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SUMMARY

SUMMARY ......................................................................................................... I
PREFACE......................................................................................................... III
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11

2.
2.1
2.2
2.3

3.
3.1
3.2

4.
4.1
4.2

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

7.
7.1
7.2

TERMINOLOGY....................................................................................... 1
GENERAL TERMS........................................................................................................................................ 1
MECHANICAL DESIGN ................................................................................................................................ 2
SPANS ......................................................................................................................................................... 4
PROFILES .................................................................................................................................................... 6
CONDUCTOR ARRANGEMENTS ................................................................................................................... 7
SUPPORT STRUCTURE................................................................................................................................. 9
POLES - BRACKETS................................................................................................................................... 10
TOWERS ................................................................................................................................................... 10
BARE CONDUCTORS ................................................................................................................................. 13
CONDUCTOR FITTINGS ............................................................................................................................. 15
INSULATOR SETS - ACCESSORIES ............................................................................................................. 17

PARAMETERS IN OVERHEAD LINE TOWER DESIGN ............... 21
GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ................................................................................................................... 21
LOADING PARAMETERS ............................................................................................................................ 28
MATERIALS .............................................................................................................................................. 30

STATIC CALCULATION ...................................................................... 32
TOWER MODEL ........................................................................................................................................ 32
COMPUTER PROGRAM .............................................................................................................................. 32

TOWER DIMENSIONING..................................................................... 34
BAR DIMENSIONING ................................................................................................................................. 34
BOLT DETERMINATION ............................................................................................................................ 38

DETAILING AND FABRICATION ...................................................... 40
DRAWINGS ............................................................................................................................................... 40
CONNECTIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 40
MATERIAL ................................................................................................................................................ 40
SHOP OPERATIONS .................................................................................................................................... 40
MARKING ................................................................................................................................................. 40

TOWER PROTOTYPE ........................................................................... 42
PROTOTYPE DOCUMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 42
CHECKING OF MAIN DIMENSIONS ............................................................................................................. 42
CHECKING OF BARS .................................................................................................................................. 42
PLATES CHECKING ................................................................................................................................... 42
BOLTS CHECKING ..................................................................................................................................... 42

TOWER TESTING .................................................................................. 44
CHOICE OF LOADING CASES .................................................................................................................... 44
ELABORATION OF TOWER TESTING PROGRAM ........................................................................................ 44

-iRev. A

7.3
7.4

PROTOTYPE ERECTION CHECKING ........................................................................................................... 45
TESTING PROCEDURE ............................................................................................................................... 45

8.

BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................... 46

9.

ANNEXES ................................................................................................. 47

ANNEX 1: TOWER COMPUTER PROGRAM MANUAL ........................................................................................... 47
ANNEX 2: AMERICAN STANDARD FOR DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS ....................................................... 47
ANNEX 3: EUROPEAN STANDARD FOR THE STEELS USED IN DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS ...................... 47
ANNEX 4: EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATION FOR DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS .......................................... 47
ANNEX 5: AMERICAN RECOMMENDATION FOR DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS .......................................... 47
ANNEX 6: INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR OVERHEAD LINE TOWER TESTING .................................................... 47
ANNEX 7: BARE OVERHEAD LINE CONDUCTOR CATALOGUE.............................................................................. 48
ANNEX 8: OVERHEAD LINE INSULATORS CATALOGUE ........................................................................................ 48
ANNEX 9: STRING HARDWARE CATALOGUE ......................................................................................................... 48

10. INDEX ....................................................................................................... 49

- ii Rev. A

PREFACE
DOMAIN OF UTILISATION
This Guide, prepared by Mr. Sasha DIMOV, B.Sc. Civil Engineering, is
presenting overhead line lattice towers design. This Guide does not
represent any standard or norm; it just gives the technical details to be
considered in overhead line design and in any case cannot be applied to any
other civil work design other then overhead line.
OBJECT
This Guide object is to establish tower design rules in order to satisfy
safe overhead line exploitation, people security, and minimal costs in
construction as well in maintenance of overhead line. All rules are to be in
accordance with national and international standards concerning the
overhead lines.
DIFFUSION
This Guide is distributed to the GPC design engineers, who are
mentioned in Contract between SNIG and GPC. All examples are numerated
and nominal. Any other copies have to be ordered from SNIG, mentioning
the names of dedicated persons.
PROPRIETY
This Guide is exclusive propriety of SNIG. All reproduction, complete
or partial, is forbidden without the authorisation in written form of SNIG
representatives.

- iii Rev. A

Terminology

1
1. Terminology
1.1
1.1.1

General Terms
(Electric) Line
A generic term for a set of conductors with insulation and accessories used for the
transmission or distribution of electrical energy.

1.1.2

Overhead Line
A line in which the conductors are supported above ground, generally by means of insulators
and appropriate supports.

1.1.3

AC Line
A line connected to an alternating current source of supply, or connecting two alternating
current networks.

1.1.4

Phase (of an AC Line)
Any conductor, or bundles of conductors, or terminals of a polyphase laser case system,
which is at a voltage in normal use.

1.1.5

Direct Current Line
A positive (negative) line conductor or terminal of a direct current system.

1.1.6

Positive (Negative) Pole
A positive (negative) line conductor or terminal of a direct current system.

1.1.7

Circuit
A conductor or system of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow
e.g. a set of three conductors of a laser case transmission line connected to a three-phase
source of supply, or a set of two conductors connected to a single phase source of supply, or
to two phases of a three-phase source of supply, etc…

1.1.8

Monopolar Line
A direct current line in which only one pole connects the load to the supply, the return path
being through earth.

-1Rev. A

or relatively high frequency and small amplitude of the order of the conductor diameter induced by laminar wind flow.11 Distribution Line A line that delivers electric energy from transformation points on the transmission.1. 1.16 Conductor Galloping Periodic motion of a conductor (or bundle) predominantly in a vertical plane of low frequency and high amplitude (with a maximum value of twice the original sag. A . Normally restricted to overhead construction and operated at high voltage.2 Mechanical Design (Note: In this section. 1. “loading” refer to mechanical forces applied to a component of a line) -2Rev. the expression “load”.1. 1. of intermediate frequency and amplitude of the order of the bundle spacing.14 Aeolian Vibration Periodic motion of a conductor predominantly in a vertical plane. 1.1. 1. or bulk power.10 Transmission Line A line used for electric power transmission. 1.13 Conductor Vibration Periodic motion of a conductor relative to a static position. to the consumers. 1.1.12 (Overhead) Conductor A wire or combination of wires not insulated from one another.15 Sub-span Oscillation Periodic motion of one (or more) sub-conductor(s) predominantly in a horizontal plane. It may be bare or lightly insulated.1.1.Terminology 1 1. the two poles connect the load to the supply. 1.1. suitable for carrying an electric current.1.9 Bipolar Line A direct current line in which.

and those resulting from the failure of some component of a line.2. 1. insulators and/or supports (structures) under ice or no ice condition. 1.8 Rupture Load That loading which causes failure to occur in any element.5 Exceptional Loads The loads produced by the reasonable activities of construction and maintenance personnel.4 Normal Load Loads resulting from the action of the wind or of gravity on wires.2.2.7 Test Load The load applied to an element or elements of an overhead line for testing purposes.3 Working Load The load derived from the specified loading assumption excluding factors of safety or overload factors. 1.2.2.2.2. 1. 1. resulting from national or particular statutory regulations (as well as from a study of meteorological data) to be accepted for designing each element of an overhead line. or set.2 Loading Case Combination.1 Loading Assumptions Set of loading conditions.9 Ultimate Design Load The loading resulting from multiplying the working load by the factor of safety or overload factor and which all elements should just sustain without failure.6 Legislative Load The loads arbitrarily dictated by local or national regulating bodies. A . 1.2. of loads applied to an element of an overhead line for a particular loading assumption. -3Rev. during the specified duration. 1.Terminology 1 1.2. 1.

