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The History of Workplace
Health & Safety in USA
1900-1920 Progressive Era
Reforms - A coalition of
unions and politicians used
the power of the government
to mitigate the worst effects
of rapid industrialization.
In 1911 New Yorks Triangle Shirtwaist Co. caught fire, and 146 of 300 employees died. Managers
had locked the exit doors, claiming employees would steal from the company and could be
permitted to leave only under supervision. The tragedy became a rallying point for reformers.

1910 The Rise of Workers Compensation Law - New York was the first state to pass a

workers compensation law, which forced companies to make restitution to workers or

their families according to established rates. The rest of the states followed New Yorks
lead during the next decade.
1970 The Intervention of the Federal Government - Congress passed the Occupational
Safety and Health Act (OSHAct) which created the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) within the Department of Labor to established safety standards,
researched workplace hazards and educated workers about their rights.

OSHA Controversy

OSH Progress in the Philippines

Since its inception, OSHA has inspired 1974 - Philippine Government issued/
promulgated PD 442 (Labor Code of the
controversy along political lines. Politically
liberal critics assert OSHA takes too long to
act on new information requiring a revision 1975 - The then Ministry of Labor started the
program on accreditation recognizing/
of safety standards and poorly enforces the
accrediting safety training organization.
standards it has enacted.
Political conservatives argue OSHA is overly
cautious, imposing costly and unnecessary
regulations on industry. As a result, politicians
on both sides of the aisle have repeatedly
called for the reform of OSHA.


HEALTH STANDARDS was approved by then
Minister of Labor.
1988 - The OSHC was inaugurated (the first in
Southeast Asia), created per Executive Order
No. 307.
1998 - The Association of Safety Practitioners
of the Philippines (ASPPI) was organized.
2004 - The Association of Safety and Health
Training Organization of the Philippines was
organized (ASHTOP).

What is Safety?

safety/sft/ noun

The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause

danger, risk, or injury.

Costs of Accident

Direct Cost (Insured) ccompensations, property
damaged & medical expenses.

Indirect Cost (Uninsured) All additional costs
associated with the accident.

Unknown Costs of Accident



Human tragedy

Top Management Commitment

It is essential to the success of your

companys safety and health program
that top management demonstrate not
only an interest, but a long term serious
commitment to protect every employee
from injury and illness on the job.

Commitment: (Webster Dictionary)

The state of being bound emotionally or
intellectually to a course of action or to a

Employers are motivated to primarily meet one of the following obligations:

LEGAL (we must stay out of trouble & do only what we have to)
FISCAL (we must save money & do what we have to)
SOCIAL (we must save lives & do whatever it takes)

Indicators of Management Commitment


There is a written safety & health policy.

There are written safety goals and objectives.
Written strategies and tactics (programs) for achieving safety objectives are in p
Managers provide safety budgets, staffing, and facilities for meetings.
Managers participate in executing safety plans.
Managers monitor and periodically evaluate the safety program.

7. Managers and supervisors set an example of good safety practices, e.g., wearing
personal protective equipment.
8. Managers and supervisors are held accountable for safety performance, e.g., pay/
promotions are partially dependent on safety.
9. Top managers receive and respond to safety committee recommendations.
10. Supervisors and managers personally conduct safety audits and inspections.
11. There are specific procedures for ensuring that accident investigations result in
identification and timely implementation of corrective actions, and procedures are
reviewed by management.
12. Managers attend safety meetings.
13. Management representatives are members of the safety committee.
14. Managers regularly attend safety activities outside the company.

2 Types of Management Approach to Safety & Health

Management commitment reflects on the way they

approach safety & health.
Reactive (Loss control) - This approach emphasizes
doing everything management must do to limit losses
after an accident occurs.
Pro-Active (Accident prevention) - This approach
emphasizes doing everything management can to
anticipate and prevent accidents.

commitment, how do you get it?

