Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

INTRODUCTION
To maintain its competitive edge, a business requires managers to work on projects that support business goals. Many important business activities now require management by project and cross-functional teams. This requires competence in utilizing project management tools such as planning, controlling and evaluation. This workshop provides participants an opportunity to learn and apply project management skills towards achieving business results.

OBJECTIVES
By the end of this workshop, participants will be able to:       Define project management Describe the different stages of project management Use project management tools to plan and control their projects Work effectively with people to achieve the project objective Develop project evaluation strategies Communicate project progress and results

EXPECTED OUTCOME
Participants will have a common understanding of project management processes, tools and terminology.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS A PROJECT?
“A collection of linked activities, carried out in an organized manner, with a clearly defined start and finish point, to achieve some specific goal that satisfies the needs of an organization as derived from the current business plans.” In most organizations, the process of maintaining normal operations to meet the corporate objectives is the primary responsibility of the functional management. This involves traditional ways to get things done because it is dependent on the habits and working practices generated by experience. Project management provides the organization with an alternative way of achieving results where the work to be done is likely to cross functional boundaries. It involves people in different parts of the organization. This allows for the most appropriate skills, gathered into a coordinated work unit, to achieve results that would be difficult to accomplish in one department or by an individual.

PEOPLE SKILLS REQUIRED FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Projects are concerned with achieving business goals in an organization in a structured manner. To do so, you will need to have a set of proven tools and techniques at your disposal to support your efforts. To work in projects successfully, the following people skills are required: Setting clear objectives and aligning people’s personal goals; Creating a real sense of responsibility and discipline in the project team; Managing a team as an interactive unit; Creating a sense of commitment in the team members, Somme whom may have little interest in the expected results; Coaching, guiding and actively supporting the individual team members; Explaining decisions and keeping everyone informed of progress; Establishing a sustaining environment for effective dialogue and feedback in the team and with other teams and their management; Managing upwards to influence senior management and other line managers; Managing third parties – contractors, suppliers, consultants; Understanding the real needs of the end users of the results; Satisfying the internal customer; Handling conflicts effectively Demonstrating a concern for continuous improvement, questioning traditions and always seeking a better way of doing things; Taking a holistic view – seeing the bigger picture, understanding where the change fits into corporate strategy, other project activity, expected future changes.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROJECT
A project: Purpose Unique Customer focus Unusual Linked activities Time constraints Complex Has a specific purpose which can be readily defined; Is unique because it is most unlikely to be repeated in exactly the same way by the same group of people to give the same results; Is focused on the customer and customer expectations;

Is not usually routine work but may include routine type tasks; Is made up of a collection of activities that are linked together because they all contribute to the desired result; Has clearly defined and agreed time constraints – a date when the results are required; Is frequently complex because the work involves people in different departments and even on different sites; Flexible Has to be flexible to accommodate change as the work proceeds; Ambiguity Involves many unknowns both within the work itself, the skills of the people doing the work and the external influences on the project; Cost As cost constraints which must be clearly defined and constraints understood to ensure the project remains viable at all times; Growth Provides a unique opportunity to learn new skills; Temporary Forces you to work in a different way because the ‘temporary’ nature management role is directly associated with the life of the project; Anti status quo Challenges traditional lines of authority with perceived threats to the status quo; Risky Involves risk at every step of the process and you must manage these risks to sustain the focus on the desired results.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

HOW ARE PORJECTS DERIVED?
Project activity starts mostly, by someone recognizing the importance of addressing specific needs or opportunities now to yield defined benefits in the future; for e.g. a cost reduction program, or a business process review, or opening a new office etc. All have one important characteristic – they involve a step change or quantum leap from current business process. They must be directly derived from the organization’s vision for the future and form a significant contribution towards achieving that vision.

CORPORATE OBJECTIVES

STRATEGIES
Normal operations Continuous improvement Step s changes Programs Cross-functional

Growth by incremental change of quality/performance

Growth by project addressing needs/opportunities

Figure 1: Sources of projects.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

THE LIFECYCLE OF A PROJECT
Just like a product life cycle, a project also has a life cycle; only it is dynamic as its characteristics are limited by time. The four fundamental phases of the project life cycle are: • • • • Phase 1 – Definition. The start of the project once needs have been clearly identified and the project can be defined with the agreement of those people with an interest in the outcomes. Phase 2 – Acceptance. Preparing both internal and externals customers for acceptance, participation and collaboration to ensure the project delivers the agreed outcomes. Phase 3 – Planning. The process of planning the project to derive a realistic schedule taking into account the constraints imposed on the project. Phase 4 – Execution. Launching the project work ensuring everyone understands the plan, the controls you impose on the process and making sure the plan is always up to date with any changes that occur.

Rarely do projects follow such a neat and simple process. At any stage, you may have to: • • • • • • • Face tough resistance from people; revise the project definition; re-plan part of the work; revise the project schedule; solve problems; carry out recovery planning – to recover lost time; carry out contingency planning – in case a high-risk part of the work goes wrong.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
“The dynamic process utilizing the appropriate resources of the organization in a controlled and structured manner, employed to achieve a change clearly defined with specific objectives identifies as strategic needs.” Project management is essentially the control system you use to achieve the results. The characteristics the process is associated with are: • • • • • • • Objectives oriented – without these you have no outcomes. Change oriented – creating something you need but do not have. Multi-disciplined – needs a wide range of skills to achieve success. Opportunistic – you must seek to take shortcuts and bypass old norms. Performance oriented – setting appropriate standards and quality of outputs. Control oriented – carefully designed controls to maintain the schedule. Questions tradition – avoid getting trapped by the old ways of doing things.

Too often the selection of the project team is controlled less by the skill and more by ‘who is available’. Many projects run into difficulties because the wrong team was selected at the outset. If project management is accepted as an important skill in your organization and top management are advocates of it, the project leader will be able to influence the selection process.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL WORK & PROJECT MANAGEMENT
The principal difference is that you are operating in a temporary role during the lifetime of the project. The project team will have come together from different parts of the organization. The following are the requirements from the team: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Choose a team leader; Have team members reporting to the team leader only; Have a stable team membership; Create conditions for good team working; Decide responsibilities and coach team members in new skills; Control the wok of the team; Build trust and respect in the team; Encourage personal growth and development of the team members Encourage sharing of information, opinions and feelings for the team’s benefit; Utilize the team’s creative skills to improve team performance; Appraise the team members’ of their performance; Set individual targets to improve performance; Create a team identity.

Hurdles faced in achieving the above listed requirements are: • • • • • • • • Team members only report to the team leader for their project work but report to their line manager for other work. Team membership is less stable due to changing priorities of the team members’ line managers. Changing team membership creates difficulties in good teamwork conditions. Team members may not know each other and team norms take a considerable time to develop. Due to time limitations, coaching and skill development may take a back seat. Because team members do not know each other well, they may hesitate in sharing information, opinions and feelings openly. Only the individual’s project performance can be appraised as the line manager will do the total appraisal. Creating a team identity is time consuming and tedious.

To prevent frequent conflicts from arising during the team forming stage, the team leader must get to know each individual as quickly as possible by setting up regular one-to-one meetings.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

THE PROJECT LEADER
The project leader’s role is complex. It does not have the perceived security of a steady-state situation. The leader has to create a balance between the demands and needs of: • • • • The customer; The project; The organization; The project team.

An effective way of going about attaining this balance is by building cooperation, enthusiastic support, strong commitment and be open to helpful advice; while expecting opposition, conflict, interference and, at times, outright sabotage. The leader’s foremost goal is to preserve the integrity of the project at all times. The leader must be a good time manager, balancing his/her time between that spent on the project and other duties. A project leader is responsible for: 1. achieving a successful outcome; 2. delighting the customer; 3. expected to have proven skills in the use of project tools and techniques; 4. expected to have proven team leadership skills; 5. limited in authority to secure resources, internally and externally; 6. forced to cut through hierarchical boundaries to get things done; 7. expected to work with established working practices and customs; 8. working with the unknown and unpredictable; 9. in a position subject to risk; 10. regarded with distrust by some of those not involved. All of the above elements demand and extend leadership skills beyond those normally associated with a fixed team leadership role.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

THE PROJECT TEAM
A project team is commonly established through a decision taken at an executive level to initiate a project. This leads to a project leader being appointed and a ‘core team’ being assigned to the project. The selection and structure looks somewhat as follows:

Project leader

Project leader Core team

Executive manager

Executive manager

Executive manager

Executive manager

Extended team

Figure 2: Organization structure for projects There may exist a complex structure of project teams distributed within the functional hierarchy. This situation may lead to: • • • • • • • uncertain lines of accountability; unclear responsibilites poor project control unclear view of resource utilization leading to individual overload; no prioritization of project activity from an orgaizational overview position; ‘projects’ being initiated at random at all levels and often hidden from view; a belief that projects need 100% dedicated teams for success.

To overcome these obstacles, a clear definition of ownership at each level in the organization with clearly defined roles and responsibilities is essential. It is also essential that projects are not initiated as a management whim but are only allowed when it is demonstrated that they make a clear contribution to corporate strategy. This can only be achieved if senior management is involved in the project process and has responsibilities, which are clearly defined for the ‘sponsorship’ of all project activity. Thus, a clear sense of direction and reporting lines are created.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

THE LEADER’S ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The project leader is responsible for the project work from the initial kick-off through to closure. Responsibilities include: • • • • • • • • • • • selecting the core team with the project sponsor; identifying and managing the project stakeholders; defining and planning the project and securing stakeholder approval; identifying and managing risks; allocating and securing resource commitments; monitoring and tracking project progress; controlling costs; leading the project team; informing stakeholders of progress; delivering the project deliverables and benefits; managing the performance of everyone involved.

In addition, we need to be clear about the following terms and their use: Roles: A person’s characteristic or expected function. Accountabilities: Required to give an answer for one’s conduct. Authority: An influence exerted on opinion because of recognized knowledge or expertise.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

QUALITIES OF A PROJECT LEADER
The project leader works with and through others, using skills to energize and direct a diverse group of people to perform exceptionally, willingly and enthusiastically, throughout the project duration. Cultural variations have to be overcome as individuals come from different parts of the organization, and a climate of cooperation and coordination has to be created. At the core of leadership is the ability to influence the behavior of others towards achieving objectives. Other qualities of an effective project leader are: Flexibility and adaptability; demonstration of significant initiative; assertiveness, confidence and verbal fluency; ambition, drive and commitment; effective communicator and good listener; enthusiasm, imagination and creativity; well organized and disciplined; a generalist rather than a specialist – has technical awareness; able to make and take decisions promptly; promotes a motivating climate; keeps everyone focused on the project objectives; trained in project management tools and techniques; experienced in project management processes and procedures respected by peers and management; concerned about achieving success.