1. This may be due to ice shedding or from non-uniform accumulation. 1.10 Vertical.2.3.12 Ice Loading Additional mass resulting from ice accretion on any element of the overhead line. A .2. 1. 1.3 Level Span A span in which the conductor support points are in the same horizontal plane.11 Wind Load Horizontal load resulting from the wind pressure applied to any element of the overhead line. with or without ice loading.3 1.Terminology 1 1.13 Uniform Ice Loading Ice load uniformly distributed over the length of each conductor (and earth-wire) and over all the spans of a section of line. 1. of any load applied at a given point of the support.3. 1.14 Unequal Ice Loading Ice load not uniformly distributed over the length of each conductor (and earth-wire) and over all the spans of a section of line. -4Rev. The longitudinal load (parallel to the line axis) and the transverse load (perpendicular to the line axis) are supposed to be in the horizontal plane.2. in a three-dimensional system of co-ordinates. or from non-uniform detachment.3. 1.2.3.2 Span Length (Horizontal Span Length) The horizontal distance between two adjacent point of support of a conductor.1 Spans Span The part of an overhead line between two adjacent point of support of a conductor. 1.2.4 Inclined Span A span in which the conductor support points are not in the same horizontal plane. Longitudinal Loads The three components. Transverse.

3.8 Span Depth The vertical distance between two horizontal planes. the simple parabola formula is often used. 1. A . due to load or temperature changes are nearly the same as in the actual spans of a section.5 Difference in Levels Vertical distance between the two horizontal plans.3. 1. This lowest point may be imaginary.3.Terminology 1 1.6 Wind Span The distance between the points at mid-span on each side of a support.11 Equivalent Span – Ruling Span (US) A fictitious single span in which tension variations.7 Weight Span The horizontal distance between the low points of a conductor (or bundle) on either side of a support. -5Rev. Note: The approximate value of the equivalent (ruling) span is calculated from: ∑a ∑a 3 a c = i i 1. in-extensible cord suspended at its ends.12 Catenary Equation of the curve assumed by a perfectly flexible.9 Sag The maximum vertical distance in a span of an overhead line between a conductor and the straight line joining its points of support. ⎛ ⎞ x Y = ρ ⋅ ⎜⎜ cosh − 1⎟⎟ ρ ⎠ ⎝ In practice.3. In steeply sloping terrain. 1. both low points may be on the same side of the support.3. 1. one through the highest point of support of the conductor in a span. 1.10 Section (Of an Overhead Line) A part of an overhead line between two tension supports.3.3. 1. and the other tangential to the lowest point of the conductor curve.3. each containing the support points of a span.

which can take into account the ice or wind overloads.5 Line Angle The angular change in the direction of an overhead line at a support.Terminology 1 Y= 1 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ x2 which represents the first two terms of the series expansion of the catenary. NOTE: The catenary curve represents a cable with constant unit weight per unit of length of curve. ρ= 1. 1. A .4. 1.13 Catenary Constant The constant in the catenary and parabola equations geometrically represented by the radius of curvature at the lowest point of the span. 1.4.4. 1.4.3.2 Side Slope at “X” meters A representation of the ground contour in the vertical planes located X meters from. and parallel to the axis of the overhead line. Use of the parabola will indicate less sag as the wire becomes more steeply inclined and may introduce significant errors in steeply inclined sections of cable. -6Rev.3 Transverse Profile (Section Profile) Profile in a vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of the line. It is given as the ratio between the horizontal tension in the conductor To and its unit weight ω . 1.4. while the parabola represents a wire with a constant unit weight per horizontal unit of length.4 Diagonal Leg Profiles Representation of the ground contour in vertical planes containing diagonally opposite legs of a tower.1 To ω Profiles Longitudinal Profile A representation of the ground contours in the vertical plane through the axis of the overhead line.4 1.

1.5. 1.5.Vertical Configuration A variation of the double circuit vertical configuration in which the centres phase is horizontally offset.7 Semi .5.1 Conductor arrangements Conductor Configuration The geometrical arrangement of the conductors in relation to the support.9 Double Circuit Semi .5.8 Double Circuit Vertical Configuration A configuration in which each of the two circuits. 1. 1.Terminology 1 1.5 Delta Configuration A configuration in which the conductors of a circuit are located at the apexes of an isosceles triangle whose base is not necessary horizontal.5.2 Horizontal Configuration A configuration in which all conductors on a support are in the same horizontal plane.5.5.4 Triangular Configuration A configuration in which the conductors of a circuit are located at the apexes of the triangle whose base is not necessary horizontal.5.3 Semi-Horizontal Configuration A variation of the horizontal configuration in which the centre phase is a slightly higher or lower level than the lateral phases. 1.6 Vertical Configuration A configuration in which the conductors of a circuit are virtually located in the same vertical plane. is located on either side of the support.5 1. 1. in vertical formation. 1.5.Vertical Configuration A variation of the vertical configuration in which the centre phase is horizontally offset. A . -7Rev. 1.

5. or live metal fitting.5. 1.11 Transposition Interval Length of the section of a line between two successive transpositions.5.16 Angle of Protection – Angle of Shade – Shielding Angle The angle between the vertical planes through the earth-wire and the plane through the earth wire and the conductor to be protected against lightning. 1. 1.14 Clearance to Obstacles – Working Clearance (US) The minimum distance to be maintained at all times between a live conductor.13 Live Metal to Earth Clearance (Clearance – Live Metal to Grounded Parts) The minimum distance to be maintained at all times between live conductors or live components and any steelwork deemed to be at earth potential.5.5.5.17 Minimum Angle of Shade – Minimum Shielding Angle The angle within the line conductors must lie in order to obtain a desired magnitude of protection against direct lightning strokes. under or passing under or close to the line. carried out in order to establish adequate electrical symmetry of the conductors one to another or with respect to earth or with respect to neighbouring systems.15 Phase Spacing The distance between the axes of two adjacent line conductors. and the ground. 1.5.10 Transposition A change of the relative positions of the phase conductors of an overhead line. -8Rev.Terminology 1 1. 1. A . and any obstacle at ground potential. 1.5.12 Ground Clearance (Clearance to Ground) The minimum distance to be maintained at all times between a live conductor. or between the centres of two adjacent bundles of line conductors. 1. or metal fitting.