But, if you think your company does not have that level of

Management Commitment to safety will occur to the extent they

clearly understand the positive benefits derived from the effort.
Understanding the benefits will create a strong desire to improve
the companys safety culture by developing programs, policies,
written plans, processes and procedures.

How do you get management attention?

Youve got to talk bottom line to get managements


Cost Benefit Analysis

The solution to an apparent lack of management support is

to improve the quality of the recommendation by presenting
it as a cost / benefit analysis which addresses the bottom line.


Problem: The guard rail in the warehouse has deteriorated to a point that it is unable to
support any weight on it.
History: We had an incident on 6/13/99 where Jose Reyes almost fell down the 10 steps
because the guard rail did not support his weight. He fortunately caught himself before
falling. We had a second near miss incident on 9/18/99 when Jane Sison tripped going up
the stairs and grabbed for the rail which did not support her. Again, fortunately she caught
herself before falling.
Options to Correct Problem: We have attempted to tighten and brace the rail but it continues
to work itself loose. We took bids to replace the rail and the bids ranged from a high of P3,200
to a low bid of P1,500. We believe the XYZ brand for P2,000 will prove to be the best material
for our facility. The disadvantage to the lowest bid of P1,500 was it would not be guaranteed
for outside weather conditions.
We budgeted x for off-site training classes.
Cost/Benefit: ROI. Average cost of a severe injury in Philippines is P9,700 which is very possible
if one of our employees should fall from the second story of the warehouse to the concrete
pad below. The estimated indirect cost is P17,500. Total accident cost is estimated to be
P27,200. ROI will be approximately 1,360 %!
Payback Period: I estimate that the probability of an accident occurring within the next two
years as a result of this hazard is very high. Therefore, the payback period is based on 24
months. Our cost for corrective action is P2,000 and the payback period would, therefore,
be less than 2 months (P1,133/month) .

Formula for Accident

Hazard + Exposure = Accident
It takes a hazard and someone
exposed (how close you are do
the danger zone) to the hazard
to produce an accident.

Two Types of Hazard

1. Unsafe Act - A violation of an

accepted safe standard
which could permit the
occurrence of an accident.
2. Unsafe
hazardous physical condition
or circumstance which could
permit the occurrence of an

By virtue of the powers vested in the Department of Labor and Employment under Article
162 of the Labor Code of the Philippines, this Occupational Safety and Health Standards
is hereby promulgated for the guidance and compliance of all concerned. This body of
standards, rules and regulations shall hereafter be referred to as STANDARDS.
Condition 3%
Behavior 95%
Uncontrollable Acts 2%

Conclusion: Management has some degree of control over 98% of the causes for all
accidents in the workplace!

Control Measures
Hierarchy of Hazard Control Strategies

1. Engineering Controls - Remove or reduce the hazard

Major strengths: Eliminates the hazard itself. Does
not rely solely on human behavior for effectiveness.
Major weakness: May not be feasible if controls
present long-term financial hardship.
2. Management Controls - Remove or reduce the
Reduce the duration, frequency, and severity of
exposure to hazards.
Major weakness: Relies on (1) appropriate
design and implementation of controls and (2)
appropriate employee behavior.
3. Personal protective equipment (PPE) - Put up a barrier
Equipment for personal use that presents a barrier
between worker and hazard.
Major weakness: Relies on (1) appropriate design
and implementation of controls (2) appropriate
employee behavior.

Engineering Control

Change the process

Administrative or Management Control

Work assignmen
Job rotation
Reduce work hours
Increase breaks

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Hard hat
Safety Shoes

Causes of Accidents Related to PPE

No equipment available
Wrong equipment use
Incorrect use of the equipment
Bad condition of the equipment
Do not use personal protection

Job Hazard Analysis

What is a Job?

A job is a segment of work, a specific work

assignment, a number of steps or operations
performed in a definite sequence to
complete a work assignment.

What is a hazard?

