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CONTEXT - OVERVIEW

SHEFFIELD

FURNACE HILL HAS BEEN SHEFFIELDS MANUFACTURING


HOTSPOT, WITH A SERIES OF WORKSHOPS AND WORKS BASED
AROUND DWELLINGS. NOWADAYS THE AREA IS A MASSIVELY
INDUSTRIALISED ONE, WHICH NEEDS REVITALISATION. THERE
ARE SEVERAL WAREHOUSES, GARAGES AND LITTLE MEISTERS
ON SITE, AS WELL A SERIES OF DERELICT BUILDINGS AND CAR
PARKS.
THE ANALYSIS OF THE AREA WAS CENTERED ON HOW THE SITE
HAS CHANGED OVER TIME AND HOW IT IS LAYERED. I TRIED TO
CAPTURE THIS INTO MY PROPOSAL AND DESIGN FOR CHANGE,
AS WELL AS TRY TO EMBED THE BUILDING INTO THE EXISTING
FABRIC.

PROGRAM
MY DESIGN FOCUSES ON BRINGING A SMALL COMMUNITY OF
JEWELLERS TOGETHER, MAKING USE OF THE POTENTIAL
OFFERED BY FURNACE HILL AND TRYING TO ENHANCE THE USE
OF THE ZONE. THE FACILITIES INCLUDE A GALLERY FOR
JEWELLERY DISPLAY, THAT FEATURES A JEWELLERY SHOP AS
WELL AS ONE SHARED WORKSHOP AND 5 INDIVIDUAL
WORKSHOPS THAT SPECIALISE IN DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES OF
JEWELLERY MAKING. THE GALLERY AREA IS A FLEXIBLE SPACE,
THAT ALLOWS CONVERSION INTO A CONGREGATIONAL SPACE
WHEN NEEDED.

FURNACE HILLL

AS A RESULT, MY THEMATIC INTEREST HAS BEEN BASED


AROUND JEWELLERY MAKING, AS WELL AS RECYCLING OF THE
OBJECTS FOUND ON SITE. AS A RESULT, 4 OF THE INDIVIDUAL
WORKSHOPS WILL FUNCTION ON AN UPCYCLING SCHEME,
WHERE THE MAIN MATERIALS FOR THE MANUFACTURING
PROCESS WILL BE GATHERED FROM THE NEIGHBOURING
AREAS OF THE SITE, WHILE ONE WORKSHOP WILL BE A
TRADITIONAL SILVERWARE AND STONE INLAY JEWELLERY
MAKING SPACE.

ALLEN

SITE

EET

Y STR

TRINIT

STREE

ROUTES

SITE FEATURES

BIKE ROUTES

ACCESSIBILITY
site

The site is located between trinity street, copper street and allen street (ringroad), being easily
accessible through car, bike or public transport (there is a bus stop 5 minutes walk from the
site). There are 2 car parks in close proximity to the ringroad, as well as several others on top of
trinity street, snow lane and copper street. The area is close to the city centre, making it a source
of potential development.

CURRENT SITUATION
BUILDINGS CLOSE TO SITE
garage:

rock school:

the garage relative to the one next


door has an enormously different
architectural
approach
and
approach to context. an overaching
portal frame acts as large skin with a
prefabricated element which is
housed inside the hude void acts as
an open space with hydraulic lifts in
the floors

the building is used as a recording


studio for the various teenage bands
in the area. the old ractory skin
works like a portal frame with
bespoke units erected inside for
recording and sound engineering

existing old wall on


site; painted over
in white; 4.2 m tall,
used
to
have
another storey, but
it was knocked
down by current
owner

workshop

The existing building is owned by a mechanic who has maintained the traditional footprint of the
previous building and the supporting walls from the 1800s slum resedency. An architectural
curiosity; it is almost a peice of urban archaology. The owner has a progressionist attitude to
the past not seeing it through rose tinted spectacles the 1960s addition personifies this attitude
with its rough and ready non asthetic functionalist approach, which strangley has an enormous
degree of contextuality.
ELEVATION ON TRINITY STREET
car park

warehouse

workshop

SITE

ALLEN
T
STREE

EET

Y STR

TRINIT

little meisters workshop:


silver smiths and meisters:
occupied by little meisters. downstairs is an
engraver who engraves everything and
anything and upstairs are silversmiths and
makers. they share tools and a camaraderie in
independency. the building has a fairly simple
block plan.