6. 1.4 Angle Support – Angle Structure Section Support – Section Structure Anchor Support – Anchor Structure Dead-end Support – Dead-end Structure A support to which the conductors (or bundles) are attached through tension insulator sets. 1.2 Straight Line Support – Intermediate Support – Tangent Support Straight Line Structure – Intermediate Structure – Tangent Structure A support located on a straight-line portion of an overhead line route. through insulators.7 Self-supporting Structure A support having intrinsic stability. where the conductors are attached by suspension. 1.6. 1.1 Support Structure Support (UK) – Structure A generic term for any device designed to carry.5 Terminal Support – Terminal Structure A support situated at the end of a line and designed to terminate the line tension of conductors on one side. The loads due to the adjacent spans are applied independently to the attachment points.6.6 1.3 Flying Angle Support – Running Angle Support Flying Angle Structure – Running Angle Structure A support used on small or medium angles of deviation of the route. -9Rev.6 Transposition Support A support specifically designed to permit the change of the relative position of the phases along the route of a line. pin or line post insulators.6. the conductors being attached by suspension type insulator sets. 1.6.6.8 Guyed Structure (US) – Stayed Support (UK) A support whose stability is ensured by guys (stays).Terminology 1 1. a set of conductors of an overhead line. 1.6. 1.6. A .

either directly or by means of a separate base.1 Towers Tower A support which may be made of any material.6. with cross-arms. A .7. concrete.7. or any support.7 1. CA) A “H” shaped support comprising two spaced vertical main legs with a horizontal cross-arm at the top. comprising a body which is normally four sided.8. 1.10 Rev.Brackets Pole A vertical single member support in wood. 1. 1.2 Lattice Tower A compound structure resulting from an assembly of small structural members.8.4 Bracket A small fitting attached to the outside of a building.5 “A” Pole – “A” Frame (US –CA) A double member support in which the tops of each member are shaped.8 1. with one end buried in the ground.7. 1.7.1 Poles . 1. 1.Terminology 1 1.8.3 Cross-arm – Beam The horizontal transverse member of a portal or H structure supporting the insulators and the conductors.2 Portal Structure – “H” Pole – “H” Frame (US. used for ensuring the stability of stayed (guyed) support.3 Bracing System (UK) – Lacing System (US – CA) Arrangement of the members in a lattice support. steel etc …. keyed and bolted together at the apex of the letter “A” and are joined by a common cross-block 1. usually in tension.9 Stay – Guy A separate member. . 1.7.

2.4 Single Warren – Single Lacing (US – CA) See Figure 1.8.5 1.14 Waist See Figure 1.6 Triple Warren – Triple Lacing (US – CA) See Figure 1.8.8.3 1.14 1.11 Rev.9 Top Hamper – Super Structure See Figure 1.8.8.13 Fork – “K” Frame See Figure 1.2.10 Earth Wire Peak See Figure 1.11 Beam Gantry – Bridge – Girder See Figure 1.8.11 1.12 Cross-arm See Figure 1.2.115 .1.1.1.1.13 1.2 1.8. A .1 1.8.2.12 1.2.8.4 1.Terminology 1 1.8.5 Double Warren – Double Lacing (US – CA) See Figure 1.2.1 1.8.1.8 Double Warren Redundant Support Double Lacing Redundant Support (US – CA) See Figure 1.7 “K” Bracing (“K” Panel) See Figure 1.

2.22 Anti-Climbing Guard – Device A device installed on. See Figure 1. or attached to.22 1.24 1.25 1.21 Node – Panel Point See Figure 1.30 1.8.24 Hill Side Extension – Leg Extension Portion at base of tower constructed with equal or different standard lengths used for variations in tower heights or on hillsides.8.2.2 1.8.23 Foot (Footing) See Figure 1.18 Redundant (Secondary) Bracing See Figure 1. tower. etc… to make climbing difficult by unauthorised persons. See Figure 1.2.8.8.2.2.8. a support.Diaphragm See Figure 1.16 Plan Bracing .8.Terminology 1 1.8.12 Rev.2. A .30 1.15 Tower Body The vertical structure of a tower.23 1.19 Main Leg See Figure 1.2.8.20 Leg Slope See Figure 1.17 Main Bracing See Figure 1.8.21 1.2. .26 1. structure. guy.2.

8 Direction Of Lay Direction of rotation of the helix formed by a wire of a stranded conductor. for the outer layer.9.4 Stranded Conductor A conductor consisting of a number of individual un-insulated wires laid up together in the alternating left and right helical formation.3 Wire. 1. 1. wires whose shape is that of a radial section of an annulus (segmental). 1. 1.9. that group of wires.9.9. With right-hand lay the wires conform to the direction of the central part of the letter Z when the conductor is held vertically. of whose shape prevents them from having any radial movement (locked coil). which has the specific function of conveying current. 1. A .9.9 Smooth Body Conductor. . Strand One of the individual wires used in manufacture of a stranded conductor. with the same axis as the conductor and having the same direction and length of lay.9. 1. 1.5 Layer In a stranded conductor.6 Length Of Lay The axial length of one complete turn of the helix of a wire in a stranded conductor. Segmented or Locked Coil Conductor A conductor with a relatively smooth surface obtained by using.1 Bare conductors Conductor (of a Line) That portion of an electric line.9.Terminology 1 1.2 Solid Conductor A conductor consisting of a single wire.7 Lay Ratio The ratio of the length of lay to the mean diameter of the helix.9.13 Rev. 1.9. With left-hand lay. the wires conform to the direction of the central part of the letter S when the conductor is held vertically.9 1. arranged to form a cylinder of constant radius.

or replaced by nonmetallic.R. 1.) Bimetallic conductor in whom the aluminium or aluminium alloy wires are stranded around an inner core of steel wires.13 with the steel core wires replaced with bimetallic aluminium sheathed steel wire (Alumoweld).A.R.C.9.9. 1.) Aluminium Alloy Conductor (A.S.10 Hollow Conductor A tubular conductor made up of wires or segments stranded sometimes around a helical arrangement of reinforcing wires. with successive layers of opposite lay.9.A.9.C. 1.S.Terminology 1 1. or aluminium alloy.S. all wires are made of aluminium. lighter wires to obtain an artificial increase in diameter.15 Aluminium Conductor Alloy Reinforced (ACAR) or Alumoweld/Aluminium Conductor Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced (ACAR) or Alumoweld/Aluminum Conductor (US) An aluminium conductor with a portion of the aluminium strands replaced by aluminium alloy or alumoweld strands in a configuration within the conventional stranding arrangement.14 Rev. .14 Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced With Alumoweld Core (ACSR/AW) Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced With Alumoweld Core (US) (ACSR/AW) An ACSR conductor as in 1.R.) Aluminum Conductor Steel reinforced (US) (A.C.11 Expanded Conductor A conductor where some of the internal wires have been omitted. 1.9.) Aluminum Alloy Conductor (US) (A.C.9.12 All Aluminium Conductor AAC All Aluminum Conductor (US) AAC All Aluminium Alloy Conductor AAAC All Aluminum Alloy Conductor (US) AAAC A conductor where. 1. A .13 Aluminium Conductor Steel reinforced (A.S.9.R.

9. Spacer Damper A device which keeps apart the sub-conductors of a bundle at a pre-determinate distance . 1. 1. and supported by common suspensor insulator sets. A .15 Rev. Four etc… Conductor Bundle (US) A phase conductor consisting of two.9.(Two.9. spaced one from the other.16 Core (Of A Bimetallic Conductor) The inner steel. 1.17 Single Conductor Each phase or pole consists of a single conductor.9. not under mechanical tension. Quad Bundle etc… .21 Jumper A short length of conductor. which is suspended usually above but not necessarily over the line conductor to provide a degree of protection against lightning discharges. Three.18 Bundle Conductor/Sub-Conductor Each phase consists of two or more single conductors connected in parallel. or aluminium alloy or Alumoweld wires of a bimetallic conductor.Terminology 1 1.10 Conductor fittings 1. The individual conductors in the bundle constitute sub-conductors. above or most frequently below the surface of the earth. three. located on.1 Spacer.10. The proportion of strength contributed by the core may be greater or smaller than contributed by the conducting outer aluminium alloy layers. four or more sub-conductors installed in parallel. Triple. 1.9. 1. Earth Conductor. or system of conductors. arranged beneath the line.9. and connected to the footings of the towers of poles supporting the line. making an electrical connection between two separate sections of line.19 Twin. Shield Wire.20 Earth-wire. Overhead Groundwire A conductor connected to earth at intervals.22 Counterpoise A conductor. 1.9. 1.