A hazard is the potential for harm. In practical

terms, a hazard often is associated with a
condition or activity that, if left uncontrolled,
can result in an injury or illness.
Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is a proven tool
to determine unsafe acts/ practices or
conditions on a job by analyzing the job, step by step & identify potential hazards in each

1. Prepare to Conduct the JHA

Selecting a JHA Team
Involving others in the process reduced the
possibility of overlooking an individual job step or
potential hazard. It also increases the likelihood
of identifying the most appropriate measures of
eliminating or controlling the hazards.
An effective JHA team should generally include:
The supervisor.
The employee most familiar with how the job is done and its related hazards.
Other employees who perform the job.
Experts or specialists when necessary, such as maintenance personnel, occupational
hygienists, ergonomics, or design engineers.
Involve Your Employees
Get workers to buy in to the solutions because theyve helped in some way to develop the
procedures due to their unique understanding of the job.

If they are not involved in developing the JHA, they will not be as likely to own the safe job
procedures. As a result, they may not want to use safe procedures and practices that they
believe have been imposed on them.
Review Incident/Accident History
Review your worksites history of accidents and illnesses. Its also important to look at near
miss events in which an injury did not occur, but could have.
These events are indicators that existing hazard controls (if any) may not be adequate and
deserve more scrutiny.
Look for Hazardous Conditions and Unsafe
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
Experienced workers
Accident and incident reports
First aid statistical records
Behavior Based Safety (BBS) reports
Safety committee meeting minutes
Safety inspection reports
Previous JHAs
Existing work procedures
Equipment manuals
Risk = Probability x Severity
Risk is a function of two variables: probability and severity. The greater the probability or
severity - the higher the risk.
What is the probability?

Probability describes the likelihood that a worker will be injured

or become ill if exposed to a hazard. Common terms used to
describe probability are:
Unlikely - Injury from exposure has low probability. Less than
50% chance.
Likely - Injury from exposure has moderate probability. 50/50
Very likely - Injury from exposure has high probability.
Greater than 50% chance.

What is the severity?

Severity is an estimate of how serious the injury or illness
will be as a result of an accident. The common terms
used to describe severity are:

Minor - other than serious physical harm that does not

prevent the employee from continuing to work in the
same job. Serious - serious physical harm that prevents the
employee continuing to work in the same job.
Death - fatality

Prioritize Jobs - Worst First

If a JHA is required for many tasks in your workplace, priority should go to the following types
of jobs:
Jobs with the highest injury or illness rates;
Jobs with the potential to cause severe or disabling injuries or illness, even if there is no
history of previous accidents;
Jobs in which one simple human error could lead to a severe accident or injury;
Jobs that are new to your operation or have undergone changes in processes and
Jobs complex enough to require written instructions.

2. List the Procedure Steps

One Step - One Action
The process of analysis in the context of a JHA includes breaking the whole procedure
down into its basic steps. The idea is to carefully describe actions and hazards within each
step, and how to mitigate those hazards through control strategies. Each step in the task
being analyzed will describe an action. It tells what the worker does in each step.
Steps to Follow in Making Procedure Steps
A. Selecting the right man to observe.
B. Point out that you are analyzing the task, not evaluating the employees job
C. Observing him perform the job, and trying to break it into basic steps.
D. It may be helpful to photograph or videotape the worker performing the job.
E. Recording each step in the breakdown.
F. Record enough information to describe each job action without getting overly
G. Avoid making the breakdown of steps so detailed that it becomes unnecessarily long.
H. On the other hand, dont make it so broad that it does not include basic steps.
I. Review the job steps with the employee to make sure you have not omitted
J. Iron out differences to come-up with the final sequence of job steps
K. Include the employee in all phases of the analysis - from reviewing the job steps and
procedures to discussing hazards and solutions.
L. Jobs can be described in less than fifteen steps.
The Two Components of a Step: The Actor and the Action

Actor. The actor is an individual or object that directly participates or assists in the procedure.
The actor initiates a change by performing or NOT performing a particular action in a step.
Action. An action is the something that is done by an actor. An action may describe a
behavior that is accomplished or not accomplished.
When describing a step in writing, first identify the actor and then tell what the actor is
supposed to do.
For instance, take a look at the step below:
Maintenance team leader: Attach the lockout device to the hasp.
In this example, the actor is identified because a team of maintenance workers is performing
the task. The actor (Maintenance team leader) is identified first and then the action (attach)
is described.

