1

Basic Tajweed
Rules for Proper Qur’an Recitation
So We have made the Qur'an easy in thy tongue that thou mayest give thereby glad tidings
to the righteous, and warn thereby a contentious people (19:98)
2
What is Tajweed?
The word Tajweed means to make better or to improve.
It is the knowledge and application of a set of rules to recite the
Holy Qur’an as close as possible as it was recited by the Holy
Prophet Mohammad ﷺ
Allah says in the Holy Qur’an
- and recite the Qur'an a good recital. (73-5)
Introduction
3
Terminology
A small circle over letters
denoting the letter has no
Harakah. The letter becomes
Saakin.
Jazm / Sukoon
م·>
ş
, ن Į. .
Pause / Stop Waqf (pl. wuquf)
.:و
Place of origin of sound – i.e.
correct pronunciation
Makhraj (pl. Makharij)
جŔ.
Short Vowel (Fatha, Kasra,
Damma)
Haraka (pl. Harakat)
.Ʈ>
Letter (of the Alphabet)
Harf (pl. Huruf)
ف>
4
Terminology
Elongation Madda
..
َ
ّ
Nasalized pronunciation of the
letter Noon or Meem. There is no
other nasal letter in Arabic.
Ghunnah
.ľx
ّ
Doubling the sound of a letter
so that it is stressed but adding
the sign over it. Such a letter is
said to be mushaddad
Tashdid / Shadda
...Ă:
Š
Double Harakaas i.e. two fathas,
two kasras or two dammas that
together give the sound of Noon
(ن).
Tanween
_..ł
Š
¯
5
Origin of Letters ر'Ŕ.
ِ
َ َ
ج
ْ
ك ق
The back of tongue rises and touches the
soft palate
غ خ
Upper portion of throat
ع ح
Center of throat
ھ
Back of throat
ى و ا
Originates from emptiness of mouth
6
Origin of Letters ر'Ŕ.
ِ
َ َ
ج
ْ

ذ ث
Originate when tip of the tongue touches
the edge of the upper two front teeth
ط د ت
Originate when tip of the tongue touches
the gums of the upper two front teeth
ن ل ر
Originate when tip of the tongue touches
the upper hard palate
ض
The upturned sides of the tongue touch
the gum of the upper back teeth
ش ج
The center of the tongue touches the
upper palate
7
ف
Originates when the inner portion of the
bottom lip meets the edge on the two
upper front teeth
م ب
Originate from the lips
ص س ز
Originate when the tip of the tongue
rises towards the upper palate, touching
the gums behind the upper two front
teeth
Origin of Letters ر'Ŕ.
ِ
َ َ
ج
ْ

8
Madd or Elongation
Letters with Harakah ( ) are prolonged if they are followed by
their corresponding Harooful Madd (ا و). Such type of elongation is
called Maddul Asli or original elongation.
Harka Corresponding
Harooful Madd
ُ DHAMMA و
ْ
َ KASRA
ى
ْ
َ FATHA
ا
Exception: If Fatha is followed by its corresponding Harful Madd
i.e Alif (ا) with a sukoon, then it is not prolonged but rather recited
with a jerk
9
Madd or Elongation
د دد د
َ ََ َ
اد اد اد اد
َ ََ َ
د دد د
ِ ِِ ِ
ىد ىد ىد ىد
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
د دد د
ُ ُُ ُ
ود ود ود ود
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
خ خخ خ
َ ََ َ
'¬ '¬ '¬ '¬
َ ََ َ
خ خخ خ
ِ ِِ ِ
_ __ _
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
> >> > خ خخ خ
ُ ُُ ُ
.> .> .> .>
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ح حح ح
َ ََ َ
'¬ '¬ '¬ '¬
َ ََ َ
ح حح ح
ِ ِِ ِ
> >> >
ْ ْْ ْ
_ __ _
ِ ِِ ِ
ح حح ح
ُ ُُ ُ
.> .> .> .>
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ج جج ج
َ ََ َ
'¬ '¬ '¬ '¬
َ ََ َ
ş şş ş
ج جج ج
ِ ِِ ِ
> >> >
ْ ْْ ْ
_ __ _
ِ ِِ ِ
ş şş ş
ج جج ج
ُ ُُ ُ
.> .> .> .>
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ş şş ş
ث ثث ث
َ ََ َ
': ': ': ':
َ ََ َ
ث ثث ث
ِ ِِ ِ
ْ ْْ ْ
_ __ _
ِ ِِ ِ