10.10. designed to carry the full current and to withstand 90% of the breaking load of the conductor. 1.10.2 Mid-Span tension joint A joint inserted between two lengths of a conductor.16 Rev.10.10.6 Clamp A term used to define any fitting which can be fixed on (to) a conductor. 1.10. 1.9 Pivot Type Suspension Clamp A suspension clamp designed so that it can oscillate around a horizontal axis normal to the conductor and normally on its centre line.10. and designed to withstand the full tension of the conductor. Dead-end Clamp A clamp which attaches a conductor to a tension insulator set or to a support.10. 1.5 Repair Sleeve A special fitting which can be installed over a damaged conductor in order to restore its electrical and mechanical properties.11 Suspension Straps (Of a Suspension Clamp) That part of a suspension clamp which supports the body of the fitting. A .10.Terminology 1 1. Jumper Terminal The component of a joint which permits an electrical continuity with another joint or conductor.10 Body (Of a Suspension Clamp) That part of the suspension clamp which supports the conductor.8 Tension Clamp.7 Suspension Clamp A fitting. 1. designed to carry the full current and to withstand 90% of the breaking load of the conductor 1. 1.3 Dead-end Tension Joint A joint inserted at the end of a conductor for attachment to an insulator tension set.4 Jumper Lug. 1.10. which attaches a conductor to a suspension insulator set. 1. .

similar to armour rods.10. complete with metal fittings. which becomes luminous generally by capacitive induction from a live conductor to which is attached. Used as a night warning device. used on conductors or earth wires. for flexible mechanical attachment of an overhead conductor to a support while insulating it electrically.10.10.12 Trunnion (Of a Pivot Type Suspension Clamp) The circular projection from the body of the clamp. A . permitting some oscillation of the clamp. 1. 1. 1.15 Night Warning Light (For Conductor) Device. .17 Rev.13 Hold Down Weights – Counterweight (US) A mass attached to a suspension clamp (assembly) utilised to reduce or eliminate uplift. 1. 1. to provide positive loading to insulator sets to prevent turning-over.2 Insulator String A chain of several insulator units in series flexibly connected together. 1.1 Insulator Set (UK) – Insulator Assembly (US) An assembly of one or more string insulator units. 1.11 Insulator Sets .11. which acts as an axis of rotation within the straps.10. wound helically around a conductor over damaged areas to restore the electrical properties of the conductor.10.10. a device attached to a conductor in order to suppress or minimise vibrations due to wind.16 Aircraft Warning Marker (For Cables) A warning device visible during the day. suitably connected together.Terminology 1 1.17 Armour Rods – Armor Rods (US) A set of protective metal rods wound helically around a conductor at the suspension point and placed prior to the installation of the suspension clamp.10.Accessories 1.18 Patch Rods A set of metal rods.11. or to reduce the angle of swing of suspension insulator sets during high transverse winds.14 Vibration Damper In an overhead line. 1.

11. 1. A .11.6 Dropper (UK) – Swinging Bracket (US) A fitting that lowers the upper attachment point of a suspension insulator set. installed at one or both extremities of an insulator set to drive the flashover arc away from the insulator set and provide a better voltage distribution along the insulator string.11.11.11.11.5 “U” Bolt A fitting in the form of a “U” attached to a support.10 Arcing Horn A protective fitting in the shape of a horn.3 Suspension Set (UK) – Suspension Assembly (US) An insulator set complete with all fittings and accessories to support one or more conductors at his lower end.11 Arcing Ring A protective fitting in the shape of a ring.18 Rev. 1.Terminology 1 1. 1.8 Yoke Plate A special fitting for the attachment of several insulator strings or other parallel elements.4 Tension Set (UK) – Tension Assembly (US) An insulator set complete with all fittings and accessories to withstand the tensile load of one or more conductors.11.11. 1.9 Insulator Protective Fittings Metal accessories. . 1. 1. 1.11. to a single point. 1.7 Tower Swivel Clevis A fitting free to rotate rounds an axis and attached to the steelwork of a support.

19 Rev.1. 1-5 .Terminology 1 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1. A .BRACING SYSTEM .

LATTICE TOWERS 11 12 13 1 14 15 22 21 23 24 2 25 26 27 30 31 . A . 1-35 .Terminology 1 Figure 1.2.20 Rev.

the tower names are fixed per internal codification. TYPE 2BB90 - This is the dead-end (terminal) tower and maximum angle tower designed for line deviation of 60° to 90° In this case. it is our duty to react in the case when we doubt in the technical specifications. we will base our design on the GECOL TECNICAL SPECIFICATION and ANSI/ASCE 10-90 standard. four or five tower types are necessary. which. the letters in second and third position represent the nominal voltage and the last two digits represent the maximum line angle for the tower. In common use is to give the names as A.1 Geometrical parameters The rules of overhead line design satisfying the geometrical conditions.1 Tower types The determination of tower types to be designed is generally linked to the needs of a client. and ask the clarification of the suspected point. B. then this choice has to be approved by GECOL or the other client (in the case of a design for export). In GECOL’s case. in the case that some solutions. For one overhead line with one type of conductor. Of course.1. BDT. For example. A . TYPE 2BB30 - This is medium angled tower designed for line deviation of 2° to 30° 3. . are imposed by three things: ■ Security of the people and the goods ■ Electrical conditions of the object insulating ■ Possibility of intervention on the objects in the exploitation conditions All those conditions are elaborated by the client. If the choice of the tower type used in design were different than initially specified by GECOL. Anyhow. D etc or ADT. we are obliged to follow the technical specification for the specific overhead line. C. 2. In our approach. the first digit represents the number of sub-conductors per phase.21 Rev. TYPE 2BB60 - This is the large angled tower designed for line deviation of 30° to 60° 4. the tower types of one 220kV overhead double circuit line are: 1. in our case GECOL. Those towers having the similar outline are making a family. CDT. 2. TYPE 2BB02 - This is the suspension tower designed for line deviation of 0° to 2° 2. DDT etc. in our case is GECOL. Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design In the design of new overhead line towers.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 2. specified in other international standards are more appropriate we will incorporate them in our design approach.

.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 Some of tower types are presented in the following table and the family names will be the object of discussion with GECOL.22 Rev. A .

23 Rev. A .Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 Geometrical Characteristics EDF Designation Triangular configuration Triangle GECOL Designation Schema To ask GECOL T Drapeau Flag configuration V Double circuit flag configuration Sapin To ask GECOL S&B Double circuit semivertical configuration Tonneau Nine cross-arms Neuf consoles No English equivalent To ask GECOL To ask GECOL H&B To ask GECOL Danube To ask GECOL D .

24 Rev.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 Geometrical Characteristics Delta configuration EDF Designation GECOL Designation Schema Anjou To ask GECOL B Double circuit vertical configuration Quadruple drapeau Special configuration Spécial Semi_horizontal configuration Chat Q To ask GECOL To ask GECOL To ask GECOL C&B . A .

