queen's

Paris constitute a virtual

muse-

of nineteenth-century religious sculpture which, though

usually without originality, at least has the merit of being perfectly adapted to the edifice
in

housing

it,

something not always so

to Ivan the Terrible, while part of his activity was

Yermak

sack

devoted also to glorifying the greatest martyrs of the West.

to her sister-in-law.

last letter

The churches and chapels of

um

on the base

who went to the


of the monument

319

16.

FRANOIS-MICHEL PASCAL Called MICHEL-PASCAL (1810-

1882).

Entombment, and the Three Women at the

Descent

from

Tomb.

Bronze bas-relief executed by Corbon. Cathedral of

the Cross,

Notre-Dame,

Paris

our times.
17.

CHARLES MAROCHETTI (1805-1867).

11.

Mary Magdalen Transported

Saint

14' 9".

High

Marochetti,

altar.

a pupil

to

Heaven. 1841

Church of La Madeleine,

Marble, height

atoire,

Paris

of Bosio, belonged to that generation of

international and cosmopolitan sculptors equally at

home and

Rome, London, and Paris. .Although Luc


not wrong in criticizing him as "a frigid academic"

equally famed in

Benoist

is

and "a demi-Romantic," Marochetti deserves those epithets

more nor

neither

less

than do most of the

good sculptors of the

on her own tomb. Marble. Chapelle Expi-

18.

Dreux

WILLIAM GOSCOMBE JOHN (1860-1952).

Saint John the Baptist.

Museum

Bronze. National
19.

Shown

Royal Academy in 1894.

at the

of Wales, Cardiff

HENRI-JOSEPH-FRANOIS TRIQUETI (1807-1874).

Door of the Ten Commandments (detail). 1838-41. Bronze, each


48 X 462". Church of La Madeleine, Paris

relief

age.
12.

PRINCESS MARIE-CHRISTINE d'oRLANS (1813-1839).

Resignation, statue

20.

FRANOIS RUDE (1784 1855).

The Baptism of Christ. Marble.

Church of La Madeleine,

Paris

GIOVANNI STRAZZA (1818-1875).


Much over lifesize. Court of the Archbishop's

Aaron.

Palace,

Milan
13.

JEAN-JACQUES called JAMES PRADIER (1792-1852).


After

eugene viollet-le-duc (1814-1879).

The Marriage of the Virgin. 1842. Marble. Church of La Made-

21.

leine, Paris

Baptismal Font. Cast by mile-Just Bachelet (1892-?). Bronze

Pradier must have given a thousand proofs of his convention-

and gilded bronze. Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris

have earned from critics like Gautier, Baudelaire, and

ality to

David d'Angers such


pagan.

damning judgments

His marble looks like carved

as

"a retarded

lump sugar," or "he

is

responsible for the pitiful state of sculpture," or again, "his

is

cold and academic talent

chisel

on subjects

.... He

has often prostituted his

that ought to be ruled out of the

domain of

22.

CONSTANTIN-EMILE MEUNIER (1831-1905).


Homo.

Ecce

Bronze, height 21 2".

1890.

Muse Constantin

Meunier, Brussels

Here

at last

convention

is left

slumped

behind.

of His strength,

sits

were Meunier's

favorite subject.

The

Christ, at the limit

one of the proletarians

like

who

sculpture."
23. EMILE-ANTOINE
14.

FRANOIS RUDE (HS^l 855).

Christ on the Cross (detail).

15.

Saint Sebastian.

Marble. Muse du Louvre, Paris

MARK MATVEJEVICH ANTOKOLSKY (1843-1902).

Christ Before the People.

Museum, Leningrad
The pose of this bound
Son

of a

28".

height

Muse Antoine

AGAPiTO VALLMITJANA (died 1905).

God

(detail).

Polychrome wood. Asilo de San Juan

de Dios, Barcelona
Christ

is

both beautiful and original.

humble innkeeper in Vilna, despite his Jewish

in his lot

24.

Saint John of

origins and the tragic fate to

he threw

Bronze,

Bourdelle, Paris

1874. Bronze, height 6' 4^". Russian

Louis Rau has called attention to the singular career of this


sculptor.

BOURDELLE (1861-1929).

1883.

which

his

people were exposed,

with Muscovite nationalism and produced

statues of the greatest figures in Russian history,

from the Cos-

25.

ANTOINE-AUGUSTIN PRAULT

Christ on the Cross. 1840.

Wood,

10-1 879).

height 8' 6^". Church of Saint-

Gervais-et-Saint-Protais, Paris

This remarkable
Sacristie.

wooden

crucifix

is

installed in the

Grande

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FUNERARY ART

18.

the great necropolises

In

much

is

revealed about the customs and concerns of past genera-

To be convinced one need only

through the old sections of the cemeteries in


Paris, Until the end of the eighteenth century the tombs were simple, as modest as must
have been the way of life for that part of the citizenry. For town and country cemeteries
held the remains of the common man; church dignitaries, princes, marshals, and parish
tions.

benefactors

were

stroll

usually laid in the crypt or choir of a cathedral

aristocratic society reserved

own

domains.
The French Revolution, meticulous in establishing principles of equality, decided that
everyone, apart from certain exceptions, must be buried in a public cemetery. The law, however, did not carry the obligation to measure each reserved space moreover, it was possible
to acquire a concession for a shorter or longer time. Decorations and inscriptions were the
concern of each family as long as decency was observed. The ancestor cult that was already in
use under the Directoire recalls that practiced in Antiquity. It enabled families to record
their respectability, their fortune, and eventually their taste in the arts but contrary to earlier
times the aristocratic families practiced more discretion, for reasons of economy and also
perhaps for a reverse instinct for simplicity, whereas middle-class families spent more and
more to display their wealth. The tomb ceased to be the material receptacle for the deceased
and became an extension of the family dwelling. He and his descendants presented themselves
to posterity decorated with all forms of excellence, if not with all the possible virtues. The
general's high deeds were told; the politician's civic and republican virtues were praised; the
manufacturer's mausoleum rendered homage to the excellence of his products.
to itself the privilege of being interred within the boundaries of their

With

the inception of the Third Empire the French enjoyed a veritable renaissance of funer-

ary art.

To

satisfy a

demanding

could cut marble and wield

rounded up everyone who


the great necropolises of Antiquity, tombs followed

clientele the funeral directors

As

a chisel.

in

the currently fashionable style.

The dispute between the Neoclassic and Neogothic

which began in the second half


of the eighteenth century, resulted in exquisite funerary arrangements which strove to adorn
death in the prettiest fashion this accounts for what remains of the beautiful small mausoleums built in the Pre-Lachaise Cemetery in Paris between 1760 and 1790. Now weathered,
styles,

they look like the false ruins built thirty years earlier in the parks of princes and great landholders.

Because the theme of death excited the Romantic imagination, the cemeteries are where
one can find the most authentic evidence of that style. There the sculptors were no longer

some

nor was the client in a state to refuse the work. For this reason
David d'Angers, Prault, or Rude could here, more readily than elsewhere, give free rein to
his genius. At this time Rude's Napoleon in the park at Fixin, outside of Dijon, was much
criticized for its bizarre conception the dead Emperor throws back the shroud as he awakes
to immortality. Actually, if the work is strange, it is essentially Romantic. David d'Angers
was reproved in his turn for what Luc Benoist called misinterpretation in showing General
Gobert in the midst of action while, mortally wounded, he already hovers on the edge of
eternity
but never was David d'Angers closer to Gricault (see p. 80, 7, 4).
prisoners of

official jury,

329


330

Christian Romanticism soon ceased to be the taste of the

new

middle-class society which

tended more and more to confuse good manners with morality. Naturalistic art, concerned
with detail and basically agnostic, tended to substitute symbolism lor diyinity and was well
designed to please and reassure the public. A neatly buttoned jacket was now preferred to a
floating toga. A certain taste lor precision, which began to appear about 1860 in the work of
Russian, German, and Scandina\ ian artists as well as certain southern sculptors, recalls the art
of the German and Flemish sculptors of the late fifteenth century.
A faith that remained strong fayored the great production of many Italian \\ orks in which
one finds both realism and naivety. The reat cemetery of Genoa, the Camposanto di Staglieno, offers a prodigious vision of a new, specifically Latin funerary art. The works of Giovanni
Battista Cevasco, Antonio Besesti, Santo Saccomanno, Luigi Orengo, and Pietro Costa are virtual documents of the tastes, beliefs, and anxieties of the Italian middle class. At every turning
one sees in what manner the inhabitants of the cemetery strove to make death less mysterious,
to render it familiar. Whether a notary, a grocer, or sea captain, all those petty kings, proud
of their wealth and former power, hoped in the long run to gain the attention of the Almighty by presenting themselves dressed in their Sunday clothes. Numerous monuments
notably those bv Moreno, who is doubtless one of the few sculptors in the world to reproduce
even eyelashes rival in originality and in quality of workmanship those works carved a century earlier in Naples by Antonio Corradini and Francesco Queirolo.
The national taste of the English for funeral monuments no doubt reflects that passion for
the Beautiful manifested by an elegant society that delighted in ceremonies and parties. In
addition, are not the superb funeral structures that they built the final proof of human
vanity, good pretexts for demonstrating against the rigors of Protestantism? Eager to leave a
prestigious image behind them, these refined Englishmen had an embarrassment of choice
among portrait artists: dressed in their uniforms, or with a bit of armor half-hidden beneath
a prettily draped toga, they posed for the sculptor, confident of carrying ofi a last success at
the Dance of Death.
In the eighteenth century the English had summoned from France Louis-Franois Roubillac, and from Flanders Laurent Delvaux and John Michael Rvsbrack. In the early nineteenth
century, following the Napoleonic wars, hundreds of public and private monuments were
erected in Great Britain to the glory of a deed at arms or in memory of some individual. The
influence of the French sculptors and the tastes of their pupils, and of the English-trained
artists like John Bacon, Richard Westmacott, or Francis Chantrev, scarcely followed the
course of an evolution. Not until the Pre-Raphaelite revolution did the English taste, so long
marked by Neoclassicism tempered with Romanticism, begin to wane. Pre-Raphaelite
sculpture is neither Christian nor outright pagan. It is, rather, a symbolist and spiritualized
manifestation, free of all constraint and dogma, which seemed to arrive in time to aid an ever

more unbelieving mankind surmount some

of

its

anxieties.

Funerary art enjoyed one of its most flourishing periods at the close of the century. The
modern style Art Nouveau, Jugendstil, or Floreale because it could express the excessive,
the strange, and even the morbid, responded more than any other to a certain idealization of
death that was dear to the Symbolists and Parnassians. On the other hand, the tombs designed
by Louis Sullivan, Giuseppe Sommaruga, and certain Bohemian artists are more architectonic,
more somber, and already modern, announcing Cubism and the modern art of the twentieth
century. Anguish and grief are expressed with reserve, in a manner which has become our

own.
Walking along the paths of certain cemeteries, one can appreciate the

artistic riches

they con-

FUNERARY ART

331

^^^^ti'^^^fj^k.

mrir-yr-;.,'-,

,-'

about 1900, Pre-Lachaise still held 626 mausoleums, of which 470 came from
the chisels of experienced sculptors; that of Montmartre counted 131 signed monuments;
there were nine works apiece by
that of Montparnasse almost 300 sculptured groups
Barrias, Chapu, and Prault, thirty-five by David d'Angers, fifteen by Etex, two by Rodin.
The Montmartre and Pre-Lachaise cemeteries are veritable conservatories of small
architectures. Section by section, the people of the dead lie beneath monuments that were
fashionable in their time, and they seem to invite us to stop a moment. Of Neoclassical art
there remain exquisite small temples, perfectly proportioned; of the Romantic era there are
evidences by the hundred, from a simple slab adorned by a stone garland to vast Neogothic
tain. In Paris

332

The outer sections are entirely in the so-called PlaineMonceau style, small replicas of buildings whose originals could still be seen thirty years ago
in the XVIIth Arrondissement, The final residences of the wealthy bourgeoisie, now mostly
chapels as prideful as they are naive.

deserted by the living and inhabited by legions of cats, shelter the remains of personages
could be found in the pages of Balzac, Feydeau, or Zola.

who

Today's tourists, even when they are lovers of the past, seem to feel some distaste about
those places v/here they too must finally rest, and they tend to postpone their visits. Rather
than call upon Balzac, Baudelaire, Delacroix, the Imperial generals, Sarah Bernhardt, Rossini,
Victor Noir, or Oscar Wilde, who repose in these solitary parks, they are drawn to the
ancient dead and betake themselves to the Keramaikos Cemetery in Athens or haunt the condemned streets of Herculaneum and Pompeii. And yet, on certain fine wintry days, the pathways of Pre-Lachaise, of the Cimitero Monumentale in Milan, or of the vast cemeteries of
Genoa or Naples offer the stroller unusual sights, worthy of the brush of De Chirico, Magritte,
or Delvaux.

By the end of the nineteenth century sightseers and connoisseurs were already worried about
the future of these funerary monuments. In 1875 Charles Guellette expressed concern over
the abandoned state of the tomb of the painter Prud'hon; twenty years later Henri Jouin
warned that the monuments of the composers Grtry and Bellini and of the actress Madame
Dugazon were approaching ruin.
In 1895 the improbably named Osiris requested from the prefecture of the Seine "the
authorization to carry out at his own expense various jobs of reconstruction or repair for various tombs of famous men who lie in the Parisian cemeteries and whose sepulchers are unworthy of their glory, either because of their abandoned state or because nothing marks them
for the attention of posterity." His solicitude was shared by the critic and art historian Henri
Havard, who was calling in the same period for the State to classify as historical monuments
the neglected graves of famous citizens and thereby guarantee their upkeep.
Despite the care taken by different conservation commissions to maintain generally
very well
the necropolises of Paris, it seems that a certain number of sculptures, among
them medallions by Prault, have disappeared since Henri Jouin succeeded in making the first
inventory of the artistic treasures contained in the cemeteries of Montmartre, Montparnasse,
and Pre-Lachaise.
But in the long run the Historic Monuments commissions can do nothing against the toobrief time limitations for burial plots, the indifference of families, and often the poor quality

I
^

'

1|

of the materials used.

Government funds should be made

available to preserve those mausole-

ums. In many cases their beauty and their historical importance will make them,
from ravages of weather, the object of admiration for visitors from near and far.

if

preserved

FUNERARY ART
1.

THOMAS BANKS (1735-1805).

Monument

12.

1802. Marble.

Captain Richard Rundle Burges.

to

Paul's Cathedral,

St.

London

333

JEAN-BAPTISTE-LOUIS PLANTAR (1790-1879).

Tomb of Marshal

Prignon. Stone. Cimetire

Paris

The motifs decorating the


2.

ANTONIO CANOVA (1757-1822).

Tomb of

the Archduchess

whole

Maria Christina.

1798-1805. Marble,

height 19'. Augustinerkirche, Vienna


3.

dral,

4.

to

1817.

Colonel Sir William Myers.

St.

Marshal Prignon fought against Spain in the Revolu-

earlier.

PAUL DUBOIS (1829-1905).


Meditation, detail from the tomb of General Lamoricire. 1879.
This

David Pike Watts. 1817-26. Marble. Parish church.

one of four

is

statues decorating the

tomb of

this general

and politician of Nantes (1754-1818). The ensemble

admi-

is

shows the extent to w hich sculptors remained attached

rable and

Ham

carved by Molitor twenty years

Cathedral, Nantes

FRANCIS CHANTREY (1781-1842).


to

recalls certain attributes

13.

Paul's Cathe-

London

Monument

admirably disposed, and the

stele are

tionary wars.

JOSEPHUS JOHN PINNIX KENDRICK (1791-1832).

Monument

du Pre-Lachaise,

(Staffordshire)

Chantrey imbued

his funeral

monuments with

to the Florentine Quattrocento tradition.


a sentimentality

pushed to the limits of affectation. His great reputation among

14.

contemporaries came from

Tomb of Dominique-

his portrait busts.

PIERRE CARTELLIER (1757-1831).


1826. Bronze. Cimetire du

Vivant Denon.

Pre-Lachaise, Paris
5.

JOHN CHARLES

Monument

to

ROSSI (1762-1839).
It

Captains .Mosse and Riou (portion).

1802. .Marble.

London
Rossi and Tumerelii were honorable representatives of

St. Paul's

Cathedral,

constellation of Italian artists to be found in

the early nineteenth century to

in

man

present in such simple attire and everyday pose a

of such

importance; Vivant Denon (1747-1825) was Napoleon's adthat

the capitals of

all

took a certain courage

visor

in

and

affairs,

artistic

was rewarded

by

becoming

Director-General of the museums of France.

Europe.
15.
6.

RICHARD WEST.MACOTT (1775-1856).

Monument

to

Generals Pakenham and Gibbs.

1823. Marble.

St.

Cathedral, London

Paul's

movements, no

in the

Museum

of Art,

few

efforts to give his

work

17.

the inscription makes a weighty ensemble.


8.

shire)

ballet-like

this funerarv

5'

7^".

ANONYMOUS.

18.

still

came too often

for the "in-

infants.

IVAN PETROVICH MARTOS (1753-1835).

Funerary Monument

monument seem conceived in a


manner. Bacon won the first gold medal awarded for

The motifs of

length

Mother and Child on a Tomb. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise, Paris

nocents," young mothers and

Samuel Whitbread. 1798. Marble. Cardington (Berk-

Wax,

Paris

In the nineteenth century death

JOHN BACON (1740-1799).


to

for the Giraud Family Tomb. 1827.

Muse du Louvre,

touch

of Romanticism. Unfortunately, the scrolled pediment above

Monument

PIERRE-FRANOIS-GRGOIRE GIRAUD (1783-1836).

Project

Grace Bagge. 1834. Marble. Stradsett (Norfolk)

Here Westmacott made

New York

inspiration.

RICHARD WESTMACOTT (1775-1856).


to

(1811 or 1813-1857).

Wood. 1851. Marble, length 482". Metropolitan

The Babes

16.

Monument

CRAWFORD

Based on a nursery rhyme.

Finical faces, affectedly simple

7.

THO.MAS

1782.

.Marble,

Museum

to

Mme M.

width

. Sobakina, ne Princess Mesberska.

W.

45". A.

c.

Shtushussev Scientific

of Architecture (formerly Donskoy Abbey),

Moscow

sculpture by the Royal Academy.


19.
9.

JOHN FLAX.MAN (1755-1826).

Monument

to

Lady

Fitzharris.

.MARIUS-JEAN-ANTONIN MERCI (1845-1916).

Memory. Formerly Muse du Luxembourg, Paris

Marble. Priory Church, Christ20.

church (Hampshire)

ANONYMOUS.

Tomb of
10.

VICTOR BALTARD (1805-1874) and jean-marie-bienai.m

BONNASSIEUX (1810-1892).
Tomb oflngres. Marble. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise,
Baltard designed the marble

monument

simplicity

Paris

to Ingres (d.

few plant motifs introduce

1867),

note of

fantasy.

11.

to display

ity, his

work of tex:

"We might under-

stand a musician wishing to ape Delacroix, but a sculptor,

great cutter of stone

Why

do you want to plav the

and virtues.

No

art

was the occasion

one would think of casting

qualities attributed to the deceased

generosity

nor of depriving the \%idow

his sensibil-

and children

of the sad privilege of being confounded with grief. Incised in

were such noble

VICTIS and

Tomb of Thodore Gricauh. 1841. Stone and bronze. Cimetire


du Pre-Lachaise, Paris
Baudelaire had no love for the

its titles

doubt on the

granite

ANTOINE iTEX (1808-1888).

never!

chaise, Paris

For the new middle-class society, funerary

Bonnassieux the portrait bust. Here harmony contends with


classical

1816. Cimetire du Pre-La-

Louis-Sbastien Gourlot.

HIS

AUX

Classical

.MANES

ANCESTORS,

the

and Romantic dicta

(the latter translatable as

former

as

as

VAE

GONE TO

WOE TO THE

VAN-

QUISHED).
21. JOSEF

VACLAV .MYSLBEK (1848-1922).

Sarcophagus of Vaclav Svagrovsky.

1877-79. Marble. Narodni

Gallery, Prague

violin?" (Salon de 184S). Nevertheless, here tex realized a

Slavic artists too

work

the Romantic themes and, especially, the symbols found every-

as

simple

as

it is

charming; the bronze

Gricault's Raft of the Medusa (1819).

relief

reproduces

where

found

in funerarv art the occasion to exploit

in the cemeteries of the

West.

334

STEPANOVICH PIMENOV (17841833).

22. STEPAN

Model for

Tomb of Michael

the

Museum, Moscow

Russian

DE FAUVEAU (1799-1886).

FLICIE

33.

Monument

Ivanovich Kozlovski. 1802. Plaster.

Miss Louise Favreau. 1858. Marble. Medici Chapel,

to

Basilica of Santa

Kozlovski (1753-1802) was a Neoclassical sculptor

who had

The

studied in Paris.

burial

monument

rangement

French

young American

to a

made this
pompous ar-

royalist exiled in Florence,


girl

the

happily mitigated by the graceful soaring of the

is

EUGENIO PELLINI (18641934).

23.

Croce, Florence

sculptress, a

figure.

Monument of the Baj Macario Family, c. 18981902. Marble and


bronze. Cimitero Monumentale, Milan
Italian funerary art in the later

Monument

nineteenth century was divided

height

between the realism particularly appreciated by the lower mid-

24.

EDM-ANTONY-PAUL NOL

Called

5';

Columbus.

TONY-NOL (1845-1909).

torical buildings.

On

monument

25. ALBERT PASCHE

matics embroidered with

1873)

The
26. JULIEN DILLENS (1849-1904).

stand four huge heralds wearing surplices and dal-

entire group

about

air

is

polychromed and has

Museo

One

Vela, Ligor-

netto (Lugano)
Italian-Swiss

Vincenzo Vela, disciple of Bartolini and of

Dupre, was able to check that tendency toward mannerism

many

of his compatriots.

respects, especially late in

life,

He was

a verist

who,

both

is

to Countess Sofia

ble. Basilica of Santa

when he was twenty-

which makes us notice the texture of Genoese velvet carved

in

DiMiTRios FiLiPOTis

37. TIENNE-HIPPOLYTE

Zamoyska Czartoryski. 18374-4. Mar-

made much

fl

is

entirely within the tradition of

MAINDRON (1801-1884).

