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Word Classes

Verbs

Adjectives

Conjunctions

Adverbs

Interjections

Nouns
Pronouns

Prepositions

Define word classes in the following

The human body is made of billions


and billions of cells; each of which
contains, among other substances,
millions and millions of protein
molecules. These proteins can perform
millions of different functions; a
versatility which is largely responsible
for the phenomenon called life.

Summary
Category/Size
Word
Phrase
Clause

Class
noun
pronoun
adjective
Verb
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
interjection

Function
subject
object
verb
adjective
adverb

W Nouns designates persons, places,


o Pronouns
are
n.
substitutes
r
d Adjectives modify n. and/or pro.
C
l
a
s
s
e
s

Verbs

expresses action or state

Adverbs

modifies v., adj., or adv.

Prepositions

shows relationship

Conjunctions links words, phrases,


Interjections shows strong feeling.

W Nouns
o
Pronouns
r
d Adjectives
C Verbs
l
a
s
s
e
s

round, minute
he/she, I, you, they, them
up, minute, hourly

indict, round, up, minute, to

Adverbs
Prepositions

unlike, round, up, hourly


round, in, on, against, to

Conjunctions

and, or, if, because

Interjections

Yes! No! God! What!

Common

N
o
u
N
s

Proper
C/U
Collective

Gender

name of any thing. Not


capitalized.
Particular things.
Always capitalized.
iron, stone, water
Refers to a group. single
plural
Masculine
function
Feminine
simple
Neutral
Common

compound

Comment on the following


compound noun
A practical multipurpose
compact distillation tower
Effluent gas continuous
analysis solid state unit
Think about order of words,
contribution to a clear meaning

N
o
u
N
S

Number

Singular
Plural

Hoof (hooves) man (men), sheep, oxen


spelling may not change

fish (< fishes), dust, deer, baggage, aircraft,

Nominative

P
R
O
N
O
U
N
S

I, he, she, we, you


Possessive
Case
Forms
assumed
by the
pronoun

my, his, her, our,


your
Objective
me, him, her, us,
you

Personal

They, I, them, her, she, him, his,


my

P
relates, or refers to a preceding
Relative
r
word: who, where, when, whom
o
to ask questions; who,
Interrogative why, where,
n
o
Used to point out person(s),
Demonstrative or thing(s): these, this, that
u
n
personal pronouns plus
Reflexive

the word self or selves.

Pronoun
Gender
He, She

Number
we, they

Case
Subj, obj, poss.

Pronouns, like nouns follow the same


rules of gender, number, and case.

A
d
j
e
c
t
i
v
e
s

It may describe: round.


It may indicate a number: tertiary.
It may be derived from a proper noun:
Hertzian, newtonian, Egyptian
It may be a noun used as an adjective:
Bingham-fluid, Fourier Series
It may be a compound word.
United Nations Educational and
Scientific Organization (UNESCO)

Comparison using adjectives

Positive
Kind
Beautiful
Little
Good

Comparative

Superlative

Kinder
More beautiful
Less
Better

Kindest
Most beautiful
Least
Best

Stacking adjectives before a noun


be nice
x be long

nice
long
synthetic
green
robe

16

15

dynamic

1
static

Transitive
passes action
Types of Verbs

V
e
r
b
s

Intransitive

does not pass action to a receiver

Participle
verbal used as adjective

Infinitive

Verbal
a verb, does the work
of a noun, adjective,
or an adverb.

used as a noun,
adjective, or an adverb.

Gerund

verbal, ending in ing used as noun.

Forms and tenses of the verb


form

auxiliary verbs

Present

V
Past
e
r Infinitive
b Past participle
s
Present participle

Present part.

tenses
Present
Past
Future

shall, will
have
be

Perfect tenses
Continuous tenses

shall, will, have, be

Perfect
continuous tenses

Active

Voice.

V
e
r
b
s

Only transitive
verbs have voice.

Subject as the actor; direct


object as the receiver

Passive

Subject = the receiver


of the action
Indicative
Mood

How action or
state is thought of

Indicates a fact
Imperative
Command
Subjunctive

Conditions contrary to fact, a


doubt, or a wish

A
d
v
e
r
b
S

Tells time; now, then, yesterday, soon.


Tells place: here, there, forward.
Indicates manner: quickly, pleasantly, well.
Indicates degree: very, somewhat, just.
Introduces a question: When shall we leave?
It says yes or no.

A
d
v
e
r
b

Conjunctive
adverb

Comparison
of adjectives.

Is a word that connects


two independent clauses
and at the same time
acts as a adverbial
modifier for the second
clause.

Positive
Comparative
Superlative

P
r
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
s

Prepositions
Such as: about, a, concerning, beyond,
along, against, across, .

Prepositional
phrase

Such as: according


to, in case of, in
regard to, .

Is a group of words that includes the


preposition, the noun or the pronoun that
is its object, and any words that modify the
noun or the pronoun.

P
r
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
s

Adverb

Stocks went down.


People stayed inside.

OR
Certain problems are set before us.
Preposition

Lets go to the movies after dinner.


Rich soil went down the river.

OR

Conjunction

People stayed inside their houses.

They must be settled before it


is too late.
We left after they had arrived.

Interjection.
Is a word that shows strong
feeling, or surprise.
It has no grammatical relationship
with the rest of the sentence.

C
o
n
j
u
n
c
t
I
o
n

Co-ordinate

Join words,
phrases, or
clauses of equal
rank in
meaning

Subordinate. Joins
subordinate
clause to a
principal clause.

Conjunctions
Coordinate equal grammatical parts:
and, or, for, but, so, yet, nor
The supervisors is concerned about the
rising figures of lost time, but they don't
know the reasons for it.
Subordinate dependent parts to main parts: if,
since, for, as, when,

Because doctors are concerned about the


rising death rate from asthma, they have
called for more research into its causes..

Subordinate
conjunctions
if
since
for
as
when
because
although
rather than
even though,

Coordinate
conjunctions
and
or
for
nor
but
so
yet

Agreement

She and her friends are at the fair.


The book or the pen is in the drawer.
The boy or his friends run every day.
His friends or the boy runs every day.
He doesn't like it.
They don't like it.
One of the boxes is open
The people who listen to that music are few.
The team captain, as well as his players, is anxious.
The book, including all the chapters in the first
section, is boring.
The woman with all the dogs walks down my street.
Each of these hot dogs is juicy.
Everybody knows Mr. Jones.
Either is correct.

The news is on at six.


Five dollars is a lot of money.
Dollars are often used instead of rubles in Russia.
These scissors are dull.
Those trousers are made of wool.
There are many questions.
There is a question.
The team runs during practice.
The committee decides how to proceed.
The family has a long history.
My family has never been able to agree.
The crew is preparing to dock the ship.
The President, accompanied by PM, is traveling
.
All of the books, including yours, are in that box.