A .25 Rev.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 Geometrical Characteristics EDF Designation Horizontal configuration Nappe Portal GECOL Designation Schema To ask GECOL N&M Nappe – Trianon To ask GECOL N&M .

the zero height of tower is composed of the tower head.0m 10.1. we have to modify the basic body to be adapted to desired height. we obtain the maximum sag of the conductor Sc. the tower height under cross-arm is for the suspension tower Hs=Sd+Sc+Sl and for the tension tower Hs=Sd+Sc.1. using the equivalent span and respecting the maximum allowable conductor tension.0m Main roads 10. we had sometimes problems with the client due to a misunderstanding of the terms explained in this article. and the isolator string length id Sl. During the tower spotting.5m 4. -3m etc or +3m. +9m etc.0m Trees 2.0m 8. In the tower spotting. Please pay attention. we have to make sag and tension calculation for the overhead line conductor. If an allowable soil clearance is Sd. In this case we use the terms–6m.1. To obtain the plus .0m 3. lines 3. 2. +6m.0m 12.0m Power and T. basic body and the zero leg extensions. in general. we require the tower to be higher or less then the zero height.0m 9. This height is generally called the zero height.26 Rev.0m 4.5m Shrubs 2.5m 4. It is imposed by GECOL and for the maximum conductor sag at 75°C without wind.0m 10. A .0m Secondary roads 9. first at all. the minimum clearances are: Crossing-Over 30kV 66kV 220kV Normal ground 7.T. For the minus height. In the tower height determination.2-1 The values for the column “66kV” are marked to be subject of discussion with GECOL. only the values for the Normal ground crossing-over are to be considered. This is important for both.0m Figure 2.3 Tower height under cross-arm In our personal engineering practice.0m 7.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 2. the client and designer. we have to respect all of them. In the tower design.5m 4.2 Clearance to Obstacles The clearance to obstacles is important in the spotting of towers.0m 12. In this calculation.

For the hilly areas.1. If this is not the case. isolator string extremities. the mechanical characteristics for each.16 Angle of Protection – Angle of Shade – Shielding Angle) are: 30kV double circuit overhead line 66kV double circuit overhead line 220kV double circuit overhead line =>35° =>35° =>30°. all mentioned criteria have to be satisfied. Generally. there are two possibilities. The second way is.4-1 The values in this table have to be subject of serious discussion with GECOL. especially for the unspecified distances. With the new computers and the new programs. In tower design.27 Rev. the values are: Live metal distances Hypothesis 30 kV 66 kV 220 kV 0° swing of suspension string ????? ????? ????? reduced swing of suspension string ????? 760mm (10°) 1980m (20°) maximum swing of suspension string 450mm (60°) 650mm (30°) 1500mm (60°) Figure 2. counterweights etc…) to be respected in our tower design are specified in GECOL Technical specification. only one earth-wire is demanded. . this is now possible. for the +6 height we have the basic body with a +6 body extension.1. we have to consider this because of efforts in the main member. The specification of the different tower heights is generally made by GECOL.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 heights we use the basic body adding the body extensions. can be increased even a 10%. 2. to calculate the worst combination of unequal legs.1. Therefore. First is. For a long time. We assumed that for the double circuit towers. A . To avoid this. this was the only method.4 Live metal distances The live metal distances between any metallic element of support and the pieces under voltage (conductors. to calculate the tower with a configuration of four zero leg extensions.5. the effort in the main member for the configuration of four zero leg extensions. tower per tower. 2. the terrain slope has a great impact on the design because we need unequal leg extensions.5 Earth-wire shield angle According to the GECOL Technical specification the earth-wire shield angles (see definition 1. and then to verify. For the different swing of suspension string.

The conductor spacing between phases or phases and earth wire in the mid span shall be regulated by following formula: C [m] = 0.1 Normal conditions The normal (every day) loading cases are: . horizontal and vertical distances.2 Loading parameters The tower resistance is represented by the ratio of ultimate efforts and working loads.28 Rev. E is nominal line voltage expressed in kV. The working loads are the loads that the tower is submitted during his life. 2. 2. will be discussed with GECOL whenever is the case.1.8 ⋅ s ( Sag + L) + E 150 where Sag represent the conductor sag at +75ºC expressed in meters. and the shield angle covering an internal conductor.6. the vertical distance between them doesn’t exist.6 Horizontal and vertical conductor distances Both. concerning the shield angle. or specific overhead line.2. 2. and is called a safety factor. but for “V” and tension-string is equal to zero. 2. in case of horizontal arrangement of conductors.1. The ultimate effort represents the effort causing the tower irreversible deformation. L is length of string also in meters.1. are fixed by TECNICAL SPECIFICATION and their values are: Description 30 kV 66kV 220kV Minimum horizontal distance between phase conductors 5000mm 5000mm 5000mm Minimum vertical distance between phase conductors 2000mm 2700mm 2700mm Figure 2. we need a clarification from GECOL.7 Special conditions Any special condition.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 For the horizontal conductor configurations. for the particular tower family.1 Of course. A .

1 SUSPENSION TOWER BROKEN WIRE CONDITION Any one bundled phase conductor broken or earth wire broken whichever is more stringent for a particular member of the tower. The values for the wind pressure. The towers shell be designed for the following broken wire conditions: 2.5 2.2.29 Rev.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 Permanent loads Wind and temperature loads (ice is not mentioned in GECOL technical specification and will be not considered) According to the load vector orientation. Safety factor for the normal loading cases is 2. . we assume the broken wire cases.2 Exceptional conditions Under exceptional conditions.2. unbalance conductor and earth wire tensions. are specific for the different geographical area and the nominal line voltage. Vertical efforts: Weight of tower Weight of insulator string Weight span of conductor (earth wire) multiplied by specific weight of the conductor (earth wire) Transversal efforts: Wind pressure on each conductor and earth wire Wind pressure on each insulator string Wind pressure on the flat surface of structural member Transversal component of wire tension Longitudinal efforts: For the angle towers. conductor and earth wire tension on one side only. coefficient for the structural member exposed area to the wind. due to unequal spans For the dead end towers.2. This is because the other side of tower is not loaded at all. A . transversal and longitudinal effort. we can distinguish a vertical. The tension due to broken conductor shall be considered as 30% of maximum tension of all the phase conductors whereas the tension due to broken earth wire shall be considered as 70% of the maximum tension.

2.2.1 Steels The steel used in our design shall be mild or high tensile according to the international DIN or ASTM standards.5 2.2.5 2.3 Line erection and maintenance conditions The line erection and maintenance conditions are not precisely determinated by GECOL and will be discussed with them. for the different raisons.2. The ultimate tensile strength for the mild steel is between 37 and 45 kp/mm2 and yield stress is not less than 24 kp/mm2. they shall be designed for six phase conductors on the same side unconnected. The minimum size of flange without holes is 3mm. All details are in annex 3 of this Guide.3. In addition.2. Safety factor for the line erection and maintenance conditions loading cases is 1.2 TENSION TOWER BROKEN WIRE CONDITION Any of the phase conductors broken on the same side and on the same span or any one of the phase conductor and earth wire broken on the same span whichever is more stringent. fabrication problems.5 mm Bracings and other members . They are two of kind: steels and bolts. like symmetry. The ultimate tensile strength for the high tensile steel is between 52 and 62 kp/mm2 and yield stress is not less than 36 kp/mm2.3 Materials Materials used in design of towers are in accordance to the GECOL specifications. the unequal leg angle type is to avoid. The tension due to broken conductors or earth wire shall be full maximum tensions.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 2. A . This steel designation has to be discussed with GECOL in order to respect the new European Standard.4 mm An unequal leg angle is permitted in the design. possibility of mistake in the erection etc. The tension due to broken conductors shall be considered as the maximum tension The vertical and transversal loads shall be computed on same pattern while considering 60% of weight and wind spans as mentioned above in Normal conditions. .30 Rev. 2.3 TERMINAL TOWER BROKEN WIRE CONDITION Three phase conductors broken on the same side and on the same span (? To discuss with GECOL “same span” expression because we have a terminal tower case) or any two of the phase conductors and earth wire broken on the same span. Safety factor for the broken wire loading cases is 1. 2. Anyhow. The minimum thickness for the angles is: Leg and other corner members .