Crimean expedition, 1854-55.


38. LOUIS-ERNEST BARRIAS (1841-1905).

this Italian sculp-

David d'Angers.

^r

Tomb of Anatole

De

Tomb of Flix Faure. Bronze. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise, Paris

de La Forge, Defender of Saint-C^uentin on the

Somme

1871. 1893. Bronze. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise, Paris

in

CHARLES-REN DE SAINT-MARCEAUX (1845-1915).

29.

1839).

of the "taste," the

"nobleness," the "grace" of the works by


tor, a pupil of

(bom

Tomb cf Admiral Bruat. 1857. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise, Paris


Admiral Bruat (1796-1855) commanded the French fleet in its

Croce, Florence

Baudelaire

art.

admire more here, the naivety

to

The naturalness of this figure


Greek funerary sculpture.

This remains one of the masterworks of historicizing and Ro-

mantic funerary

know which

does not

Funeral Stele of Eustathis (detail). Marble. Cemetery, Athens

LORENZO BARTOLINI (1777-1850).

28.

Monument

Cam-

granite.

and moving.

realistic

in

prefigured the realism of

Constantin Meunier. This tomb, executed


nine,

Tomb of the PicoUo Family. 1891

of the composition or the sophistication of the trompe-V oeil

36.

some

somewhat Japanese

posanto di Staglieno, Genoa

1849. Marble.

the Countess d' Adda.

typical of

it.

Father and Son, portion of

The

motifs and the arms of the

GIACOMO MORENO.

35.

VINCENZO VELA (1820-1891).

Tomb of

floral

Marble, height 382". Muses Royaux des Beaux-

Figure.

Arts, Brussels

27.

his-

Spanish states; they bear aloft a coffin of most peculiar shape.

Tomb. Marble. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise, Paris

Tomb

polychromed repouss

the very simple base of this astounding

Paris

(bom

1892. Base of white stone,

figures of

over-lifesize

from the cathedral, Havana)


Melida was a painter, architect, sculptor, and restorer of

1883. Marble. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise,

The Reber Tomb.

to Christopher

c.

bronze. South transept, Cathedral, Seville (brought in 1899

symbolism so dear to those above.

dle classes and the

ARTURO MELIDA Y ALINARI (1848-1902).

34.

La Forge (1820-92) was

came famous

a publicist

in the resistance

and politician

who

be-

movement.

Faure was president of the French republic from 1895 to 1899.

ANONYMOUS.

39.
30. AIM-JULES

Tomb of

Tomb of the Dolgorouki Family. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise, Paris

DALOU (1838-1902).

Victor Noir.

1890. Bronze. Cimetire du Pre-Lachaise,

is

one of the most astounding recumbent tomb

boots, the top hat

drama and

figures in

The realistic details worn clothing,


convey a feeling of
fallen on the ground

the history of sculpture.

ternbilit to the

monument

to this journalist, shot to

death by Prince Pierre Bonaparte.

The Pilot of Life, portion of Tomb of the Carpaneto Family. Marble.

Camposanto

The

di Staglieno,

struggle of

life is

Genoa

symbolized here by

Funeral Stele of Sophia Helmi.

Athens

suitable for

Lady

it

evokes drama and glory,

is

42. JEAN-PIERRE DAVID Called DAVID d'angers (1788-1856).

Young Greek Girl on Tomb of Marco Botzaris, Fighter for Greek Independence. Salon of 1827. Marble original destroyed; plaster

GIOVANNI SCANZI (1840-1915).


Monument

to Ester Piaggio.

1885. Marble.

Cam-

posanto di Staglieno, Genoa

typical

Genoese funerary monument with

realism, medievalism, and mannerism.

White and gray marble. Cemetery,

particularly

mortuary sculpture.

in Waiting,

storm,

41. JEAN vrrsARis (1844-1892).

Cemiterio dos Prazeres, Lisbon


Medievalism, because

a ship facing a

furled by an angel.

History, detail of the

32.

Vladimirovich

40. GIOVANNI SCANZI (1840-1915).

its sail

ANTONIO TEIXEIRA LOPES (1866-1942).


tomb of Oliveira Martins. 1900. Bronze.

31.

illustrious Russian family, particularly Pierre

(1807-68), the historian.

Paris

This

An

model, height 31". Muse des Beaux- Arts, Angers


It

its

mlange of

was about

this statue that

Marceline Desbordes- Valmore

wrote her famous verses (free translation) "The graceful child


:

That naked innocence/ Caught up

in

dreaming on the marble of

FUNERARY ART

How

tomb !/

love her kneeling, thoughtful, artless,/ Spelling

out a page so profound and beautiful

!/

She awakens death be-

33S

Tomb of

F. Barbedienne.

Bronze sculpture. Cimetire du Pre-

Lachaise, Paris

bronze statues, Chapu the bronze bust,

neath her fresh prayer:/ Her juvenile grief knows neither cries

Boucher did the

nor tears./ Young angel The future will water your blossoms,/
For the name of David is imprinted on your stone. (The name

for this elegant and well-balanced

'

she traces

is

'

lifesize

monument

most celebrated metal founders of the century

to

one of the

(see p. 86).

actually, of course, Botzaris.)

SANTO VARNI (1807-1885).

49.

FRENCH (1850-1931).

43. DANIEL CHESTER

Monument of

The Angel of Death and the Sculptor (Milmoie Mmorial)

1891-92.

Staglieno,

the Lazzaro Patrone Family.

1876. Camposanto di

Genoa

Marble, copy (1926) of original bronze; height 7' 8". Metropolitan

Museum

New York

of Art,

This stele, by one of America's most highly regarded sculptors


of the late nineteenth century,

ment

in

memory

is

a replica of the bronze

monu-

Forest Hills Cemetery, near Boston, raised to the

who died at
monument to the

of Martin Milmore,

the author of Boston's

French took the sphinx on the


pieces in Mt.

thirty-seven.
Civil

War

He was

dead, and

from one of Milmore 's

relief

Auburn Cemetery.

to

Count Anatolius Demidoff. Salon of 1840.

Modema,

Flor-

This model was conceived as a memorial to be erected in the

gardens of the Demidoff

Count Demidoff was a Russianwas not completely realized in full

villa.

Florentine philanthropist.

It

with changes, until twenty years after the sculptor's

death, and then as a public

monument

to be set

Painter Henri Regnault and to Pupils of the

cole des Beaux- Arts Killed in

Monument

after designs

by Ernest-Georges Coquart (1831

Youth Offering an Olive Branch by Henri-Michel-Antoine

(1833-1891). Cour du Mrier, cole des Beaux-Arts,

Chapu
Paris

51.

AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS (1848-1907).

The Adams Memorial. 188691

Bronze and marble. Rock Creek

Cemetery, Washington, D.C.

Not

a public

monument

to a national hero but

his late wife, this

Henry Adams'

enigmatic figure

is

considered

sculpture.

Adams gave Saint-Gaudens no

memorial except

52.

that

it

instruction about the

symbolize "the acceptance, intellectu-

of the inevitable."

JACQUES DE LALAING (1858-1917).

Tomb

Figure. Bronze. Private collection, Brussels

Not even the northern countries escaped the Symbolist conventions.

MAUDER (1854-1920).

Funerary Monument.

1893. Bronze. National Cemetery of the

Mauder followed the usual development of Central European


from Neoclassicism to Symbolism to Art Nouveau.

sculptors,

54.

ERNESTO BAZZARO (1859-1937).


with Playing Children, c. 1898-1902. Bronze. Cimitero

Tomb

Monumentale, Milan

FROMANGER (1805-1892).
du Pre-Lachaise,

The Schoelcher Tomb. 1840. Bronze. Cimetire

Italian

funerary

monuments of the

nineteenth century seem

late

designed to accustom the living to the idea of death. Life

Paris

The bronze medallion, 1894,

after the death of Victor Schoel-

cher, French politician and ardent opponent of slavery,

by

Emmanuel Hannaux (1855-1934).

Tomb of Henri

Cernuschi.

1897. Bronze. Cimetire du Pre-

monument

to the benefactor (1821-96)

who

willed his house and collection of Asiatic antiquities to Paris


irresistibly

as a

game, death

recalls the display kiosks (the

which were put up

over the city

The

base of this

handsome monument

architect

same years

BOUCHER

1898-1902. Marble.

"colonnes Morris")

and

henri-michel-

in

recalls those of the build-

Milan and Turin by the

Raimondo D'Aronco, who worked

LEONARDO

at this time.

(1850-1934)

ANTOINE CHAPU (1833-1891).

c.

in the style of the

Viennese Secession.
BISTOLFI (1859-1933).

Holocaust. Private collection,

48. ALFRED

haven.

ERNESTO BAZZARO (1859-1937).


Monument oj the Pasquale Crespi Family,

56.
all

as a peaceful

55.

ings erected in the

Lachaise, Paris
little

shown

is

Cimitero Monumentale, Milan

JEAN-ANTONIN CARLES (1851-1919).

This droll

Cimetire du Pre-

Vysehrad, Prague

1870-71.

1902), bronze bust of Regnault by Dgorge, marble figure of

46. ALEXIS-HIPPOLYTE

Marble.

1832.

Lachaise, Paris

53. JOSEF
to the

Tomb.

up on the bank

Amo.

45. Monument

47.

Dias-Santos

ally,

ence

of the

The

the most abstract major image of nineteenth-century American

Carrara marble, height 42". Galleria d'Arte

scale,

NOL-ETIENNE FESSARD (1765-1839).

memorial to

LORENZO BARTOLINI (1777-1850).

44.

Modelfor the Monument

50.

Milan

At the close of the century certain sculptors turned toward the

most excessive

eccentricities of Art

Nouveau.

<

11

Il

13

14

n^^v

.L

15

laH

21

25

26

32

33

36

38

40

44

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

19.

The

last

Salons under the Ancien

in

Rgime paid

tribute to the return of the child-

her swing, she sails into her conquest ol a rich landowner. The
who dies at Wagram, lea\ing her a
milkmaid's daughter marries the farmer's son
pregnant widow with a decent pension for life.
Romantic society in the time of Balzac was even less interested in sculpture
painting, and remained prudish. Yet verv strange thrills ran over the epidermis ol its

woman. Weded

than

SENSUALISM

in

sculptured females. The Swiss sculptor Pradier imprudently exposed his poor Chloris to
Zephyr's burning breath; German Romantics explored the labyrinths ol sleep; as lor France,
is it

the eflect of suffering that contorts Clesing'er's nudes? Morality was powerless against the

fantasies that

The
less

a disquieting; universe.

Realist sculptors, in illustrating the social condition of

women, show

us

more or

unwittingly the evolution of sexuality and sensualism.


If

own

peopled the dreams'of

the Romantics, Flaubert in particular, contributed to opening

women's

eves to their

moral taboos that were even more inflexible than in the preceding century
forced women to dream of their other life. It is psvchodramas of this sort that sculptors set
free in their blocks of stone women who had not detached themselves from their servile condition could Hnd comfort in the sight of those sculptured slaves, white or black, their wrists
in chains, who await the delicious instant when the master will deli\er them over
whipped,
even crucified
to the executioner's whims.
Eve w^as invited to join the g^ame Delaplanche shows her stultified w ith boredom, before
the Fall; Dagonet lets us see her afterward, hiding her face behind her arm and weeping
though who knows? it may be from joy. From the Romantics to Huysmans, the Devil
that
evil intercessor
is always present. He meditates; he takes his time. To make himself less
frightening he turns himself into a faun, and when the long-awaited sin is at last consummated
nothing remains for his victim but the ultimate jov of spreading; the news, just as the powers
of the Church vacillated, so the demon ends bv grow ing old
and Madame Bovarv has no wav
to excite him. The Devil's claws are succeeded bv the paws of wild beasts, another wav for a
woman to yield to pleasure beneath constraint. Morality can always be rescued.
Under the Third Republic woman continues to dream, but this time it is of revenge.
With a protecting gesture she now caresses the neck of the swan the warrior throws himself
at her feet; the jungle feline, tamed, begs a kindly pat. ... As the years pass, muscular force
yields to grace and the women who w^atch at the palace gates drop their guard once caryatids,
now androgynes.
status, the

The

moralists vainly launch rearguard actions:

Unveils Herself Before Science starts a scandal.

The family

Barrias's Nature,

Mysterious and

Veiled,

press castigates "suggestive" sculpture.

But young people devour the pages of the weekly La Vie Parisienne.
Man, in his turn, urges the Devil to force him to fulfill his most secret instincts; the
women take tickets for Lesbos. Homosexuality, the prerogative of a hitherto clandestine
minority, tries its powers on the arts, letters, and fashion. The ''Pelle astres''
so Jean Lorrain

dubbed those who swooned

at

Debussy's Pelleas and Mlisande

361

drop

their masks and an-

362

nounce themselves, thinking


Renaissance, men's practice

rightly that society

would end by admitting them. As

in the

adorning themselves with jewels, exhibiting surprising


cigarette cases, strolling the avenues with exquisitely carved walking stick in hand, encouraged
painters such as WoUers, Gilbert, Koloman Moser, and Augustus Stewart to become sculptors, then chasers of precious metals.

E.MILIO

1.

Eulalia,

ol

FRANCESCHI 0839-1890).
Martyr.

Christian

the

White marble,

1880.

7' 42". Galleria d'Arte .Moderna,

Saint Eulalia of

1 1

height

Turin

Merida was martyred

Eve

EUGNE DELAPLANCHE (1836-1891).


Before the Fall. Marble. Formerly Muse du Luxembourg,

Paris

at the

age of twelve.

ERNEST DAGONET (1856-1926).

12.

Eve After the Fall. Salon of 1891. Marble. Formerly

JEAN-JACQUES Called JA.MES PRADIER (1792-1852).

2.

Muse des

Chloris Caressed by Zephyr. Salon of 1849. Marble.

Augustins, Toulouse

Young Girl Confiding Her

Marble, height

5'

First Secret to

Venus.

Muse du Louvre,

3z".

Salon of 1839.

Paris

Persuasion.

1883. Marble, height

5'

8". Russian

Museum,

idea of evil spreading through the

Caressing a Chimera.

JULES-ANTOINE DROZ (18041872).


1838. Marble. Park of the Chteau of

Compigne

Kiss.

is
.

.Marble,

Slave.

illustrates

poem by Leconte de

Lisle,

often difficult to distinguish the erotic from the simply

ALBERT-ERNEST CARRIER-BELLEUSE (1824-1887).


Formerly Muse du Luxem-

Galleria

Moderna,

d'.\rte

Polychrome marble, height

6'

10".

19.

BENJA.MIN PAUL AKERS (1825-1861).


Pearl Diver, c.

land,

Maine

1857. .Marble. S\Neat Art .Museum, Port-

some success in Washington as a portrait sculptor, Akers


worked in Rome mostly on ideal subjects. This piece was a
great popular success in a period sentimentally preoccupied

with death, and was Akers'

JEAN-AUCUSTE DAMPT (1853-1946).


Silver and ivory. Collection

Comte de

last

major work

he

died at age

thirty-six.

EMMANUEL FRMIET (1824-1910).

20.

Contrasting materials add to the violence and suggestiveness of

Gorilla

group.

1894-95.

Dead

Ganav, Paris

this

1".

After

bourg, Paris.

Kiss for the Knight.

5'

Nationalgalerie, Berlin

silly.

height

.MAX KLINGER (1857-1920).

Amphitrite.

PAUL-EUGNE BRETON (1868-1933).


Confidence. Whereabouts unknown.
8.

10.

to

of the
18.

Satyr and Bacchante. Terracotta.

Salammb has been reduced

Turin

Parnassian school.

9.

Flaubert's

GIACOMO GINOTTI (1837-1897).

Marble. Formerly Muse du Luxembourg,

Paris

is

safe:
.

KARL PETER HASSELBERG (1850-1894).


The Frog. 1890. Marble, 32^". Konstmuseum, Goteborg
17.

The Supreme

It

Muse des Beaux-

16.

ERNEST CHRISTOPHE (1827-1892).

work

1866. Bronze.

Paris)

slavery.

This

Muses

.Math at the Feet of Salammb. Model. .Muse des Beaux-Arts,

Morality

world.

7.

Marble, height 50".

Dijon (the definitive work was in the Muse du Luxembourg,

The work embodies the

Evil Genius.

Thing J.

THODORE-LOUIS-AUGUSTE RIVIRE (1857-1912).

15.

Leningrad

6.

Young

SRAPHIN DENCHEAU (1831-1912).

Woman

Bronze. Muse des Beaux-.Arts, Lille

Mephistopheles.

(Poor

Arts, Angers

.MARK .M.ATVEJEVICH ANTOKOLSKY (1843-1902).

5.

Paris

Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels


14.

CYPRIAN GODEBSKI (1835-1909).

4.

Muse du

PAUL DE VIGNE (1843-1901).

13.

Poverella

FRANOIS JOUFFROY (1806-1882).

3.

Luxembourg,

and Woman. Salon of 1887. Bronze. .Musum d'Histoire

Naturelle, Paris

363

SENSUALISM

iJTfmflf^iffl ((:![/(,'H!,

"I have positively and patiently discovered that

work by M.

Frmiet represents human intelligence carrying with

it

the idea

on the Salon of 1859,


work by Frmiet). Frmiet, in addition to

of prudence and folly" (Baudelaire,

writing on an earlier
his

many

large-scale sculptures, taught

drawing

in the

Musum

d'Histoire Naturelle.

AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917).

The

Hand of God.

JOHN-ALEXANDRE-JOSEPH FALGUIRE (1831-1900).


Woman with Peacock. Salon of 1890. Marble. Muse des Beaux-

1895. Marble, height 25". Muse Rodin,

Paris

24.

CAMILLE CLAUDEL (1856-1920).

Flute Player.

Bronze. Collection Flavian, Paris

demned
of her

herself to live in the master's

own

Falguire often gave proof of his talent, never of his genius.


graceful and sensitive sculptor, his

work

is

by and large gay and

wright Paul Claudel,

come: "Around
in the

unpompous.

ment.

BOURDELLE (1861-1929).

modem

Claudel con-

to the detriment

the

who adored

renowned Catholic

play-

her, describes for us the out-

1913 she used to be seen going out furtively

morning, gathering

few scraps of miserable nourish-

One fine day the hospital employees found their way into
room and laid hands on its terrified inhabitant, who

the back

At the River. 1890. Plaster, height 6". Private collection, Paris

Bourdelle belongs to the

Camille

shadow

career. At last her mind, never very stable, gave

way completely. Her brother,

Toulouse

22. .MILE-ANTOINE

c.

Resolved to remain Rodin's helper,

21.

Arts,

23.

l^g^

''''f,,.;',;.

world. His few works in this

had long been waiting for them amid plaster


clay.

The disorder and

filth

were,

casts

and dried-out

as the saying goes, indescrib-

book were made before 1900, but they already exhibit the
originality of the sculptor whose teacher, Rodin, encouraged
him to liberate himself from all secondhand ideas including

able. Outside, the

those inculcated by the author of the Gates of Hell.

he calls "the Parisian legend" than this lamentable story.

ambulance was waiting."

In the preface

he

devotes to his sister on the occasion of the retrospective exhibition of her work, Claudel scarcely tells us

more about what

FERRARY (1852-1904). The Queen of Sheba.


Figure, three different marbles; throne, gilded bronze; gold jewelry;

IX.

DSIR-MAURICE

panther, black marble. Galleria

II

Levante, Milan

r^i^

il

10

13

14

M
y^i:^

18

19

20

21

20. KITSCH

^^^ v\

nineteenth-century artist who aspired both to mirror the society around him and
to satisfy the morahstic ideals of his cHents had to bow to a certain conventionaHty.
But the sculptor was more exposed to criticism than the painter because a realistic

The

sculpture

is

so

much

succeed in being

easier to

lost in the

"read," while the audacities of

a painting often

masses of color, the play of perspective, and

show of

technique.

The

visitors to the sculpture Salons

based their judgments on their

common

sense and

and art lovers acted out and appreciated a spectacle which was entirely conventional. The viewer was aware of lovely movements and facial expressions, and attached great importance to the artist's choice of model he
found it logical that in a beautiful female body with a comely face there should also be a righttheir spirit of observation. As in the Oriental theater, artists

eous soul.

much-appreciated subject, on the condition that it was limited to the


first blush: passion might ruin a prettv face. Under the pretext of truth or naturalism one
could exhibit any nude without being constrained, as in the previous centur\-, to use a fig
leaf. Whole series of adolescent bovs, barely nubile, were exhibited, and silly little girls displaving birds' nests or sea shells, paltry symbols of their femininity. These poses and mimicries
were principallv aimed at exciting the imagination of the viewer while hiding from the
moralists' eyes what such a representation might contain of the perverse or obscene.
The contemporaries of Bouvard and Pcuchet, Flaubert's two characters who dealt in
platitudes and misunderstood thoughts, were deep thinkers. To express contemplation the
model had to be seated; his fist clenched, supporting his chin, he stared at something. The
more he concentrated, the further away had to be the object of his attention very far, perhaps even in the hereafter. Death and its consequences were likewise excellent subjects. The
affliction of widows, the face dissimulated behind a mourning veil, could produce a surprising trompe-l'oeil effect with the help of a fortunate puff of wind orphan girls show woebegone faces the head thrown back and eyes turned up combined w onderfully to record
bereavement and sorrow\
But those "little virgins who generally have their public," as Baudelaire described them,
and which amuse as much as they irritate us today, were not to everyone's taste at the time
they were produced. Baudelaire and Gautier denounced their mannerism, and the falsity' and
h^-perhysteria of their gestures. Both also expressed disgust at statuary that was falsely satanic,
because it turned grotesque when it compromised the Romantics' passion for Novalis and the

Love remained

German

poets. Further, in the

work

way of

criticism, Baudelaire chastised the "feeble parts" of

and in other connections he used phrases such as


"scrawny attempts at energy and elegance," or "the unbearable Rococo of Romanticism"
and "these minutiae and their puerilities." In 1846 he said of Klagmann that he belonged to
"that playful and flutter)^ school" of Pradier, that "he has spent his life fattening up a few
Bartolini's

in the Salon of 184S,

377

378

Antique torsoes and fitting the coiffures of kept women onto their necks." The annoyance felt
by a small minority toward sculpture dedicated to triumphant stupidity was followed by a
general outpouring of jokes and ridicule.

