30

Introduction

a s the basis o f p o l i t i c a l agency, y e t i n s i s t that p o l i t i c a l a g e n c y
m a y d o m o r e t h a n reiterate the c o n d i t i o n s o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n ?
If, as A l t h u s s e r i m p l i e s , b e c o m i n g a subject r e q u i r e s a k i n d
o f m a s t e r y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m s u b m i s s i o n , are there p e r -

Stubborn Attachment,
Bodily Subjection

haps p o l i t i c a l and psychic consequences to be w r o u g h t f r o m
s u c h a f o u n d i n g a m b i v a l e n c e ? T h e t e m p o r a l p a r a d o x o f the
subject i s s u c h that, o f necessity, w e m u s t lose the p e r s p e c t i v e
o f a subject a l r e a d y f o r m e d i n o r d e r t o a c c o u n t f o r o u r o w n

Rereading Hegel on

b e c o m i n g . T h a t " b e c o m i n g " i s n o s i m p l e o r c o n t i n u o u s affair,

Unhappy

b u t a n u n e a s y p r a c t i c e o f r e p e t i t i o n a n d its r i s k s , c o m p e l l e d

the

Consciousness

yet i n c o m p l e t e , w a v e r i n g o n the h o r i z o n o f s o c i a l b e i n g .

a freedom still enmeshed in servitude
—Hegel,

T

The Phenomenology of Spirit

he t r a n s i t i o n in The Phenomenology of Spirit f r o m the sect i o n " L o r d s h i p a n d B o n d a g e " t o " T h e F r e e d o m o f Self-

C o n s c i o u s n e s s : S t o i c i s m , S k e p t i c i s m , a n d the U n h a p p y C o n sciousness"

1

is o n e of the least i n t e r r o g a t e d of H e g e l ' s p h i l o -

s o p h i c a l m o v e m e n t s . P e r h a p s b e c a u s e the c h a p t e r o n l o r d s h i p
a n d b o n d a g e s e c u r e d a l i b e r a t i o n i s t n a r r a t i v e for v a r i o u s p r o gressive p o l i t i c a l visions, most readers have neglected to pay
a t t e n t i o n t o the r e s o l u t i o n o f f r e e d o m i n t o s e l f - e n s l a v e m e n t a t
the e n d o f the chapter. Insofar a s recent t h e o r y has c a l l e d i n t o
q u e s t i o n b o t h the a s s u m p t i o n o f a p r o g r e s s i v e h i s t o r y a n d the
status o f the subject, the d y s t o p i c r e s o l u t i o n o f " L o r d s h i p a n d
B o n d a g e " has p e r h a p s r e g a i n e d a t i m e l y s i g n i f i c a n c e .
F o u c a u l t s u g g e s t e d that the p o i n t o f m o d e r n p o l i t i c s i s n o