3. A . It is preference to have only one diameter for the whole tower. We shell discuss with GECOL a possibility to use a M12 in our tower design.31 Rev.Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design 2 2 2. .6 (to discuss with GECOL a value of minimum).2 Bolts and nuts Bolts and nuts in our design are conforming to DIN 7990 and 555. Grade of bolts is minimum 4. The size we will use in our design shall be M16 and M20.

A . The tower has a high degree of symmetry which is facilitating the tower modelling. without the control of moments occurred in the nodes of structure. However. the members with forces as result of a loading case we call a primary bars. This will allow you to . only axial forces in the members are possible. The rules describing how to respect these static lines in the tower detailing is described in the chapter “Detailing and fabrication”. etc. and for now being. 3. The hypothesis to be respected in tower analysis is that a tower is an ideal three-dimensional truss. software made by Power Line Systems. we have to assume that the tower is presented by the lines connected to the nodes. and in that case. Having secondary bars is not useful in tower modelling and our advice is to avoid them. plates.32 Rev. cannot replace an engineer experience. bolts. For the calculation purposes. A dynamic calculation is possible. and the bars without any force secondary members.Static calculation 3 2 3. All members have to be triangulated in order to have a static system and not mechanism. I am saying this because of recent collapse of one angle tower design (year 2000) made by one Spanish college who considered some elements (leg members) as beam elements. we are replacing the concentrated mass elements that are multiplied by the acceleration and statically applied on the structure. We have one expression for this case called GIGO. For the good utilisation of this program. and for this reason we call them also redundant members.2 Computer Program Our choice of computer program was “TOWER”.1 Tower Model We know too well that the tower is composed from a lot of elements. Even then. All descriptions of his use are presented in the program manual that is in annex 1 of this Guide. Static calculation All previous steps have to be accomplished before starting a static calculation. A computer program is always a tool. This hypothesis is very important and any other assumption is very dangerous for a non-experienced designer. 3. it means “Garbage in garbage out”. bars. you have to make a certain number of towers. Therefore. but generally. The members who are inside a triangle have an axial forces equal to zero. designed under the control of somebody with experience in this field. we have to pay attention on few things. continue to read and study the literature in this domain. Inc. The secondary bars are used to reduce un-braced lengths of the primary members. and almost all specialised computer programs has this facility in the nodes and bars generating.

Static calculation 3 2 be in the contact with the newest experience and solutions to the problems in the tower design.33 Rev. A . .

Tower Dimensioning 4 2 4. 4. the cross section of the bar and the characteristics of bolted connection (diameter of holes and the number of holes). make the choice of secondary (redundant) bars necessary to add in order to reduce the slenderness ratio. we have to respect the following limit: Redundant members and those carrying nominal stress 250 Also: Members carrying axial tension only 4.1 Bar dimensioning The methods described in this chapter are to be applied for the dimensioning of hot-rolled and cold-formed bars. we need to have two parameters.1. . A . due to the final bar sections. Tower Dimensioning 4. we have to pay attention on only one thing: the net section of bar. To determinate the net section. the most important task to do is bar dimensioning.1 Slenderness ratios According to the GECOL technical specifications.2 375 Tension members In the bar determination due to the tension effort. On this point.1. Once the static calculation finished. etc… Please. Every designer has to take in the consideration all necessary elements to make the profile choice.34 Rev. the limiting values of the slenderness ratio for the bars with calculated compressive stress shall be as follows: Leg members and main corner members of earth-wire peak and cross arms 120 Other members 200 For the bars without calculated stress or with the nominal stress. don’t forget to recalculate the wind on tower efforts. we have to finalized the tower outline.

we have to check the angle section formed by the shortest line connecting the bolts on both legs. “D” is hole diameter and “ t” is the thickness of leg.1.1. the net section of angle is equal to angle section minus the holes. the diameter of the holes is equal to the bolt diameter + 1. 4.1.2 Angles connected on both legs Allowable tension effort for the angles connected on both legs is equal to design stress Ft multiplied by net cross section. Anyhow.1.3-1) (4.1 Angles connected by one leg Allowable tension effort for the angles connected by one leg is equal to design stress Ft multiplied by net cross section.1. 4. Tc = Ft ⋅ An In this case. some details are to be repeated twice.Tower Dimensioning 4 2 In the GECOL technical specification.5 of leg section.35 Rev.5mm 4. and net section of the bolted leg is equal to the leg section minus the holes.1. On the end the formula of the net section is: An = A − n ⋅ D ⋅ t Where “A” is the angle section. If this section is less then the previously calculated then we have to replace net section by the new one. Tc = Ft ⋅ An In this case. generally with value of two.75 ⋅ A − D ⋅ t Where “A” is the angle section. In case of diagonal or zigzag chain of holes.2.3-3) . “ t” is the thickness of leg and n is the number of bolts. for the bolts M16 and M20. the net section of unbolted leg is equal to the 0. On the end the formula of the net section is: An = 0. “D” is hole diameter. The allowable compression stress Fa is given by formulas: 2 ⎡ KL ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 1 r ⎟ ⎥⋅F Fa = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎢ 2 ⎜ Cc ⎟ ⎥ y ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ Fa = π 2E (KL r ) Cc = π 2 KL ≤ Cc r KL ≥ C c r 2E Fy (4. A .3-2) (4.2.3 Compression members The compression calculation is explained in details in the annex 2.

80Ψ ⎛ w⎞ ⎟ = Fy ⎝ t ⎠ lim If the w/ t exceeds ⎜ (4.3-1) and (4.Effective length coefficient 4.3.3. is equal to 1 if the Fy is expressed in ksi. A .1-2) or Fcr = 0.3. 4.1-3).1.1.1.Modulus of elasticity L .1.3.1 Maximum w/t Ratio The maximum w / t ratio is 25.radius of gyration K .1. mentioned in (4. and equal 2.1-1) trough (4. For the members with L / r ≤ 120 the value for effective slenderness ratio in (4.1-1) Then the value of allowable stress Fa shall be replaced with Fcr .62 if the Fy is expressed in MPa.3-2) is : KL / r = L / r For no eccentricity at both ends. as given by: ⎡ w/t ⎤ Fcr = ⎢1.667 − 0.1.Un-braced length r .1.36 Rev.1.3.0332π 2 E (w / t )2 for the value of w 144Ψ ≥ t Fy (4.1-3) The value of Ψ .3.1.3.2-1 .Tower Dimensioning 4 2 Fy .3.Effective length coefficient.1.677 ⎥ ⋅ Fy ( w / t ) lim ⎦ ⎣ w 144Ψ ⎛ w⎞ ⎟ ≤ ≤ Fy ⎝ t ⎠ lim t for the value of ⎜ (4. where w is the flat angle width and t is angle leg thickness.2 Effective lengths The only value not explained is previous formulas K is .Minimum guaranteed yield stress E . as for example the main member (Curve 1) 4.