Today our desire not to be duped and in art less than in anything else makes us particularly
wary about an art devoted to nice sentiments. Those inspired eyes, those tortured hands cannot make us forget the shameless bodies and poses. The self-righteousness of this symbolicsocial art irritates us it is the triumph of the pompous, the paroxysm of a hypocrisy which
accepted perversion and even obscenity provided they were a bit regretful, clothed with good
intentions, and crowned by the Salon. Whether through decadence of taste or a sadism that
refused to admit its name, everyone loved despairing girls if grief had disrobed them, and
pitiful girls if misery had not yet withered their breasts. Oriental and barbaric girls were ap;

preciated

their morals

had exhausted

may not be

itself; senile, it

ours, but they are authentic, aren't they? French sculpture

got lost in trying to follow the path of Clodion, Carpeaux, and

Dalou. Around 1900 most sculptors plagiarized poses rather than seeking the meaning that
motivated them. This is why Minne, Maillol, and Bourdelle turned against all forms of affectation.

France was not alone in falling into such traps. Pomposity is a Western phenomenon, and
for painters like the Dutch Alma-Tadema or the German Menzel it was a matter of reconciling Naturalism and Impressionism with the anecdotal.

But after

all this

criticism,

it is

the duty of our generation, better informed about what our

grandparents adored or discarded, to justify their opinions with the greatest prudence. In

art,

mixed together. It has taken five or six centuries for us


to recognize the importance of popular statues made by artisans at the behest of humble rural
communities. A century or two may be needed to perceive the value of what has so long been
dismissed as insignificant. It may be some time before the frock coat or lounge suit are admitted to the dignity of historical costume. But what makes us laugh above all is that certain redundance in gesture and expression. One need only examine Dutch realistic painting of the
seventeenth century to see with what care the artists, conscious of this danger, painted what
the ridiculous and the naive are often

they saw without ever renouncing their role of objective observer

not expressed
by the sitters but by the world to which they belong; their poses remain simple and natural.
And if, in the eighteenth century, people deplored the sight of so much talent spent on
portraying vulgar and gross creatures, at no time did anyone dream of labeling such paintings
:

the feeling

is

as silly.

1
I

379

KITSCH

1.

REINHOLD BEGAS (1831-191

Pan and Psyche.

Taste and feeling, however, have changed

1).

1857. Marble, height 6' 3". Nationaigalerie,

century. Thus

time

Berlin

Though Begas was one of the best official


many of Kaiser Wilhelm 11, he was never

as

much

in

the past

this statue and his Chinese Acrobat, hailed in his

masterworks, strike us

now

as

paragons of Kitsch.

sculptors of the Gerable to rid himself of

7.

TIENNE-HIPPOLYTE .MAINDRON (1801-1884).

Shepherd Boy Bitten by a Snake and Succored by His Dog.

his taste for the picturesque.

1834.

Marble. Muse des Beaux-Arts, Angers


2.

sTANisLAv sucHARDA (1866-1916):

Lullaby,

Bronze,

1892.

c.

height

Maindron not infrequently showed much


Narodni Gallery,

23^".

Prague
3.

occasions collaborated uith David d'Angers, ol


pupil.

REINHOLD BEGAS (1831-191

Venus and Cupid.

belated Romantic, his

1).

LORENZO BARTOLINI (1777-1850).

Galleria Corsini,

9.

family.

d'Arte Moderna,

DOW PALMER

First Disappointment.

(1817-1904).

drawn from nature rather than ancient

art.

naturalism, and American themes brought

him

that

His simplicity,
critical

Moderna,

Fisherboj.

462". Galleria Nazionale

Rome

RANDOLPH ROGERS (1825-1892).

Nydia, the Blind Girl of Pompeii.

1853. Marble, height 55".

Museum of Art, New York


Moved by Buluer-Lvtton's novel The Last Days of Pompeii,

1834,

which enjoved immense success, the sculptor was pleased to


give us here his idea of the heroine blinded by the fiery ashes of

Vesuvius. Originally sell-taught, Rogers went to Florence to

VINCENZO GEMITO (1852-1929).


Little

PIETRO TENERANl (1789-1869).

acclaim

and public success.

The

copy 1827). Marble.

Metropolitan

Palmer's work was thought to be wholesomely American

6.

(this

Rome

Psyche Fainting. 1822. Marble, height

10.

1861. Marble, height 462". Walters Art

Gallery, Baltimore

is,

1822

Daughter of Elisa Bonaparte Baccbiochi. Marble,

Museum, Rennes
The sculptor frequently immortalized members of Napoleon's

ERASTUS

he was a

JOHN GIBSON (1791-1866).

Psyche Borne Aloft by the Zephyrs.

5.

uhom

to lack personality

1864. Marble, height 43". Nationaigalerie,


8.

Princess Napoleona,

work seems

and on several

today.

Berlin
4.

talent

1876.

Wax.

study with Bartolini, later settling in


Galleria

Nazionale d'Arte

Rome

Gemito had much technical ability and made incomparable


sketches in wax of scenes he claimed to take directly from life.

Rome among

the large

group of expatriate American sculptors, \ydia was one ol

most celebrated works,

selling

his

over 100 or so marble replicas.

Rogers also did the bronze doors for the east entrance to the
rotunda of the Capitol in Washington.

380

CAMILO TORREGGIANl (bom 1820).

11.

Bust of Queen Isabella

11

of Spain. 1855.

15.

Museo Municipal, Madrid

ADOLF VON HILDEBRAND (1847-1921).

Leda. 1890. Marble, 25

20". Staatliche Kunstsammlungen,

Dresden
12.

ALBERT-ERNEST CARRIER-BELLEUSE (1824-1887).


Terracotta. Muse Municipal, Laon

16.

ISTVANFERENCZY (1792-1856).

Dcoratifs, Paris

Vestal Virgin.

JEAN-AUGUSTE BARRE (1811-1896).

The Ballerina Maria Taglioni.


13.

1862. Marble. Hungarian National Gallery, Buda-

Shepherdess.

pest
14.

John

The famous Swedish

1837. Bronze.

Muse des Arts

ballerina danced at the Paris

Opra from

1827 to 1847.

JOHN ROGERS (1829-1904).


Alien and Priscilla: "Why

17.

Don't

You Speak for

Yourself,

VICTOR PETER (1840-1918).

The Muse. Marble. Formerly

John?" 1885. Plaster, height 22^". Newark Museum, Newark,

18.

New

Queen

Jersey

As every American schoolchild was once made to learn, John


Alden was sent to propose marriage to the fair Priscilla on behalf of the

governor of the colony of Massachusetts, Miles

Standish, but himself

fell

in love

with her. Though

we might

think her sly or even contriving, the wise young lady finally

pushed the conscience-ridden young man over the brink by


asking her immortal question. Rogers was a mechanic
a pastime,

modeled small groups

in clay

his liter-

commonplace scenes were issued in the thousands


demand for works of art at modest prices.

an answer to the

as

and eventually became

one of America's favorite sculptors. Plaster copies of


ary and

who,

Paris

JEAN-AUGUSTE BARRE (1811-1896).


Victoria.

1837. Bronze. Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris

In this year Victoria,

19.

Muse du Luxembourg,

aged 18, became Queen of England.

CA.MILLI.

Little

Boy with Bass Viol and Umbrella. Bronze. Collection Alain

Lesieutre, Paris
In this

work and

the following, the quality of Kitsch attains a

certain sublimity and verges

on something one might almost

call

Surrealist.

20. ARISTIDE-ONSI.ME CROISY (1840-1899).

The Nest. 1882. Marble,

bourg. Paris

lifesize.

Formerly Muse du Luxem-

til

11

12

13

14

il

lil'

20

21.

THE UNUSUAL; THE BIZARRE

We

have already noted the point

which works

intended to represent a
historical or mythical event can soon appear ridiculous with changing times,
morals, or fashions. Similarly, certain sculptures tend to strike us as extraordinary
though their authors conceived them in a quite different spirit.

Romantic

spirit

at

initially

Our conception of the unusual or bizarre seems to have been bom in the
of Germany and England. For a lon^ time, however, the drawings of William

Blake, the animate flowers of Granville, and the citadels with warriors' heads bv Gustave

Not

Dor

appeared did anyone seek the deeper


reasons that led a few artists and writers in each generation to take pleasure in the bizarre.
Actually, the Roman anamorphoses, the animated gardens of Charles VI, the grottoes m.ade of
all these testify to men's irresistible urge to
shells, the objects suggesting death and vanity
reconstruct in one way or another some shreds of dream ima2;es not entirely driven away by
daylight and subsisting, more or less buried, in the depths ol the unconscious.
Our reactions to such fantasy are generally conditioned by our relations with the supernatural and inexplicable. When the supernatural returns to the list of admissible ideas, the extraordinary tends to disappear. In the past, men suspected divine intervention or the evil
presence in happenings on earth or in the heavens, or in other phenomena now scientifically
explained, and these events were thought to be extraordinary. This is why Bosch's hells or
Ligier Richier's dead figures devoured by worms were not found at all bizarre or strange by
the contemporaries of those artists
more familiar than we are with death, though less so
with the subconscious such scenes were simply taken to present diverting, edifying, or, at
most, terrifying spectacles.
While princes willingly sent to the stake the authors of works devoted to magic and
occult sciences, the Church was more indulgent toward artists. There is scarcely a trace of
proceedings against the stonecarvers who peopled the tympanums and capitals of churches
with figures agitated by satanism and the demons of the flesh.

were considered

to be oddities.

until psychoanalysis

Following the French Revolution, one might expect the new agnostic or scientific society to
rid itself easily of the repertory of mvths and legends instead one observes a revival of symbolism, both social and religious, as if people were trying in this way to counter the extreme
moralism which raged more than ever among the contemporaries of Balzac. The somewhat
cynical prankishness one senses in the works of Clodion or Falconet was succeeded by the
most conventional themes. Winged cupids, maids with downcast eves, and veiled widows
suggested Love, Innocence, and Death. There was no question here of the occult or the bizarre
but only of "refined" imagery.
Certain historical or social scenes escaped from the conventional precisely because their
;

make them
studios were

authors were willing to

Any

historical reconstruction,

even

if it

strives for

with arms and finery of the past to be used as


appearing to the eyes of later generations as a more or less naive and con-

authenticity (artists'

models), will risk

factual.

littered

ventional representation. Only a special

manner of idealizing the subject or of creating

389

poetic

390

and dreamlike atmosphere can save such scenes from ridicule, and Gustave Dor, Robida, and
Victor Hugo (referring to his wash drawings) succeeded in giving their works such overtones
of strangeness. When Gustave Dor modeled a knight in armor, who, face hidden behind a
helmet, plays leap-frog over the bent back of a fat monk in homespun robe, he may have been
trying to surprise the viewer more than to amuse him, but in any case the effect is irresistible.
In comparing the following illustrations with those in the preceding chapter on "Kitsch,"
one sees that the margin between them is often narrow. Gilbert Bayes' Knight-Errant, Ernesto
Biondi's Saturnalia, and Achille d'Orsi's Parasites (p. 391, 2, 3, 5) escape being justly called
ridiculous by proving themselves, in the end, fantastic.
Ancient artists already understood how sculpture could be given a surprising aspect by the
choice of materials, and even more by certain ways of combining them: gold and ivory, in
chryselephantine works, or precious substances like gold, amber, or ivory juxtaposed with
iron or brass, the barbaric metals. Great nineteenth-century artists, especially Germans with
a passion for ancient art, often used these procedures, sometimes to the detriment of the
strength of their work.

The taste
artist's power

for the extraordinary also gave rise to extravagance in


in

making models take poses

movement or

to the

that defy the laws of equilibrium, as in Giorgos

Vroutos' Genius of Copernicus or Gustave Dor's Acrobats (p. 392, 13, 15); in the latter work
the excessive stiff^ness of the bodies and fixed expressions of the faces suggest that the artist,
rather than reproducing a real episode, was attempting to ennoble a moment in the act of a

troupe of traveling acrobats,


In the

work

II
of Carabin, a woodcarver in the Vosges mountains, one finds the most sincere

I
I

and original products of bizarre sculpture of the last century (p. 392, 27, 28). Everything is
intermingled^realism, popular art, sensualism, poetical symbolism, and the Wagnerianism
then so strong along the Rhine and the whole is brought to a unique technical perfection.
Carabin does not seek his effects in choosing precious materials or rare finishes but in his
understanding of the carving of wood. He has the same knowledge of his craft as the great
German sculptors of the Renaissance, and the genius of the eighteenth-century Venetian
Brustolon, Like the latter, but with more originality and, above all, ambiguity, he has given
surprising and unheard-of forms to such everyday objects as furniture, cabinets, chairs. And
unlike the Salon artists. Carabin sought his models among women of the working class. Their

hair dressed like the

breasted

women

workwomen

in Steinlen's lithographs, Carabin's broad-hipped, heavy-

sensual and maternal in equal measure

Zola, de Maupassant, or Maeterlinck,

could have

illustrated the pages of

THE UNUSUAL; THE BIZARRE

WILLIAM LUKE (1790-1839).

1.

7.

Tawanend, cast of figurehead from U.S.S. Delaware, launched at


Norfolk, Virginia,

in

1820.

Polychromed

plaster (original,

VICTOR ROUSSEAU (1865-1954).

Demeter.

8.

of

November

3.

1900. Silver, length 25". In auction catalogue

4.

LON MIGNON (1847-1898).

London

11, 1969, Sotheby's,

The

art of

Mignon,

common w ith

ERNESTO BIONDI (1855-1917).

9.

The Saturnalia. 1888. Bronze. Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moder-

Rome

na,

a Belgian

work without becoming


artist

who

was

illustrated

it is

led to madness. His


10.

ACHILLE d'orsi (1845-1929).

The Parasites. 1877. Bronze, 45"

6'

6i". Galleria d'Arte

own

tragic obsessions

last five vears

were spent

des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

height 342".

Museum

der Bildenden Kiinste, Leipzig

Mockel wrote about


its

the awakening Adam

his

work

usually expect

from

and

as to

emotion he prefers

11.

Here there

is

noble attitude, recalls

Mask of a Young Englishwoman. Polychromed plaster, height 16".

Muses Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels


in Michelangelo's Creation

more abandon;

all

the relaxed

muscles express the repose of meditation and not the expect-

and of effort to come."

FERNAND KHNOPFF (1858-1921).

in

of Man. But the sentiment and the language of the lines are

life

tive to the richness of materials,

be accepted among the great

1904: "The body of the elder, by

quite otherwise.

we

the fantastic.
will

sculptors of his time. Albert

very vaguely

an asylum.

sculptor. Indifferent to convention, he remains especially sensi-

1907. Marble, height 6' 2". Muses Royaux

Some day Victor Rousseau

in

MAX KLINGER (1857-1920).

Klinger does not answer to what

of Illusion.

which ultimately

The New Salome. 1893. Four colored marbles, eyes in amber;

Florence

VICTOR ROUSSEAU (1865-1954).

ancy of

either stereotyped or ridiculous. This

infinitely less fantastic than the etchings

he made of similar subjects.

Sisters

Museum, Len-

theme, however, to which he turned many times, perhaps

a manifestation of his

Balzac's Droll Tales,

The

plaster. Russian

Vrubel meets the challenge here of creating an expressionistic

Despite the comicality of this piece by the

6.

in

MIKHAIL ALEKS.'VNDROVICH VRUBEL (1856-1911).

Head of a Demon. 1890. Painted

Leap-frog. Bronze. Collection Fred Jouaust, Paris

Modema.

from Lige, often has much

that of Frmiet.

ingrad

GUSTAVE DOR (1832-1883).

5.

Muses Royaux des

462".

height

Ladj Godiva. Bronze. Muse des Beaux-Arts, Lige

GILBERT BAYES (1874-1953).

Knight-Errant.

Marble,

1898.

Beaux-Arts, Brussels

wood). United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland


2.

391

12.

JEAN-LON GROME (18241904).

Sarah Bernhardt. Tinted marble.

Muse du Louvre,

Paris

This surprising and even disturbing work reveals an


side of

Grome.

unknown

392

GIORGOS VROUTOS.

13.

Bugaboo. Bronze, height 18".

The Genius of Copernicus. White marble. National Picture Gal-

Athens

lery,

gaetano callani (1736-1809).

22.
14.

JOSEPH-MARIA-THOMAS

Wrestlers.

Called JEF

LAMBEAUX (1852-1908).

1895. Bronze, height 7' 62". Koninklijk

Museum

voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

Caryatid, c. 1778. Marble. Hall of the Caryatids, Palazzo Reale,

Milan (virtually destroyed


See

Lambeaux gave free rein to his Flemish temperament while, at


the same time, evading both the naturalism so much in style in
his time and the excesses of some adepts of Art Nouveau. His
Fountain of Brabo on the main square of Antwerp is one of the
most astonishing and most successful works of the epoch.

p.

Attributed to auguste rodin (1840-1917).

23.

The Seasons. Private collection

BOLESLAS BIEGAS.

24.

5O2". John and Mable Ringling Muse-

10". Galleria

II

Levante, Milan

MIGUEL BLAY (1866-1936).

25.

Saint George and the Music of Catalonia, statue

of Art, Sarasota, Florida

de
16.

1943)

GUSTAVE DOR (1832-1883).

Acrobats. Bronze, height

um

in

239, 6.

Spring. Gilded bronze, 35


15.

Muse Royaux des Beaux-Arts,

Brussels

ZACHARIE ASTRUC (1835-1907).

la

group on the Palau

Musica Catalan (architect Lluis Domenech y Montaner),

Barcelona

The Mask Vendor. 1883. Bronze, jardin du Luxembourg, Paris

The masks

are portraits of Balzac, Barbey d'Aurevilly, Banville,

Berlioz, Carpeaux, Corot, Delacroix,


betta,
17.

Dumas

fiis,

Faur,

Gam-

Gounod, and Victor Hugo.

GUST.AVE

Terror. Salon

To our knowledge

DOR (1832-1883).
of 1879. Bronze. Collection Fred Jouaust, Paris

JUAN ROIG Y SOLER (1835-1918).


Woman with Umbrella. 1884. Fountain. Parque de

la

Ciudadela,

JENS FERDINAND

War. 1897. Statens


20. Attributed to

this

work from seeming

ridiculous.

WILLUMSEN (1863-1958).

Museum

for Kunst,

Copenhagen

sarah Bernhardt (18441923).

Fantastic Animal. Bronze. Collection

FRANCOIS-RUPERT CARABIN (1862-1921).

Statuette

of a Woman.

Boxwood. Collection Maurice Rheims,

FRANCOIS-RUPERT CARABIN (1862-1921).


Collection
Table.
1890. Walnut, height 3U".

28.

The female figures supporting this table are so placed as to


make it seem that contrary to custom the piece of furniture

Michel de Bry, Paris


rests

on only three

faces of his

seems the product of the union of various underw ater

semble

concretions.
is

ROMBAUX (1865-1942).

Maurice

Rheims, Paris

This very strange work, generally thought to be by the great

GIDE

there are no other examples from the nine-

Paris

Verism and naturalness save

21.

the forest of Libechov,

teenth century of this "savage" type of primitive art.


27.

Barcelona

actress,

in

Czechoslovakia. 1841

18.

19.

I
VACLAV LEVY (1820-1870).
Fantastic Heads carved from rocks
26.

legs.

Everything here

workwoman models

huge account book. As

is

surprising,

to the tabletop

from the

made

a creator of furniture

to re-

Carabin

related to the greatest of the medieval carvers of church

decoration.

0if<m@'"Wf/&:
i^'^.'fA.' ^::yj^::S^<^:

if:

r %
.*-

/=',

?>v^i5;>

20

19

1^

21

25

26

22.

Descriptions

PRECIOUS MATERIALS

of nineteenth-centurv houses, whether those of the bourgeoisie of

Balzac and Flaubert or of wealthy real-life merchants in

how much
objects

London or Moscow,

they enjoyed being surrounded by extraordinary bric--brac.

were curios rather than

objets d'art,

and were placed

in interiors

tell

us

These

whose

decoration was stylized rather than genuinely old.


The XVIIth Arrondissement of Paris was for many years like a Versailles for the French
and international upper class. Some of the houses were pervaded by an atmosphere that no
decorator would know how to recover todav. A few have escaped demolition, and their woodwork carved under the Second Empire seems infinitely richer than the Gothic mansions they

took as their models, executed five centuries earlier. Such richness ended by giving town
houses the look of a wilderness, so that one could find it natural to meet a lifesize bear carved
in oak and rolling its ivory eyes, whose true vocation was to receive the visiting cards left by
callers. Dancing girls of silver twirled around the creature, as if to charm him their garments
were incrusted with enamels to turn the heads of ivory w^arriors, who, their gold torsos girded
in armor of burnished steel and with onyx-bladed broadswords in hand, pretended to defend
to the death the tea platters loaded with petits Jours iced in blue, turquoise, emerald green,
and fuchsia. Dominating all this, a bird of prey modeled by Frmiet clenched in its beak the
tube of the gaslight chandelier.
;

Napoleonic

field

marshals and parvenu merchants showed a passion for objects carved in

precious materials. In 1805 Chaudet produced an over-lifesize allegorical statue of Peace in


solid silver, thanks to the metal derived

hearts of Louis XIII and Louis

With

XIV

from melting down the monuments containing the

(page 14,

/).

the Restoration architects saw themselves as stage designers for epic tragedies

were reading Walter Scott, Victor Hugo, and Alexandre Dumas, and rlso
Ponson du Terrail, and dreamed of those castles once occupied by the characters in Stendhal's
Italian novels. Rather than trying to pry genuine antiques from their rightful owners (usually
still locked inside mansions that were inaccessible to the trade), art dealers approached clever
craftsmen, mostly grouped in the le Saint-Louis and nearby, who were past masters in ironwork, enamels, and woodcarving. Among those craftsmen one finds the names of the great
sculptors of the time: Feuchre, Klagmann, Triqueti, Geoffroy de Chaume, and even Barye
turned out incense burners, tankards, armor, daggers. Baudelaire wrote of the Salon of 1846
that "as soon as sculpture permits being viewed close up, there are no niggling details and
puerilities that the sculptor does not dare to do, surpassing triumphantly what is found on all
the peace pipes and fetishes. When it becomes an art for the salon or the bedchamber one gets
their rich clients

the Caribbeans (savages

who

practice craftsmanship for

its

own

sake) of lace, like

M. Gayrard,

and the Caribbeans of the wrinkle, the hair, and the wart, like M. David." He was equally
merciless toward Feuchre, possessor of "the gift of a desperate universality colossal figures,
matchboxes, jewelry designs, busts, and reliefs he is capable of everything." Thophile
Gautier cites the case of Vetsche he produced goldsmith work and armor in Gothic or

405

406

Renaissance style, later sold as authentic by those art dealers who, like Arnoux in Flaubert's
ducation sentimentale, ran a business where "one found a bit of everything modern pictures
and sculptures, ancient bibelots, books, and catalogues of the Salon," Until the eye became
more selective, about 1900, many of these pieces decorated the cabinets of art lovers
:

throughout Europe. From Thiers to Spitzer, the greatest amateurs were taken in. As their
wealth increased, industrialists and merchants aspired to own objects which testified to their
taste and fortune it was a resurgence of the situation in the late fifteenth century when designers and craftsmen outdid themselves to supply princes and bankers with the most unusual
;

and sumptuous objects.