The leader may either employ a democratic, a participative or consensus decision making style or an autocratic one, depending on the situation and the phase of the project. For example, it is best to follow the consensus style while planning the project with the stakeholders. The more their views are considered at this point, the less will be the chances of resistance later. However, even during the stakeholder participative sessions, if a deadlock is reached in different views, voting must be avoided. At this point the leader must take an autocratic stance and decide to put away the issue for the time being. It often happens that such pending issues get resolved in later discussion. Also, if conflicts arise during project implementation, and the project is threatened, autocratic style decisions are often appreciated.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

SELECTING TEAM MEMBERS
In selecting team members, the leader’s objective must be to harness their abilities, creativity and efforts to achieve a shared goal. The project base is an exciting place to work and the leader must want creative, enthusiastic people with a strong sense of responsibility and commitment. The leader must select team members because he/she values and respects their ability to do a good job under pressure and not because he/she likes them or because they are popular. The following criteria for selecting team members depend on the type of project. Ask: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What is their relevant technical experience and knowledge? Have they specialized knowledge essential to the project? Have they got the experience of similar projects? Have they worked in project teams before? Have they other project commitments? When do these commitments end? What is their capacity for project work (as a percentage of the working week)? What is their current non-project workload? Can this loading be reduced? What is their forecast future non-project workload? Can they be assigned for the whole project duration? Do they get on easily with other people? Do they like working alone? How do they feel about taking on a leadership role sometimes? Are they interested to join the team? What do they expect to gain from joining the team? Do they have a track record of commitment to high performance? Are they well organized and good time managers? Do they take their current responsibilities seriously? Are they perceived as good team players? Is their line manager in agreement with the possible assignment?

Availability is not an automatic guarantee to selection. Successful teams don’t just happen, they have to be built through effective leadership and commitment.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

MANAGING PERFORMANCE
The project leader must be concerned with everyone’s performance, responsible for delivering results and evaluating his/her own performance regularly. To do so, the leader must periodically ask him/herself the following questions: Am I: • Helping and supporting team members? • Coaching individual team members? • Responding promptly to personal issues? • Demonstrating continued enthusiasm for the project? • Reviewing decisions and being prepared to admit mistakes? • Managing time? • Evaluating attention to detail in administering the project work? • Seeking external help when needed? • Avoiding making promises that cannot or are not intended to be fulfilled? • Seeking clarity where needed? • Seeking knowledge when required instead of assuming? The leader must work closely with the team to: • understand their personal objectives; • keep all the team involved and well informed; • establish clear responsibilities for the work; • act promptly when conflict appears; • encourage good communication within the team and with their line managers; • recognize team effort and high performance; • look after the team’s interests at all times in the interests of the project. Avoid continual fire fighting, so ensure that: • the stakeholders are regularly informed of progress; • take them up on their promise of support; • involve them in important decisions when replanning or solving problems; • monitor team members responsible for other stakeholders; • encourage the team to maintain good communications with stakeholders. In addition, the leader must evaluate the performance of team members in a similar manner.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

ACTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
Throughout the project: • Build trust and inspire good team working. - focus on behavior and problems, not the person; - maintain self-esteem of others; - keep relationships constructive; - keep the team well informed at all times; - encourage ideas and suggestions; - involve them in decisions; - clearly define roles and responsibilities for all project tasks. • Create a team identity: - clarify purpose and objectives; - confirm understanding and acceptance; - set clear personal targets; - recognize and praise effort; - celebrate team achievements. Encourage personal development; - assess individual abilities and experience; - assess training needs; - coach individuals to enhance skills; - appraise individual performance. Seek continuous improvement; - evaluate team processes and practices; - evaluate team performance; - encourage creativity and innovation; - devalue tradition and find better methods; - reward success. Resolve conflict and grievances promptly: - treat team members with respect; - encourage active participation; - listen to the team’s views; - support problem-solving constructively. Champion and support the team: - help the team to reach consensus; - support team decisions; - look after their interests; - give guidance and assistance on request.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

HOW IS YOUR TEAM DOING?
Answer each statement with a ranking in the range 1-5 to find out how you, as a project leader, are performing and what are the areas of improvement. 1. The team knows exactly what it has to get done: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly 2. The team members are encouraged to offer ideas and suggestions: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly • Team members are encouraged to express their opinions freely and share information: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly Each team member has a clear idea of his/her role and responsibilities in the project: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly Everyone in the team is listened to with interest: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly Everyone in the team is involved in making and taking decisions: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly Team members do not feel threatened by exposing their true feelings: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly Team members respect each other and encourage each other in their work: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly Teamwork enables personal development and is as important as task achievement: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly The team is heading in the right direction to achieve the project goal: Disagree strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Agree strongly

• • • • •

Your score: 9 – 20 21 – 35 36 – 50 This seems to be a group, not a working team. Teamwork is good. Ask the team if they agree with your scores. Identify areas for improvement and work on them. Ask the team if they agree with your scores. If they do, keep up the good work. Watch out for any slippage.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

IMPORTANCE OF GOAL ORIENTATION
To stress on the importance of goal orientation in Project Management, the definition is repeated below: “A collection of linked activities, carried out in an organized manner, with a clearly defined start and finish point, to achieve some specific goal that satisfies the needs of an organization as derived from the current business plans.” As is clear from the definition, the activities are carried out for a clearly defined goal, which must be linked to the business plans. This focus on goal orientation through out the project idea, planning and implementation phase is vital. To the extent that every strategy, action, milestone and every risk statement is devised as an objective. This helps the project team stay on track, have a direction all the time and does not allow for tasks or actions to be defined that are not for a seeable purpose.

THE PARTICIPATIVE APPROACH
The participative approach in project planning and implementation ensures the involvement of important interest groups and target groups. Cooperation between the project staff and the stakeholders is smoother and more productive if all involved have jointly agreed their objectives and expressed them clearly. The need for this level of participation forces the project team to have a basic understanding of the policies, interests, expectations, motivations, fears of the stakeholders. It may not be possible to achieve complete consensus, every time, during the limited time the project is being planned in. Yet the knowledge that the planning must be done with everyone’s inputs and consensus to the largest extent, encourages the stakeholders to voice their opinions. This ensures that the plan is more realistic and the chances of conflict and resistance at later stages are reduced.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

PARALLEL-DOCUMENTATION
The method of parallel-documentation is best suited during project planning. If the method of parallel-documentation is not followed it often happens that stakeholders have expressed themselves in one way, but the project plan defines it another way. This discrepancy results in the stakeholder feeling he/she has not been taken seriously and his/her exact opinions are missed in the project plan, resulting in a different set of actions. The well-established and accurate method is to document the plan, while it is being devised, in the words of the stakeholders. The best way to make this happen is to use 4” x 9” cards, in different colors, each color signifying a certain segment of the plan. The stakeholders write on cards, which are read out in the plenary, discussed, agreed upon or discarded, with consensus, or reworded and put up on a board. Once the interactive planning phase is over, the statements on the cards are easily transferred onto a computer and become the plan accessible to all concerned. The rules for writing cards are: 1. Always use a marker 2. Write large enough for everyone to be able to read 3. Write only one message on one card 4. Write in capital letters

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

ONGOING VS FIXED PROJECTS
Ongoing projects are those that occur periodically but are not part of a routine. For example, an organization decides that, once every year, a major people development initiative must occur. This is a long-term decision, with a reoccurring, set objective and procedure, yet it is not a part of the mainstream business of the organization. Another example would be a cost reduction program that must be undertaken periodically, under different project heads, as the cost reduction would take place at different levels or functions of the organization. A fixed project is one that is initiated for a one-time cause and is unique in its objective and process. The organization may have had a similar project experience earlier, but it is not something that can be duplicated time and time again. For example, a new product launch, or entering a new market. Now, the company may have launched several products in the past, and some experiences can be replicated, yet, because every new product could have its unique features, markets, demand criteria etc, the project will be unique with a fixed duration of implementation.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

PROJECT MEETINGS
The success of a project depends, to a large extent, on the coordinated effort of the project team and stakeholders. Coordination can be achieved in several ways, for example information can be supplied through memos, letters and reports; discussions can take place over the internet, telephone or face to face. What ever the method adopted, project meetings are an integral part of the project process and are, therefore, mentioned separately here. The kick-off meeting Once the key people with a close interest in the project have been identified, a kick-off meeting is organized. The purpose of this meeting is to understand what they can expect from the project and allow them to see a clear picture of the results of the project. The project sponsor should chair and open the meeting to explain the strategic context of the proposed project and to explain why the project is important. The project leader’s focus in this meeting is to gain as much information as possible by asking questions, and to make sure that the project purpose, identified so far, is clear to those participating in the meeting. The kick-off meeting agenda can be presented for circulation as described in the format in annexure 1a. This agenda will allow the attendees time to prepare. The agenda does not include ‘any other business’ as an agenda point, because this can frequently lead to open-ended discussion, diversion and loss of control of the meeting. The customer or end-user may bring along tow or three people to the meeting. The kick-off meeting is the first time the stakeholders will come together with the project team. It is an opportunity for the leader to demonstrate his/her ability to lead the project team. Good preparation is important for the meeting’s success. The key questions that need to be asked in this meeting are listed in annexure 1b. Project definition approval meeting After the feasibility study has been completed, a project definition approval meeting is called. Here, the project definition document is presented to the project sponsor and the customer for approval to go on to the planning phase. The meeting allows for the team leader to explain any decisions that have been taken after the kick-off meeting. Approval of the project definition usually requires the following documents to be presented: • the project organization chart; • the project stakeholder list; • the scope of work statement; • the project risk log; • the risk management forms for ‘high’ risks; • the project brief.
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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

If the project is of a confidential nature, this fact must be voiced and confidentiality by those present requested. It is good practice for the project sponsor to sign all documents as approved. The customer could sign the project brief showing his/her acceptance of the project definition. The planning meeting On the average, a planning meeting takes three days. Therefore, it must be planned well in advance to ensure: • • • • • • • • all stakeholder attend; they are informed of the dates and venue well in advance; confirmations are received; reminders are sent out a week before the meeting; meeting material is available; a moderator has been appointed and briefed; venue has be visited to assess for comfort and professional workability; meals and refreshments are organized;

The meeting is opened by the project sponsor who elaborates on the purpose of the meeting, giving a clear picture of the project and why it is necessary to undertake it. The project leader may say a few words, as may any other directly concerned person. The moderator takes over then. He/she introduces him/herself and asks the attendees to do the same. This introduction process can be done in a structured way, where each individual writes his/her name, representation, designation and expectations from the meeting on cards, and presents these to the plenary. The moderator puts up the cards during the presentation. This makes it convenient to document the list of attendees in the final, formal planning document and gives each individual to face the plenary and present him/herself in a formal manner. The moderator then introduces the methodology of the meeting; any housekeeping concerns and ensures that the attendees understand their vital responsibility in making the meeting a success through their energetic participation. Rules and norms of participation are also clarified at this point. The moderator then proceeds through the steps of planning as described in the next chapters. Before lunch and before the end of each day, it is always useful to do a quick recap. A lot of work will be done in teams and each team will present their conclusions to the plenary. This ensures that each attendee is involved in the design of the plan and participates by taking on several roles. At the conclusion of the planning meeting the plan is reviewed in totality. At the close, the project sponsor must get the attendees to commit to the success of the project.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Risk management meeting The project risk log must be reviewed; normally monthly at project progress meetings unless decided otherwise by the project sponsor. The review needs to focus on: • any change in the potential impact or probability of identified risks; • subjugate any new high risks upgraded from a previously lower ranking ones for closer examination; • derive contingency plans for either avoidance or damage limitation; • add any new risks identified to the list and assess these for impact and probability. Any risk entered on the list is never removed even if the time zone when it could occur has passed. The list of risks from any project is a source of valuable learning data for future projects and is a useful data source for deriving checklists.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