Practice Exercises

Identified Basic JOB STEPS:

Remove a jack, spare tire, and the lug

Identifying basic job steps:
wrench from the trunk.
As you leave for work today, you discover Loosen lug nuts
that your car has a flat tire. The car is parked Raise jack
on level ground, and the parking brake is Remove flat tire
already set. The bumper jack and the spare Install spare tire
tire are both in good condition and stored in Lower jack
the cars trunk.
Tighten lug nuts
Place flat tire, jack and lug wrench in

3. Describe the Hazard in Each Step

How to Identify Hazards
A job hazard analysis is an exercise in
detective work. Your goal is to discover the
What can go wrong?
What are the consequences?
How could the hazard arise?
What are other contributing factors?
How likely is it that the hazard will occur?
Dont Forget Potential Hazards
To ensure all hazards are identified; analyze
each step to uncover potential as well as
actual hazards produced by both work
environment and the action.

Be sure to consider the following:

Is there danger of striking against, being struck by, or otherwise making harmful contact
with an object?
Can the worker be caught in, by, or between objects?
Is there potential for a slip or trip?
Can the employee fall from one level to another or even on the same level?
Can pushing, pulling, lifting, lowering, bending, or twisting cause strain?
Is the work environment hazardous to safety or health?
Are there concentrations of toxic gas, vapor, fumes, or dust?
Are there potential exposures to heat, cold, noise, or ionizing radiation?
Are there flammable, explosive, or electrical hazards?
Some Common Hazards
Chemical (toxic, flammable, corrosive, reactive)
Electrical (shock, fire, static, loss of power)
Ergonomics (strain)
Excavation (collapse)
Fall (impacts)
Radiation (ionizing, non-ionizing)
Struck By (mass acceleration)
Struck Against
Temperature (heat, cold)
Weather Phenomena (rain, wind, etc.)

4. Develop Preventive Measures

Control Measures
A. Engineering Control
Eliminate or reduce the hazards
B. Administrative Control
Reduce workers exposure to the hazards
C. Personal Protective Equipment
Barrier that protect the workers from the hazards

5. Write the Safe Job Procedure

Points to remember when writing the safe job
A. Write in a step-by-step format. Usually,
this means writing a number of
paragraphs. Each paragraph should
attempt to :

To prevent a possible serious burn injury if an

arc flash occurs, be sure you turn your head
and look away as you flip the breaker switch.
B. Paint a word picture - concrete vs. abstract. The idea is to write the procedure
in such a way that someone who is not
familiar with the task can actually see
each step occur.

1. Describe the step. Remember each

C. Write in the second person. For
step is describes one action.
example, say Be sure you.... Try to

avoid writing in the third person such as,

For example, Grasp the breaker
Be sure the worker.... In most steps you
switch and move it from the top to the off
wont have to worry about this because

the person you are writing to is implied.
2. Point out the hazard. If a step includes
exposure to a hazard, there are four D. Write in the present tense. Say take
rather than should be taken. This
parts to the step:
helps to create the word picture and
Describe the action
streamline the safe job procedure.
Identify the hazard
Describe the possible injury the
E. Write as clearly as possible. Say use
hazard could cause
rather than utilize. Replacing more
Identify the safety precaution to
complex words with simple words
prevent the injury
helps to make sure your employees
comprehend the material.
For instance, Grasp the breaker switch and
move it from the on to the off position (down).