But the best "fakers" wearied of recopying and reinterpreting works executed by older masters. Spurred by a creative passion and encouraged by a clientele whose taste was developing,
they set to creating original objects on their own. By 1860 one could find in the Salon sculptures whose charm lay in their originality and modest dimensions "statuettes," said Gautier,
"with which one can live and which ask as a pedestal only a pier table or a mantelpiece, and
will not drop like a bomb through the ceilings below,"
Yet, from the time sculpture began to lose its traditional dimensions and became small
enough to grace a private salon, it lost in the aesthetic realm what it gained in the popular
domain. The taste for the ornamental statuette was found in every country. After 1875, statuettes issued in ten to fifteen thousand copies were displayed in department stores in Germany at
a price within reach of anyone. Do we not find the same situation today, when printmakers,
with limited editions, claim at the same time to take on an artistic mission and to reap sub:

stantial benefits for their efforts?

The vogue was

were carved in
And sculptors around 1880 rediscovered

for Neo-Renaissance busts. Black slaves and Indian chiefs

white marble, then loaded with semiprecious stones.

the advantages of ivory, as in the ancient, Byzantine, and medieval art and like the great

craftsmen of sixteenth-century Nuremberg and Augsburg. The tonality and grain of ivory provide, when used for representing the female nude, remarkably lifelike effects, and its capacity
to take on color from other materials led to attractive combinations with gold, silver, or box-

wood. Colored glass pastes also enchanted the amateurs of Art Nouveau with
parency and glazed surfaces.

effects of trans-

time social and political problems were intruding upon the domain of aesthetics and
philosophy. Those concerned with applied art spoke in missionary tones of the obligation of
the artist in the new society: to create beautiful objects, low in cost, which would be acces-

At

this

sible to all budgets.

much

was spent

realm to the detriment of the aesthetic, and


more Wcis sacrificed to picturesqueness as the century neared its end. As Jean Cassou put it so
well with regard to Jean-Lon Grome, whoever wished to succeed as a painter or sculptor
in those years had to "have the wisdom to stay with the weaknesses and strengths of the
system." Though Grome is viewed today with much disdain, in his time he enjoyed a success
equal to that of our greatest contemporary painters. He took his profession with great seriousness he traveled abroad and missed none of the international expositions, keeping abreast of
everything new in techniques and fashions. Late in life he suddenly abandoned painting for no
apparent reason he was still winning gold medals at every Salon
to devote himself to sculpture (p. 391, 12). In turn an Orientalist and then a Parnassian, he was especially enthusiastic
for the pagan and anacreontic genres he worked in polychromy and gold-and-ivory techBut too

effort

in the material

niques, trying to transpose Heredia's Parnassian sonnets into sculpture.

PRECIOUS MATERIALS

ALFRED GILBERT (1854-1934).

12.

MAX KLINGER (1857-1920).


1886-1902. Greek marble from
Beethoven.
1.

Pyrenees

Syra,

407

Saint Flizabeth of Hungary.

Polychrome bronze with ivory

face,

marble, alabaster, amber, bronze, ivory, mosaic strips of an-

height 18". Property of the Kirk Session of the parish church,

tique class tesserae, aaate, jasper, mother-ol-pearl, gold leaf,

Kippen

including pedestal

height

2".

10'

Museum

Bildenden

der

\ve are far

only point in

from Bourdelle's version (see

common

is

p.

256, 61). The

the admiration of both sculptors for

the musician and their insistence on transcending a likeness of


his features.

Portrait

of

heiaht

Ivory,

17:^".

88, 7; p. 253, IS.

Peace.

JEAN-AUGUSTE DAMPT

13.

4805. Silver, silver

height

gilt,
I,

Each Salon, beginning

1801

in

8". .Muse du Louvre,

Young Oedipus (p. 46,

34) and the lollowing vear with his Cupid and

Chaudet another rung on the ladder

ecuted

in

Butterflj,

ol glory. Peace \sas ex-

1805 with the help ot Cherest, an-excellent gold-

.allegretto.

Muse Roval de

l'

Afrique Centrale, Tervuren

(Brussels)

AUGUSTIN-JEAN MOREAU-VAUTHIER

83 - 89 3)
1

boxwood,

gold, silver, and pearls. Col-

In

auction catalogue ot September

1970, Sotheby's, London

PAUL GAUGUIN (1848-1903).

16.

Tobacco Jar. Varnished terracotta, height

\".

Muse du Louvre,

inscription

on the bottom reads: "The Sincerity of a dream

The tollowing examples

ot objects sculpted,

CHARLES VAN DER STAPPEN

The .Man uith the

Foil. c.

843-1 9

London

NIELS

17.

Aage and

height 6'

more properly among the apThev are particularly revealing of

1887. Terracotta with colored glass, height I82"

Museum

Copenhagen

tor Kunst,

1"

CESAR-ISIDORE-HENRI CROS (1840-1907).

18.

CHARLES-HENRI-JOSEPH CORDIER (1827-1905).

Incantation.

Salon of 1894.

Madame

Lorenceau, Paris

Bronze, partly enameled, with onyx and por-

B.

Colored

glass

The Story of Water. Earthenware. Formerly

CHARLES-HENRI-JOSEPH CORDIER (1827-1905).

Collection

paste.

CSAK-ISIDORE-HENRI GROS (1840-1907).

19.

phyry. Muse des Beaux-.Arts, Troyes

Negress. Salon of 1861.

cast in

SKOVGAARD (1858-1938).

FIse.

Muses Royaux des Beaux-.\rts, Brussels

.Algerian Jewess.

modeled, or

terracotta or glass paste belong

Statens

0).

1881. .Marble and bronze,

Gauguin."

the intluence ot Art Nouveau.

auction catalogue of September 3, 1970, Sotheby's,

8.

Cellini.

1869-1914).

(active

Kissing. Ivory,

Giambologna and

ith

plied arts than to sculpture.

The .in of Painting. Ivorv, green quartz, and silver, height 19".

7.

Paris

to the idealist Schutenecker. Souvenir Paul

1897. Ivorv and silver, base of marble and copper,

height 24".

6.

3-1 946).

LO LAPORTE-BLAISIN (1865-1923).

The

In

Paris

JULIEN DILLENS (1849-1904).

5.

marked

smith.
4.

compared him

RohI. Silver and marble.

ith his

\s

show of wearing huge leather aprons to prove

LUCA MADRASSi

14.

3,

tor

Comte de Ganav,
a

lection Maurice Rheims, Paris


5'

14)

p.

Castle, de-

himself kin to the "true" craftsmen ot the past; his contem-

15.

Paris (see also colorplate

Duke of

to the

1898. Carved ivory, metal, and wood. Col-

Kefiective .Mood.

Women

ANTOINE CHAUDET (1763-1810).

3.

monument

Memorial Chapel, Windsor

signed by Gilbert 1892-98.

poraries

Paris

areat actress of French classical tragedy (1820-58); see p.

of a hgure on the

in the .Albert

Dampt made

1848.

Tragedienne Rachel.

the

Muse du Louvre,
The

a variant

lection

JEAN-AUGUSTE BARRE (1811-1896).

2.

is

Clarence

Kiinste, Leipzig

Here

This

(Stirlingshire)

Muse du Luxem-

bourg, Paris

Bronze and marble. Muse du Louvre,

HERBERT ADAMS (1858-1945).

20.

Paris

Primavera. 1893.
9.

HENRI ALLOUARD (1844-1929).

Fulani Tribeswoman. Bronze and veined marble.

ELISEO

Woman

in .issjrian Stjic.

collection,

In

1890 .Adams began

was studying

TUDERTE FATTORINI

in Paris,

a bust ot a beautiful

then put

tention of one day carving

The Cor-

it

in

it

American

girl

who

aside unfinished with the in-

marble,

medium

in

which he

(?-?).

Various marbles, height

5'

7". Private

was highly

skilled.

The eventual

result, exhibited at the

Coluni-

bian Exposition ot 1893, proved to be this springlike personi-

London

fication ot
11.

JULIEN GAUSS (active after 1890).

The

Ice Fairy.

Bronze and

February, 1901, p. 182.

2".

coran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Formerly Muse

du Luxembourg, Paris
10.

Polychromed marble, height 21

crystal.

From

Reproduced

American youth.

the National
in

An

the Hies of Sotheby's,

Dcoratif,

London

It

was exhibited several times

Academy of Design and, in 1945, at the National


Adams belonged for half a century,

Sculpture Society to which

and

ot

at

which he was twice president.

il

i
X. CHARLES-HENRI-JOSEPH CORDIER (1827-1905). Bust of a Sudanese
Negro. 1856-57. Marble, onyx, bronze; height 31". Muse du Louvre,
Paris.

See also p. 20, 37; p. 407,

7, 8

'"%--

0^f

11

12

13

14

15

17

19

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

BIBLIOGRAPHY
GENERAL
Hamilton, George Heard, 19th and 20th Centuries Art: Painting, Sculpture,

Huyghe, Ren,

L'art et l'homme, Larousse Vol. 3, Paris,

Licht, Fred, Sculpture

19th and 20th

Cannon Brookes,

Molesworth, H. D. and

P.

Novotny,

and Sculpture

Fritz, Painting

BELGIUM

and

Centuries,

Architecture,

New

York, 1970

1961

Greenwich (Conn.), 1967

Histoire de la sculpture europenne de l'poque romaine Radin, Paris,

in Europe,

1969

1780-1880, Penguin, Baltimore, 1960

THE NETHERLANDS

Bosmant, Jules, La peinture

et la

sculpture au pays de Lige de

Daalen, P. K. van, Nederlandse beeldhouwers

1793 nos

jours, Lige,

1930

The Hague, 1957

in de negentiende eeuw,

Fierens, Paul, L'an en Belgique du moyen ge nos jours, Brussels, 1939

Goris, Jan Albert, La sculpture moderne en Belgique, Brussels, 1952

Lemonnier, Camille, Constantin Meunier,

1904

Paris,

Pierron, Sander, La sculpture en Belgique, 18301930, Brussels, 1931

CZECHOSLOVAKIA, POLAND, HUNGARY, ROMANIA


Ali, Jusuf, Meitrovi

and Serbian

Dobrowolski, Tadeusz, d.,


Gador,

E.,

London, 1916

Sculpture,

Historia sztuki polskiej,

Cracow, 1962

Hungarian Sculpture, Budapest, 1955

New York, 1975


New York, 1963

Geist, Sidney, Brancusi,


Jianu, lonel, Brancusi,

Narodni Galerie

v Prage,

Prague, 1961

Tafrali, Oreste, La sculpture sur bois roumaine, Bucharest,

193536

Tatarkiewicz, Wladyslaw and D. Kaczmarzyk, Klasycysm

romantyzm

rzezbie,

Warsaw, 1956

FRANCE
Baudelaire, Exhibition Catalogue, Petit Palais, Paris,

1969

Benoist, Luc, La sculpture romantique, Paris, 1928

Blanche, Jacques Emile, Les arts plastiques, Paris, 1931

David d'Angers, Exhibition Catalogue, Htel de


Elsen, Albert, Kodin,

New

la

Monnaie,

Paris,

1966

York, 1967

Gray, Christopher, Sculpture and Ceramics oj Paul Gauguin, Baltimore, 1963

Hubert, Grard,
,

Les sculpteurs italiens en France sous la Revolution,

Sculptures des XVIII^ et

Jianu, lonel

and Michel Dufet,

XIX^

Lami,

Paris,

1964

au Muse du Louvre, Paris, n.d.

Bourdelle, Paris,

Jouin, Henri, Les cimetires de Paris,


,

sicles

1790-1830,

1965

Mcon, 1898

David d'Angers, Paris, 1878

Stanislas, Dictionnaire des sculpteurs de l'cole franaise au

Rewald, John, Degas: Works

in Sculpture,

New

XIX^

sicle,

Paris,

1914-21

York, 1944

GERMANY
Heilmeyer, Alexander, Moderne

Plastik in Deutschland, Bielefeld,

1903

Micheli, Mario, La scultura tedesca deir800. Milan, 1969

Osten, Gert von der,

Plastik des 19. Jahrhunderts in Deutschland, sterreich

und der Schweiz, Knigstein im Taunus, 1961

417

~a- *

4-^-,

418

GREAT BRITAIN
I8S0-I914, Exhibition Catalogue, Fine Art Society, London, 1968
Gunnis, Rupert, Dictioryary of British Sculptors, 1660-1 8S I rev. d., London, 1968

British Sculpture.

The Romantic Movement, Exhibition Catalogue, Tate Gallery, London, 1959

Whinney, Margaret Dickens,

Sculpture in Britain,

520-1 830, Penguin, Baltimore, 1964

ITALY
1917

Ferrari, La tomba nell'arte italiano, Milan,

Maltese, Corrado, La scultura dell'800

in

Europa, Milan, 1966

Mostra Canoviana, Exhibition Catalogue, Treviso, 1957


Papini, Giovanni, Medardo Kosso, Milan, 1940

Pirovano, Carlo, Scultura italiana, Milan, 1966-68

SCANDINAVIA
Rostrup, Haavard, Moderne shulptur dansk og udenlandsk, Copenhagen, 1964
Thorlacius-Ussing, Viggo, Danmarks Billedhuggerkunst, Copenhagen, 1950
The Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen, 1970

SPAIN and

PORTUGAL

Araujo y Gomez, Fernando, Historia de la escuhura en Espaha, Madrid, 1885


Barreira, J., A escuhura em Portugal, Lisbon, 1929
Byne, Arthur, Spanish Ironwork,

New

Calvert, Albert Frederick, Sculpture

York, 1915
in Spain,

London, 1912

Franca, Jos Arturo, A arte em Portugal no sculo XIX, Lisbon, 1967

Gaya Nuno, Juan Antonio,

Un

Arte del siglo XIX, Madrid,

siglo de arte Espahol,

1966

1856-1956, Madrid, 1956

Pardo Canalis, Enrique, Escuhores

del siglo

XIX, Madrid, 1951

U.S.A.
Craven, Wayne, Sculpture

in

America,

New

York, 1968

Gardner, Albert Ten Eyck, American Sculpture, Catalogue of the Collections of the Metropolitan
Garrett,

Wendell D.,

et al., The Arts in America: The 19th Century,

New

Gerdts, William H., A Survey of American Sculpture; Late 18th Century


"Nineteenth-Century America: Paintings

to

New

of Art,

New

York, 1965

York, 1969
1962, Neuark, 1962

and Sculpture, Exhibition Catalogue, The Metropolitan

Taft, Lorado, History of American Sculpture,

Museum

Museum

of Art,

New

York, 1970

York, 1924

U.S.S.R.
Arenkova, Y. A. and G.

I.

Mekhova,

Le monastre Donskoi,

Moscow, 1970

Bobrinsky, Alexei Alexeievich, La sculpture en pierre en Russie (in Russian),

Moscow, 1916

Hamilton, George Heard, The Art and Architecture of Russia, Penguin, Baltimore, 1954
Kaganovitch, A. L. Russian Sculpture: An Anthology, Leningrad, 1966
Vrangel, Nikolai Nikolaevich,

Istoria skulptury

(Vol.

of L'histoire de

l'art russe,

d. by Igor Grabar, in Russian),

Moscow, 1914

INDEX
Titles of

works

of art are in italics. Artists'

numerals

in italic type refer to

names are

in

small capitals. Numerals

Babes in the Wood, The

Funeral Monument of

Edward Hodges

Baily,

Thomas

Ball,

Ballu
T/ie

(fils),

197, 17

Albert 112, 27

Monument
Coutan) 112, 27
Balmat, J., and H.-B. de

(Scott)

Ballu, Thodore,

196, 14, 15
The Death of (Allar) 46, 17

Rogers) 380, 14

memorating the

First

to the Architect

(Barrias and

Monument
Mont Blanc

Saussure,

Ascent of

(Cordier) 407, 7
Allar, Andr-Joseph 46, 17
Allegrain, Christophe IS
Allegretto (Dillens) 407, 4
Allouard, Henri 407, 9
Alma-Tadema, Lawrence 378
Almeida, Jos Simoes d' 20, 38
Almsgiving (Mendes de Costa) 288, 2
Amazon (Stuck) 168, 20; (Tuaillon) 168, 19
Amor Caritas (Saint-Gaudens) 1 27, 3
Amphitrite (Klinger) 362, 18
Amy, Jean-Barnab 256, 54
Andriessen, Mari 184, 16
Anernheima, Madame (Troubetzkoy) 142, 20
Angel Holding a Holy- Water Basin (Thorvaldsen) 47,
Algerian Jewess

Com1789

21

Woman Carrying Her Dead Son from Battle


(Sinding) 46, 32
Barbedienne, F. 86; Tomb o/" (Chapu and Boucher)
335, 48
Barbey d'Aurevilly 288 392 Bust o/(Astruc) 255, 44
Barbarian

Barnard, George Grey 142, 30, 31


Barre, Jean-Auguste 380, 16, 18; 407, 2
Louis-Ernest 46, 31;

Barrias,

112,

20, 27;

19,

195, S; 226; 332; 334, 38

Bartholdi, Frdric-Auguste 199, 43; 200, S3;

46

228, 10; 240, 12

Angel of Death and the Sculptor, The (French) 335, 43


Angel of Evil, The (J. Geefs) 127, 2

Bartholom, Albert
Bartolini, Lorenzo

Angel with a Book (Bailli arg) 318,

334, 28; 335,44; 377; 379,4


Barye, Antoine-Louis 10; 44; 45, //;
295; 294, Vlll; 296, 1,7, 13; 405

Angelica and Roger Fleeing on the Hippogriff (Bakye) 296,

Angelini, Giuseppe 5
Anna Paulowna, Princess (Gel) 253, S
Anonymous (LiGETi) 198, 32

Basin, Peter Vassilyevich

Antokolsky, Mark Matvejevich 197, 24; 295; 319,

Basset

Basin of the
Basset

IS; 362, S

(Fogelberg) 18; Head

o/"

(Bourdelle) 167, S

(Gabriel) 253, 7
Apotheosis of Louis XVI (Bosio) 318,
Apparition, The (MoKEAU) 111, 14
Archery Lesson (Hildebrand) 167, 16

Armstead, Henry

Bat

<S

(PoDOZEROv) 255, 33

Palais

(Larche) 228, 18
The (FrMIET)

2S

(Saint-Gaudens) 256, 53

Woman (Leonard) 127, 12

Bates,
Bather

Harry

298, 35

(Stewardson) 168, 31

42 46; 47
48; 80; 85; 86; 107; 108; 110; 112; 125; 126
138; 225; 251; 253; 285; 288; 315; 316; 319
332; 334; 363; 377; 378; 405
Bayes, Gilbert 390; 391, 2
Bazzaro, Ernesto 256, 58; 335, 54, 55
BE IN LOVE AND YOU WILL BE HAPPY (Gauguin)
167, 2
Beecher, Henry Ward, Monument to (Ward) 198, 36
Beethoven (Klinger) 1 66 with Flowing Hair (Bourdelle)
Baudelaire, Charles 10; 14; 15; 16; 41

196, 14, IS

18,4
(Moreau-Vauthier) 407, S
Astruc, Zacharie 255, 44; 392, 16

Art Beseeching Inspiration from Poetry (Sim art)

Art of Painting, The

At the River (Bourdelle) 363, 22

(Stuck) 167, 14

Atlantes (A.

137; 293-

Bastos, Victor 46, 22

(Dannecker) 20, 44
(Cubero) 254, 26

Hugh

139; 254, 27; 318;

Hounds Ravaget and Ravageole,

Bastien- Lepage, Jules

Ariadne Riding on a Panther


Ariza, The Marquesa de

Grand

167, 13
47, SO;

Hound (Barye) 296, 13

297,

Apostol, Corne/ii

Athlete

to.

in

(Salmson) 88, 2S
Baltard, Victor 333, 10
Balzac, Honor de 10; 41; 79; 250; 288; 332; 389;
391 405; (Rodin) 137; 138; 250; 256, 62
Banks, Thomas 333, /
Baptismal Font, after Viollet-le-Duc (Bachelet) 319,

Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress, ne Princess of Prussia,


on Horseback (Blaser) 297, 22

Apollo

23

Bakh, Robert Robertovich 197, 18

Albert, Prince 86, 193; Albert Memorial,

Priscilla (J.

47, 47, 48

Baj Macario Family, Monument of the (Fellini) 334,

(Guittet) 183, 8

Aguiar, Joo-Jos de 198, 26


Akers, Benjamin Paul 362, 19
Alais, Franois 286

Alden,John, and

127, 14

Bachelet, mile-Just 319, 21


Bacon, John 330; 333, 8
Bagge, Grace, Monument to (Westmacott) 333,7
Bailliarg, Franois 318, /
Bailliot (L'infatu de soi), Portrait of (Daumier) 288,
9
Bailly, Jean-Sylvain, Portrait of (Auht) 195, 9

(Debay) 318, 7

Alceste,

(Crawford) 333, IS
(MacMonnies)

Bacchante with an Infant Faun

d' , Tomb of (Vela) 334, 27


Adoring Figure (Stauffer) 167, IS

African Water Carrier

refer to colorplates.