THE MODERATOR
For any meeting to: • • • • • • • • • • Be effective End on time Cover all agenda points Ensure participation by all Manage conflict Organize information being produced during the meeting Manage discussion Decide on logistics Organize material Complete or delegate pre, during and/or post-meeting documentation tasks

Appointing a moderator or facilitator is highly recommended. This person must study the project documentation and understand it to be fully aware of the project. He/she must not be biased by anyone’s opinions and must not force his/her view on the attendees during the meeting. If he/she has a view and knows that the facts of this view will help settle an ongoing argument, he/she can only suggest it by presenting it in the form of a question. The moderator ensures that the meeting starts and ends on time, breaks for meals and even helps attendees do warm-up exercises in planning meetings that take up the whole day. He/she must know how to organize the information being produced during the meeting, to the extent that if a decision was made on the first day and is required to be reviewed on the third day, the moderator should be able to retrieve it from the documentation instantly. This is where the visual, card method of documenting comes in most handy as all the cards are up on charts on the walls for anyone to refer to at any time. Providing such charts and cards for the meeting, putting them up on boards or walls and establishing a sequence among them is also the task of the moderator. The moderator must be a good communicator, professional in conducting meetings and a person of integrity. He/she must be respected by the attendees so that they listen to his/her suggestions. At times heated arguments erupt during which the moderator must be able to control the situation without offending anyone, restoring peace and ensuring that the spirit of contribution and level of enthusiasm remains unhampered. As a good communicator, the moderator should be able to paraphrase decisions made during the meeting and ensure all or most agree to the wordings of the decision statement. He/she must encourage the quieter ones to contribute their views as it is a well known fact that external stakeholders are not confident at speaking and get bull dozed by internal stakeholders who are comfortable in their territory.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

The moderator must be well versed in the project planning methodology so that all steps of planning are followed in the allocated time and optimal results are produced. It is normally the responsibility of the moderator to transfer material from cards onto the computer and compile a report for the stakeholders. For convenience, a list of items is given in annexure 1c that could be required for a normal two to three day planning meeting.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

IDENTIFY NEED & MAKE FEASIBILITY
At the preliminary stage, when the idea for a project takes seed in a mind, the most important question to ask is “is it the right time?” and “will it still be the right time once the project achieves the objectives?” Considering the fast pace of life in the 21st century, the project may yield significantly reduced benefits if the results are provided at a time when the requirements or the market needs have changed dramatically. For example, if a new product is to be developed, the date of availability to the sales team is critical to acquiring a significant market share and beating the competition. If the sales team cannot satisfy their customers and break promises, they risk losing important accounts. The organization’s credibility and reputation will suffer. It is always difficult to recover a frustrated customer and convince them such things will not happen again. It is well known that a few months delay in getting a new product to the marketplace can lead to a huge reduction in the profit yield. Business needs continually change. Even with an internal project, late completion may lead others to conclude the whole effort was a waste of time because of new requirements. Project ‘drift’ sets in and the team may face what may become a never-ending project. Constraints usually fall into the following categories: - Financial – project cost, capital costs, materials, revenue and resource costs; - Time – time to deliver the results, the critical date when the results are needed; - Quality - the scope, specifications and standards to be achieved. To overcome such hurdles, it is important to realize these constraints at the earliest. Financial budgets and time budgets help in estimation at this early stage. The budgets derived at this early stage are through inspiration or from historical comparative data.

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STAGES IN EARLY DECISION MAKING
Stage 1 There are three stages of initial decision making. When a project idea occurs, a formal preliminary commentary is prepared so that a decision can be made to carry out a project feasibility study. This commentary is presented to those directly benefiting from the project, could be the department head, the company chief executive or even the regional head. This process depends on the routine procedure followed by a company in presenting project ideas. The commentary gives the: • overall picture of the idea • reasons for the need to go ahead with it • broadly, the profitability to the company, any cost reduction consequence and/or increased quality whether in the form of improving service or enhancing standards • recommendations for future procedure • an offer for implementation of the feasibility study After this document has been scrutinized and the author of the idea is able to present and convince concerned people, the Terms of Reference (ToR) for the feasibility study are defined. This document can be the responsibility of the author of the idea along with one or two other interested persons. However, the document must be circulated and agreed upon, through discussion and argumentation, with those who will become prime stakeholders in the proposed project. This is normally done in a kick-off meeting, details of which are in chapter , page . ??? Stage 2 The kick-off meeting will have been the focal point of the initial work associated with the project startup. The purpose of the meeting is to enable the potential project team to understand the expectations of the customer and agree on the requirements that are now presented in a ‘statement of requirements’. The information collected so far is adequate to draw up a clearer statement of objectives and associated specifications. This stage is difficult as the statements have to be in more realistic terms, describing what the project is about. A Project Brief (PB) is formulated that summarizes all the relevant facts about the project and becomes a source of definitive information. It includes: • • • • • the project origins – a need or opportunity statement; the project rationale – why is it necessary now? the benefits of the project – to the customer and the organization; the project budget, approximately; the timescale and deadlines, subject to detailed planning later.

This document is ideally just one piece of paper, but for larger projects it often takes the form of a report with many different sections. The former forces the

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team to focus on real facts and not hopes and wishes. A sample Project Brief is presented in annexure 2. Scope of Work (SoW) statement The Scope of Work document is a specifications document. It is an obligatory statement of procedures or processes. It is a statement of policy for the project. These specifications can range from technical descriptions to quality standards or even organizational policy documents such as contract purchasing guidelines. The SoW document also must identify the boundary limits of the project, clearly stating what is not going to be done as part of the project. The SoW also mentions the constraints touched upon earlier and any assumptions made during or after the kick-off meeting. The following is also included in the SoW document: • • • • • • • • • • internal product specifications; external product specifications; mandatory standards imposed by legislation; process specifications; customer specifications; standard operating procedures; purchasing procedures; quality standards; testing specifications and procedures; subcontract terms and conditions imposed on third parties.

The purpose is for everyone to know, from the outset, which standards and specifications apply to the project. The document also identifies: Where the actual documents can be found for reference; What exceptions, if any, apply to any specification for the project. The SoW can also refer to other relevant documents that had been issued previously or will be issued in the future, relating to the project, for example: • • • • Cost-benefit analysis studies Feasibility reports Studies carried out by consultants Project evaluation reports from previous projects.

Stage 3 In stage 3, a feasibility study is conducted. This may include a market survey, an internal customer study, data collection on international benchmarks etc, depending on the objective, scope and customer defined in the project. The entire population can be surveyed or sampling techniques used to study samples of the population. Survey questionnaires have to be developed and tested; focus group sessions conducted; questionnaires to be administered to the target group, collected, analyzed, and findings reported. This close examination of the customer will produce data that will give the project a direction and will further define the scope of project activity. For example, if the
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project aims to launch a new product, a survey will provide information on market demand, customer awareness, extent of need, type of customer, value to customer etc. Such surveys can be conducted by the project team or contracted to a market/HR research consultant, depending on availability of resources. It is also essential that a financial feasibility be conducted at this point. Several methods can be applied to do. These include the payback method, time series of money, cost/benefit analysis, interest based methods etc.

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PROJECT PLANNING
Planning is a process of creating order out of apparent chaos, made complex by the environment in which the project team is operating, where they continually face change. Project planning is carried out to: • • • • • reduce risks and uncertainty to a minimum; establish standards of performance; provide a structured basis for executing the work; establish procedures for effective control of the work; obtain the required outcomes in the minimum.

The project sponsor must attend and open the planning session, explaining the project context, relevance and priority. Planning is essentially a participative activity that motivates the team, contributes to team building and creates team ‘buy-in’ to the plans derived – this commitment is essential to success. If the project leader were to plan the project him/herself, it would create a sense of ‘your plan’ instead of ‘our plan’.

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PROJECT ANALYSIS
Problems and their causes do not exist in isolation, but are intimately linked with people, groups or organizations. Therefore problems can only be discussed if a comprehensive picture of and insights into the interest groups, individuals and institutions involved are understood. The steps of analysis at the beginning of the planning phase allow for this insightfulness.

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS
The purpose of the stakeholder analysis is: 1. To get clarity on the perception of groups, organizations and persons which are important in the context of the project idea. This enables the stakeholders to determine issues, which should receive special attention during the planning. It raises the sensitivity of the stakeholders towards certain problems, which will play an important role during the planning phase. 2. To get an overview of the type and intensity of relationships between the various groups, organizations and persons. In order to be able to carry out the stakeholder analysis in a reasonable time, it is important that the project idea or concept is clear. If not clarity exists at the beginning, the stakeholder analysis will result in issues not relevant to the project. Sufficient attention must be paid to composing a map of perceptions and relationships as: It provides information on definition of mandates of organizations, as well as information on coordination problems between involved groups. This information can be used as input into the next phase of analysis, the problem analysis. The danger exists that certain groups will get the impression that the future project will not serve their interests. As a consequence they may leave the planning workshop or withdraw their active contribution. The moderator of the planning workshop should assist the group in discovering these conflates. It should be emphasized that no final decisions have been taken on the scope and contents of the project and that the stakeholders are very much a part of defining both. The mistakes that are often made during this phase of analysis are: 1. The stakeholder analysis is carried out in a biased manner. Often assumptions are made on how the affected group should feels about the project instead of how they really feel. It is important to find out how and why the stakeholders feel about the proposed project. 2. The groups identified are treated as a uniform group, which has only one opinion. It is important that different opinions are addressed. Also, each group may have sub-groups. The important sub-groups must be treated separately.
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3. Too many groups are identified and their relationships are not defined. It is essential that groups are identified as primary, direct or indirect. This ensures that later strategies cater to the groups according to the intensity of their relationship to the project.

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WHO ARE THE STAKEHOLDERS?
Project Sponsors (PS) Since the project will clearly contribute to corporate strategy, senior management must own and be involved in the project process. They become the project sponsors with clearly defined authority, thus ensuring clarity in reporting lines. The project sponsors are accountable for the performance of the project and must demonstrate their concern for its success. Their responsibilities include: • Ensuring project objectives are always aligned to corporate needs; • Selecting the project leader • Approving the project definition; • Sustaining the project direction; • Ensuring priorities are maintained; • Overseeing the project process and procedures, budget and control; • Reacting promptly to issues given to them for decisions; • Maintaining support and commitment; • Approving project plans, changes and status reports, • Maintaining focus on customer and business needs; • Ensuring environmental influences are taken into account (internal and external). The project leader and team These have been discussed in detail in chapter 2. Other stakeholders Everyone in the organization who potentially at some time has an interest in the project is a stakeholder. These have to be identified because they are certain to attempt to exert influences about how the project will be managed. Other stakeholders include the customer. Other external stakeholders include suppliers, contractors, consultants and possibly government departments and agencies. All stakeholders have a hidden agenda about what they expect from the project. These must be exposed at the earliest. Since the project team has no direct authority on most of the stakeholders, it is important to gain their help and support.