ث ثث ث
ُ ُُ ُ
.: .: .: .:
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ت تت ت
َ ََ َ
'¯ '¯ '¯ '¯
َ ََ َ
ت تت ت
ِ ِِ ِ
ْ ْْ ْ
_ __ _
ِ ِِ ِ

ت تت ت
ُ ُُ ُ
.: .: .: .:
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ب بب ب
َ ََ َ
'. '. '. '.
َ ََ َ
ş şş ş
ب بب ب
ِ ِِ ِ
ْ ْْ ْ
_ __ _
ِ ِِ ِ
ş şş ş

ب بب ب
ُ ُُ ُ
.: .: .: .:
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ş şş ş
10
Madd or Elongation
ض ضض ض
َ ََ َ
'. '. '. '.
َ ََ َ
ض ضض ض
ِ ِِ ِ
_~ _~ _~ _~
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ض ضض ض
ُ ُُ ُ
.. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ص صص ص
َ ََ َ
'. '. '. '.
َ ََ َ
ص صص ص
ِ ِِ ِ
_~ _~ _~ _~
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ص صص ص
ُ ُُ ُ
.. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ش شش ش
َ ََ َ
'! '! '! '!
َ ََ َ
ش شش ش
ِ ِِ ِ
_- _- _- _-
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ش شش ش
ُ ُُ ُ
.. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
س سس س
َ ََ َ
'. '. '. '.
َ ََ َ
س سس س
ِ ِِ ِ
_- _- _- _-
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
س سس س
ُ ُُ ُ
.. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ز زز ز
َ ََ َ
از از از از
َ ََ َ
ز زز ز
ِ ِِ ِ
ىز ىز ىز ىز
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ز زز ز
ُ ُُ ُ
وز وز وز وز
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ر رر ر
َ ََ َ
ار ار ار ار
َ ََ َ
ر رر ر
ِ ِِ ِ
ىر ىر ىر ىر
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ر رر ر
ُ ُُ ُ
ور ور ور ور
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ذ ذذ ذ
َ ََ َ
اذ اذ اذ اذ
َ ََ َ
ذ ذذ ذ
ِ ِِ ِ
ىذ ىذ ىذ ىذ
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ذ ذذ ذ
ُ ُُ ُ
وذ وذ وذ وذ
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
11
Madd or Elongation
ق قق ق
َ ََ َ
's 's 's 's
َ ََ َ
ق قق ق
ِ ِِ ِ
_ __ _
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ

ق قق ق
ُ ُُ ُ
.Dž .Dž .Dž .Dž
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ك كك ك
َ ََ َ
': ': ': ':
َ ََ َ
ك كك ك
ِ ِِ ِ
_ __ _
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ك كك ك
ُ ُُ ُ
.ƻ .ƻ .ƻ .ƻ
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ف فف ف
َ ََ َ
's 's 's 's
َ ََ َ
ف فف ف
ِ ِِ ِ
_ __ _
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ

ف فف ف
ُ ُُ ُ
.: .: .: .:
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
غ غغ غ
َ ََ َ
'± '± '± '±
َ ََ َ
غ غغ غ
ِ ِِ ِ
ْ ْْ ْ
_ __ _
ِ ِِ ِ
- -- - غ غغ غ
ُ ُُ ُ
.r .r .r .r
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ع عع ع
َ ََ َ
'± '± '± '±
َ ََ َ
ع عع ع
ِ ِِ ِ
ْ ْْ ْ
_ __ _
ِ ِِ ِ
- -- - ع عع ع
ُ ُُ ُ
.r .r .r .r
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ظ ظظ ظ
َ ََ َ
'L 'L 'L 'L
َ ََ َ
ظ ظظ ظ
ِ ِِ ِ
_ __ _
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
¤ ¤¤ ¤ ظ ظظ ظ
ُ ُُ ُ
.x .x .x .x
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ط طط ط
َ ََ َ
'L 'L 'L 'L
َ ََ َ
ط طط ط
ِ ِِ ِ
_¤ _¤ _¤ _¤
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ط طط ط
ُ ُُ ُ
.ċ .ċ .ċ .ċ
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
12
Madd or Elongation
ئ ئئ ئ
َ ََ َ
ائ ائ ائ ائ
َ ََ َ
ئ ئئ ئ
ِ ِِ ِ
ىئ ىئ ىئ ىئ
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ئ ئئ ئ
ُ ُُ ُ
وئ وئ وئ وئ
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
و وو و
َ ََ َ
او او او او
َ ََ َ
و وو و
ِ ِِ ِ
ىو ىو ىو ىو
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
و وو و
ُ ُُ ُ
وو وو وو وو
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ن نن ن
َ ََ َ
'. '. '. '.
َ ََ َ
ن نن ن
ِ ِِ ِ
ْ ْْ ْ
_ __ _
ِ ِِ ِ