CAR ROUTES

Texture of existing wall

The old wall situated at the edge of the


site facing Allen Street has been from
the beginning a key feature towards my

VIEWS
observation points of site
proximity along Allen Street

background noise in the garage

loading wood into the warehouse

NOISE SOURCES

arriving by car on site

RAIN
FACTS: - site (orange) is far from the susceptible floodable area
--> low risk of flooding
PROBLEM: because the street is slopping, possible flooding
may occur on the lower part of the two streets (site not affected)
APPROACH: - rainwater could be harvested
- use of SUDs (sustainable drainage systems) reduction of water run-off and risk of flooding (therefore my
building could bring contribution to the area)
- use of vegetation (green roof)

SITE ACOUSTICS

SUN PATH - APRIL


view from top of Trinity Street

NOISE MAPPING
DAY

soundscape of noisy ring-road

LIGHT

- site enclosed by 3 streets


- most buildings around site are works or workshops --> noisy
environment

Most buildings on site are up


to a maximum of 3 storeys
high. Also, site is located at
the bottom of a slope, so it
gets good daylight all year
round (as in light does not get
blocked by buildings adjacent
to site). The main elevation
will be facing north, as the
south side of the site is
enclosed by a building. That
means that the workshops
and apertures facing north
will not be receiving direct
sunlight.

PROBLEM: - noise from traffic (ring road is intensely circulated,


Trinity Street and Copper Street are more quiet, being used
mostly by people who work in the area)
- one of the main industrial areas of the Sheffield
(although every time I went on site I was quite surprised that it
was not as noisy as one would expect; probably people working
there carried out most of the activities)
APPROACH: - consider noise barriers and adequate sound
insulation
- pay attention to the large glazed surfaces (might turn
into
weak
links
to
external
traffic
http://www.architecture.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies
/Life/1-5-3-9-Noisecontrol.aspx)
- could use acoustic windows

NOISE MAPPING
NIGHT

SHADOW PROFILE - MARCH

SUN PATH - DECEMBER

metal 20-40%

green roof - 30%


reflection

DESIGN STRATEGY
I APPLIED THE LIGHTING, ACOUSTIC, HEATING AND VENTILATION STRATEGIES FOR
ONE OF MY KEY SPACES - ONE OF THE INDIVIDUAL WORKSHOPS + THE GALLERY
SPACE UNDERNEATH IT.

LIGHT STRATEGY
APPROACH:
- my intention is to use as much daylight as possible, especially for the workshops.

concrete: 10-35%

workshops
- during my research on jewellery making, the makers have emphasised the
importance of having natural daylight, as well as directional/task lighting, as the
process requires accuracy.
- desk lamps will be needed above the jewellers bench and desks (adjustable
task lighting)

SOLAR REFLECTION OF DIFFERENT


SURFACE MATERIALS

ARTIFICIAL
STRATEGY

LIGHTING

daylight is maximised in the reception and gallery area


(shallow plan --> natural daylighting and natural ventilation
can be achieved with floor plan depths up to 2
floor-to-ceiling height, if the faade width is fully glazed. This
means the depth of plan should be 6 m maximum with a
single-sided window and faade fully glazed (based on a 3 m
floor-to-ceiling height).
height - 3m
depth of plan - 5m < 3x2=6

ground floor plan

DAYLIGHT DIAGRAM OF
WORKSHOPS

shared
workshop

first floor plan

Matching lumens to Watts for halogen downlighters


The amount of Lumen to look for on LED packaging is
different to CFL energy saving bulbs, especially when
replacing halogen downlighters. Halogens are often fitted in
large numbers and may be giving off more light than is
needed. This means that an LED with a significantly lower
Lumen output may be used as a replacement bulb.
Lumens

Halogen equivalent

- the ground floor will mainly be a display area, and it is vital to have controlled
light fittings. The ground floor will be an open plan space, and it is important that
it be flexible, as it is intended to be a congregational space as well
- background lighting needs to be used, as well as track lighting
- for the gallery space, I am aiming for skylight instead of sunlight
- artificial light fitted along the long wall - hallogen downlighters
- there will be background light, as well as individual light fitting for each display
case

I was considering double skin faades for the glazing in the workshops, with controlled solar
shading in between the skins. For the glazed area (reception, entrance, circulation) I looked for
a more appropriate solution - similar results of a double skin facade can be obtained by using
conventional high performance, low-e windows (triple glazed in order to offer thermal/acoustic
insulation as well).