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STEPS IN STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS
1. Write down all persons, groups and organizations connected with or influenced by the project; 2. categorize them; 3. identify their interests, motives, expectations and fears; 4. determine implications for the project • In which way should the group be considered? • Which actions should be taken in this regard? A typical form to record the results of a Stakeholder Analysis is presented in annexure 3a.

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PROBLEM ANALYSIS
A project does not exist in isolation but comes into existence after a problem has been realized. It is said, “a problem identified is half the problem solved.” This statement carries so much weight because most projects address symptoms and the core problem and its causes are not understood. For any project to be successful, it is essential that the core problem, its causes and effects are identified right at the start and any further action be derived from these. Since the identified problem must be as close to reality as possible, the problem analysis is presented in the form of a model of reality. The advantage of the model is that it enables the team to simplify a complex reality into a relatively short period of time and give an overview on the structure. To avoid complexity in designing the model the following considerations must be addressed: 1. Limit the scope of the model. The problem analysis must focus on the areas to be covered by the project request. For example, if the request is for a training unit to be set up in the organization, there is no need to go into curriculum development at the national level. Only important problems must be discussed. For example, it may be said that no adequate material is available; while another may say not enough financial assistance is available. Instead, the problem can be identified as not enough resources being available. The advantage is that the model will not get too big. However, the disadvantage is that too general a model will be produced. Concentrate on real problems. It is easier to agree on existing problems than on problems, which might come up in the future. It is the purpose of planning that future problems do not arise.

The core problem One of the main issues of the problem analysis is to come up with the core problem that the project is going to address. The selection of the core problem usually creates confusion as its purpose is often not understood. The main function of the core problem is to connect the causes to the effects. It is not the most important problem. It establishes the starting point of the problem tree (model). The core problem should be a problem, which reflects (directly or indirectly) the problems of all the groups involved in the analysis. If a fair idea exists about the future scope of the project, the core problem becomes easy to identify.

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The cause / effect logic To identify the causes of the problem, the question “why is this a problem?” is asked. To identify the effect of the problem, the question “if this is the problem, what will happen?” is asked. Inputs from the former are placed below the core problem card, while those from the latter are placed above it. The logic is completed by drawing lines indicating which sub-cause leads to which main cause and which sub-effect leads to which major effect. This activity produces the model called the Problem Tree.

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STEPS IN PROBLEM ANALYSIS
1. Identify major problems existing within the stated problem situation (through brainstorming or writing cards) • Write or select a short statement of the core problem • Write or select the causes of the core problem • Write or select the effects caused by the core problem • Form a diagram showing the cause and effect relationship in the form of a problem tree • Review diagram as a whole and verify its validity and completeness NOTE: 1. Word problems as a negative condition. 2. One problem per card. 3. Identify existing problems, not possible, imagined or future ones. 4. A problem is not the absence of a solution, but the existing negative state. 5. The position on the problem tree does not indicate the importance of the problem.

Pesticide is not the problem. This could be the problem for the shopkeeper. The project is not interested in supplying pesticides

No pesticides available

Harvest is infested by pests RIGHT

This is a more appropriate expression of the existing state. This is something the project would work for

WRONG

Figure 3: Right and wrong problem statements An example of a Problem Tree is illustrated in annexure 3b.

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OBJECTIVES ANALYSIS
The Objectives Analysis is a set of techniques to describe the future situation that will be achieved by solving the problems and to identify potential alternatives for the project. The main value of the Objective Analysis lies in: • • The change from a negative situation to a positive situation. It is the first indication of the direction, which the project will take. The chance to discuss whether the project should take on certain activities or not. The answer is usually arrived at by asking; 1) is it desirable and 2) is it realistic. While answering the ‘realistic’ question, the emphasis should be on the risks involved. Is there sufficient support and commitment for the objectives. Is it technically feasible. The emphasis should be less on financial resources available. It is useful to relate back to the Stakeholder Analysis to realize what is desirable from their viewpoint.

STEPS IN OBJECTIVES ANALYSIS
1. Restate all negative conditions of the problem tree into positive conditions that are desirable and realistically achievable. 2. Examine the “means-ends” relationships thus derived to assure validity and completeness of the Objectives Tree. 3. If necessary, revise statements. Add new objectives if these appear to be relevant and necessary to achieve the stated objective at the next higher level and delete objectives, which do not seem to be expedient or necessary. An example of an Objectives Tree is shown in annexure 3c.

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ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS
The Alternatives Analysis is a process of elimination. Based on the previous steps, a number of possible strategies have been identified which make sense. The purpose of the Alternative Analysis is to determine whether all of them can be implemented or whether some will have to be dropped. The success of the Alternatives Analysis is determined by the way the following two main steps are carried out: 1. Identification of possible project strategies: It is important to select a large enough number of strategies, which cover the objectives selected in the Alternatives Analysis. On the other hand care should be taken that not too many strategies are selected. After selection, the possibility of combining certain strategies must be looked at. 2. Identification of criteria used for the appraisal of identified project strategies: Only those criteria should be selected on which sufficient information is available to judge the strategies selected. Avoid selecting too many criteria, since this will effect the quality of discussion. Criteria which are often used: • Achievable in project period • Sustainability • Resource availability • Social risks • Cost/benefit ratio • Probability of achieving objectives • In line with company mission/vision/values • In line with project scope

STEPS IN ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS
• • • Identify criteria against which to evaluate objectives. Identify objectives not to be pursued. Assess which alternatives represent an optimal project strategy according to the criteria.

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATRIX
The Project Management Matrix (PMM) is the translation of the main conclusions of the steps of analysis into a management matrix. Information from all the steps of analysis will be utilized for composing this matrix. The PMM consists of a vertical and horizontal logic. Parts of the vertical logic are: Mission, Purpose, Results and Activities. The Mission is formulated at the highest level of abstraction, while activities are at the lowest level. Mission

Purpose Other project 1

Purpose of project under planning

Purpose other project 2

Result 1

Result 2

Result 3

Result 4

Result 5

Activity 1a Activity 1b Etc

Activity 2a Activity 2b etc

Activity 3a Activity 3b etc

Activity 4a Activity 4b etc

Activity 5a Activity 5b etc

Figure 4: Vertical and horizontal logic of the PMM The PMM provides a one-page summary of: WHY a project is carried out WHAT the project is expected to achieve HOW the project is going to achieve these results WHICH external factors are crucial for the success of the project HOW can the success of the project be assessed WHERE can the information be found that is required to assess the success of the project WHAT will the project cost

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Mission This is the future state, which the project will make an important contribution to. Other projects being planned or implemented will also be making a contribution to this Mission. This Mission can be the same as the organizational mission or one that feeds into it. This Mission indicates why the project is being implemented and what should happen as a consequence of the success of the project. The Mission is often formulated from the highest effect of the Objectives Tree. The Mission should not be formulated too ambitiously. There has to be a clear relationship between the Mission and the Project Purpose. Purpose The Project Purpose describes the future state the project will achieve. In contrast to the Mission, where other projects may also be contributing, the responsibility of achieving the Purpose rests with the project. Often the Purpose is formulated from the core objective of the Objectives Tree, which comes from the core problem. Results Results are project strategies and are often formulated from the Alternatives Analysis. It is important to check whether the total of the Results planned will lead to the Project Purpose. Care must be taken to avoid formulating too many Results. 5 – 8 Results are usually an optimal number. Besides the Results that are derived from the Alternatives Analysis, an additional Result which must be included is the management Result. Here the establishment, maintenance and efficient and effective running of the project base is mentioned. Activities An activity is a parcel of work of the project comprising several tasks, each of which may be carried out be different people. Activities are tactics that will actualize the Results. At this planning stage, only vital activities must be formulated. These vital activities will give direction to the formulation of detailed activities which is a part of the Operations Plan. Confusion often arises between stating Results and Activities. An Activity is something that needs to be carried out to contribute to the achievement of a Result. The formulation of a Result indicates a state or situation that needs to be achieved, while Activities specify the manner, or the ‘How’ in which the Result will be achieved. Risks or Assumptions Assumptions are conditions that must exist if the project is to succeed but which are not under the direct control of the project. Formulating assumptions and including them in the PMM is perceived as the project’s insurance policy. Although assumptions are a negative state, they are formulated as positive statements. During this planning phase certain problems may be identified by the stakeholders that are important to the success of the project, yet not quite within the control of the project management team. If the project team is unable to build-in strategies and tactics to counter the risks, that particular objective must be dropped. Therefore, it is a must to identify strategies that will ensure the
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assumption comes true. For example, an assumption can be “infrastructure is available at new office site.” This is a positive statement, which assumes that the infrastructure will be available. If the infrastructure is available, there is no risk. However, if no infrastructure is in place, and a lot has to be spent on roads and utilities, the project will have to consider the feasibility of such a proposal. On the other hand, strategies can be identified by which the municipality could provide the required infrastructure. Since criteria of feasibility etc have already been applied at the Alternatives Analysis point, it will be rare that any extreme risk may crop up at the PMM point. However, at times formulation of Assumptions can lead to a reformulation of Results. Additional activities could be required to ensure that Assumptions are actually becoming reality.

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RISK MANAGEMENT
A risk is defined as: An event that could prevent the project realizing the expectations of the stakeholders as stated in the agreed project brief or definition. A risk that becomes reality is treated as an issue. Two fundamental types of risks are always present: • Project risk – associated with the technical aspects of the work to achieve the required outcomes; • Process risks – associated with the project process, procedures, tools and techniques employed, the controls put in place, communication, and stakeholder and team performance. Risk assessment Even with a best planned project, things can and will go wrong. In practice, risks disappear and new risks appear as the project progresses, so regular review of potential risks must be made. Details of a risk management meeting are given in the section on meetings. Risk assessment requires answers to some key questions: • What exactly is the risk and its parameters? • How serious is it as a threat to the project? • What could be done to minimize its impact on success? Although assumptions are mentioned in the PMM, yet for closer scrutiny of risks and assumption, a risk log must be maintained. A typical risk log is shown in annexure 3d. The idea is to establish: • • What is the probability of it happening based on currently available data? This is assessed on a scale of 1 (low-most unlikely to happen) to 9 (high-very high probability it will happen). What is the likely impact on the project? This can be high (significant effect on schedule and costs); medium (less serious effect) and low (some effect).

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These two conditions can be presented as follows: PROBABILITY IMPACT ON THE PROJECT LOW MEDIUM 7–9 medium high 4–6 1–3 low low high medium HIGH unacceptable unacceptable high

Figure 5: Risk ranking matrix Each risk is located in the relevant box in the grid by the intersection of the impact and probability ratings assessed. Number each risk on the project risk log and use these numbers in the matrix to derive a ranking for the risk. A risk management form is shown in annexure 3e. This helps stay current with expected and perceived risks. A checklist is provided in annexure 3f, to make sure possible risks are assessed. The list is indicative and can be amended according to project requirements. Risk monitoring Risk monitoring is essential to ensure that prompt action is taken when appropriate. Because any risk can change its characteristics with time, control of risks involves: • • • allocating responsibilities for monitoring each risk identified; monitoring and reporting of actions agreed; monitoring of valid identified risks for any change in ranking

Milestones Milestones define the performance standard to be reached in order to achieve the objectives. They specify what evidence will inform the project team if the Mission the Purpose or Results have been reached in terms of quantity, quality, time and location. Milestones focus on important characteristics of an objective to be achieved and form the basis for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the project. Monitoring concerns the regular follow-up of Milestones for Activities and Results. Are the Activities carried out according to schedule? Are there deviations from the resource planning? In simple words: is the project on track as specified in the plan? The results of monitoring should form the basis for a regular revision of the project plan. In order to do so, the team must collect and analyze the results from monitoring. This collected and analyzed information must be available in an organized form, which makes it possible for the project management to react in a quick and flexible manner.