ن نن ن
ُ ُُ ُ
.ǁ .ǁ .ǁ .ǁ
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
م مم م
َ ََ َ
'. '. '. '.
َ ََ َ
م مم م
ِ ِِ ِ
_ __ _
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
· ·· · م مم م
ُ ُُ ُ
.» .» .» .»
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ل لل ل
َ ََ َ
ﻻ ﻻﻻ ﻻ
َ ََ َ
ل لل ل
ِ ِِ ِ
_ __ _
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
ل لل ل
ُ ُُ ُ
.. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
13
Madd or Elongation
If Maddul Asli is followed by a Hamza (ء) in the same word, the
elongation of Harooful Madd is increased to upto 4 to 6 Harakah.
Such Madd is called Maddul Muttasil or Joined Madd. It is
represented by sign
ى ىى ى
و وو و
ا اا ا
14
Madd or Elongation
If Maddul Asli is in the end of a word and the next word starts with a
Hamza (ء) or Alif (ا), then the elongation of Harooful Madd is
increased to upto 3 to 5 Harakah. Such Madd is called Maddul
Munfasil or Detached Madd. It is represented by sign
ى ىى ى
و وو و
ا اا ا
15
Madd or Elongation
In case of Haroof Muqataat which appears at the begining of a Sura,
a Madd similar to Maddul Muttasil is applied. The length is 4 to 6
Harakah. Such Madd is called Maddul Laazim or Compulsory
Madd. It is represented by sign
16
Madd or Elongation
If after Madd letters ( و ا ) there appears a Saakin caused by waqf or
stop then such Madd is called Maddul Aaridh. The length of recitation
of Maddul Aaridh will be 2 to 5 Harakah. There is no symbol
representing such Madd.
ى ىى ى
و وو و
ا اا ا
17
Qalqala
When letters of Qalqala have Sukoon on them, then they will be read
with an echoing or jerking sound
The letters of Qalqala are
ق ط ب ج د
Care should be taken when reciting, not to jerk the letter to an extent
that it will sound like Fatha
قا قا قا قا
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
طا طا طا طا
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
.: .: .: .:
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
جا جا جا جا
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ .. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
.. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
÷> ÷> ÷> ÷>
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
÷> ÷> ÷> ÷>
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
ş şş ş
÷± ÷± ÷± ÷±
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ دد دد دد دد
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
.± .± .± .±
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
.¬ .¬ .¬ .¬
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
ş şş ş
با با با با
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
با با با با
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
با با با با
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
.. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
.. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
.. .. .. ..
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
قز قز قز قز
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
قذ قذ قذ قذ
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
» » » »
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
J· J· J· J·
ْ ْْ ْ
ُ ُُ ُ
J· J· J· J·
ْ ْْ ْ َ ََ َ
ş şş ş
طا طا طا طا
ْ ْْ ْ
ِ ِِ ِ
18
Qalqala
When a stop is made at the end of a verse and the ending letter is one
of the Qalqala letters, the same rule applies. The last letter will
become Saakin irrespective of the vowel sign
ج جج ج
ب بب ب
ط طط ط
ق قق ق
19
Noon (ن) and Meem(م) Mushaddah
When the letter ن and م have a Shaddah ( ن
ّ
م
ّ
) then it will be recited
with Ghunnah (nasalization). The length of nasalization should not be
more than two Harakah
م مم م
ّ ّّ ّ
م مم م
ّ ّّ ّ
ن نن ن
ّ ّّ ّ
ن نن ن
ّ ّّ ّ
20
Meem (م
ْ
) Saakin
There are three rules for Meem Saakin (م
ْ
)
1. Ikhfa Meem Saakin
When the letter Baa (ب) appears after Meem Saakin (م مم م
ْ ْْ ْ
), there will be
Ikhfa; which means it will be pronounced with a light nasal sound for a
duration of 2 Harakah
2. Idghaam MeemSaakin
When Meem (م مم م
ّ ّّ ّ
) Mushaddadah appears after Meem Saakin (م مم م
ْ ْْ ْ
), there
will be Idghaam; which means the two Meems will merge and will be
read with a light nasal sound for a duration of 2 Harakah
3. Ithaar MeemSaakin
If any of the 26 letters appear after Meem Saakin (م
ْ
) other than Meem
(م مم م
ّ ّّ ّ
) Mushaddadah and the letter Baa (ب), an Idhaar will occur. It
means that Meem will be read clearly
21
Noon (ن
ْ
) Saakin and Tanween
Similar rules are applied for Noon Saakin and Tanween ( ) since they sound
the same. There are three rules depending on the letter coming after Noon Saakin or
Tanween
1. Idhaar
When after Noon Saakin or Tanween there appear any of the Harooful Haalqiyya
(throat letters), then they will be pronounced clearly. The letters of the throat are
ھ ح خ ع غ ئ
خ
ح
22
Noon (ن
ْ
) Saakin and Tanween
ھ
ئ
غ
ع
23
Noon (ن
ْ
) Saakin and Tanween
2. Idghaam
Idghaam or assimilation occurs if after Noon Saakin or Tanween there appear any
of the following letters
The above letters will have Shadda for assimilation to occur. The method of
delivery is again divided into two forms.
i. The letters ن و م will be read with Ghunna (nasalization) sound which is not to be
prolonged for more than 2 Harakas.
ii. The letters ر ل will be read clearly and no Ghunna (nasalization) will occur
ن ى ر م ل و
م مم م
ى ىى ى
24
Noon (ن
ْ
) Saakin and Tanween
ر رر ر
ل لل ل
ن نن ن
و وو و
25
Noon (ن
ْ
) Saakin and Tanween
3. Ikhfa
If any of the letters other than the Throat letters ( غ ع خ ح ه ) or
Idghaam letters ( ن و ل م ر ) come after Noon Saakin or Tanween the
word must be read with Ghunna or nasalization. The length of the
Ghunna will be equal to the duration of two harkas
ج جج ج
ث ثث ث
ت تت ت
26
Noon (ن
ْ
) Saakin and Tanween
س سس س
ز زز ز
ذ ذذ ذ
د دد د
27
Noon (ن
ْ
) Saakin and Tanween
ط طط ط
ض ضض ض
ص صص ص
ش شش ش
28
Noon (ن
ْ
) Saakin and Tanween
ك كك ك
ق قق ق
ف فف ف
ظ ظظ ظ
29
Rules of Stopping
If any of these signs ( ) or ( ) appears on the end letter of the
word and stop is required, then the last letter is read with Saakin
If the last latter ends with Alif and letter before it has Fatha Tanween ( ) or
Fatha ( ) or the last letter has Madd, then it will be pronounced as
Fatha ( )
30
Rules of Stopping
Compulsory Stop
Necessary Stop
Stop for a moment without breaking the breath
Necessary to continue do not stop
31
Rules of Stopping
Recommended pause
Option to pause or continue
Any two of the three sections of verse can be read
in continuity
or