The gallery has openings on two sides, depth


should not exceed 12 m.
PROBLEM: it is 19m long
SOLUTION:
- mechanical ventilation
- artificial lighting (preferred
anyway, as it is an exhibition space)
- solution may consist in the
actual roof, which is glazed and permit a
generous quantity of daylight to enter

gallery

Where to use it

300+
50W
If you currently have a
few 50W halogens and you want to keep the same
brightness.
200+
35W
If you currently have
35W halogens, or lots of 50W and you could manage with
less light output
100+
20W
Usually
for
local
lighting such as display cabinets, rather than general lighting

Window glazing specification triple glazing gives greater comfort because its surface
temperature is closer to the internal air temperature. Consider triple glazing specifically on north,
east and west faades.
Window specification

double glazing single glazing

triple glazing

Daylight transmission

77 - 80%

70%

Solar transmission
(Ug =direct heat from the sun)

6576%

4060%

USER CONTROL
For the gallery and reception space ,where the light is good , there could be an electric lighting
that is gradually dimmed and then switched off when not need it anymore (and when the building
is not used). Conversely, when the daylight factor drops under 5%, the light automatically
switches on. The existence of a manual override to operate the system is preferable and it
should be located next to the welcome desk / staff area.

CLIMATE WALL-SOLAR TRACKING

CONTROLLED SOLAR SHADING


SOUTH: deep reveal windows and horizontal shading. The total shading depth should be
around 50% of the window height and maximum 1.5 m to allow winter solar gain.
EAST/WEST: vertical moveable shutters/louvres. Lockable shutters allow secure night time
cooling.
SE/SW: combination of horizontal overhangs and vertical fins.
External shading devices are the most effective as they deflect solar radiation before it enters
the building. South faades are the easiest to provide with solar shading without compromising
daylight. Louvres can be utilised. On east/west faades, external movable louvred shutters
provide the best solar shading, while also providing good solar gain during winter. The louvres
allow for ventilation and some daylight penetration. If they are closed at night, they also provide
best night-time winter heat loss reduction. Shutters for reducing heat loss should be 40 mm thick
and insulated. (S. Pelsmakers)

images from S.
Pelsmakerss
book

Section is facing South --> the louvres will be


situated on the North side of the workshop
(one fully glazed wall) --> vertical louvres
reflectances - ceiling 70%;
walls 30-70%; floor 10-20%

triple glazed tunnel


running between the
workshops
WORKSHOP
RI = 4,6 x 5/1(4,6+5) = 2,39
Uf = 0,63
LLF=0.5

holes where the joists


sat --> potential place
for light fittings

http://ce.construction.com/article.ph
p?L=352&C=1090&P=3

DAYLIGHT FACTOR
Recommended daylight factor is between 2% - 5%. This achieves good daylighting standards
and reduces the need for electrical lighting in overcast conditions; may need supplementary
electric lighting if below 5.

- gallery (surface/ surface area in sqm / material / reflectance / area x reflectance)

GALLERY

All the workshop have got controlled solar shading on the


glazed surface, allowing the people working there to adjust
light as needed.

north wall - 4,2 x19 =79,8sqm / brick / 0.2 / 15.96


south wall - 4,2 x 20 = 84 sqm / concrete / 0,3 / 25,2
display area looking
west wall - 3 x 3 = 9sqm / brick / 0.2 / 1.8
towards the foundry
PROBLEM:
the
mechanism
is
effective
for
solar
shading,
but
it
west wall glazing - 3 x 6 = 18 / glass / 0.1 / 1.8
wall
can reduce daylighting and winter solar gain
floor - 9 x 20 = 180 sqm / concrete / 0.3 / 54
bottom of workshops 4.5 x 5+4.2 x 5.5 + 5.3 x 4.2 + 4.6 x 4 +4.3 x 4 = 103.46 / metal / 0.5 / 51.73
LIGHT FITTING PRECEDENTS
ceiling - 180 - 51.73 = 128.27 / glass / 0.1 / 12.827
- JEWELLERY SHOPS
Total surface area: 163,317
Triple glazing transmittance: 0.7
DFave = 2.6%
Average reflectance: 0,24
- workshop no.3
south wall - 3 x 4.2 = 12.6 sqm / metal / 0.5 / 6.3
east wall + west wall - 2 x 5.3 x 3 = 31.8 sqm / metal / 0.5 / 15.9
ceiling - 0.7 / 16
floor - 5.3 x 4.2 = 22.26 sqm / 0.7 / 15.58
north glazing 12.6 sqm / glass / 0.1 / 1.26
Total surface area: 55,04
Triple glazing transmittance: 0.7
Average reflectance: 0,24

DFave = 2.73%

Both DFave meet the


requirements for the
specific spaces

display case with lighting tubes Clarkson's Jewellery, Edinburgh


< jewellery display in
Milan

http://openbuildings.com/buildin
gs/q1-building-thyssenkrupp-qua
rter-profile-5838/media

It is important for the


gallery area to be well lit in order to enhance
the display of the jewels.
Background as well as
directional light will be
needed. Some display
cabinets come with fitted
lights.