3.1.5 L / r For eccentricity at both ends.75 L / r For eccentricity at one end only.Tower Dimensioning 4 2 KL / r = 30 + 0.3-1) and (4.1. A .2-4 KL / r = 28.3. as for example the diagonals (Curve 3) 4.6 + 0.1.615 L / r For the member with partial restraint at both ends (Curve 6) 4.2-3 Regarding the complexity of realisation. as for example the bottom cross-arm member (Curve 2) 4.1. .2-2 KL / r = 60 + 0.3.2-3 For the members with L / r > 120 the value for effective slenderness ratio in (4.37 Rev.3.1.2-2 KL / r = 46.3.3-2) is : KL / r = L / r For the member unrestrained at both ends (Curve 4) 4. the Curve 5 and 6 are not recommended for use.762 L / r For the member with partial restraint at one end only (Curve 5) 4.1.2 + 0.1.

c) is double also.2 Bearing The bearing capacity is linked to the allowable deformation of holes. The consequences are not only for the fabrication facility but for the erection work also. In this is the case.5⋅D.5⋅D. is calculated in order to satisfy a condition that maximum bar ultimate tension or compression effort is less than shear strength of bolts. EDF is accepting three times yield stress. In our design we shall use two times yield stress and the edge distances x=1.25⋅D and z=2. First. A . we have to determinate the values of 0. Once diameter(s) accepted. we found that M12 is forbidden for use. the ultimate compression or tension effort for one bolt is: Fu(t. 4.2.1 Shearing” and “4.c) ≤ n⋅σs⋅A In case of double shear. The case of triple shear is rarely or impossible to find in common tower design. This is described by following formula: Fu(t. For the bolt determination. when is possible. We suggest you to avoid more then two diameters for one tower type.2.2 Bolt Determination The last things to determinate are bolts. Sometimes. In France. In GECOL specification.1 Shearing The shear strength of bolt is related to the bolt quality only. for a particular bar connection.2 Bearing”. In addition. We suggest to GECOL to reconsider this decision and allow us his use. we rather use a single bolt diameter. but the theory of allowable edge distances is too much complicated. Then the shear strength of bolt is given by the following formula: Ft = σs⋅A where A is cross sectional area of bolt. y=1. we have to make the choice of bolt diameters to use in our design.2. The number of bolt (n). we can start with calculation of bolt quantities. described later in articles “4.2.Tower Dimensioning 4 2 4. First. This is very important decision. of this chapter. where D is bolt diameter. . we have to pay attention that the number of bolts has to be in accordance with the bar curve. 4. Two element of this calculation are necessary to do. we prefer the method described in “Recommendation for Angles in Lattice Transmission Towers” rather then ASCE method. the value of Fu(t.69σt and 0.38 Rev.95σy and to accept the smallest σs as allowable shear stress.c)=σb⋅Ds⋅t where σb is allowable bearing stress and equal to twice yield stress of bar.

33⋅σb⋅(y.c) = σb⋅(x-Ds⋅t) Î for the longitudinal edge distances Fu(t.c) = 1.Tower Dimensioning 4 2 In some special cases.½⋅Ds)⋅t Fu(t.39 Rev. . A . when we need to use the edge distances less then specified.c) = ½⋅σb⋅(z. we have to check the bearing capacity by using the formulas: x z t y Fu(t.½⋅Ds)⋅t Î for the transversal edge distances Î for the hole centre distances.

Minimum bolt spacing.Detailing and fabrication 5 2 5. showing the complete assembly and indicating the position of each element. The rules to follow are described in ANSI/ASCE 10-90 and have to be respected. to facilitate the tower erection procedure. drilling.2. Detailing and fabrication Detailing problem consists in transforming statical lines in angles and plates connected bye bolts. In some cases. end and edge distances shell respect those mentioned already in “4. we are producing the erection drawing – simplified workshop drawings. punching. A . we are using maximum two kind of steel: mild steel and high tensile steel. who will control correctness of dimensional detail calculations and give his opinion once test of tower finished.5 Marking For the marking of pieces.4 Shop operations Shop operations consist essentially of cutting. 5. see Annex 2. For more details. you have to keep on mind the necessary elements: ⇒ Mark of fabricator .2 Connections The best way to connect members is making directly on each other with minimum eccentricity.3 Material Workshop drawings have to clearly specify member and connection materials.2 Bearing” and those specified in GECOL technical specification.1 Drawings Tower detail drawings are composed of workshop drawings and bills of material. Every operation has to be indicated on the workshop drawing.2.2 5. 5. Bill of material will be made in excel sheet. Article 7. High tensile steel has to be marked with letter A on the workshop drawings. blocking or clipping. Our choice of drafting aid program was AutoCAD®. and either cold or hot bending. Approval of workshop drawings is a task of GECOL.40 Rev. 5. 5. As told before.

Steel quality is the last mark on tower elements. because of limit of CNC machines (8 characters in total). It is in GECOL case. For the other details.2. Tower designation is normally limited on three characters.41 Rev.4. and generally is limited on three characters (numbers). no any responsibility of GPC is engaged. This is needed in case of problems on erected towers. A . . Item number has to unique to the specific tower. see Annex 2. article 7.Detailing and fabrication 5 2 ⇒ Tower designation ⇒ Item number ⇒ Steel quality The mark of fabricator in our case is special logo of GPC. and blank for the mild steel. In case that erected tower pieces don’t have GPC mark. a letter A for the high tensile steel.

and workshop drawings have to be changed with a new revision note.3 Checking of bars Bars have to be with all dimensions and steel quality as indicated on workshop drawings. Any interferences between bars or bars any other tower element have to be reported. Sometimes it arrives that during detailing we made some error on one element provoking a general main dimension error. 6.5 Bolts checking During our checking of prototype. A . 6. This chapter is describing the procedure in the prototype approval. we have to check that all bars were assembled without any forcing and any deformation. This is valuable for the new design as well as for the old one.2 Checking of main dimensions The main dimensions have to be checked to avoid a possible capital error that the workshop drawing is not corresponding to statical outline.1 Prototype documents The documents to be checked are: ◊ Workshop drawings ◊ Material lists ◊ Steel certificates ◊ Bolt and nuts certificates All documents revisions have to correspond to the assembled prototype.Tower Prototype 6 2 6. The prototype is assembled on the ground in horizontal position. 6. we have to check the following bolts parameters: ‰ Bolt diameter .42 Rev. This is very important point in later serial production of towers. 6. 6. Tower Prototype It is highly recommended to make a tower prototype before to start any serial production. corrected. After this check.4 Plates checking Plates have to satisfy the same criteria as bars.