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Monitoring is the responsibility of the project management. The planning of the project must include the development and implementation of monitoring strategies. Sufficient resources must be planned for effective monitoring. Evaluation is wider in scope. In an evaluation, the results of the project and the manner in which they are achieved are compared to the planning of the project. The quality of the planning can also be evaluated. Evaluation of the project rests with the Project Steering Committee or an independent body. Two main types of milestones can be distinguished: Impact milestones describe the state that needs to be achieved. For example, market share is increased by … %, or, … newly hired people have been trained in … skills. Impact milestones are often used at the Mission, Purpose and Results level. They are important in both monitoring and evaluation. The disadvantage is that usually a considerable amount of time goes by before they are checked. This puts limitations on the suitability of impact milestones for a continuous re-planning of the project. Process milestones provide information on the process leading to the achievement of Activities and Results. They are well suited for collecting information required for re-planning. This enables the project team to determine whether activities are carried out on a timely basis, effectively. The danger in formulating milestones that too many are identified and are too difficult to measure. Care should be taken that only important milestones are selected. Also, once a milestone is selected, the required information must be collected, processed, written up and finally it is acted upon. If too many resources are to be committed to measuring the milestone, the milestone could be changed. Monitoring and evaluation is not a goal in themselves, but must be done in the framework of planning, implementation and re-planning the project. Often it is not possible to formulate detailed milestones during the course of project planning due to time limitations or lack of specific information. In such cases it is better to acknowledge this and to include, into the plan, when and which types of milestones and by whom they will be formulated. Consideration must also be given to the following: • Are the means of monitoring available from normal sources? (statistics, observation, records, reports) • How reliable are the sources? • Is special data-gathering required? If so, how much will it cost? • Has a new source to be created? If no means of monitoring are found, the milestone has to be changed.

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STEPS IN FORMULATING MILESTONES
Objective: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Greater accessibility for and understanding of customers. Identify milestone e.g. Set up two new customer support units Quantify To reach out to 10,000 customers Set quality To delight customers by proactively seeking their expectations Specify time Between May 2000 and May 2001 Set location In Punjab Combine: Two new customer support units to be set up in Punjab between May 2000 and 2001, that will proactively delight 10,000 customers each by seeking their expectations. Summary of objectives / Activities Mission Purpose Results Activities Figure 5: The Project Management Matrix Milestones Means of monitoring Important assumptions

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THE OPERATIONS PLAN
To elaborate the plan made so far, a plan of operations is formulated. As the name implies it is a plan at the operational level, giving greater detail, on timelines, responsibilities and resource allocation. It links up directly with the Project Management Matrix through the activities. Since the activities formulated in the PMM are also objectives in their own right, the goal orientation is maintained in the Operations Plan. Also, resources, responsibilities and time are allocated according to activities that come out directly from Results, thus ensuring that the allocation is directly linked to objective achievement and not an adhoc activity.

ELEMENTS OF THE OPERATIONS PLAN
A typical Operations Plan looks as shown below: Activity # as in the PMM Activity 1a Activity 1b Activity 2a Activity 2b Etc Resources Responsibility Time

Figure 6: Operations Plan Activity Either the Activity number can be written in this column or the Activity statement, as mentioned in the PMM can be re-written. Incase only the Activity number is written in the Operations Plan, the same number must also be mentioned in the PPM for cross-reference. Resources In this column, mention is made of the 4m’s and 1i, i.e. man, material, money, machines and information. How many people will be required to accomplish the relevant Activity; what and how much material will be needed; how much money should be allocated; which types and how many machines will be required and what, if any, information will be needed and from where. This requires extensive planning. Often, it is good to involve the stakeholders in this activity as they can be encouraged to participate in project implementation by contributing their resources, for example the use of their established premises till such time the project has its own, or use of telephone and fax services or even helpers, like peons and secretaries; depending on the type of project. This also helps reduce any foreseeable resistance from the stakeholder as the project team working in his/her jurisdiction and threatening his/her influence in that area.

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If at the early planning stage, the project team is unable to come up with all the details that are to be included in the resource column, note must be made of areas where details are incomplete and a time set to meet again to complete the document. The resource column can be elaborated on another form that mentions the following: • • • • capital equipment costs; material, expenses direct costs; indirect costs.

A budge can be prepared for project control purposes. If this budge varies considerably from the original budget approved by the sponsor then this variance must be investigated and the conflict resolved. If an increased cost is identified, the customer will need to be consulted for approval. Alternatives must be presented at such a moment for the stakeholders to weight choices. Indirect costs Responsibility Each of the key stages of the project needs to be owned by one of the team members called the key stage owner. This allocation of responsibility is essential to make sure the work is done on time and that the work is fairly and evenly distributed among the team members. The key stage owner ensures that: • • • • • • • • the work required is identified at task level; the dependencies are clearly identified; the estimates of durations are accurate; the work gets done on time to the quality needed; the work conforms to quality assurance (QA) procedures and requirements; regular monitoring is maintained; regular accurate status reports are issued; problems and issues are alerted promptly to the leader.

The leader must ensure the following: • • • • • • • the necessary authority is given to the key stage owner; a strong sense of commitment to the project exists; the tools for the job are provided; the essential environment for quality to be maintained is provided; access to the right skills are available; support by the project leader and sponsor are available; performance expectations are clearly understood.

The column in the Operations Plan with the heading ‘responsibility’, gives the names or designations of those persons, who will be responsible for achieving the relevant Activity. It is also advisable to mention the other team members who

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will be assisting the person directly responsible. Of course it will always be the project leader and the project sponsors who are accountable for the success of the project, but assigned tasks will be the responsibility of different members of the team. Even though the Operations Plan will be up on the wall of the project office, yet the respective persons must make note of their responsibilities in their diaries along with the names of the individuals assisting them. The Operations Plan lists the names of those responsible only. A detailed responsibility allocation form can also be maintained. A typical form is given in annexure 4. Time In this column, mention is made of the time it will take for the Activity to be accomplished. There are various methods of estimating time with size of task, effort and duration as the key variables. An estimate is a decision about how much time or resources are required to carry out a piece of work to acceptable standards of performance. To estimate the amount of effort required to complete a task, the task must be broken down. It must be estimated whether the task can be divided between two or more people and what are the capacities of those individuals and how much time do they make available for that task. Effort is measured in time units – hours/days/weeks. The ‘back-track’ effect must also be catered for. This effect is due to breaks in the flow of work. Effort is measurable as continuous work with no interruptions. Duration is a conversion of effort taking into account the number of people involved, their capacities and an allowance for non-productive time. Time can be mentioned in this column in months, weeks, days or person-hours. Or, time can be presented here in the form of a Gantt chart, the visual making it easier to grasp. Since time cannot be estimated with utmost accuracy, inputs in this column must be reviewed periodically.

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THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
No one is alone in a project; a project is a team effort and the team has to move together. For this reason it is essential to document almost everything. No one likes having to record information in a regular and organized manner. Project work produces a large amount of data and it is important that it be recorded. One of the great timewasters in project work is repeating the recording of information in different formats and the problems created in its interpretation later. Start the project by avoiding the ‘I’ll do it my way’ syndrome. The leader must insist that the team keep all essential project records on a standard set of templates derived specifically for the purpose. Throughout this handbook, several standard templates have been suggested and presented in the annexures. Some are more important than others and it is the project team’s decision which ones they would like to use. This ensures that everyone involved in the project records data in a consistent and disciplined manner without reinventing the forms every week. This consistency aids in project monitoring and evaluation. The leader must expect an adverse reaction from people when he/she suggests use of such templates. It is viewed as ‘form-filling’ and a chore. The rationale the leader can give is the importance of everyone being informed about the project all the time and that it is in their interest to get into the habit of keeping accurate records. No one can carry all plans and information in their head! All the templates suggested can be designed on a computer and networked for ease of completion from blank masters. Project organization chart The first of these templates is the project organization chart presented in annexure 7a. It lists all these involved with the project, their line managers, location and telephone numbers. This is an important communication document for information and records agreed commitments of individuals assigned to the project team. The document must be reviewed regularly and kept up to date. A distribution list can be formulated which identifies what form goes to which person. The project file Set up a project file for all the documentation related to the project. This file is the permanent record of the project and requires a disciplined approach to administration. This file may be kept on a paper-based system or on the computer. The advantage of a computer-based system is that, through a network, everyone has access. But this is also the disadvantage. People may make changes to the forms and assume others will notice the changes. This creates confusion.

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Make sections of the project file, for example: • • Background information Project definition: - project organization - stakeholders - project brief Project plans and schedules: - project risk management - responsibility charts - schedules - work plans Project execution and implementation: - project status reports - changes to project plans - action plans for corrective action - cost control data - supplier and subcontractor data - records of meetings Project closure: - handover process - acceptance process - follow-on and post-project responsibilities - project evaluation data - completion report

Divide into more detail if necessary. The team leader is responsible for updating the file regularly and it is a good habit to do so once a week. The leader must always let others know where to find the file – it is frustrating to search for a file that is hidden away! Project log book It is a good discipline to open a project logbook at the start of the project. The purpose is to provide the team leader with somewhere to record all events, agreed actions and forward planning ideas. The book is an A4 bound book and not a loose-leaf file or folder. Record events with essential relevant data such as: • • • • date; time; who is involved; key points or content.

Events to record include: • • • • • telephone calls – incoming and outgoing; faxes – sent and received; memos – sent and received; e-mails – sent and received; purchase instructions issued;

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• • • • • • •

contracts signed; action plans agreed; problems encountered; solutions derived; decisions taken – and how implemented; reports issued; meetings – sponsor, team, third party, one-to-one.

The logbook is not a personal document – it is an addendum to the project file. When using a log book: • • • • • • • use every page and number them sequentially; never remove any pages; start each day with a new page; always write in pen, ball-point or felt tip, never pencil; write on every line; rule out all unused lines at the end of each day and sign the page at the bottom; do not allow anyone else to write in the log book – even the project sponsor;

The logbook is particularly valuable to record events with third parties like suppliers and contractors. When conflict and differences occur the logbook provides a record of events that often takes the heat out of an argument. The record can have a legal status if a dispute eventually ends up in the hands of the legal profession!

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IDENTIFYING THE CRITICAL PATH OF THE PROJECT
Project tools include techniques that make time estimation more accurate. These techniques have been in place from the last 30 years, having proved their value as tool for project scheduling and control. The fundamental purpose is to enable the project team to find the shortest possible time in which to complete the project. This can be done by inspecting the logic diagram.