AuB, Jean-Paul 195, 9

18, 12

Monseigneur Denis-Auguste,

refer to pages;

Awakening of Spring (Cabet) 20, 43

Adda, Countess

Affre,

Roman numerals

black-and-white illustrations;

Aage and Else (Skovgaard) 407, 17


Aaron (Strazza) 319, 20
Abdu-1-Kadir, Surrender o/"(Carpeaux) 101
Abel, The Dead (Dupr) 46, 23
About, Edmond 79
Adam and Eve (Barnard) 142, 30; (Levy) 110, 5
Adams, Herbert 408, 20
Adams Memorial, The (Saint-Gaudens) 335, 51

AdAn, Juan

roman type

in

Terebenev)

18, 3
(Carstens) 140, /
Attack and Defense (Croisy) 200, S7

Atropos, The Fate

256, 61

The Young (Grandi) 128, 22

419

^^K

420

Begas, Reinhold 166; 379,

/,

Buhenberg, Adrian von. Monument

Bell,

Bellver, Ricardo 45, 12


43; 45; 319; 330
Berlioz, Hector 392; (Dantan) 288, 4
Bernard, Claude 85
Bernard, Samuel (Falconet) 42
391,

333,

Portrait of

(Grome)

Claude-Louis,

4,

//; 112, 23

Monument

to

(Marochetti)

297,
to

29;

(Banks)

Burghers of Calais (Rodin) 140, 9


Burke, Robert O'Hara, and W. J.

Wills,

Memorial

to

(Summers) 199, 44
BuscH, Wilhelm 288, 5
Bust

Bernstamm, LioPOLD 88,

Bonheur)

(R.

Captain Pdchard Bundle, Monument

Burgess,

12

BerthoUet,

(Barye) 294, VIll;


(Philipsen) 298, 30

Bull

Bellerophon Slaying the Chimera (ScH aller) 18, ^

Bernhardt, Sarah 392, 20;

(Stauffer) 199, 52

Buchon,

John 199

Benoist, Luc 41

to

Madame Max (Courbet) 255, 50


Bugaboo (Rombaux) 392, 21

Beginning of Music, The (Galberg) 18, 7


Belisarius, The Blind (Oechslin) 47, 28

(Mucha)

127, 10

(Leenhoff) 19, /<?


Bystrm, Johan Niklas

Byblis

19,

28

198, 35
Besesti,

Antonio 330

Bichat,

Marie-Franois-Xavier,

Cabet, Jean-Baptiste-Paul 20, 43

Monument

of (David

Cain, Auguste-Nicolas 295; 297, 28


Calandra, Davide 200, 55; 295

d'Angers) 80, 7
BlEGAS, BOLESLAS 392, 24

(Stracke) 198, 29
Binon, Jean-Baptiste 195
BiONDi, Ernesto 390; 391, 3
Birch, Charles Bell 47, 44
BissEN, Herman Vilhelm 20, 49; 88,
Bistolfi, Leonardo 126; 335, S6
Blake, William 389

Cain and His Race Cursed by God (tex) 45, 13

(Powers) 20, 39
Callamard, Charles-Antoine 20, 42

Bilderdijk, Willem

California

<?;

183; 199, 48

Callani, Gaetano 239, 6; 392, 22


Calloigne, Jean-Robert 20
Callot, Jacques 45; 85
Cambi, Ulisse 19

Blanche, Jacques-Emile 102

Camel Driver of Asia Minor (Blaser) 297, 23


Camilli 380, 19

Blaser, Gustav 195, <?; 297, 22


Blay, Miguel 87; 228, 20; 392, 25

Campeny y Estrany, Damian


Canova, Antonio 7; 8; 10;

Bloch, LISA 199, 49


Bloche, Roger 183, 14
Boecklin, Arnold 166; 167; 238

Edgar 127
J.
Bogliani, Giuseppe 226
Boilly, Louis-Leopold 85
Boldini, Giovanni 142
Boehm,

Bologna, Giovanni da, see Giambologna


Bonheur, Isidore-Jules 298, 34
Bonheur, Rosa 295; 297, 29; 297 (line cut)
Bonnassieux, Jean-Marie-Bienaim 333, 10
Borel d'Hauterive, Joseph Petrus 250
Borghese, Pauline Bonaparte, see Pauline Bonaparte

19, 27,

13

16; 17; 18, 13;

ii;45, /O; 46, 20; 47; 48; 77; 198; 253,

10; 333, 2

Cappiello, Leonetto 288, 6


Carabin, Francois-Rupert 12; 183, 13; 390; 392,
27, 28
Card Players (Graillon) 288, 3

46
Carenica 226
Carles, Jean-Antonin 128, 16; 335, 47

Carducci, Giosu (Cecioni) 255,

Carlier, mile-Joseph 45, 15

40
Carpeaux, Jean-Baptiste 11; 13; 44; 80; 101; 102,

Carpaneto Family, Tomb of the (ScANZl) 334,

1-6; 252; 255, 39; 378; 392


Carpeaux, Madame, as Mater Dolorosa, Portrait of (Car-

Borghese

Bosch, Hieronymus 285; 389


Bosio, Franois-Joseph 16; 41; 46; 47, 42; 48;
127; 254, 25; 294; 318, <?
Botzaris, Marco, Tomb o/"(David d'Angers) 334, 42
Boucher, Alfred 335, 48
Boulogne (or Boullongne), Louis 181
Bourdelle, mile-Antoine 8; 44; 126; 142, 32,
35, 36; 165; 166; 167, /, 5; 184; 195; 249; 256,
61; 319, 23; 363, 22; 378; 407
Bouval, Maurice 128, 19
Bowes, General Ford, Monument to

(chantrey) 198, 41
Bowl (Laporte-Blaisin) 407, 15
Boy Fishing (Stavasser) 18, 2
Boy Fishing for Chub (Courbet) 88, 18
Boy Playing Game of Nail and King (Loganovsky) 19, 22
Boy Testing the Water (Ginzburg) 88, 17
Boy with Crab (Gemito) 88, /i

Braekeleer, Jacques de 46, 27


Brancusi, Constantin 6; 165; 198, 38
Braquemond, Flix 256
Brascassat, Jacques-Raymond 287
Brentano, Clemens (Tieck) 253, 6
Breton, Paul-Eugne 362,

Brien, Urbain, see Desroches


Broken Mirror, The

(Dalou) 168, 28

Brouwer, Adriaen 85
Bruat, Admiral,

45, 5

1 1

Tomb

o/^

(Maindron) 334, 37

peaux) 102, 4
at Work (Bourdelle) 142, 35
Carrier-Belleuse, Albert-Ernest 19; 88, 9; 102;
137; 198; 238, VI; 239, 3-5; 285; 362, 9; 380, 12
Carrire, Eugne 108; 142

Carpeaux

Carries, Jean-Joseph-xMarie 112, 29; 256, 52


Carstens, Asmus Jakob 140, /

Cartellier, Pierre 17; 333, 14


10
Caryatid, Caryatids (Callani) 239, 6; 392, 22; (Carrier-Belleuse) 239, 4
Carter, The (Orsi) 183,

Cassou, Jean 406

Causse, Julien 407, //


Cavaceppi, Bartolommeo 7

Cavelier, Pierre-Jules 227, 8


Caylus, Anne Claude de Tubires, Count of 15
Cecioni, Adriano 46, 18; 87; 88, 22; 255, 46
Cellarer and the Devil, The (Busch) 288, 5
Cellini,

Benvenuto 407

Tomb o/^ (Carles) 335, 47


Monument to (Piquer) 195, 3
Cevasco, Giovanni Battista 330
Czanne, Paul 138
Chalepas, Yannoulis 167, //
Chalgrin, Jean-Franois-Thrse 315
Chambord, Henri de Bourbon, Count of 10; 41
Champfleury (pseud.) 85

Cernuschi, Henri,
Cervantes,

INDEX

Chantrey, Francis 46, 19; 198, 41; 2S3, /; 330;


333, 4
Chapu, Henri-Michel-Antoine 87; 88, 14; 112,
2/; 226; 253, 12; 332; 335,45,4*
Charcot, Jean Martin 125

Chardigny, Barthlmy-Franois 183,

\'I 389; Succored by Odette de Champdivers (HuGUENIN) 46, 33


Charles X, King of France 195; 249; (Bosio) 254, 25
Charlet, Frantz 285
Chamod, F. (bronzecaster) 45
Charpentier, Alexandre 182; 240

Charles

Chassriau,

Thodore 315
;

315

Chatrousse, Emile 47, 39


Chaudet, Antoine 14, /; 46, 34; 405; 407, 3

Geoffroy de Chaume,

de, see

Chinard, Joseph 16; 19, 31 253, 8; 254, 23


Chirico, Giorgio de 332
Chizhov, Matvey Afanasyevich 183, //
(Pradier) 361

Cutting of the Isthmus of Suez

22
Chopin, Frdric-Franois 87 ^Wonuraent to (FromentMeurice) 112, 23
Christ, Baptism of (Rude) 319, 12
Christ Before the People (Antokolsky) 319, IS
Christ Healing the Blind (Tartarkiewicz) 318, 5
Christ on the Cross (Prault) 319, 25 (Rude) 319, 14
Christ with Mary and Martha (Levy) 318, 4
Christen, Joseph-Anton-Maria 255, 36
;

of Sweden, Queen, Refusing to Spare the Life


of her Equerry Monaldeschi (Fauveau) 195, 2

Christina

Her Ramparts (Carpeaux)

102, 5

110; 194
138; 139

Claretie, Jules 102;

Edmond

13, 16; 363,

(Fosse)

10, 3

Dagonet, Ernest 361; 362, 12


Dali, Salvador 255
Dalou, Aim-Jules 87; 88, 3; 102;

111, 16; 165;

168, 28; 182; 184, 17, 18; 240, 10, 13; 254, 19;

334,

30;

378

Dampt, Jean-Auguste 86; 87;

88, 19; 126;

24

Claudel, Paul 138; 141; 315; 363

Clre, Georges 167, 12


Clsinger, Jean-Baptiste (called Auguste) 17;
46, 24; 111, //; 253, //, 14; 363
Clock (Delaplanche) 240,
14; (Goldsmith Co.,
London) 240, 12
Clodion, Claude-Michel 43; 239; 378; 389
Coalman (Hoetger) 184, 20
Coeur, Jacques 43 Model for the Statue of (Prault)
48, 57
Cold, The (Bloche) 183, 14
Columbus, Christopher 194; Monument to (Melida)
334, 34; (SuoL) 194
"Corne Thou Blessed": Monument to Agnes Cromwell
;

(Flaxman) 46, 21
Comedy (Rush) 110, 2
Comte, Auguste 85
The (Rosso) 142, 19
Cond, Le Grand (Louis II) 77; (David d'Angers) 79
Confdence (Breton) 362, 8
Conquistador, The (Callandra) 200, 55
Conradsen, Harald 183, 4

165;

362, 10; 407, 13


Dance, The (Carpeaux) 102,

Dancer (Stuck) 128, 18


Dancer

Looking

at

Her Right Foot (Degas)

142,

27

16;

20,

Dancing Muse (Meissonier) 142, 23

Dannecker, Johann Heinrich von 7;

Christophe, Ernest 111, 17; 362, 7


City of ValenciCDDes Defending

(Magni)

to

362, 2

Cholera Morbus (Bastos) 46,

Claris,

Costa, Pietro 226; 228, 14; 330


Costa, TomAs 19, 36
Courbet, Gustave 85; 88, 18; 182; 255, 50;
(Dalou) 254, 19
CouTAN, Jules-Flix 112, 27
Crauk, Gustave 18,25; 200
Crawford, Thomas 87; 198, 31; 333, 15
Crespi Family, Pasquale, Monument of (Bazzako) 335, 55
Croisy, Aristide-Onsime 200, 57 380, 20
Cromwell, Agnes, Monument to (Flaxman) 46, 2/
Cros, Csar-Isidore-Henri 407, 18, 19
Crouching Woman (Maillol) 168, 32
Cruikshank, George 285
Ctirad and Sarka (Myslbek) 47, 38
Cugnot, J., Inventor of the Automobile, Monument
196, 13

Claudel, Camille 141,

cut); 318, /O

CuBERO, Jos Alvarez 45, 14; 254, 26

Cherest (goldsmith) 407

Cbloris Caressed by Zephyr

7, 8; 408,

Corot, Camille-Jean-Baptiste 392


Corradini, Antonio 330
CoRTOT, Jean-Pierre 48, 59; 198 (line

Chateaubriand, Franois Ren, Viscount of 249

Chaume, Geoffroy
Adolphe-Victor

421

44; 253, 4
Dantan, Jean-Pierre (Dantan the Younger) 14;
286; 287; 288, 4
Dante 108; 316; 379
D'Aronco, Raimondo 335
Daudet, Alphonse, Monument to (Falguire) 198, 34
Daughters of Satan, The (Rombaux) 142, 29
Daumas, Louis-Joseph 227, 7
Daumier, Honor 9; 10; 42; 137; 140, 6; 165;
182; 252; 256, 55; 285; 286; 288, /, 8-11

David, Jacques-Louis 77; 193; 250; 287; 405


David, Pierre-Jean, see David d'Angers
David d'Angers, Pierre-Jean 8; 11; 12; 17; 19;
20, 48; 42; 43; 44; 46; 47; 77-80; 80, 1-9;
110; 126; 193; 239; 249; 250; 252; 253; 254,
31; 286; 296; 319; 329; 332; 334, 42; 335; 379
Dawn and Night (Pradier) 239, 2
Dayot, Armand 139
Dead Abel, The (Dupr) 46, 23
Dead Pearl Diver (Akers) 362, 19
Death of Alceste,' The (Allar) 46, 17
Debay, Auguste-Hyacinthe 47, 29; 318, 7

(Cubero) 45, 14

Concierge,

Defense of Saragassa, The

Constant

Degas, Edgar 88, 12; 126; 139; 141, IV; 142,


25-28; 165; 167; 296; 298, 41
Delabrieu, Edouard 295
Delacroix, Eugne 8; 10; 41; 45; 79; 85; 249;
293; 296; 332; 333; 392

37

Convers, Louis 112, 22


The

Genius of

Coquelin Cadet in the Title Role of the Malade Imaginaire


by Molire (Bernstamm) 88, 4

Corbet, Charles-Louis 43

Cordier, Charles-Henrj-Joseph 20, 37

Delaplanche, Eugne 240, 14; 361 362,


Delavigne, Casimir (David d'Angers) 79
Deligand, Louis-Auguste 20, 41
;

(Vroutos) 390; 392, 13


Coquart, Ernest-Georges 335, 45

Copernicus,

295

407,

Deluge,

I/ie

(Kessels) 45, 16

Delvaux, Laurent 330


Delvaux, Paul 87; 332
Demeter (RousSEAU) 391, 7

//

422

Count

Demidoff,

De

335,

Cecil

Mille,

Mode! for

Anatolius,

(Bartolini)

B.

the

Monument

to

Etcheto, Jean-Franois 195,

195

TEX, Antoine 9; 10; 11; 46, 13;


332; 333, //

Demon, Head of a (Vrubel) 391, 9


De.mut-Mali\ovsky, Vasily Ivanovich
Dencheau, Sraphin 362, 14

19,

20

Etruscan

oJ(C\RTElUR) 333, 14

Roger-douard

Deperthes,

227, 9
De Saussure, H.-B., andj. Balmat Commemorating the First
Ascent of Mont Blanc in 1786, Monument to (Salmson)

25

88,

Descent from

Entombment, and the Three Women

Tomb (Michel-Pascal) 319, 16

the

at

Eustatbis,

(Korschmann)

Desk Accessor)'

(J. Costa) 19, 36; (Fantacchiotti) 48, 52;


(HioLLE) 48, 53
Eve, Adam and (Barnard) 142', 30; (Levy) 110, 5

Otto

183, 2

(Droz) 362, 6
The (SoARs DOS Reis) 45, 8

Evil Genius
Exile,

//

Despiau, Charles 167


Desroches (Urbain Brien) 318, 2
Desseine 250
Devosge, Franois III 18
Diana (Saint-Gaudens) 167, 17
The (Fessard) 33

Dias-Santos Tomb,

48
(Delaplanche) 362, //; (Imhoe)

35

19,

Evens,

(Chizhov) 183,

Despairing Peasant

(Dagonet) 362, 12

Eve at the Fountain (Baily) 47,


Eve Before the Fall

Desbordes- V'almore, Marceline 334


Desmoulins, Camille 101
Desnoyers, /.ou/s (Prault) 253, 13

Madame, Portrait of (Rodin) 140, 8


Fadrusz, Janos 200, 54
Faith in God (Bartolini) 47, 50
Falconet, Etienne-Maurice 18; 19; 42; 389
Falguire,
John-Alexandre-Joseph
165;
198,
F.,

50

5,

34; 228, 9; 256, 57; 363, 21


The (Bellver) 45, 12

Diderot, Denis 85

Fallen Archangel,

DiEUDONN, Jean-Augustin 47, 37

Fallires,

Dillens, Julien 296, 5; 334, 26; 407, 4

Falling

Ding, Henry-Marius 197, 21

Fantacchkjtti,

Odoardo

Fantastic Animal

(Bernhardt,

Fantastic Heads

(Levy) 392, 26

(Dalou)

Digger

Ditch

17

184,

Docker, The, study tor (Andriessen) 184, 16

Tomb of

Dolgorouki Family,

the (artist

unknown) 334,

39
Commandments (Triqueti) 319, 19
(line cut); 389; 390;

the Ten

Dor, Gustave 48; 87; 143


391, 4; 392,
Draft Horse Led

to

15,

Driollet, Henri-Thodore 228, //


Drossis, Leonidas 18, 5
Droz, Jules-Antoine 362, 6
Dubois, Paul (1829-1905) 333, 13
Dubois, Paul (1859-1938) 88, 6; 165
Ducommon du Locle, Henri-Joseph 228,
Guillaume-Henri

Equestrian

Durance River Betneen Corn and Wine,

Dying
Ecce

Lucretia

Elegant

//

Statue

of

The (Cavelier)

18,

6; 253,

15

198, 31

(Campeny) 45,

Hlgin,

(Barrias) 112, 20; 226

(Troubetzkoy)
(Milles) 298, 40

Creature

Elephants

and

the Angel

Episode in the

22

The (Meili) 227, 3

(Skovgaard) 407, 17

Napoleonic

Equestrian Statue

from
Ermak, Timoteev 319
Escholier, Raymond 285
EscouLA, Jean 167, 4

Wars,

the Antique

Andr 44
Water (Klinger)

in the

An (Spalla) 199, 40
(GRICAULT) 296, 3

(Volkmann)

168, 24

Ferenczy, Istvan 380, 13


Fernkorn, Anton 255, 34; 298, 38
Ferrari, Ettore 19
Ferrary, Dsir-Maurice 364, IX
Ferreira, Count of (Soars dos Reis) 2 54, 29
Fessard, Nol-tienne 335, 50
Feuchre, Jean-Jacques 405
Feuerbach, Anselm von 166; 2 38
Feure, Madame de (Martilly) 128, ///
Feydeau, Georges 332
Fiedler, Frau Maria (Hildebrand) 88, 10
Fighters (Prokofiev) 140, 2
Fighters, The (MoLiN) 45, 9
Filipotis, Dimitrios 334, 35
Firedamp (Meunier) 184, 22
(artist

unknown) 240,

/ /

(Dalou) 240,

10; (Laplanche) 240, 9


First Cradle,

First

Fountain,

Gabriel

Fireplace

142,

Lord 77

Elizabeth

10

Tomb o/^ (Saint-Marceaux) 334, 29


Urbain 392
Fauveau, FLICIE DE 10; 41; 195, 2; 316; 334, 33
Favreau, Miss Louise, Monument to (Fauveau) 334, 33
Faure,

Female Figure

Homo (Meunier) 319, 22

Electricity

Else

(Crawhord)

168, 29

DuRET, Francisque-Joseph
C/i/c/"

(Saint-Gaudens) 195,

Father and Son (Moreno) 335, 35


Fattorini, Eliseo Tuderte 407,

Felibien,

88, 9; (Chapu) 253, 12


DupR, Giovanni 20, 47; 46, 23; 139; 334

Dying

392, 20

(Christophe) 111, 17

Female Bather Looking at Herself

(Lanz) 197, 19
Dumas, Alexandre {fth) 392; (Carpeaux) 102
Dumas, Alexandre (pre) 405; (Carrier-Belleuse)

227,

52

attr.)

Faure, Flix,

Dreyfus, Alfred 166

General

48,

Faure, lie 17; 182

17

Slaughter (Frmiet) 296, 8

Dream of Horace, The (Westmacott) 45, 2


Dressed Ballet Dancer, \ude Study for (Degas) 142, 26

Dufour,

Armand 237; 378

Horseman (MoiNE) 296, 4

Farragut, Admiral, J/onumcnt to


Fate

Door of

Eve

IS

128,

Woman (Simyan)

The Christian Martyr (Franceschi) 362,


Funeral Stele of (Filipotis) 3 34, 35

Eve After the Fall


the Cross,

193; 225; 293;

Represented by a Seated

Art

Eulalia,

Dcnon, Dominique-Vivant, Tomb

//

19, 17

Maurice 107

Denis,

EsPERciEux, Jean-Joseph 20, 45

44

The (Debay) 46, 29

Disappointment (Palmer) 379, 5

First Funeral,
First Step,

The (Barrias) 46, 3

The (Kamensky) 88, 21

Hamilton 47
Monument to (Flaxman) 333, 9
Fix-Masseau, Pierre-Flix 127, 5
Fish,

Fitzharris, Lady,

Flamand, Jacques 128, 17


Flaubert, Gustave

12; 361; 405;

406

INDEX

Flaxman, John
4;

10; 46, 21; 47; 77; 193; 195,

18,

Woman (Bouval) 128, 19


Flute Player (Claudel) 363, 24
FoGELBERG, Bengt Erland 1
17; 48, 56
Henry
/S;
196,
199, SO
Foley, John
Fontaine, Fierre-Franois-Lonard 77

Grard, General Etienne 43

Fontaine Sainte-Marie (Falguire) 228, 9


Forain, Jean-Louis 285; 288, 7
Forge,

Defender of Saint-Quentin on the

Anatole de la.