ACOUSTIC STRATEGY
noise from
gallery (visitors)

The scheme requires a series of acoustic separations. Firstly, it needs to be acoustically


insulated from traffic noise. Secondly, the public and more quiet area (the gallery) is
completely separated from the noisy area (the workshops) which are located on top of the
gallery.

workshop 1
workshop 2

(90-99dB)

noise from
Allen Street

workshop 3

workshop 4

noise from
workshops

(70dB)

noise from
Copper Street

noise from
workshop

(70dB)

noise
from
Trinity Street

concrete slab could insulate and


provide an acoustic separation of the
spaces

Inside the jewellery workshops there are polishing machines and extractors that produce noise,
but they are frequently used so enclosing them in a separate room was not an option. As a
result, there is a clear division between the two functions, but they interact visually.

I used this table available at:

SOUND SEPARATION GALLERY V WORKSHOPS


noisy workshops
circulation areas

first floor plan

The gallery area could make use of positive sound


(background sound / music) to enhance the quality of
the space. As the workshops are individual metal boxes,
with an area of maximum 30 sqm, and some of them are
double - height spaces, vibration might occur. Also,
consideration must be given to the gallery area, which is
a bih open space (around 200sqm) , which in conjuction
with the glass circulation above and the metal boxe
might produce echoes, which is not desire. The building
has a regular, rectangular shape, so unwanted sound
reflection not likely to occur.
the gallery

In between the metal boxes (the workshops) and the gallery there is an acoustically insulated
glazed roof. Also, the bottom of the workshops is insulated using modular perforated steel
industrial acoustic panels. These panels allow you to obtain excellent sound reduction
combined with a tough durable perforated steel finish. Ideally suited for use in factories,
machine
rooms,
test
areas,
workshops.
(http://www.customaudiodesigns.co.uk/acoustison-perforated-steel-acoustic-absorbers.htm)

http://www.sae.edu/reference_material/pages/Reverberation%20Time%
20Calculator.htm
to calculate the reverberation time for one of the workshops

INSULATING THE METAL BOXES - ACOUSTIPHON


High specification, multi-perforated galvanised pre-lacquered acoustic panel with holes of
different sizes. These panels are designed to reduce noise and reverberation problems in
factories, plant rooms, workshops, test bays, sports halls, swimming pools and other industrial
or sports type environments that require hard wearing surfaces. These panels are very
durable and resistant to impact, as well as being simple and quick to install. All component
parts of the system can be modified on site to suit easy installation.
These panels comprise of a 70kg/m mineral wool core, faced with a black film and then
enclosed in an acoustic perforated steel tray sheet. This forms and acoustic panel which is
both decorative and durable. All fixing channels are of light gauge steel .
(http://www.customaudiodesigns.co.uk/acoustison-perforated-steel-acoustic-absorbers.htm)

use acoustic absorbers ACOUSTIPHON

As people will be walking on this


roof, it needs to be acoustically
insulated in order to avoid
disturbing the quiet gallery area
--> use sound absorbers -->
either use an air gap or
micro-perforated absorbers

consider impact sound


--> this is a working
environment,
heavy
object may drop on the
floor --> could have
extra
insulating
membrane for the
flooring, although the
Acoustiphon
panels
should absorb the
noise

WORKSHOP
WORKSHOP
need to be careful
at
the
joists
between the roof
glazing and the
metal boxes

REVERBERATION
Using the Sabine formula : RT = 0,16 V / A , where A is the total absorption of room, and V is
the volume of the room, I applied it for one of the workshops. The value results is the same as
when using the table on the previous page.
Floor materials

125 Hz

250 Hz

500 Hz

1 kHz

2 kHz

4 kHz

Concrete
(unpainted,
rough finish)

0.01

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

Concrete
(sealed or
painted)

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.07

glazed flooring needs


to provide a noise
barrier between quiet
and noisy parts of the
building

Old brick wall, 60 cm


thick, provides noise
barrier against traffic
noise on ring road

use
acoustic
laminated glass

GALLERY

Reflective wall materials


Brick (natural)

0.03

Plaster (gypsum
or lime, on
masonry)
0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

Absorptive wall materials


Performated metal
(13% open, over
50mm(2")
fiberglass)
0.25

consider acoustic
treatment for the
workshops - flexible
membranes, sound
absorbing
wall
panels & spacers
between cladding
components
http://www.globalspec.com
/reference/41083/203279/c
hapter-2-sound-absorption