Purchase orders 20 days Planning 5 days

Start 0 days

Design phase 1 9 days Design phase 2 25 days Client survey 15 days Training 7 days Install 5 days Finish 0 days

Design training 5 days

Train staff 15 days

Figure 8: The logic diagram with durations inserted (note durations are consistent units) To calculate the critical path, begin at the ‘start’ notelet and trace each possible route or path through the diagram to the ‘finish’ notelet, adding the durations of all the key stages in the path. The path that has the highest number, i.e. the longest duration, is the critical path of the project and is the shortest time to complete the project. All other paths are shorter. For example, referring to figure 8 above: 1. Start – planning - design phase 1 – purchase orders – install – testing – finish = 46 days 2. Start – planning – design phase 1 – design phase 2 – install – testing – finish = 51 days 3. Start - planning – design phase 1 – train staff – testing – finish = 36 days 4. Start–client survey–design phase 1– purchase orders– install– testing– finish = 56 days 5. Start –client survey–design phase 1– design phase 2– install– testing – finish = 61 days 6. Start – client survey – design phase 1 – train staff – testing – finish = 46 days 7. Start – client survey – training design – train staff – testing – finish = 30 days

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So the critical path is number 5 in the list of available paths. This is where reality hits. Is this what the customer requires? If it is too long, do not worry, this had to happen. The second valuable tool that comes in handy at this point is the Program Review and Evaluation Technique (PERT).

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PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT)
PERT is the most frequently control tool used in project management. It is based on representing activities in a project by boxes (or nodes), which contain essential information calculated about the project. The dependencies between the activities are represented by arrows to show the flow of the project through its various paths in the logic diagram. The four corners of the node box are used to store the four characteristics times for the key stage. These are calculated times using the durations derived in estimating. The unit selected for time must always be the same in a PERT diagram.
Activity duration Earliest Start Time (EST) Earliest Finish Time (EFT) 12 10 22

Activity description Latest Start Time (LST) 16 4 26 Latest Finish Time (LFT)

Total Float

Figure 9: The PERT node box In figure, the earliest start time is day 12 and the latest start time is day 16. This gives an option to start the activity any time between day 12 and day 16. The four-day difference is the total float, the spare time associated with the activity. Starting anywhere in this time zone will not affect the total project time, provided the activity is fully completed by the latest finish time of day 26. If the activity were to last longer and take 14 days instead of the stipulated 10 days, then the entire spare time will be used up. Also, if the activity takes 16 days to complete instead of 14 days, then the entire project will be delayed by these 2 days.

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How to use the PERT tool The following steps illustrate the use of the PERT tool: Forward pass STEP 1 Decide the time each activity or Key Stage will take and enter these durations on to the boxes.
0 Start 5 Activity 10 4 Activity 20 3 Activity 40 Finish

6 Activity 30

STEP 2 Transfer this time figure to the next box in the logic diagram:
0 Start 0 5 Activity 10 5 5 4 Activity 20 3 Activity 40 Finish

5

6 Activity 30

STEP 3 Add the duration of the new box and record sum as shown. Then transfer this time figure to the next box(es) in the diagram STEP 4 Repeat STEP 3 working through the logic diagram from left to right. When paths meet, record the highest number into the next box. The completed forward pass analysis now looks like this:
0 Start 0 5 Activity 10 5 5 4 Activity 20 9 11 3 14 14 Finish

Activity 40

5

6

11

Activity 30

We can conclude that the earliest time this small project can finish is 14 units of time. The whole process is now reversed.

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Reverse pass STEP 5 Transfer the finish time to the bottom corner of the finish time as shown below
0 Start 0 5 Activity 10 5 5 4 Activity 20 9 11 3 14 14 Finish 14 14 5 6 11

Activity 40

Activity 30

Then copy this same time figure to the lower right hand corner of the previous box. STEP 6 Subtract the activity duration from this time figure and enter the result in the lower left hand corner of the same box.
0 Start 0 0 0 5 Activity 10 5 7 5 5 4 Activity 20 11 9 11 3 14 14 Finish 14

Activity 40 11 14

5

6

11

Activity 30 5 11

Continue step 6, copying the lowest time figure to the previous box where paths merge in the reverse pass. The analysis of this logic diagram is now complete and the critical elements can be clearly identified. STEP 7 Look at each box in turn and identify those where the difference between the time figures in the upper and lower left hand corners is equal to the difference between the time figures in the upper and lower right hand corners. These boxes are the critical elements and form the critical path of the logic diagram. STEP 8 Finally enter the above calculated difference in the lower middle part of the box. This is the spare time or float time.
0 Start 0 0 0 5 Activity 10 0 5 7 5 5 4 Activity 20 2 11 9 11 3 14 14 Finish 14

Activity 40 11 0 14

5

6

11

Activity 30 5 0 11

Figures 10: Analyzing the project logic
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THE GANTT CHART
The next step is to convert the PERT data into a graphic format that is easier to work with and understand. This is the Gantt chart, a very useful tool designed by Henry Gantt. This chart allows listing of all key stages of the project, its durations and, if required, who is responsible. The chart is divided into two sections, a tabulated listing and a graphic display where each key stage is represented by a rectangle. All the rectangles are located on a timescaled grid to show their position in the schedule. The activities are listed in such a way that the rectangles appear on the chart to give a perception of flow. The float time is shown as a trough extending out of the rectangles on the right hand end. Critical activities have zero float and this can be highlighted using a different color. Other useful information is also presented in the Gantt chart: • • • milestones project meetings project reviews

A legend must be given to describe these symbols. A typical Gantt chart is presented below. Computer software allows for easy changes to the Gantt chart. One change will alter other dependent data in the diagram and alter the diagram accordingly. This allows for ‘what if’ analysis. The process is much more time consuming manually.

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Enter duration – use consistent unit

Project time bar scale – hours/days/weeks Project title and other releant data as required

For activity description, use consistent names in all documents

GANTT CHART
Line no Code Activity description Dur

Project:
Total float-show as a trough or single line

Rectangle activity bar-length equals the activity duration

Milestones

Project meetings
Notes:

Include a meeting schedule on the chart

Work breakdown code for the key stage/activity in order of logic

Always include a legend to define any symbols used in the chart. Also include a revision block to record the number and date of any updted revised versions issued.

Dependency line. These can be included as thin arrowed lines, if required. Useful to include for planning and ‘what-if’ analysis

Figure 11: The Gantt chart

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CONFLICT RESOLUTION
The project involves many individuals and groups of people. The hopes, desires and needs of these people are often incompatible with each other and these differences lead to conflict. When such differences surface they are often seen as difficult, troublesome, annoying or even embarrassing and an intrusion. Change and conflict are partners, so the team must be prepared for the inevitable and react with necessary. A lot of time can be occupied with fighting the fires and crises evolving from conflicts. Many conflicts occur from situations where roles and responsibilities are not clearly defined leaving the team members confused. Why does conflict occur? Although many reasons for conflict are quoted some common causes are: • • • • • • • • • diverse expertise in the project team; low level of authority given to the project leader; lack of understanding of the project objectives by the project team; excessive role ambiguity in the team - unclear or shared responsibilities; unclear schedules and performance targets for team members; infringement of functional status and roles by project processes and procedures; remote functional groups operating almost independently on project work; local interference from high level management involvement people don't like each other or don't get on together in their work.

Most conflict arises from the way people behave with each other in a particular situation, and unfortunately behavior is not predictable. The leader must have skills to resolve a conflict and identify whether it is good or bad for the project. Conflict is good if it: • • • • brings problems and issues out into the open for discussion; brings the team together, increasing loyalty; promotes creativity, generating new ideas and work practices; focuses people to give their work more detailed analysis.

Good conflict generates a win-win relationship between individuals, promoting sharing of information and improved motivation. Bad conflict: • • • • creates stress, stirring up negative feelings; makes the working environment less pleasant; severely reduces the effectiveness of communication processes; interferes with coordination of effort between groups and individuals;

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encourages an autocratic approach to working.

Bad conflict tends towards a win-lose relationship developing between individuals. In practice there is a spectrum of conflict between the two extremes of good and bad. A climate must be created in the team where conflict is seen as healthy and valued for the results created. A team with no conflict could be perceived as complacent and lethargic with little creativity. Conflicts and risks Many of the conflicts that occur can be predicted as potential events in a preliminary risk assessment. Resource allocation and prioritization between several active projects or other operational work is frequently a source of conflict, particularly as priorities are changed to satisfy external pressures. Examples of risks that can become a source of conflict include: • • • • • • unclear objectives and project definition; project priorities versus other work not exposed; resources not available when promised; delays in interfaces with other projects downstream; changes in the scope of work and project parameters; technical disagreements in innovation.

Conflict is a behavior that restricts the project achieving the expectations of the stakeholders. When it occurs conflict must be regarded as an issue to be resolved as quickly as possible to avoid serious consequences. Managing conflict Any temporary management situation produces conflicts. This naturally results from the differences in the organizational behavior of the individuals involved who all come from different functional groups. The project leader operates in an environment of constant and rapid change. The functional manager works in a more standardized and predictable environment. You have to bridge the gap between these two environments to achieve success. There is no single method of managing all conflicts in such temporary situations. The real skill is to: • • • anticipate their occurrence; understand their composition; assess the consequences.

Constantly look for possible areas of conflict in the same way as project risks are regularly reviewed. Handling conflict Everyone has a preferred behavior in any particular situation that influences how a conflict is approached. Typically the modes for handling conflict are:

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Withdrawal - taking a retreat course: withdrawing from a potential collision course towards what appears to be a disagreement and hoping it will go away on its own. Smoothing - seeking to establish and then emphasize the areas of agreement and avoiding the areas of disagreement initially, in the hope that the latter can be reduced to minor status as part of the whole and eventually be subject to compromise. Compromising - starting from a rigid position on both sides but expressing a willingness to search for a solution: allows both the sides of the conflict to feel they are satisfied with the amount gained as well as the amount lost. Forcing - exerting an opinion or view at the expense of the other: characterized by competitiveness this leads to a win-lose result that ultimately becomes a lose-lose result due to the damaged relationship. Confrontation - facing the conflict directly to cause face-to-face debate and discussion of the disagreements, deriving options for resolution: often defuses a violent situation and reduces the conflict to a level where compromising or even smoothing can resolve the conflict.

In most conflict situations, work will be mostly around confrontation, compromise and smoothing to resolve conflict in the team or between teams and functions. In dealing with management, compromise is the most likely mode but behavior is influenced by leadership style. Resolving conflict is a real test of the leader’s ability to negotiate and influence others. A successful outcome can be achieved if the focus is on the parties in conflict to identify and agree: • • the areas of full agreement; the areas of disagreement.

Then the positive feelings can be used about the areas of agreement to discuss the areas of disagreement one by one in a positive manner. Start with what appears to be the easiest to resolve and work through the list. Expect to fail with some but if the parties concerned can be moved to agree on a majority of points it takes the heat out of the remainder. Effective conflict resolution is dependent on persuading everyone involved to listen, to understand, not to evaluate and criticize.