Somme
1871, Tomb o/" (Barri as) 334, 38
Fortia de Piles, Count Alphonse 15
in

Foscolo,

Ugo, After the Treaty of Campo-Formio (Tab-

(Molin) 228, 12
Fountain of the Nymph (Schwanthaler) 227, 4
Fountain of the Vintages (N. Giraud) 227, 5
Four Quarters of the Globe (Carpe aux) 102
Fox Hunt in Scotland (Mne) 296, 19
Foy, General Maximilien-Sbastien (David d'Angers)
79; 250
Frampton, George James 127, /
Franceschi, Emilio 362, /
Franceschi, Louis-Julien (Jules) 255, 45
Francis I, King of France 225
Franz Josef I, Emperor 238; (Fernkorn) 255, 34
Fratin, Christophe 10; 295; 296, 9
Fountain

Emmanuel

30; 295; 296, 8,


405; (Grber) 88,

Gricault, Thodore 9; 79; 140, 3, 4; 165; 250;


293; 296, 3; 329; (David d'Angers) 80, 6;
Tomb of (TEX) 333, //
Germania (Schilling) 226
Grome, Jean-Lon 11; 392, 12; 406; (Carpeaux)
255, 39
Giacometti 10
Giambologna 407
Gibbs and Pakenham, Generals, Monument ta the Memory of

(Westmacott) 333, 6

BACCHi) 88, 24
Fosse, Dsir 195, 13

Frmiet,

6; 405

George, Waldemar 165; 166


Georgescu, Ion 19, 19, 26; 198

333, 9

Flower

423

9; 19; 42; 45; 196, V; 198,


IS; 297, 25; 362, 20; 391;

Gibson, John 296, 16; 379, 8


Gilbert, Alfred 127, 6; 200, 51; 256, 56; 362;
407, 12
GiNs, Jos 7; 318, 3
GiNOTTi, Giacomo 362, 17

Ginzburg, Ilya Yakovlevich 88, 17


Giraud, Nol 227, 5
Giraud, Pierre-Franois-Grgoire 333, 16
Giraud Family Tomb, Projectfor the (P. Giraud) 333, 16
Girl Reposing (ScHADOw) 19, 23
Gladiator Saluting (Welonski) 199, 45
Glamour of the Rose (John) 127, 4
Glass Blower (Meunier) 184, 19
Gleaners

(Millet)

85

Marc-Gabriel-Charles

Gleyre,

General Jacques-Nicolas,

Gobert,

85
Monument of (David

d'Angers) 79; 80, 1,4; 329


Godebski, Cyprian 255, 37; 362, 4
GoDECHARLE, Gilles-Lambert 20; 255, 38

French, Daniel Chester 87; 228, 16; 335, 43


French Chanson, The (Dalou) 111, 16
Freud, Sigmund 125
Freund, Christian 47, 45

(Mignon) 391, 8
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 195
Godiva, Lady

Frog, The (Hasselberg) 362, 16


Fromanger, Alexis-Hippolyte 335, 46

80,

(David d'Angers)

5; (Rauch) 254, 30; (Schadow) 254, 20

Goethe and Schiller, Monument to (Rietschel)

Fuhrich, Josef von

Gogh, Vincent van 182


Gogol, Nikolai Vasilyevich (Ramazanov)

Fulani Tribeswoman

Golden Age,

Froment-Meurice, Jacques

112, 25

(Tilgner) 255, 42
(Allouard) 407, 9
Funerary Monument (Mauder) 335, 53

Markos

Galberg, Samuel Ivanovich


Gambetta, Lon 392

18, 7

Ganneron, the Financier, Portrait

o/^

19,

16

(Daumier) 288, 10

Garrard, George 296, 17


Gaudez, Adrien-tienne 199, 46
GaudI, Antonio 126; 317
Gauguin, Paul 108; 126; 138; 165;

167, 2, J; 182;

255, 47; 407, 16


Gauguin, Madame, Portrait
12;

Louis Sebastien,

Tomb of (sculptor unknown)

333, 20

Georges 295
Garibaldi, Giuseppe (Rosa) 256, 41
Garnier, Charles 79; 102; 237; (Carpeaux) 102, 3

Thophile

112, 26
Gourlot,

Gardet,

Gautier,

of (Gauguin) 255, 47
16; 41; 125; 253; 288;

293; 316; 319; 377; 405; 406

Goya

(y Lucientes), Francisco Jos de 42


Graillon, Pierre-Adrien 286; 288, 3

Gray, Thomas 110


Grber, Henri-Lon 88, /
Greek Slave, The (Powers) 48, 54
Greek Woman Preparing to Enter Fier Bath (Espercieux)
20, 45

Greuze, Jean-Baptiste 85
Grvy, Jules 237

(Maggesi) 111, 15

Geoffroy de Chaume, Adolphe- Victor 286; 318,

(Dampt) 88, 19
Grandi, Giuseppe 128, 22; 142, 34
Granet, Franois-Marius 78
Graves, Anna Marie, Monument to (Chantrey) 46, 19

Greenough, Horatio

Genius of Sculpture Roughing Out the Mask of Olympian

285 288

Grandmother's Kiss, The

Guillaume 197, 28
Geefs, Joseph-Germain 127, 2
Geel, Jan Lodewyck van 253, 5
Gemito, Vincenzo 88, 13; 379, 6
Genius of Copernicus (Vroutos) 390; 392, 13
Genius of Navigation, The (Daumas) 227, 7

Geefs,

Grande Arabesque, Third Time (Degas) 142, 25

Gavarni, Sulpice 44

Jupiter

254, 18

18
;

254, 32

Gabriel, Paulus-Joseph 253, 7


Gagarina, Princess E. I., Tomb of (Martos)

141,

12

Concourt, Edmond and Jules 12; 45; 101 142; 256


Gorilla and Woman (Frmiet) 362, 20
Gossipers (Claudel) 141, 16
GouGET, mile-Joseph-Alexandre 295
Gounod, Charles 87; 102; 392; Monument to (Merci)

Fytalis, Giorgios 183, 7


Fytalis,

The (Rosso)

195,

Grieving Shepherd (Izso)


Grille, Franois
Grilliat in

the

195,

10

183, 5

77

Coils of the Octopus

(Carlier) 45, 15
//; 298, 33

Grootaers, Louis-Guillaume 228,


Gros, Antoine-Jean 43; 294

Groux, Charles-Corneille-Auguste de 182


Gsell, Pau! 107; 108; 137

I
424

Yvette

Guilbert,

(Cappiello) 288, 6

(Reynolds-Stephens) 127, 7
286
Eugne
11;
18;
Guinot,
Guinevere and the Nestling

GuiTTET, Georges-Henri 183, 8


Guizot, Franois 10
Gumerv, Charles-Alphonse-Achille 102
Gutenberg (David

Jean-Auguste-Dominique 9; 78;
Tomb o/"(Baltard; Bonnassieux) 333, 10

Ingres,

Innocence (SiMONis) 20,

Inspiration

Iron

46
Her Bosom (Callamard)

Viper in

(Lenoir) 110,
The

Puddler,

Isabella

20, 40
(Meunier) 184, 21
Queen,

Catholic,

the

//

(Schoenwerk)

Morning

In the

Haan, Meyer de (Gauguin) 108


Hahn, Hermann 168, /<?

Equestrian

Handel, George Frederick (Roubillac) 85

Isabella

335, 46

II,

//

(Antokolsky) 198, 24

Ivan the Terrible 319;

(Chardigny) 183, /
Harvesting Woman (Wijk) 184, IS
Hasselberg, Karl Peter 362, 16
Haudebourg-Lescot, Madame (David d'Angers) 80, 3
Haussmann, Baron Georges 237

IvANOv, Sergei Ivanovich 88,

Harvesting Olives

IS

MiKLOS 87; 183, 5

Izso,

Jackson, Andrew

(Powers) 254, 28

Jacobsen, Carl 20

Jacquemart, Henri-Alfred-Marie 240,


296, 18; 297, 23
Jacques, Charles 295

Havard, Henri 332


Hebe (Canova) 18, /J
/yecufc(3(PRiAULT)48, 57

(Vigeland) 110, 5

10;

295,

Jenner, Edward, Inoculating His Infant Son with Smallpox

Helmi, Sophia, Funeral Stele

and Ablard

to

Queen of Spain, Bust o/^(Torreggiani) 380,

Hares (MNE) 297, 27

Hlose

Monument

(Oms) 194

Hand of God, The (Rodin) 363, 23

Hell

315;

42

20,

17

Hannaux, Emmanuel

Warming a

Innocence

d'Angers) 80, 2

GuYSKi, Marceli 254,

Imhof, Heinrich 19, 3S


(Cros) 407, 18

Incantation

o/"

Reading

(Vitsaris) 334, 41
Together

(Chatrousse)

Vaccine

(Monteverde)

Rudolf Ludwig,

Jenner,

12

183,

Monument

to

(Sonnenschein)

45, 4

47, 39

Henner, Jean-Jacques 250


Hercules and Lichas (Canova)

Jerichau, Jens Adolf 168, 23; 199


45,

Nemaean Lion (Clre) 167, 12


Hrdia, Jos-Maria de 406
Hero and Leander (Laurent) 47, 3S
Hildebrand, Adolf von 87; 88, 10; 166; 167,
10, 16; 228, 19, 21; 255, 3S; 295; 296; 380, IS
Hillebrand, Karl (Hildebrand) 255, 3S
Hiolle, Ernest 48, S3
History (Teixeir\ Lopes) 334, 31
Hoetger, Bernard 184, 20

Hercules Strangling the

Hofer, Ludwig von 168, 21


Hoff, Sergeant, Tomb o/" (Bartholdi) 199, S3
Hoffmann, E. T. A. 44
Hogarth, William 285
Hohenstein, Bishop Lon Thun, Monument of (Prachner)
19

S6
o/"(Westmacott) 45, 2
Horse (Myslbek) 296, 14; (Tuaillon) 296, 12
Horse and Horse Tamer (Klodt) 19, 2/
Horse, Head of a (Gibson) 296, 16
Horse Tamer (Hofer) 168, 21
Horse Walking (Degas) 298, 4/
Holocaust (Bistolfi) 331,

Horace, The Dream

(Hunt) 296, 2
Houdon, Jean-Antoine 7; 8; 16; 18,

Horses of Anahita,

(Forain) 288, 7

Jewish Republic (Marianne as a Jewess)

10

Jianou, lonel 45

198

Joan of Arc 43; 194; (Frmiet) 9; 42


Joo VI, King of Portugal (Aguiar) 198, 26

John, William Goscombe 127, 4; 319, 18


Sir
William, Monument to (Flaxman) 195, 4

Jones,

Chief of the Nez Perc Indians

Joseph,

(Warner)

254,

22
JouFFROY, Franois 2 56; 362, 3
Jouin, Henri 18; 44; 78; 79; 182; 225; 332
Jourdan, Count Jean-Baptiste 78
Joursauvault,

Juno and

Baroness

of

(Proudhon)

19,

21

of the Milky

the Infant Hercules (Origin

(Bystrom)

254,

Way)

28

Kamensky, Fyodor Fyodorovich 88, 16, 21


Katharina, Queen of Westphalia (Dannecker) 253, 4
Kendrick, Josephus John Pinnix 333, 3
Kessels,
Mathias 45, 16
Khnopff, Fernand 126; 391, //
Kiesling, Leopold 18; 19, 30
Kiss for the Knight, A (Dampt) 362, 10
Kiss

of Viaory (Gilbert) 200, SI


Jean-Baptiste-Jules

Klagmann,

The

/;

19; 42;

85; 101; 102; 107; 251; 252; 255


Hove, Victor van 18, 14
Hugo, Victor 41; 79; 108; 137; 142; 193; 249;
389; 392; 405; (Falguiere) 256, 57; (Rodin)
141, 10

137; 378; 405


Klinger, Max 109; 125; 166; 167; 168, 29; 295;
296; 362, 18; 391, 10; 407, /
Klodt, Peter Karlovich 19, 21; 87; 195, 7; 198,
33; 131
Kneeling Woman, study of head (Lehmbruck) 167, 8
Knight-Errant (Bayes) 391, 2

Huguenin, Jean-Pierre 46, 33


Hugues, Dominique-Jean-Baptiste 240,
Hunt, William Morris 296, 2

Hunting Dogs (Cain) 297, 28


Hunting Dogs on the Leash (Bates) 298, i5

HuszAR, Adolf 197, 22


Huysmans, J. K. 361
Hylas Stolen by the Nymphs (Thorvaldsen) 47, 43

Konenkov, Sergey Timofejevich


Korschmann, Charles 128, IS

183, 9

KozLovsKi, Michael Ivanovich 15; Model for the


Tomb of (PiMENOv) 334, 22
Krger, Franz (Pierde-Kruger) 254
Krylov, Ivan Andreyevich, Monument to (Klodt) 198, 33

KuRSAWA, Antoni

110,

12

A (Bissen) 88, 8
Waiting, Monument
334, 32
Lafayette (Larche) 199, 47
Lady,

(Gilbert) 127, 6
Fairy, The (Causs) 407,

Lady

Icarus
Ice

Ignis Fatuus

(Pegram)

10,

/ /

(S

in

to

Ester

Piaggio (ScANZl)

INDEX

(Bartholdi) 198, 43
Lalaing, Jacques de 335, 52
Lamartine, Alphonse de 249
Lambeaux, Joseph-Marie-Thomas (Jef) 166; 392,
Lafayette

and

Washington

425

Louis

XV, King of France

181

Louis XVI, Apotheosis of (Eosio) 318,


Louis XVIII, King of France 193

<?

Women
1789 (Gaudez) 198, 46
Louis-Philippe, King of France 10; 193; 315
Lovers, The (Hildebrand) 167, 10
Lucretia, Dying (Campeny) 45, 5
Louison the Flower- Vendor Leading the Market

in

the Revolution of

Lami, Stanislas
Lamoricire,

General,

Tomb oj

{Meditation)

(Dubois)

333, 13

Lanceray, Ievgeny Alexandrovich 296, 20


Landseer, Edwin Henry 295
Lanz, Karl-Alfred 197, 19

Luisa

Laocon 43

Laplanche, Pierre-Albert 240, 9, //


Lo 407, 15
Larche, Raoul 127, //; 198, 47; 226; 228, 18
Laurens, Henri 166; 167
Laurent, Pierre-Antoine 47, 3S
La Valette, Marquise de (Carpeaux) 101

and

(Schadow) 47, 30

The Princesses

Friederike,

Luke, William 391, /


Lullaby (Sucharda) 379, 2
Lullaby of Love (Reynolds-Stephens)
Lysippus 79

21

128,

Laporte-Blaisin,

Lavoisier Explaining the Role of

Oxygen

in Air

(Barrias)

18; (David d'Angers) 78


Leander, Hero and (Laurent) 47, 35
Leap-Frog (Dor) 391, 4
Le Brun, Charles 111
Lechery

(Gauguin) 167, 3

Clerc

de Juign,

Monseigneur,

Archbishop

of Taris,

Funeral Monument of (\'iOLLZi-LE-Duc) 318, 9


de Lisle 125; Study for the Monument

Leconte

Maeterlinck, Maurice 390


Magdalen,

St.

Mary, Transported

of

37; 379, 7

Manet, Edouard 19
Manet, Julie, Head

167, 8; 182

Malinsky, Josef 88, 5


Malinsky, Pavel 183, 3

Man
Man

Watering a Horse (Evens) 183, 2


with the Foil,

The (Stappen) 407, 6

Mandiargues, Andr Pieyre de 317


o/"

Leighton, Frederick 168, 30


Lemaire, Henri 101

Manship, Paul 166


Marcel, Etienne 43

Lemoyne, Jean-Baptiste 15
Lenoir, Alfred 110, //; 165
Leonard, Agathon 127, 12

Marcello (Adle

318, 10

Le Vel, Armand-Jules 196, 20


Henryk (Oleszcynski) 253,

3
Levy, Vaclav 110, 5; 318, 4; 392, 26
Liberty Leading the People (Delacroix) 41
of Liberty

Liebermann, Max 254


LiGETI, MlKLOS 198, 32

of Climne (Thomas) 253, 16


Mars, Venus, and Cupid (Kiesling) 19, 30

(Pradier) 18, //

Marseillaise, La:

Abraham 193; (Saint-Gaudens)

196,

16;

(Ball) 197, 17

Linder, Henry 127, 8

(Rush) 254, 24
Lion of Aspera (Fernkorn) 298, 38
Lipchitz, Jacques 166; 167
Liszt, Franz (Strobl) 197, 25
Linnaeus (Carl von Linne)

Boy with Bass Viol and Umbrella (Camilli) 380, 19

Little Fisherboy,

Little Girl
Little

The (Gemito) 379, 6

Crying

(Bartholom)

Relic Bearer,

(Canova) 333, 2

Marie-Christine, Princess of Orlans 319, 17


Mark Anthony, Triumph o/" (Strasser) 198, 37
Marochetti, Charles 10; 195, 6; 198, 35; 226;
316; 319, 11
Marriage of the Virgin, r/)e (Pradier) 319, 13
Mars, Mademoiselle (David d'Angers) 80, 9; in the Role

Levittoux,

Light Poetry

o/^

Marie-Amlie, Queen of France (Bosio) 47, 42


Marie-Antoinette, Queen, Succored by Religion (CoRTOT)

Gotthold Ephraim 1
(Blaser) 195, 8

Lincoln,

Duchess of Castiglione-

Maria Christina, Archduchess, Tomb

Lessing, Karl Friedrich

Liberty, Statue of, see Statue

d'Afifry,

Mares, Hans von 166

King of Belgium (G. Geefs) 197, 28

I,

(Morisot) 255, 49

Colonna) 240, 8

Leroux, Frdric-Etienne 88, 7


Lesbia's Sparrow (Truphme) 18, 32

Little

Heaven (Maroch^TTI)

Maggesi, Dominique 111, 15


Magni, Pietro 110, 3
Magritte, Ren 87; 332
Maid Ironing (Pradier) 183, 6
Maillol, Aristide 9; 44; 128; 165; 166; 167, 9;
168, 27, 32, 33; 228; 295; 378
Maindron, tienne-Hippolyte 47, 49; 137; 334,

Lehmbruck, Wilhelm 165; 166;

Lessing,

to

319, //

(PUECH) 110, 9
Leda (Hildebrand) 380, 15
Lederer, Hugo 167
Leenhoff, Ferdinand 19, 18
Lejvre (ne Soubise), Madame (Carpeaux) 102, 2
Lefuel, Hector 237

Leopold

127, 14

Magdalen, The Repentant (Canova) 46, 20

195, 5

Lawrence, Thomas

Le

MacMonnies, Frederick William 87; 126;


Madrassi, Luca 407, 14

The (Minne) 168, 25

Matthias Corvinus, King, Monument

Livy 79

LoisoN, Pierre 46, 26


Lorrain, Jean 361

Louis XIII, King of France 405

Louis XIV, King of France

407
405 407
;

334, 31
18

112, 28

362, 15

Matisse, Henri 142, 33; 168

167, 13

LOGANOVSKY, ALEXANDER VaSILYEVICH

The Departure of the Volunteers in 1792

(Rude) 41 ;44; 45, /


Martilly 128,///
Martins, Oliveira, Tomb of (Teixeira Lopes)
Martos, Ivan Petrovich 16; 19, 16; 333,
Mask Vendor, The (AsTRUc) 392, 16
.Wajsaci-e (Prau LT) 110, 10
Mathieu, Charles, Monument to (Theunissen)
Mathilde (Bonaparte), Princess (Carpeaux) 101
Math at the Feet of Salammb (Rivire) 126;

19,

22

to

(Fadrusz) 199, 54

Mauder, Josef 335, 53


Maupassant, Guy de 194; 390; Monument
112,24

to

(Verlet)

Maus, Octave 182


II, Monument to (Zumbusch) 228,
15
Mazzini, Giuseppe 87; Monument to (Costa) 228, 14

Maximilian

^Fmrm

426

Mazzuccbetti

An

Medieval

Munes, Alberto 20

Augusta (Bazzaro) 256, S8

(Linder) 127, 8
Tomb of General Lamoricire (Dubois)

MuNRo, Alexander

47,
(Peter) 380, 17

36

Meditation, from

Muse,

r/ie

333, 13
Meili, Heinrich 227, 3

Music

(Dalou) 240, 13; (Hove)

Meissonier, Jean-Louis-Ernest 142, 23; 194; 198,


42; 295; 296, //
Melida y Alinari, Arturo 334, 34
Mellery, Xavier 108
Memory (Merci) 333, 19
Mendes da Costa, Joseph 288, 2

Mne, Pierre-Jules 295; 296, 19; 297, 27


Menzel, Adolf Friedrich Erdmann 254; 378
Mephistopbeles (Antokolsky) 362, 5
Merci, Marius-Jean-Antonin 112, 26; 165; 298;
333,

19

Mercury Fastening His Winged Sandal (Rude) 17; 18, 9

Meunier, Alexandre 228, 17


Meunier, Constantin-mile 110; 127; 166; 182;
21, 22; 228,

17; 240; 295; 296,

10;
319, 22; 334
Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia 194; (CarrierBelleuse) 198
184,

19,

Madman (Valbudea) 45, 6


Andr
Michel,
20
Michelangelo 13; 15; 47; 77; 101; 102; 108;

Michael the

Adam (Kursawa) 110, 12

Mignon, Lon
yWi^rant5

391, ^

(Daumier) 140, 6

Carl 127, 13; 298, 40


Millet, Jean Franois 85

Milmore Memorial (French)

335,

Minne, George 126; 166;

167,

6,

7;

168,

25;

(Amy) 256, 54

Molitor (cabinetmaker) 333


Monet, Claude 8 142
;

Monge, Gaspard 249; Monument to (Rude) 227, 6


Monla- Vicuna, Madame (Rodin) 255, 43
Mont Blanc, Monument to H.-B. de Saussure and J. Balmat
Commemorating the First Ascent of, in 1 786 (Salmson)
88, 75
Montagne, Pierre 197, 27
Montesquieu (Clodion) 43
MONTEVERDE, GlULIO 183, 12
Montpensier, Duke of. Tomb of (Westmacott) 45
Morand, Paul 256
MoREAU, Gustave 108; 111, 14