43 Rev. The length of bolts has to be same as indicated on workshop drawings.Tower Prototype 6 2 ‰ Length of bolts ‰ Bolt hole (holes) All bolt diameters have to correspond to those in workshop drawings. The length of remaining part of bolts has to be between two and three treads. the holes he is passing through have to be perfectly aligned. . provoking premature tower failure. Any bolt has to be mounted without any forcing. All mistakes can be dangerous for the test of tower. A .

you have to know that too much loading cases applied on the tower can provoke his collapse even that the tower can resist to the each of them separately. and that is the reason to have so precise design method. it is up to the designer to propose the loading cases.44 Rev. multiplied by total number of towers. external (non calculated) wind during the test. You are not the first. and use in normal exploitation. because the weight supplement for one tower. and the second is that the failure of tower arrives before the 125% of loading for the ultimate test case. pay attention that it is forbidden to recuperate. Tower testing Before to start this chapter. A lot of factors are involved in this process. This is the reason to have a maximum of five loading cases. we would like to say one thing. first is the resistance of tower on 100% of loading. except when the client asks to not have one. the tower submitted to the destructive test. This is generally decision for the towers of a small serial production.1 Choice of Loading Cases The choice of loading cases is generally made by client him self or his consulting engineer. either last designer confronted with this problem. is giving a very expensive transmission line. like material tolerances (+ or -). fabrication mistakes. don’t panic. and where we want to recuperate the prototype for the later use. In the design. Every designer assisting on the tower test has two fears. Please. we are always trying to have an optimum dimensioned tower. This is increased knowing that the good tower test result is not depending on the good tower design. This is important for the good finishing of tower test and it will be a good experience for the future tests. The last case is a destructive test. Sometimes. 7. do not continue the test without knowing the failure reason. We are newer making a reserve more than 10%. 7.2 Elaboration of Tower Testing Program Elaboration of testing program is to be discussed with GECOL . Don’t forget that extra weight of towers has also the repercussions on the tower transport and erection costs. In addition. The overhead line tower is the only structure tested up to the failure. testing equipment problems. A . please. Anyhow.Tower testing 7 2 7. etc… In the case that the tower collapse arrives before 100% of loading.

and they are responsible for this. There is not need to give more explanations for the testing procedure.4 - All bars mounted and all bolts tied well - Level of artificial foundations has to be in tolerances zero - Tower have to be vertical position Testing Procedure The testing procedure have to be in accordance to the International standard for overhead line tower testing “LOADING TESTS ON OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS” made by International Electro technical Commission. Anyhow.45 Rev. Many countries listed on page 3 of this publication. voted explicitly in favour of publication.3 Prototype Erection Checking The prototype erection is made by testing station team. everything is already described in this publication.Tower testing 7 2 7. . A . the designer have to check the prototype erection him self and to pay attention on following: 7.

Bibliography ANSI/ASCE 10-90 (1991) “Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures” American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE MANUALS AND REPORTS ON ENGINEERING PRACTICE NO.Technical Specification ” GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY OF LIBYA-PLANNING & PROJECTS DEPARTMENT (1999) “Technical Specification of 220 kV Overhead Double Circuit Transmission Lines” GRAÐEVINSKI FAKULTET SARAJEVO (1980) “Otpornost materijala” GTMH (1999) “Directives Lignes Aériennes” Michel Bougue .46 Rev. A . 52 (1984) “Guide for Design of Steel Transmission Towers” ECCS – TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 8 – STRUCTURAL STABILITY TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP 8.1 (1985) “Recommendations For Angles in Lattice Transmission Towers” EDF/CERT (1996) “Directives Lignes Aériennes” GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY OF LIBYA-PLANNING & PROJECTS DEPARTMENT (1999) “Technical Specification for 30 kV Double Circuit Overhead Transmission Lines” GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY OF LIBYA-PLANNING & PROJECTS DEPARTMENT (1996) “ 66 kV Double Circuit Overhead Transmission Lines .Bibliography 8 2 8.

Annexes 9 2 9. Annexes Annex 1: TOWER Computer Program Manual Power Line Systems “TOWER – Analysis and Design of Steel Latticed Towers used in Transmission and Communication Facilities ” Annex 2: American standard for design of overhead line towers ANSI/ASCE 10-90 (1991) “Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures” American Society of Civil Engineers Annex 3: European Standard for the Steels used in design of overhead line towers BS EN 10025 (1993) “Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels – Technical delivery conditions” Annex 4: European recommendation for design of overhead line towers ECCS – Technical Committee 8 – Structural Stability Technical Working Group 8. 52 (1984) “Guide for Design of Steel Transmission Towers” Annex 6: International standard for overhead line tower testing INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISION “LOADING TESTS ON OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS” .47 Rev. A .1 (1985) “Recommendations for Angles in Lattice Transmission Towers” Annex 5: American recommendation for design of overhead line towers ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering practice No.

48 Rev. A .Annexes 9 2 Annex 7: Bare Overhead Line Conductor Catalogue ALCATEL CABLE – France Annex 8: Overhead Line Insulators Catalogue SEDIVER – France Annex 9: String hardware catalogue Derveaux groupe SICAME – France .

. 1................................................................................................................................................ 21.................................................. 2 E Earth Conductor ................................. Index A AC Line ... 15 Conductor fittings . 8 Guy ................................................................................................................................ 8............ 2 Conductor Vibration .......... 15........49 Rev............................................................ 5...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7........................................................................... 13.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26....................................... 1 Distribution Line .. 14........... 46 Clearance to Obstacles .............................. 6 Circuit ................................. 10.................................................................................................. 27 Exceptional Loads ............................ 13.................... 11 D Delta Configuration ....................................... 16..............Index 10 2 10............................................................................................... 10 C Catenary ... 15 Earth-wire .............................. 38 Bipolar Line................................................. 15......................................... 15 Conductor Galloping ............................... 1 Aeolian Vibration ............................... 2 Cross-arm ...................................................................................... 6................................................................. 38 Bracing System ...................... 38 conductor .................... 5 Direct Current Line .............. 10 H Horizontal Configuration ..................................................................................... 28 Conductor .................................... 2 B Bearing ............................................. 5........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 G Ground Clearance .......................................................................... 2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1............................................................................................................................................................................ 2 bolt diameter ...................... 2...................................................................................... 6 Difference in Levels ................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Diagonal Leg Profiles... A ............................. 14............................................................. 8.......................................................... 26 compression ........................................ 7 ................................... 4................... 7........

............... 5........................................................................................................ 4 J Jumper ............................................................................................. 1 N Normal Load ................................................................................................................................................ 10 Support ................................................ 11 ............................................................................................................................................ 3 O Overhead Ground-wire .................................................................................... 8 Pole .......... 10 Positive (Negative) Pole ........................................................................................................... 3 Line.................................. 15 Overhead Line .................................................................................... 4.............. 30 Loading Assumptions ....................................................................... 2.......................................... 6 M Mechanical Design ...........................................50 Rev...........................................................................Index 10 2 I ice ........................................ 9.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 38 shield angle ......... 2 Monopolar Line .................... A .............................................. 3 Longitudinal Profile ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5...... 21.......................... 1 P Phase.................................................................................................................................................................................... 4........................................................................................ 13............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16 structural members ............................................................... 27 Shield Wire ...... 6......... 38 Shearing .................... 15 L Legislative Load ............. 3 Loading Case ...... 3 S Sag ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 R Rupture Load .. 1... 1........................................................... 15 Span ........ 9................................................................................................... 28 shear ...................................................................... 5............................................................................................................................................ 6 Ice Loading ........................... 3....................................................................................................................

................. 38 Test Load ............ 12............................................ 3 Y yield ........ 7 U Ultimate Design Load ............. 44 Transmission Line ..........51 Rev........................ 26........................................................................................... 9.............................................................................................................................. 8........... 3........................ 2 Transposition ........................................... Longitudinal Loads ............ 4 W wind ............... 26.................................................... 6 Triangular Configuration................................................... 42......................... 16......................................................................................................................................................... 15................................. 21................................................................................................................ 3 V Vertical Configuration.......................................................................................................... 10........................ 10..........................................................................................................Index 10 2 T tension ......... 9 Transverse Profile ................. 7 Vertical................ A .................................. 6.................................................................... 4 Working Clearance ....... 4.. 34...................................................................................... 3 Tower ........................................................ 18........................................................ 38 ......................................... 8 working load ...................................................... 5..................................................................................... 3 Working Load ............................................................................................................................. 2....... Transverse................. 32................................................................ 6... 26 Wind Load .............