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PROJECT LAUNCH AND EXECUTION
After the plan has been approved in the project planning meeting, and all the necessary systems are in place, the project can be launched. The project team may feel at a low ebb with all the high of hectic planning. The team leader must motivate them on and encourage them into action. Key stage work plan chart At this stage, the work plan chart is a convenient tool to record the progress of tasks to completion. This chart is shown in annexure 6a. Project status reports The key stakeholders expect to receive regular status reports. The project team will decide the frequency of these reports with the project sponsor. The report must clearly define the current status of the project. Other matters include: What has been completed; What has not been completed and why; What is being done about the incomplete work; What problems remain unsolved; What needs to be done about these unsolved problems; What difficulties are anticipated in the work waiting to be done. A single page standard template for reporting project progress is presented in annexure 6b. The project status report highlights progress using the Milestones fixed earlier. The essential inputs to the report are: Concise summary of overall progress; List of Milestones due to be completed since the last report and their current status, i.e. on time, late, etc. List of Milestones due in the next reporting period, with their due dates; Actions set in place to correct any slipped Milestones; Forecasts for the project completion based on current information; Reasons for any revision to earlier forecasts to completion; Changes to the project risk log and the project; Issues outstanding for resolution. Whatever form the report takes, make sure: The information is accurate and realistic; There are no hidden agendas associated with the timing; The impact on the plan and schedule is clear; Any changes to the project objectives, deliverables or benefits.

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Project work can be seriously constrained, or even sabotaged, b the subtle transfer of erroneous information to a team member. A complete absence of information when it is due to appear can have similar effects. The team must be prepared for these events because they are certain to occur at some time in the project’s life. An early warning system is the best way to get feedback about what has happened and what needs to happen. This provides information to control the project.

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THE PROJECT CONTROL SYSTEM
Control of a project environment involves three operating modes:


measuring - determining progress through formal and informal reporting; evaluating - determining the cause of deviations from the plan and how to react; correcting - taking actions to correct.

These form the essential elements of the control system. The plan and schedule are the foundation that determines what has to be done to satisfy the objectives set out in the project brief. The objective is to regulate the activities, resources and events to achieve the results defined by the plan. Control is associated with the present, so reporting is time-sensitive to enable prompt decisions when deviations occur. If all reporting mechanisms give feedback a considerable time after the event, as a matter of history, then the project cannot be controlled. No amount of time and effort expended on planning, scheduling and resource assessment will compensate for a lack of effective monitoring and a sound control system. The purpose of this system is to ensure that the team always has the information to make an accurate assessment of: • • What has happened and compare this with What should have happened according to the plan.

Compare these two inputs to establish if there is a variance. The best control system is the simplest - making the procedures and collection of data complex only leads to higher costs and an increasing possibility of error. The basic inputs to control are the plan and the actual results observed and measured by the team. The figure below shows the essential elements of any control system. The comparison activity should show whether the project is on track and everything is going according to plan. If this is true an update can be sent to the customer and project sponsor comprising of project records and charts and progress reports. If progress is not according to plan then it is important to identify the causes of any problems that are creating delays. Then develop solutions, preferably deriving several options before selecting the best or most appropriate. Prepare and implement an action plan to correct the difficulties and restore the project to the planned schedule. It is essential to measure the impact of action plans to provide feedback in the system and a check that the solution has worked.

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THE PLAN Activities, resource commitments, costs, materials, risks

ACTUAL RESULTS
Work done, quality. Milestones, material used, costs incurred,

COMPARE FOR VARIANCE

Identify causes Update the plan documents to show real status Develop options Plan actions

Report progress

Implement & measure results

Figure 12: The essential elements of a control system The control system must be capable of providing information on: • the resource required - availability and its effective use; • equipment and machinery required and used; • materials used, ordered and required; • the costs incurred to date and forward commitments; • the time used and float time remaining in active tasks; • the results achieved - tasks completed; • evaluation of the results - as expected? Controlling the project means managing the many problems that arise to maintain the project schedule. This is done on a day-to-day basis through: • • • monitoring the work - observing and checking what is happening; identifying and resolving the problems that arise; tracking the project - comparing with the plan and updating the records.

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Although these are continuous activities the schedule is easier to track if you use some additional specific control points. The Milestone schedule clearly defines markers for control throughout the project. Focus the team on these marker points, stressing the importance of maintaining the dates. The team must know if any milestone date is expected to slip. One of the most time-consuming activities in project work is the administration. Good control of any process is dependent on accurate data, so make a special effort to keep the project file up to date. This involves a regular check and update of: • • • • • • • the project Organization chart; the stakeholder list; the key stage responsibility charts; the project brief; the key stage Gantt chart; the key stage work plan charts; the project risk log.

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MONITORING PROGRESS
Although the administrative system may be effective, it can not be entirely relied upon for progress information. Confidence in progress reports only comes from verifying them from time to time. The project leader must monitor: • • • the team; the stakeholders; performance.

This cannot be done effectively from behind a desk – the leader needs to walk about, observe and have conversations! This is the data gathering process, which if done effectively, is far more useful then any written report.

TRACKING THE PROJECT
Tracking is the process by which the project progress is measured through monitoring to ensure that: • • • the work is carried out in the right order as stated in the plan; planned performance is maintained - to agreed quality standards; the team are well motivated and committed to completing their individual work plans on time and within budget.

Changes to the plan caused by problems or the customer are promptly acted upon; the reported progress data is used to update the plan charts and records in the project file. This normally involves working with the Operations Plan and the key stage Gantt chart to show the real status of the project - the tasks that are on time and those that have slipped. Modifications to the plan are recorded as they occur to enable the experience to be logged for future projects. This may involve moving one or more tasks away from the original. When anything is moved on the Gantt Chart, the project strategy is being modified for a reason.

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CLOSING THE PROJECT
This final phase of THE project still has all the potential for success or failure. Many issues can still occur and the team must continue to monitor carefully to ensure a successful outcome. Closure of a project does not happen, it must be planned with care. Project completion is signified by: • • • • • • • • all tasks completed; specific deliverables completed; testing programmes completed; training programmes prepared and/or completed; equipment installed and operating; documentation manuals completed; process procedures completed and tested; staff training completed.

The completion report (shown in annexure 7) must be accepted, approved and signed. A completion meeting is organized where the objectives and deliverable are presented in their completed form. Evaluating the project Question: Why evaluate? Answer: To learn. Evaluation is the process used to review the project and identify: • • what went well what went badly

and then ask: 'Why?' Question: What is evaluated? Answer: The technical work, achievements, the project processes and the management of the project. Evaluation of projects normally has two modes: • • active - a continuous process throughout the project life, with occasional specific reviews or 'audits'; post-project - after the project is handed over to your customer. The postproject evaluation provides data for future projects.

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Active evaluation by the team involves asking the following list of questions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Why did this happen? What were the consequences? Was it good or bad for the project, stakeholders, team? Could the situation have been anticipated? Were there early signals that went unrecognized at the time? When was the situation first identified? Who should have reacted? Was it due to unclear responsibility or authority? Was it due to poor estimating? Was it due to poor planning? Has there been a failure of any stakeholder to fulfil their obligations? Has there been a communication failure? Where have our communication processes failed? Can we correct these failures now? Has the control system failed us? Is the event a direct result of current organizational policies? What have we learned from the event(s)? What changes can we implement now to prevent a recurrence? Are policy changes necessary? Are the learning points valuable for other project teams? How can we check the learning points are communicated now?

Valuable experience and information are gained during a project. Much of this is lost in project archives and never recovered to help future project teams. Lessons learned during a project should be documented and distributed to individuals engaged or likely to be engaged in project activities. Opportunities for improving processes and procedures are continually present. Some of the learning from projects should be incorporated into the organization’s policy.

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POST-PROJECT APPRAISALS
At some stage after the project handover the project benefits should be measured. When the evaluation is carried out, the project is complete and the customer has accepted the results. The benefits of the project are not all apparent. Some benefits could come from the project during the execution phase, depending on the type of project. The benefits defined at the definition phase are likely to be concerned with: • • • • generating improvements in equipment and plant performance; creating new income from a new product introduction; improved efficiency from re-engineering processes and procedures; increased effectiveness from skills enhancement by training programs.

All of these benefits can be quantified and measured. If a cost-benefit analysis exists from the project initiation then a forecast exists of the benefits against time. This is often presented as cost savings through the improved efficiencies or increased income, contribution or profitability from the new product introduction. At the closure of the project, agree who is responsible for the measurement of benefits and when they are to be reviewed. The customer may decide to take this responsibility and release the project team. However, the project has produced a successful outcome and the project team will almost certainly want an involvement even if it only means getting regular reports over the next 12 months. Although a handover to the customer is complete, the leader will probably have a continuing contact for a short period as part of the post-project support process.

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Annexure 1a

PROJECT KICK-OFF MEETING
Project: PRISM Venue: Meeting room 4 Date: May 5, 2000 Start time: 10:30 End time: 12:30

PURPOSE Project inception meeting to establish relevant information for project definition. AGENDA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction Project background and assumptions Project context Project approach and strategy Project objectives Identification of constraints Communication Action points

ATTENDEES Mr Anis ur Rehman Mr Farooq Hasan Ms Nadia Ali Ms Aliya Illahi Mr Afaq Siddiqui Mr David Hensan Mr Laiq Khan Ms Kaukab Riaz Mr Danial Kazmi

Sponsor (Chair) Customer Customer Customer End user representative Team member Team member Team member Team member

Please confirm your attendance.
Kick-off meeting agenda example

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Annexure 1b
CHECKLIST: PROJECT KICK-OFF MEETING
Background: Why is the project necessary? What is the overall problem or opportunity being addressed? Has the current situation been explored and understood? Has a statement of requirements been derived from the needs list? Is this an old problem? How long has it existed? Who wants to change things? Have previous attempts (projects) been made to address this problem? What information exists about past attempts to fix things? What assumptions have been made? Context: Is the project in line with current organizational strategy? Does this project form part of a program of projects? Will the project form part of a chain of linked projects or a program? What is the timescale of the project? Is there a business critical date to get the results? Will the results be of value to another customer or part of the organization? Approach: Have some needs been identified and analyzed? Has a statement of requirements been agreed? Are there predetermined solutions? What are these solutions? Is there a best option and a least worst option? Is there enough time to explore more than one option? Are there known checkpoints for project review? What specialized skills are expected to be required for the project work? Objectives: Are the project primary deliverables known? What does the customer need, want and wish to get from the project? Can these deliverables be clearly defined and specified? Does the end user agree with these deliverables? What does the end user need, want and wish to get from the project? What are the perceived project benefits? Have these benefits been quantified? Has a project budget been made? Is capital investment necessary? Has a capital expenditure request been initiated? Is time used for project work to be measured and costed? How were the costs derived? Has a cost/benefit analysis been carried out? Has a financial appraisal been carried out to establish payback?

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Constraints: Have the project constraints been identified? Is there a time constraint for all or part of the deliverables list? Are there any financial constraints? Is there a financial payback constraint? Are there any known technical constraints? Are there known resource constraints? Is the project team to be located together on one site? Is part of the work to be carried out at another site? Is part of the work to be subcontracted? Is there a preferred list of approved subcontractors and suppliers? What existing specifications and standards are to be applied to the project? Are there any legal constraints that might affect the project work? Are there any security implications? Are there any operations constraints? Are there any health, safety and environment constraints?