Moreau-Vauthier, Augustin-Jean 407, 5


Moreno, Giacomo 330; 334, 36
MoRisoT, Berthe 255, 49
Moser, Koloman 317; 362
Mosse and Riou, Captains, Monument

to

(Rossi) 333, 5

22
Mother and Child on a Tomb (artist unknown) 333, 17
Mother and Daughter (Troubetzkoy) 142, 21
Mother and Dying Daughter (Rodin) 140, 7
Mother Weeping over Her Dead Child (Minne) 167, 6
Motherhood (Vallotton) 168, 26
Mountain Man, The (Remington) 297, 24
Mounted Torchbearer (Frmiet) 198, 30
Mother, The (Cecioni) 88,

19,

20

127, 10

The

Russian

(Frampton) 127,

"Nana" 239
Napoleon I 8; 46; 142; 193; 194; 197; 198; 315;
(HouDON) 18, /; (Rude) 329
Napoleon, The Dying (Vela) 198, 23
Napoleon, Equestrian Statue of (Le Vel) 197, 20
Napoleon III 237; 239; 316
Napoleona, Princess (Bartolini) 379, 4
Napoleonic Wars, An Episode in the (Spala) 199, 40
Nature,

and

Mysterious

Science

Veiled,

Unveils Herself Before

(Barrias) 112, 19

Negress (Cordier) 407, 8


Nerval, Grard de 253
Nest,

New

The (Croisy)
Salome,

20

380,

The (Klinger) 391, 10

Auguste

de

(Niederhusern-Rodo)

Nieuwerkerke, Count

of,

Alfred-Emile O'Hara 8

316

Nol, Edm-Antony-Paul (Tony-Nol) 334, 24


Noir, Victor 332
Tomb of (Dalou) 334, 30
Norseman (Foley) 199, 50
Novalis (Baron Friedrich von Hardenberg) 377
Nude Figures (Watts) 140, 5
Nude in Armchair (Dalou) 88, 3
Nydia, The Blind Girl of Pompeii (R. Rogers) 379, 10
Nymph and Satyr (Gricault) 140, 3
Nymph of the Spring (Georgescu) 19, 26
Nymph Riding a Sea-Bull (Hildebrand) 228, 21
Nyssia (Pradier) 48, 55
;

Moignez, Jules 298, 32


Moine, Antonin-Marie 296, 4
Moldau River (Prachner) 18, 15
MoLiN, Johan Peter 45, 9; 228, 12

Scaevola,

Mysteriarch

255, 48

43

Mockel, Albert 391

Mucius

Myslbek, Josef Vaclav 47, 38; 142, 24; 296, 14;


318; 333, 21

Niederhusern,

378

Mucha, Alphonse

Muzhik on Horseback (Lanceray) 296, 20


Colonel Sir William, Monument to (Kendrick)
333, 3

Myers,

195, 7

Milles,

Mistral, Frdric

14; (Myslbek)

Ney, Marshal Michel 43; (David d'Angers) 195;


(Grandi) 142, 34; (Rude) 142; 195
Nez Perc Indians, ChiefJoseph of the (Warner) 254, 22
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia 19; Monument to (Klodt)

137; 139
Mickiewicz,

18,

142, 24

(Demut-Malinovsky)

Ober, Artem Laurentevich 298, 36


Ochse, Madeleine 316
Odette de Champdivers, Charles VI Succored by

(HuGUEtiln)

46, 33
Odin (Fogelberg) 48, 56

Oechslin, Johann Jakob 46, 28


Oedipus, The Young, Brought Back to Life by the Shepherd

Phorbas (Chaudet) 46, 34; 407


Old Mine Horse, The (Meunier) 296, 10
Old Woman of Tinos (M. Fytalis) 255, 32

Oleszcynski,

Wladyslaw

Olympus (Clsinger)

253, 3

17

Oms, Manuel 194


(Prault) 46, 25
(Deligand) 20, 41
Orengo, Luigi 330
Orestes (Duret) 18, 6
Origin of the Milky Way, see Juno and the Infant Hercules
(Bystrom)
Orlando Furioso (Seigneur) 45, 7
Orlans, The Duke o/"(MAROCHErri) 195, 6
Orlans, Princess of, Marie-Christine 319, 17
Orpheus (Rodin) 141, //
Orsay, Count of, Alfred Guillaume Gabriel 10
Ophelia

Oracle in the Fields, The

INDEX

Orsi, Achille d' 183,

10; 391, 5

Osiris 332
Our Dear Mother (Strobl) 88, 27

Paciurea, Dumitru 198

56
(David d'Angers) 254, 31
Pailleron, Edouard, Monument to (Bernstamm) 112, 23
Pajou, Augustin 20
Pakenham and Cibbs, Generals, Monument to (Westmacott) 333, 6
Palagi, Pelagio 226
Palmer, Erastus Dow 47, 40; 87; 379, 5
Pan and Psyche (Begas) 379, /
Paolo and Francesco (Munro) 47, 36
Paradise Lost (Dieudonn) 47, 37
Paderewski, Ignace (Gilbert) 256,

Paganini, Niccolo

The (Orsi) 391, 5

Parasites,

(Carabin) 183, 13
(Flamand) 128, 17
Pascal, Franois-Michel (Michel-pascal) 319, 16
Pasche, Albert 334, 25
Parisian Couple Dancing

The

Parisienne,

Monument of

Patrone Family, Lazzaro,

the

427

Pradier, Jean-Jacques (James) 18, //; 43; 46; 48,


55; 88; 183, 6; 239, 2; 286; 319, 13; 361; 362,
2; 378
Prault, Antoine Augustin 10; 46, 25; 48, 57;
108; 110, 10; 137; 253, 13; 286; 296; 315; 319,
25; 329; 331 (line cut); 332
Primavera (Adams) 407, 20
Proctor, Alexander Phimister 298, 37
Prodigal Son, T/ie (Rodin) 141, 13
Prokofiev, Ivan Prokofievich 140, 2
Prud'hon, Pierre-Paul 17; 254, 21; 332
P/c/ie (Canova) 19, 33
Psyche Borne Aloft by the Zephyrs (Gibson) 379, 8
Psyche Fainting (Tenerani) 379, 9
Puberty (Almeida) 20, 38
Puech, Denys 110, 9
PuGET, Pierre 107
Pushkin and His Friend Delvig (Bernstamm) 88, //
Pushkin, Monument to (Bakh)
197, 18
Pygmalion and Galatea (Rodin) 141, 14
Pythian Priestess on the Tripod

49

C^adriga (Recipon) 239,

Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus Victorious


19,

(Marcello) 240, 8

(Varni) 335,

(Canova)

27

Peace (Chaudet) 14, /; 407, 3


Pegram, Henry Alfred 110, 8
Pellini, Eugenio 334, 23

Quatremre de Quincy 10
Queen of Sheba, The (Ferrary) 364, IX
Queirolo, Francesco 330
Monseigneur

Quelen,

Louis

Funeral

de.

Monument of

(Geoffroy De Chaume) 318, 6

Penelope (Drossis) 18, 5

Percier,
Perfume,
Prignon,

Charles 77
The (Vallgren) 128, 20
Marshal, Tomb o/" (Plantar) 333, 12

Rachel, Portrait o/

(Barre) 407, 2

Rachel, Mademoiselle, Before Going on the Stage

88,

(Dillens) 296, 5
and Pegasus (Chalepas) 167, / /
Perseus Freeing Andromeda (Chinard) 19, 3/

(Duret) 253, 15
(David d'Angers) 17; 20, 48;

Perseus

Rachel in the Role of Phdre

Perseus

Racine,

Monument

to

78

(Daumier) 288, //
Persuasion (Godebski) 362, 4
Peter, Victor 380, 17
Peter Pan (Frampton) 127
Petofi, Sandor, Monument to (Huszar) 197, 22

Radziwill,

Phidias 45

Rau, Louis 16; 319


Reber Tomb, The (Nol) 334, 24

Persil,

Portrait

Philip,

Leontine (Rauch) 253, 9


Ramazanov, Nikolai Alexandrovich

o/"

196, 15

Philipon, Charles 288

Ester,

Monument

to

(ScANZl) 334,

Ren d'Anjou, King, Monument of (Dwiu d'Angers) 80, 8


Renoir, Auguste 6; 138
Republic, The

Resignation

His

Weary

Way,

of,

Pierre- Alexis

Robert 288
Reynolds-Stephens, William 125; 127, 7; 128, 21
317

RiCHiER, Ligier 389


RiETscHEL, Ernst 195, 12

405

(Dalou) 184, 18
Poussin, Nicolas 46; 79; 286
Poverella {Poor Young Thing) (Vigne) 362, 13
Powers, Hiram 20, 39; 48, 54; 87; 168; 254, 28
Prachner, Vaclav 18, 15
Potato Picker

Terebenev) 227, 2

Rey,
'

The'

Pompon, Franois 295; 297, 26

Viscount

(I.

Return from the Post Office, The (Rivalta) 88, 2

Terrail,

24

Resurrection of the Russian Fleet

(W. Thornycroft) 10, 7


PoDozERov, Ivan Ivanovich 255, 33
Polar Bear (Ober) 298, 36
Ponson du

(Orlans) 319, 17

Resting Faun (Sergel) 19,

Plantar, Jean-Baptiste-Louis 333, 12


Playing Children, Tomb with (Bazzaro) 335, 54
Pleszowski, Antoni 88, 20
Plods

(Canova) 46, 20
(Clsinger) 111,//; (French) 228, 16

Repentant Magdalen, The

18; 43; 195

Fiomeward

(Chinard)

Reibnitz, Madame de (Schadow) 253, 2


Remington, Frederick 297, 24

PiMENOv, Stepan Stepanovich 334, 22


Piquer y Duart, Jos 48, 58, 60; 195, 3; 318
Pissarro, Camille 8; 138

Ploughman

10;

Reflective

of Life (ScANZi) 334, 40

GusUve

253,

Recipon, Georges 239, /


Mood (Dampt) 407,' 13
Regnault, Henri, Monument to (Coquart, Degorge,
and Chapu) 335, 45

32

(Freund) 47, 45
Piermarini, Giuseppe 239, 6
PiGALLE, Jean-Baptiste 15; 18; 107; 181
Piles, Roger de 44
Pilon, Germain 237

Planche,

18

253, 8

Picking Flowers

Pilot

Madame (Canova)

Rcamier,

(Chinard) 254, 23
Philipsen, Theodor 298, 30

Philippe galit

Piaggio,

2 54,

(Daumier) 285; 288, /


Rauch, Christian 253, 9; 254, 30; 296, 6
Readers, The (Dor) 227, /
Ratapoil

78

John Birnie

(Leroux)

Rinehart, William Henry 19, 34; 87


Monument to (Rossi) 333, 5

Riou, Captains Mosse and.

Rivalta,

Augusto 86; 87;

88, 2

Rivers Flowing into the Ocean, Fountain


of the

(Bartholdi)

228, 10
Rivire,

Thodore-Louis-Auguste 20; 126; 165;

362, 15

^^

^-

^^^Tl

428

Robert, Elias 20
Rodin, Auguste 8; 11; 13; 44; 47; 80; 102; 107;
108; 110; 111; 126; 137-40; 140, 7-/2; 141,
13,14; 142; 165; 166; 167; 184; 240; 249;
250; 251, VII; 252; 255, 43; 256, 62; 285; 295;
296; 332; 363, 23; 392, 23; (Troubetzkoy)
256, S9
Rogers, John 194; 198, 39; 380, 14
Rogers, Randolph 87; 379,
RoiG Y SoLER, Juan 392, 18
Rolland, Colonel, Defender of Le Bourget, Monument to
(Bloch) 199, 49
RoUinat (Carries) 256, 52
RoMBAUx, GIDE 142, 29; 392, 21
Rosa, Ercole 226; 228, 13; 255, 41
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel 127
Rossi, John Charles 333, S
Rossi, Pellegnno (Tenerani) 88, 26
Rosso, Medardo 8; 13; 108; 126; 139-40; 141, 17;
142, 18, 19; 256, 60
RouBiLLAC, Louis-Franois 85; ,330

Anders

Rounblom,

Mathias,

The

(Rounblom) 255, 40
Rounblom, August Leonard
Rousseau, Victor 126;
391,

Swedish

255, 40

127; 142; 166; 168, 22;

6,

Rubio, Doctor, Monument to (Blay) 87

Rude, Franois

329
Rush, Joseph 254
Rush, William 110,
Russian

228, 20

10; 18, 9; 41; 42; 44; 45,

8;

i; 101; 111; 126; 142; 195;

Russian

Bell-Founder

227,6; 319,

/,

12, 14;

2; 254, 20
ScHALLER, Johann Nepomuk 18, 8
Scheffer, Ary 316
Schiller, Friedrich von 20
Schiller and Goethe, Monument to (Rietschel) 195, 12

Schilling, Johann 226


ScHNiRCH, Bohuslav 199, S6
Schoelcher Tomb, The

Schoenwerk, Alexandre

24
Fleet, Resurrection of the (I. Terebenev) 227, 2
Mucius Scaevola, The (Demut-Malinovsky) 19,
2; 254,

20
Ruxthiel, Henri Joseph 19
Rysbrack, John Michael 330

40
(Degas) 88, 12

20-,

Schoolgirl Walking in the Street

Schuffenecker, Emile 407

Schwanthaler, Ludwig 227, 4


Scott, George Gilbert 196, 75
Scott, Sir
Sculptor's

Walter 1 95 405 Bust o/"(Chantrey) 253,


Dream, The (Rodin) 140, 12
;

(Convers; 112, 22; (Rodin) 392, 23


(Maillol) 168, 27
.Mermaid {]ekich\\i) 168, 23
Woman (Dubois) 88, 6
I/ie (Fix-Masseau; 127, 5; (Rousseau) 168, 22

Seasons, The

Seated Bather
Seated

Seated
Secret,

Seduction,

The, see Hlose

and Ablard Reading Together

(Chatrousse)
Seigneur, Jean du 45, 7
Self Portrait (Daumier) 256, SS
Self-Portrait on the Sculptor's Tomb (Carries) 112, 29
Sergel, Johan Tobias 19, 24
Servais-Godebska, .Madame Zofia (Godebski) 255, 37
Shchedrin, Fedos Feodorovich 7; 15
Sheba, The Queen o/" (Ferrary) 364, IX
Sheep

/,

(Fromanger and Hannaux) 335,

46

(I.

Bonheur) 298,

31

Shepherd, The (G. Fytalis) 183, 7

Shepherd Boy Bitten by a Snake and Succored by His Dog

(Maindron) 379,
5/)ep/ierc/e5j

(Ferenczy) 380, 13

Sherman, General William Tecumseh (Saint-Gaudens) 87

Shubin, Fedot Ivanovich 15


Dog (Frmiet) 296, IS
Sick Person in Hospital (Rossoj 141, 17
Siege of Paris, study for (Meissonier) 296, //
Siesta, The (Bourdelle) 142, 32
SiMART, Pierre-Charles 18, 4
Simonis, Louis-Eugne 20, 46
SiMYAN, Victor 19, /
SiNDiNG, Stefan 46, 32; 110
Sick

Madame ApoUonie-Agla (Clsinger) 253, 11


Saccomanno, Santo 330
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus 87; 127, 3; 167, 17; 195,
Sabatier,

/;

196,

16;

256,

S3;

SI

335,

Saint-Marceaux, Charles-Ren de 112, 18; 256,


SI; 334, 29
Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin 199

(David d'Angers) 78
Hungary (Gilbert) 407, 12

SiSLEY,

St.

Cecilia

St.

Flizabeth of

Sisters

St.

George and the .Music of Catalonia (Blay) 392, 2 S


George Killing the Dragon (FrmieT) 196, V

Sisters

St.
St.
St.

St.
St.
St.

St.

(Hildebrand) 166
Jerome (Piquer) 48, S8
John of God (Vallmitjana) 319, 24
John the Baptist (John) 319, 18
Luke and the Bull (Desroches) 318, 2
.Mary .Magdalen Transported to Heaven (Marochetti)
Hubert,

Fountain

o/^

319, //

of Bethany, The
Illusion,

(Wood)

19,

29

The (Rousseau) 391, 6

of
Sizeranne, Robert de

la

138

Skovgaard, Niels 407, 17


Slave, The

(GisoTTi) 362, 17; (Matisse) 142, 33


(Veray) 48, SI

Sleeping Reaper

Sluggard, The

(Leighton) 168, 30

Smallpox Vaccine, Edward Jenner Inoculating His Infant Son

(Monteverdi) 183, 12
(MoiGNEZ) 298, 32
SoARs DOS Reis, Antonio 20; 45, 8; 254, 29
Sobakina, Mme. M. ., ne Princess Mesherska, Funerary
Monument to (Martos) 333, 18
with

Snipe

St.

Michael Slaying Satan (Flaxman) 18,

St.

Sebastian

10

(Bourdelle) 319, 23

Salammb, .Mathd

at the Feet o/"

(Rivire) 126; 362, IS

Salmson, Jean-Jules 88, 2S


Salome, The New (Klinger) 391, 10
Sand, George (Clsinger; 253, 14
Sappho Abandoned (Dupr) 20, 47
o/'(Cubero) 45, 14
(Myslbek) 47, 38

Saragassa, The Defense

Sarka, Ctirad and

Saturnalia, I/ie (Biondi) 391, 3

Satyr and Bacchante

(Carrier-Belleuse) 362, 9; (Gri-

cault) 140, 4
ScANZi,

Alfred 6; 138

Giovanni 334,

32,

40

Schadow, Johann Gottfried

19, 23; 46, 30; 253,

Sola, Antonio 195, 3


Soldiers Burying Their Dead (Bissen) 199, 48

(Minne) 167, 7
Sommaruga, Giuseppe 330
Sonnenschein, Johann Valentin 45, 4
Sorrow (Pleszowski) 88, 20
SouFFLOT, Jacques Germain 15; 315; Bust o/" (Danton) 16
Souk, Marshal, Minister of War and Foreign Affairs in
Louis-Philippe's Cabinet, Portrait of (Dausmer) 288, 8
Spalla, Giacomo 198, 40
Solidarity

I
i

INDEX

Spanish Dance (Degas) 142,

Tiger Family (Cain) 298, 39


TiLGNER, Viktor Oskar 256, 42

28

John 87

Sparkes,

Spartacus (Vela) 100, 13

Tobacco Joe

Sphinx, r/ie (Stappen) 127,

Spring, The

Stag
Stag

(Maillol) 168, 33

Bonheur) 298, 34
Beetle (Pompon) 297, 26

(I.

(Jacquemart) 296, 18
(Proctor) 298, 37
Stappen, Charles van der 108; 127, 9
Stark, Robert 295
Statue of Liberty, replica of (Bartholdi) 240, 12
Statuette (Larche) 127, //
Statuette of a Woman (Carabin) 392, 27
Stauffer, Karl 167, IS; 199, S2
Stavasser, Peter Andreevich 18, 2
Steam (Chapu) 112, 21 226
Steinlen, Thophile-Alexandre 285; 390
Stendhal 1
17; 41 85 86; 193 237
Stag Hunt

Stalking Panther

(Gauguin) 407, 16

Tomb (Pasche) 334, 25


Tomb Figure (Dillens) 334, 26; (Lalaing) 335, 52
Torchre (Carrier-Belleuse) 239, 5; (Hugues) 240,

24

Spring (BiEGAS) 392,

429

Stephen the Great 194; (Frmiet) 198


Stevens, Alfred 110, 4

Stewardson, Edmund 168, 31


Stewart, Augustus 362
Stone Breakers (Courbet) 85
Stonecrusher (KoNENKOv) 183, 9
Storck, Karl 19; 45; 198

Torreggiani, Camilo 380, / /


Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de 138
Tour de France par deux enfants (Bruno) 1 93
Triga (Schnirch) 200, 56
Trimolet, Louis Joseph 285
Triqueti, Henri-Joseph-Franois 10; 42; 316; 319,
19; 405
Triumph of 1810 Celebrating the Peace of Vienna (CoRtot) 48, 59; 198
Triumph of Mark Anthony (Strasser) 198, 37
Trotti, Count (Bartolini) 254, 27

Troubetzkoy, Paul 126; 142, 20-22; 256, 59; 295


Truphme, Andr-Franois 19, 32; 47, 41
TuAiLLON, Louis 166; 168, 19; 296, 12
Ugolino (Rodin) 108

Ugolino and His Sons

(Carpeaux) 101

Valbudea, Stefan Ionesco 45, 5; 198


Valenciennes,

(Cros) 407, 19
Stracke, Johannes Theodorus 87; 198, 29
Strasser, Arthur 198, 37
Strazza, Giovanni 319, 20
Strobl, Aloys 88, 27; 198, 2S
Struggle of Two Natures in Man, The (Barnard) 142, 31
Stuck, Franz von 128, 18; 166; 167, 14; 168, 20;
295
Sucharda, Stanislav 379, 2
Story of Water, The

peaux)

The City

102,

of.