0.64

0.99

0.97

0.88

0.92

Barnard Castle - the Hub

concrete screed / floor and


concrete wall on south side of
ground floor are effective
regarding acoustic qualities

VENTILATION SCHEME

HEATING AND VENTILATION STRATEGY


The method of ventilation as well as the type and location of the openings will affect the overall
sound insulation of the building envelope. When external noise levels are higher that 60 dB,
simple natural ventilation solutions may not be appropriate as the ventilation openings also let
in noise. However, it is possible to use acoustically attenuated natural ventilation rather than full
mechanical ventilation when external noise levels are high but do not exceed 70 dB. (Building
Bulletin 93 - Acoustic Designs of Schools). It is possible to have natural ventilation at the upper
floor, in the workshops and in the circulation area (the glazed tunnel). The ground floor will rely
mostly on solar gain (massive glazed ceiling/roof).
Good ventilation is necessary especially in the workshops. Apart from natural ventilation, the
workshops will be serviced by mechanical ventilation as well- there will be extractors above the
messy area (polishing desks) to take out the dust resulted in the process of manufacturing.
The mechanical ventilation will be opperated directly by the users who work there (the
jewellers). Natural ventilation will be paired with ventilation ensured with by by-pass ducts
located underneath the flooring and concealed by a suspended ceiling

natural + mechanic
ventilation
inclusion of by-pass ducts
extractors in the workshops

Underfloor heating is suitable for the gallery area (concrete screed on top of the pipes), whereas
the workshops will be heated by water radiators, therefore the heating system will function on
similar principles. The boilers etc. will be situated in the plant room at the ground floor, which
should not be 1.1 - 1.4% of the total floor area which is 754.5 sqm, therefore area of plant room
should be 82 sqm.
The louvres and fins of the workshops prevent overheating during summer. Also, they allow
solar gain (concrete floor inside the individual workshops). The green roof on top of the east side
could act as solar shading, and might help diminishing energy needed for cooling the space.

Ground floor plan

HEAT LOSS
- can occur through the massive glazing
system on top of the gallery
- heat loss can also occur through the
glazing of the workshops

First floor plan

ducts in a jewelley
workshop
The building is intended to be used all year round, with a
clear distiction of what space is used by whom : the
gallery area is public, while the shared workshop and
facilities are for a more focused group of people possibly students, jewellery who are not from Sheffield
but want to come here for a worksop, people who want to
try jewellery making as a hobby. The 5 individual
workshops are used only by one jeweller each, so having
user control for both heating and ventilation is necessary.
Heating and ventilation controls fot the vistors facilities
are automatic, with possibility of being operated by the
staff when needed and are located in the plant room at
the first floor.

proposed arrangement of spaces,


and possible routes of piping

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_tTod
Rl9tKu8/TCJj8QaTTkI/AAAAA
AAAALM/Siow7c5A284/s1600/
Two+soldering+stations.JPG

BIBLIOGRAPHY

- The Environmental Design Pocketbook Sophie Pelsmakers; London: RIBA c2012


- Architectural Acoustics, chapter 2 - Egan
- Architects Data (4th edition) Ernst Neufert, Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Ames,
Iowa: Wiley, 2012
- The Artistic Crafts series of technical handbook. SILVERWORK AND JEWELLERY. A
textbook for students and workers in metal H.Winston
An illustrated Dictionary of Jewellery Thames and Hudson
- Concrete Design Sarah Gaventa; London : Mitchell Beazley, 2001
- Building Bulletin 93 Acoustic Design for Schools
-http://www.architecture.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Life/1-5-3-9-Noiseco
ntrol.aspx
http://www.sunearthtools.com/
http://www.freesound.org/
http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Electricity/Lighting/Lighting-output-and-colour
http://www.customaudiodesigns.co.uk/
http://www.iqglassuk.com/h/case-studies/iq-glass-floors-and-roof-lights/307/
http://www.sae.edu/reference_material/pages/Coefficient%20Chart.htm
IMAGES:
http://ce.construction.com/article.php?L=352&C=1090&P=3
http://openbuildings.com/buildings/q1-building-thyssenkrupp-quarter-profile-5838/medi
a
http://mindfuldesignconsulting.com/jewelry-store-design-milan-commercial-interior/
Egans book
http://www.globalspec.com/reference/41083/203279/chapter-2-sound-absorption
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_tTodRl9tKu8/TCJj8QaTTkI/AAAAAAAAALM/Siow7c5A284/s
1600/Two+soldering+stations.JPG