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Annexure 1c

CHECKLIST OF MATERIAL FOR PLANNING MEETING & ARRANGEMENT
Material: • 3 – 4 pin boards • Brown paper to cover pin boards and to pin cards on • 4” x 9” cards made from chart paper, in four colors • 2 – 2 boxes of pins with rare finger grip • UHU sticks • Masking tape to stick completed charts on walls • Scissors • Dust bins • Notepads • Markers • Pencils • Sharpener • Eraser • Clock • Pens The seating arrangement: For upto 25 attendees, arrange the chairs in a wide u-shape so that maximum number of people fit in the front row and each one can clearly see the pin boards. Do not make the u-shape too wide or else those sitting at the periphery will not feel included in the discussion. A second row is recommended in this case. Two low coffee tables to be placed in front of the attendees with cards, markers and other stationery. Meals: Planning is tough and stressful. It is advisable to make arrangements for a flowing tea so that attendees do not have the excuse that they are not being able to work due to lack of refreshments. Although the easy accessibility of tea diverts attention, yet the harm of this diversion is less than knowing that tea will only be available at certain times. NOTE: It is the responsibility of each attendee to maintain a clean environment in the meeting room.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 2
PROJECT BRIEF
Title of project: Project leader: Project sponsor: Background:
Complete information requested

Issue no:

Give concise summary of background to the project – include a statement of need/opportunity

Overall objective:
Write an overall objective statement

Planned start date: Required finish date: Deliverables: Identify the primary project 1. deliverables and their 2. expected/required delivery 3. date 4. Benefits: (indicate time, cost, outputs etc) Amount 1. List the project benefits 2. preferably quantified financially and the expected 3. yield dates 4. Strategy/approach
Indicate any key elements of your approach relevant to the approval decision

Expected date:

Expected date

Resource skills required: Relationship to other active projects:

Cost (if known)
List out any special skills required for your project-highlight shortcomings If known at this stage, identify interface points by outputs or dates with other active projects

If cost-an approved budget exists-give total here

Prepared by: Date:

Date:

Revision:

Initials

Acceptance records Project sponsor: Project customer: Project leader:

Ensure these are signed when approval to proceed is given

Date: Date: Date:

Record any changes to the project brief with date and re-issue to the key stakeholders and the project file

An example of a Project Brief document

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 3a

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS
Stakeholder Direct stakeholders Category 1 Expectations Fears

Record first those stakeholders who will be directly effect by or benefit from the project

Category 2

Direct stakeholders may have sub-groups, which are recorded here

The expectations and fears indicate the motivations of the stakeholders. Never assume these; the y have to come from the stakeholder.

Indirect stakeholders Category 1

Record first those stakeholders who will be indirectly effect by or benefit from the project

Category 2

Indirect stakeholders may have sub-groups which are recorded here

Category 3

Typical form to record results of the Stakeholder Analysis

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 3b

A PROBLEM TREE

Reduction in profitability

EFFECTS

Lack of proper resource use

Decrease in customer confidence

CORE PROBLEM

Incompetent staff

No importance given to competence development CAUSES

Organizational culture not focused on competence

Merit not criteria for job evaluation

No training & development program in place

Adhocism in HR management

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 3c

AN OBJECTIVES TREE

Increase in profitability

ENDS

Proper use of resources

Increase in customer confidence

CORE OBJECTIVE Highly competent staff

High importance given to competence development MEANS Merit & performance main criteria for job evaluation

Organizational culture focused on competence development

Training & development programs in place

Highly managed HR function & support

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 3d
PROJECT RISK LOG
Title of project: Project sponsor: Project leader: Project customer: Risk no. Key stag e cod e Risk description
Record information requested

Issue no:

Date raise d

Probability 1–9

Sheet of sheets Impac Risk t Managemen H/M/L t Form Yes No

Risk ranking

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

H

M

L

List risks sequentially as they are identified giving key stage where the risk is expected to occur, a descriptive name and the date identified Record the probability and impact decided when using the risk ranking matrix

Place a tick mark in appropriate column when ranking is agreed using the matrix

Mark appropriate column to identify a risk management form is completed

Prepared by: Date:

Date
1. 2. 3. 4.

Revision
Record any changes and re-issue as appropriate

Initials

Acceptance / records
Project sponsor: Date: Project leader: Date: Risks considered no longer relevant are not to be removed from the list. The rank columns can be left blank.
Ensure risk log is signed off

An example of a project risk log

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 3e Identify risk by
number and name as on the project risk log

RISK MANAGEMENT FORM
Title of project: Project number: Project leader: Risk number: Risk description: Project sponsor: Risk name:
Give a concise description of the risk as currently perceived

Issue no:

Potential timing: (indicate range)

Probability Circle one number: Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 High Impact: High Medium Low

Areas of project affected:
Indicate likely timing of occurrence and specific parts of project affected Indicate current assessment of probability of occurrence and impact on the project

Identify triggers:
Suggest the triggers or signals that must be watched for suggesting risk is likely to happen

Identify principal consequences:
Give details of likely consequences to the project if the risk does happen

Proposed actions

By whom

Plan the actions to be taken if the risk happens along with the names of those individuals who are responsible for ensuring the actions are carried out

Prepared by: Date:

Approved by: Date:

Review record
Date: Current ranking High Medium Low Review by:

Record any changes to the risk ranking and the date for that review

An example of a risk management form for action planning

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 3f
CHECKLIST: QUESTION FOR RISK ASSESSMENT
Yes No Questions Has the project leader’s authority been established? Is the core team appointed? Does the core team understand the project purpose? Have the project stakeholders been identified? Have stakeholder management responsibilities been allocated? Have the project objectives been established? Have the project benefits been identified and quantified? Are there clear deadlines and a project timescale? Is there a known business critical date for completion? Is there a scope of work statement? Are the project boundary limits clearly established? Is there an impact if the project fails? Are the right skills available in the team/organization? Can the project brief be accurately derived? Have all the project constraints been identified? Are there identifiable consequences of late completion? Has the project brief been approved? Have all the key stages been clearly identified? Have key stage dependencies been established and agreed? Are the key stage durations agreed and accepted? Is the project schedule realistic and achievable? Have key stage responsibilities been allocated and accepted? Are the resources realistically available? Have workload priorities been clearly established? Have line managers accepted and committed their staff involvement? Have all resources required given commitment to their responsibilities? Has the plan been developed to a low enough level for effective control? Have key stakeholders signed off the project plan? Are project procedures established and understood? Has a milestone schedule been established? Have performance measures been derived?

Any questions to which the answer is NO must be examined further to establish the consequences and, if significant, contingency action plans must be derived.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Yes

No

Questions Is there an impact of doing nothing? Are staff/organizational changes possible/expected during the project? Are business requirements likely to change during the project? Is new technology involved? Are new techniques to be employed? Are new suppliers/contractors to be used? Is the project dependent on another project? Are there possible constraints on third parties? Can third parties impose constraints on the project work?

Any questions to which the answer is YES must be examined further to establish the consequences and, if significant, contingency action plans must be derived.

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 4
KEY STAGE RESPONSIBILITY CHART
Title of project: Project sponsor: Project leader: Project customer: Line Key stage no code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Prepared by: Date:

Description

Sheets Duration
Hrs/days/weeks

of Resource name
Responsible Consulted

sheets Plan end date

List key stages in sequential order with codes and descriptions

Record each key stage duration when estimating is complete – use consistent units Record who is responsible for ensuring the work of the key stage gets done

If appropriate, record who must be consulted if problems occur

When the final schedule is derived, record the plan end date

Date
1. 2. 3. 4.

Revision
Maintain record of revisions and reissues

Initials

Project sponsor: Date: Project leader: Date: Risks considered no longer relevant are not to be removed from the list. The rank columns can be left blank.
Ensure form is signed off

An example of a key stage responsibility chart

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 5
PROJECT ORGANIZATION CHART
Title of project: Project sponsor: Project leader: Project customer: Line no Name Project role 1 Leader 2 3 4 List each member of the team and their 5 specific role, if any (identify by skill, if 6 appropriate) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Notes: Issue no:

Department

Tel no

Line manager

Record the original location of the team member and their contact tel no

Record the name of the direct line manager – remember they are stakeholders, too

Distribution:

Decide who must receive copies of this and all other project documents i.e. project plans and progress reports

Prepared by: Date:

Date
1. 2. 3. 4.

Revision
Maintain record of revisions and re-issues

Initials

Project sponsor: Date: Project leader: Date: Risks considered no longer relevant are not to be removed from the list. The rank columns can be left blank.
Ensure form is signed off

A project organization chart

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 6a
Complete the project data

KEY STAGE WORK PLAN CHART
Title of project: Project sponsor: Project leader: Schedule dates: Start:
Line no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Task description Duration Hrs/dd/wks
Give plan start and end dates for the key stage. Confirm if critical & amount of float if any

Issue no: Key stage code
Float: Actual start date Plan end date Actual end date

End:
Float

Critical Yes No Responsible Plan start date

List all tasks in the key stage in logical order of execution with their durations – use consistent units

As work progresses, record actual start and end dates for each task

State amount of float calculated from the logic diagram – use consistent units and enter zero if critical Give name of person. Give responsibility for each task Give planned start and end dates for every task in the key stage. Ensure the end date of final task is no later than the end date for the key stage

Prepared by: Date:

Date
1 2 3 4

Revision

Initials

Acceptance/records Project leader Key stage owner:

Ensure work plans are signed off as a commitment. Include line managers as appropriate

Date: Date:

Maintain record of revisions and reissues

An example of a key stage work plan chart

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 6b

Provide the project data

PROJECT STATUS REPORT
Title of project: Give the current Project sponsor: forecast for project Project leader: completion date Project customer: Start date: Current forecast end time: Reason for revised forecast (if different from original plan):

Issue no:
Give project scheduled completion date and

Planned end date: Previous forecast:
Give reason(s) for change to the previous forecast of Give a concise, factual summary of project progress

Summary of progress:

Key milestones due since last report:
List milestones due to have been completed since previous report wit their current status – early/on time/late – with dates List milestones due to be completed in next reporting period with their planned dates

Status

Milestones due next period:

Due dates:

Corrective action taken for slippage:
Identify actions implemented to correct any milestone slippage and who is responsible for the actions

Issues requiring escalation:
Identify any outstanding issues still awaiting resolution with the dates the issues were first raised

Date originally raised

Any new risks? Yes No Report prepared by:

Updated risk log attached? Yes No
Answer these questions. Sign and date the report before distributing copies to the key stakeholders

Milestone log attached? Yes No Date:

An example of the project status report

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Project Management ______________________________________________________________________________________

Annexure 7
Record information requested

PROJECT COMPLETION REPORT
Title of project: Project sponsor: Project leader: Project number: Start date: Planned end date: Reasons for variance to plan completion (if any):

Issue no:
Record planned start and end dates of project with actual end date

Actual end date:
Identify primary reasons or any variance to original schedule for completion

Deliverables achieved

Date

List the deliverables achieved and the dates of delivery within the project

Handover to customer Key learning points:

List the key learning points the team have identified during the project

Any outstanding issues requiring resolution:
List any unresolved issues outstanding issues and the date raised

Date raised

Target resolution date
Set target dates for resolving remaining issues

Prepared by: Benefits First review date: Who monitors: Completion checklist attached: Yes No
Confirm the handover checklist is completed and accepted by the customer

Date:

Acceptances Project leader Customer:
Name

Signature

Date

Position:

Decide when benefits are first reviewed and by whom

Sign off completion of the project at the handover meeting

The project completion report
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