Defending Her Ramparts (Car-

Valry, Paul 138

Malinsky) 88, 5

Valet (J.
Valette,

Marquise de la (Carpeaux) 101

(Cecioni) 46, 18
Sullivan, Louis 166; 330
Summer and Spring (Carrier-Belleuse) 239, 3

Vallgren, Ville 128, 20


Vallmitjana, Agapito 319, 24
Vallotton, Flix-douard 168, 26
Valor and Cowardice (Stevens) 1 10, 4
Varni, Santo 335, 49
Vasari, Giorgio 15
Vela, Vincenzo 110, 13; 182; 184; 198, 23; 226;
334, 27
Vellda (Maindron) 47, 49
Ven, a. J. 20

Summers, Charles 199, 44


SufJOL, Jernimo 194

Venus and Cupid (Begas) 379, 3

Suez, Cutting of the Isthmus o/"(Magni)


Suffren, Bailli de, Pierre

Andr

10, J

(Montagne)

197, 27

Suicide, The

Supreme

Kiss,

Venus

The (Christophe) 362, 7

Surrender of Abdu-1-Kadir (Carpeaux) 101


Sragrovsky, Vaclav, Sarcophagus o/^(Myslbek) 333, 21

(Fogelberg) 18

Venus of the Alameda de Osuna

(AdAn)

18, 12

Veray, Jean-Louis 48, 57


Vercingetorix 194

Verhaeren, Emile 182

Tabbacchi, Odoardo 88, 24


Table (Carabin) 392, 28
Taglioni, Maria, The Ballerina (Barre) 380, 16
Talleyrand 286
ramanenc/ (Luke) 391, /
Tartarkiewicz, Jakob 318, 5
Teixeira Lopes, Antonio 87; 88, 23; 334, 31
Tenerani, Pietro 88, 26; 379, 9
Terebenev, Alexander Ivanovich 18, 3
Terebenev, Ivan Ivanovich 227, 2
Terror

and

the

Minotaur (Barye) 46,

Theunissen, Corneille 112, 28


Thierry, Augustin 194
Thiers, Adolphe 10; 193; 406
Thomas, Gabriel-Jules 253, 16

Thornycroft, Thomas 297, 21


Thornycroft, William Hamo 110, 7
Thorvaldsen, Bertel 11; 16; 17; 46;

47, 43, 46;


77; 110; 168; 183; 199; Leaning on the Statue
of Hope (BissEN) 20, 49
TiECK, Christian Friedrich 253, 6
Tiger Devouring a Crocodile (Barye) 296, /

(Niederhausern) 255, 48

Thornycroft) 297,
Vigeland, Gustav 110, 6
ViGNE, Paul de 362, 13
Horseback (T.

Vigny,

(DoR) 392, 17

Theseus

Verlaine, Paul, The Poet

Verlet, Raoul-Charles 112, 24


Verne, Jules (Franceschi) 256, 45
Vernet, Carle 285
Vestal Virgin (Carrier-Belleuse) 380, 12
Victims of Labor, The (Vela) 184, 23
Victoria, Queen 181; 193; (Barre) 380,

18; on

21

Count Alfred Victor de 249

Villon, Franois 43; (Etcheto) 195, //

(Saint-Marceaux) 112, 18
VIOLLET-LE-DUC, EuGNE 318, 9; 391, 21
Vitellius, Portrait of (Brancusi) 8; 198, 38
Vitsaris, Jean 334, 41
Vittorio Emmanuele, King, Monument to (Rosa) 226 228,
13
Vivant Denon, Dominique, see Denon
Vine, r/ic

VoLKMANN, Arthur
Voltaire (Houdon) 42

168,

24

Vroutos, Giorgos 390; 392, 13


Vrubel, Mikhail Alexandrovich 391, 9

430

Wood Nymph (Birch) 47, 44

Wagner, Otto 317


Waiting (Braekeleer) 46, 27
War (WiLLUMSEN) 392, 19

Ward, John Quincy Adams


Warner, Olin Levi 254, 22

Workers Constructing a Bridge (P.

Wounded Horse, study for The


296, //
" Wounded to

198, 36

Warrior, Large (Bourdelle) 167, /


Washerwoman (Maillol) 167, 9
Washington, George 193; (Greenough) 195, 10;
Lafayette and (Bartholdi) 199, 43
Water Nymph (Cordier) 20, 37
Water Nymph and Bittern (Rush) 110, /
Watt, James (Chantrey) 253; (Munro) 47
Watts, David Pike, Monument to (Chantrey) 333, 4
Watts, George Frederick 140, 5; 295
Weekes, Henry 195, 14
Wellington, Duke of, Arthur Wellesley 43; 110;
(Stevens) 110, 4
Welonski, Pius 199, 4S
Wemyss, Lord 298

Westmacott, Richard 16; 43 45, 2; 330; 333, 6, 7


Whitbread, Samuel, Monument to (Bacon) 333, 8
White Captive, The (Palmer) 47, 40
Widow, The (Teixeira Lopes) 88, 23
;

WijK, Charles van 184, /5


Wild Horses of Duncan, The

Wilhelm
Wills,

One More

Shot (].

Rogers) 198,

(Lambeaux) 392, 14

Wrestlers

Young Boy Washing (Ivanov) 88, 75

Young Convalescent, The (Loison) 46, 26


Young Englishwoman, Mask of a (Khnopff) 391, //
Young Girl at the Spring (Truphme) 47, 41

Young Girl at the Well (Conradsen) 183, 4


Young Girl Confding Her
362,

First Secret to Venus

(Jouffroy)

Young Girl of Tangermiinde, The (Rauch) 296, 6


Young Girl Picking Apples (Bourdelle) 142, 36
Young Girl Sleeping (Baily) 47, 47
Young Greek Girl on Tomb of Marco Botzaris, Fighter for
Greek Independence

(David d'Angers) 33435, 42

Young Horseman, The (Hahn) 168, 18


Young Indian Girl (Bosio) 47, 42

Man

with a Lance

(Georgescu)

Young Oedipus, The, Brought Back

19, 19

to Life

by the Shepherd

(Chaudet) 46, 34; 407


Young Robert D. (Chapu) 88, 14
Young Sculptor, The (Kamensky) 88, 16
Phorbas

II

(Summers) 199, 44
WiLLUMSEN, Jens Ferdinand 392, 19
Winckelmann, Johann Joachim 15; 194
Winged Genius Sacrificing a Bull (Rude) 45, 3
Woman Bitten by a Snake (Clsinger) 46, 24
Woman Caressing a Chimera (Dencheau) 362, 14
Woman in Assyrian Style (Fattorini) 407, 10
Woman of Gaul (Rude) 17
Woman of Samaria, The (Rinehart) 19, 34
Woman with Peacock (Falguire) 363, 21
Woman with Umbrella (RoiG Y Soler) 392, 18
Women Kissing (Madrassi) 407, 14
Wood, John Warrington 19, 29

Rear"

(Meissonier)

39

Young

(Garrard) 296, 17

194; 379
W. J., and Robert O'Hara Burke, Memorial

the

Malinsky) 183, 3

Siege of Paris

to

Youth (Carles) 128, 16; (Milles) 127, 13


Youth and Love

(Crauk) 19, 2 S
(Hildebrand) 228, 19

Youth on a Sea-Horse

Zadkine, Ossip 167


Zamoyska

Czartoryski,

(Bartolini)

334,

Countess

Sofa,

Monument

to

28

Zamoyski, Andrzej (GuYSKi) 254, 17

Zola, Emile 5; 12; 183; 193; 239; 332; 390; Monu-

ment to (C. Meunier) 228, 17


ZuMBUscH, Kaspar 228, IS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
/ wish to

thank M. O'Meara,

my kind and

helpful editor, as well as

Mme

Claude Nabokov, whose meticulous research and assistance greatly

contributed to the production of this book.

Dr. Hubert Adolph, Vienna; Miss Aflin, London; Luis Monreal


Barcelona;

Agusti,

Anderson, Boston; Dr. Erwin M.

Gail

Rouen; Jean-Max Leclerc, Paris; Marcel Lecomte, Paris; MauLe Roux, Paris; Alain Lesieutre, Paris; George Levitine,

rice

Auer, Vienna; Prof. Dr. Erich Bachmann, Munich; Pierre

College Park, Md.

Baudson, Brussels; Dr. F. A. Baumann, Zurich; Jean Bguin,

Livingston,

Lige; Jacques-Edouard Berger, Lausanne; Emilio Bertonati,

Marcenaro, Genoa; Peter O. Marlow, Hartford; Dr.

W.

Milan; Dr. A.

Biermann, Bonn; Paul

Dr. Peter Bloch, Berlin

Bittler, Paris; Prof.

Helena Blum, Cracow

Prince

Em-

Bristol;

Jean Leymairie, Paris; Marie-Christine


Sbastien Leste,

Prague; Edgar de N. Mayhew,


Paris; David

New

Paris;

Dott.

Caterina

Jiri

Masin,

London; Simone Mazire,

McKibbin, Boston; Dr.

MellinghofF, Essen;

F.

Zbigniew Boghenski,

Grard Menetrat, Paris; Ingrid Mesterton, Gteborg; Eleanor

Cracow; L. Bourdil, Rouen; Dott. Palma Bucarelli, Rome;


Dr. Gunter Busch, Bremen; Adeline Cacan, Paris; Julien
Cain, Paris; Raffaello Causa, Naples; Ren de Chambrun,

N. Monahon, Providence; Dott. Alessandra Mottola, Milan;

Paris; Sylvie Chevalley, Paris; Albert Dasnoy, Brussels; Dr.

falo; Franoise

manuel R. Bodgan,

Decker,

Elisabeth

Berlin

Dr.

Prof.

Paris;

Henri-Franois

Duchne,

Paris

Michel Dufet, Paris; Jacques Dupont, Paris; Georg Duthaler,


Basel; Dr. Essayan, Lisbon;

N.C.

Hugh

A. Eudy, Hendersonville,

Dr. Gerhard Ewald, Stuttgart; Prof.

Italo Faldi,

Rome;

Mouradian

et Vallotton, Paris

England; Thomas Neurath, London; Jane E. Nitterauer, Buf-

Vienna;

J.

Nora-Cachin, Paris; Prof. Dr. Fritz Novotny,

R. Ostiguy, Ottawa; Constance-Ann Parker, Lon-

don; Leslie

Parris,

London; Merribell Parsons, Minneapolis;

Aldo Passoni, Turin; Jacques Pierre, Quebec; Dott.

Dott.

Sandra Pinto, Florence; Dr. G. E. Pogany, Budapest; Jacques

Robert Femier, Omans; Aage Fersing, Copenhagen; Robert

Politis;

Finck, Brussels; Philippe Foumier, Rouen; Dr. Jos-Augusto

Dr. Vaclay Prochazka, Prague

Franca, Lisbon;

J.

R. Gaborit, Paris; Hugues R. Gall, Paris;

Comte de Ganay; Dott. Mercedes Precerutti Garberi, Milan;


Jos M. Garrut, Barcelona; Dr. W. Geismeier, Berlin; Dr.
G. Gepts, Anvers;
Ccile

Ellen

Goldscheider,

Hans Haller, Basel;

W.

Goheen, Kansas City, Missouri;


Diana M.

Paris;

Dr.

Susanne

Philadelphia;

Halsema-Kubes, Amsterdam; R. Ham-

macher-Van den Brande, Rotterdam


cinnati;

Gray,

Heiland,

Katherine Hanna, Cin-

Leipzig;

Maurice

Herzog,

Chamonix; John K. Howat, New York; Charles F. Hummel,


Winterthur, Del. Noel S. Hutchinson, Australia; Radu Ionesco,

Bucharest;

J.

Athens; Dr.

Janusz Przewozny,

Rischel, Chicago; Jeannette E. Roach, St. Louis;

Roditi, Paris; Haavard Rostrup, Copenhagen;


seau,

New

Johnson,

Baltimore;

Joosten,

Kotalik,

Amsterdam;

Prague;

Dr.

F.

Marinos

Kalligas,

Lahusen, Cassel;

Emily Lane, London; Robert Lebel, Paris; Jean Lecanuet,

Edouard

Theodore Rous-

Wulf Schadendorf,
Treviso; Gyde V. Shepherd,

thenberg, Berlin; G. Salles, Le Havre; Dr.

Nuremberg; Manera Settino,


Ottawa; Dr. Dominges Solaris, Genoa; T. Stevens, Liverpool;

Barbro Sylwan, Stockholm; Oscar Thue, Oslo; Jacques Toja,


Paris;

Walter Trachsler, Zurich; Alan Trapenard, Paris; Wil-

lonel

Diana

York; Barbara Rumpf, Los Angeles; Dr. V. Ru-

liam H. Truettner, Washington D.C.

Jianu;

Poznan

Raumschssel, Dresden; Joseph

Pierre Quarr, Dijon; Dr.


J.

O. Popovitch, Rouen;

Popofif, Paris;

The Hague;

M.
Jiri

Mme. Alexandre

William R. Johnston, Baltimore; Dr. Frances Follin Jones,


Princeton;

John Murdoch, Birmingham,

Christian

Vemes,

Dr. Evelyn Weiss, Cologne; H.


Mass.;

Hermann Warner

Peter Wilson, London; Dr.

Zdzislaw Zygulski,

A.

Paris;

J.

M. van der

Vaart,

Dina Vierny, Paris;

Wade White, Cambridge,

Williams,

Jr.,

Washington,

D.C;

Werner Zimmermann, Karlsruhe;

Cracow.

^m

PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS
The author and publisher wish

to

thank the libraries, museums, and private collectors for permitting the reproduction of sculptures in their

Photographs have been supplied by the owners or custodians of the works of art except for the following, whose courtesy

collections.

is

gratefully acknowledged :

A.C.L., Brussels (1) 46, (2) 16, 27, (4) 6, (7)

2, 9, (8) 29,

(9) 6, 7, 22, 25, (10) 19, 21, 22, (11) 28, (14) 5, 38, (16) 5,

10,(17)22, (18)26, (19)

13, (21)6, 7, 11, 21, (22) 6; Studio

Troyes (1) 4,

(2) 53, (22) 7;

Andr Gomet,

Hauchard, Valenciennes (5)

raudon, Paris (1) 27, (11) 23, (12) 14, (13) 6, (17) 20, (18)

Bresse (3) 7; Louis Helo,

Bernard Anginot,
lon,
1,

Lungaard Andersen, Copenhagen (1) 49;

New York

36; Art

Vendme

(9) 5

Dcoration,

et

Apol-

(2) 35, 39; Marchaorillier

Art Commission, City of


Paris (7) 21,

(18)

New York
56;

52,

(11)

Atelier

d'Art de Paris (7) 19; Direk Balmer, Bristol (2) 47, 48; Pierre
Batillot, Paris (8)

20; Bavaria- Verlag, Munich (12) 4, 15, 19,

Bemm, Washington, D.C.

21; Frederick O.

(12) 16; Ber-

nardoy, Athens (18) 42; Bevilacqua, Milan (18) 23, 54, 55;

Photos Bianquis,

St.-Tropez (11) 27; Biblioteca

Forli (1) 13; Bignon,

Dole

Communale

4; H. Heiniger, Spiez (11)

5, (9)

52; Andr Held, Ecublens (9) 21

(21) 22;

Hen-

riette Grindat, Lausanne (21) 25; Grooteclaes, Lige (21) 8;

Alen, Laon (20) 12; Alinari, Florence (18) 28; Alinari-Gi-

32, 49,

Paris (7) 5;

Studio Helgen, Bourg-en-

Weimar

(11)

12; Peter

Heman,

Tibor Honty, Prague (11) 56; Hutin, Compigne


(I) 42, (16) 25, (19) 6; Studio Jean-Louis, Le Bourget (11)
49; Studio J. -P., Mer (2) 26; Keller Studio, Cincinnati (8)
30; Studio E. Klein, Strasbourg (3) 2; Ralph Kleinhempel,
Basel (12) 3;

Hamburg

Koch, Schaffhausen (2) 28; Lafay,


Le Mans (11) 57; Marc Lavrillier, Paris (19) 22; H. Leboeuf,
La Ferte-Milon (1) 48; Lecharpentier, Beaune (14) 21;
(4) 10, (14) 20;

Made, Nantes (12) 11, (16) 23; Malinowski, Cracow (11)


45; Gilbert Mangin, Nancy (9) 12; Manso, Madrid (2) 60,

Lourches (6)
Brogi, Florence (18)

(17) 3; Mas, Barcelona (1) 12, (2) 5, 12, (11) 3, (12) 20, (17)

33; Edizioni Brogli, Milan (12) 13; Bulloz, Paris (2) 57, 59,

Meury, Besanon (14) 19; Meyer, Vienna (11) 37, (14) 34,
42, (16) 38, (18) 2; John Mills, Liverpool (7) 1 Ministry of
Culture, Moscow (1) 2, 3, 7, 16, 20-22, (4) 15-17, 21, (8)

A.

Saffi,

(2) 33

28; L. Borel, Marseilles (2) 25, (10) 1;

(6) 10, (14) 4, 6, (17) 14, (19) 7;

19;

J.

Camponogara, Lyons

Bleja,

Cameraphoto, Venice

(1) 31, (2) 13, 41, (8) 35,

Madrid (14) 26; Patrice Clment,

Castellanos,

(8)

(14)8;

Paris (13) 1;

Conte, Crespano (14) 10; Daniel, Beaune (12) 6; A. Danvers,

Bordeaux

19;

15,

(6)

M.

Desjardins,

Paris

(14) 61;

Jean

Cracow (4)
6; Josef Ehm, Prague

24, (21) 18; Studio Maywald, Paris (9) 9, 27, 32, 33; Studio

2, 22, (10) 9,

11, (11) 7,

(I I)

46, (16) 4;

Dieuzaide, Toulouse (16) 8; Kvzysztoj Dominik,

(10) 7; National

20; Florin Dragu, Paris (1) 19, 26, (2)

3,

(1) 15, (4) 5,

(18) 53, (21) 26; Donald E.

ford (8) S; Ellebe,


29, (14) 31, (19)

The Fine Art

Rouen

(4) 7, (12) 9;

14, (20) 7; J.-C. Felt,

Society,

Flammarion, Paris

F. Elbridge,

London

Guild-

Evers, Angers (2)

Antwerp

(21) 14;

(7) 6, (9) 30, (11) 50, (16) 35;

(3) 1, 4, 9, (4) 3, 9, 11, (5) 4, (6) 9, 11,

4;

National

J.

13, 15, 18, 19, 27, 29, 31, 32, 39 (17) 6-13, 16

19, 2l, 23,

17;

Claude o'Sughrue, Montpellier (2) 37, 55; Alberto Palau,


Seville (18) 34; Gino Pedroli, Mendrisio (6) 13, (10) 23;
Peyreigne, Dijon (12) 5; Phlipot-R. G. Phlipeaux, Auxerre

35; Eric Pollitzer,

3, 9,

(2) 21, (18) 1,

Washington, D.C. (11)

Neuporxqitos, Athens (18) 36, 41; Nogier, Nimes (1) 11,


(11) 34; M. Novais, Porto (14) 29; Oronoy, Madrid (20) 11

12-16, 40, 45, 50, 51, 55, 57, 59, (15)

7-11, (16)

Moreau, Tours

Moutet, Vichy (13) 3; Nagoraquon, Athens

Park Service,

(1)

1,

J. -J.

Monuments Record, London

22-27, 29, (8) 4, 6, 32, 33, 36, (9) 3, 26, 28, (10)
17, (11) 30, 42, 53, (12) 18, (13) 4, 5, 7-11, 13, 14, (14)
14, 16,

18, 33, (12) 2, (14) 18, 33, (16)

36, (17) 15, (18) 18, 22, (19) 5, (21) 9;

41; Photo Piccardy, Grenoble (8) 23, (11) 21, (16) 11;

P. C. Pignon,

Lyons (12) 10; Photo Plein Soleil, Annecy (11)


New York (13) 12; T. Prast, Madrid (2)

14, 58; Rampazzi,

Turin (7) 22, (11) 40; Raynal, Calais (8)


Rmy, Dijon (2) 3; tude

(18) 10-12, 14, 17, 20, 24, 25, 29, 30, 37-39, 46-48, 50,

9; Teofilo Rego,

10,24,(21)4, 17, 20, 27, 28,(22)13, 14; R. B. Fleming,


London (7) 7; Francis, Dreux (17) 17; Gabinetto Fotografico

Jean Richard, Saint-Cast (16) 33; Rivanodium, Athens (1)

(19)

Nazionale,

Rome

Soprintendenza

(20) 8, 9, (21) 5; Gabinetto Fotografico,

all

Gallerie,

Florence (2)

18,

23,

(4)

2;

Gauthier, Prigueux (16) 34; Gay-Couttet, Chamonix (4) 25;


Helmut Gemsheim, London (11) 41; Giraudon, Paris (1) 1,
25, (2)

1,

15, 17, 24, 31, 32, (3) 3, 5, 6, (4) 1, 4,

14,

19,

(5) 1-3, 6, (6) 17, 20, 21, (8) 10, (9) 2, 13, (10) 14, (11) 5,

Porto (2) 8;

Rheims, Paris (10) 18; Rheinisches Bildarchiv, Cologne (9) 16;

M.

(9) 11;

(18) 31

5,

Serejo, Lisbon (1) 36, 38, (2) 22, (4) 23, (11) 26,

Sotheby, London (7) 10, 11, (22)

5, 11,

15; Sperryn's

London (6) 4, (7) 15, (16) 21, (21) 2; Stinkelmann,


Bremen (1) 33, (8) 11, (9) 10, 18-20, 24, 29, (14) 2, 35,
Ltd.,

(16) 12; Studio Slection,

Reims

(6) 18; Laurent Sully-Jaul-

mes, Paris (4) 13, (7) 13, 16, 20, (10) 13, (14) 60, (20) 19;
Ornans (4) 18; Tuvanoduku, Athens (21) 13; U.S.

9, 11, 13, 43, (12) 1, 8, 17, (13) 2, (14) 23, 25, 39, 43, 52,

Thiriat,

54, 62, (16) 28, (17) 25, (18) 13, 19, 45, (19) 2, 3, 8, 9, 11,

Naval Academy, Annapolis (21) 1; O. Vaering, Oslo (2) 34,

12, 15, 20, 21, 23, (20) 16, 17, 20, (21) 12, 16, 23, (22) 2,

(6) 6;

9, 16,

18-19; Girondal, Lourne-Lille (19) 4; Andr Godin,

Photo Vedette, Toulon (12) 7; A. Villani e


logna (2) 20; Zandvoort, Baarn (1) 14, (10) 15.

Figli,

Bo-

I
I

v^WM

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kv

'??^55555?'?55W^

.,.^,^

X
ABRAMS ARTBOOKS

SOME

19TH

AND 20TH CENTURY

Painting

Sculpture

Text by George

487

ART:

Architecture

Heard Hamilton

illustrations, including

64 plates

color

in full

Price $28.50

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Text by Patricia Janis Broder

511

illustrations, including

48 plates

color

in full

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Sculpture and Drawings

Text by Sidney Geist

292

illustrations, including

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130

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VUILLARD
Text by Stuart Preston

138

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including 48 hand-tipped plates in full color

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IMPRESSIONISM
Text by Pierre Courthion

314

illustrations,

including 62 hand-tipped plates in full color

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THE GRAPHIC WORKS OF THE IMPRESSIONISTS


Introduction by Jean Leymarie

391

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18 plates

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color

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