I n the f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n sacrifice o f b o d i l y life.e n s l a v e m e n t a s b o d i l y s u b j e c t i o n a n d the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a n d F o u c a u l t o n the s t r u c t u r e o f subjection? H e g e l ' s a c c o u n t i n s e l f .i m p o s e d e t h i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s that p r e f i g u r e s N i e t z s c h e ' s "The U n h a p p y Consciousness" prefigures a critical discourse c r i t i q u e of the s a m e in On the Genealogy of Morals a n d F o u - o n e t h i c a l p o s i t i o n s that n o t o n l y seek t o i n s t i t u t e the d e n i a l o r c a u l t ' s a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f that c r i t i q u e . T h e l i m i t s t o l i b e r a t i o n are t o b e u n d e r - c a u l t l i m i t s the efficacy o f p r i s o n r e f o r m : "the m a n d e s c r i b e d stood not merely as self-imposed but.e n s l a v e m e n t i n r e q u i r e s a n i n s t r u m e n t a l m o v e m e n t o f a n d b y the b o d y . F o u c a u l t i a n . p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d . T h e " t e r r o r " that seizes the s o u l is the effect a n d i n s t r u m e n t of a p o l i t i c a l a n a t o m y . w h o m w e are i n v i t e d t o free. i s a l r e a d y i n h i m s e l f the as the p r e c o n d i t i o n of the subject's v e r y f o r m a t i o n . " 3 c o n f l a t e d w i t h H e g e l ' s . O r . H e g e l s h o w s that i f the s u p p r e s s i o n o f the b o d y r a r y c o n v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n the f i g u r e s o f s e l f . the subject e m e r g e s a s a n u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s are i n v i t e d to free.e d g e d i m - U n d e r s c o r i n g the p a i n f u l r e a l i z a t i o n that " l i b e r a t i o n " f r o m p l i c a t i o n s of s u b j e c t i o n (assujetissement: the s i m u l t a n e o u s form- e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t i e s d o e s n o t suffice to i n i t i a t e a subject i n t o ing a n d regulating of the subject) is in s o m e w a y s p r e f i g u r e d freedom. i n H e g e l ' s a c c o u n t o f the b o n d s m a n ' s l i b e r a t i o n i n t o v a r i o u s u p o n the s e l f . i n c a r c e r a t e d w i t h i n a n d f i n a l l y able t o d i s c h a r g e a n d t o r y m e c h a n i s m s t h r o u g h w h i c h "subjects" are p r o d u c e d a n d vent itself o n l y on itself: that. F o u - f o r m s o f r e f l e x i v i t y . the b o n d s m a n w i t h his recognition of freedom appears to c u l m i - s o u l i s the p r i s o n o f the b o d y . A l t h o u g h Foucault's vocabulary ought not to be conscience is in its b e g i n n i n g s . m o r t i f i e d . is a l r e a d y in h i m s e l f the effect of a s u b - t h r o u g h the r e f l e x i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f these e t h i c a l l a w s . w h i c h i s itself a p p e a r t o take the b o d y a s w h a t m u s t b e n e g a t e d . b u t r a t h e r to i n t e r r o g a t e the r e g u l a - p r e s s e d . . . In Discipline and Punish.e n s l a v e m e n t that H e g e l d e s c r i b e s ' s o u l ' i n h a b i t s h i m a n d b r i n g s h i m t o existence. o r a factor i n the m a s t e r y that p o w e r exercises o v e r the b o d y . A c e r t a i n effect of a s u b j e c t i o n [assujettissement] m u c h m o r e p r o f o u n d s t r u c t u r i n g a t t a c h m e n t t o s u b j e c t i o n b e c o m e s the c o n d i t i o n t h a n h i m s e l f . subjected t o v a r i o u s n o r m s a n d i d e a l s . N i e t z s c h e . c a u l t ' s r e m a r k s o n the p r i s o n e r ' s s u b j e c t i o n . T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n p r e f i g u r e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a d e l a t e n t . more fundamentally.r 32 Stubborn Attachment. T h e s u b o r d i n a t e d t o a n e t h i c a l d e m a n d . for u s . as we shall . t h i s i n s t i n c t for f r e e d o m p u s h e d b a c k a n d r e - a convergence w i t h Nietzschean. is w h a t the bad maintained. s e l f . b u t that f a l l i n t o i n s t r u c t i v e p a r a d o x e s f r o m N i e t z s c h e ' s Genealogy of Morals. and. Foucault draws u p o n Nietzsche and. t h e n H e g e l ' s " U n h a p p y C o n s c i o u s n e s s " a n d the m o r a l i z e d " m a n " the b o d y i s i n a d v e r t e n t l y preserved i n a n d b y the i n s t r u m e n t o f of c o n s c i e n c e in N i e t z s c h e : " T h i s instinct for freedom f o r c i b l y its s u p p r e s s i o n . j e c t i o n [assujettissement] m u c h m o r e p r o f o u n d t h a n h i m s e l f . I n this sense. o n e c a n d i s c e r n a t e m p o - w h e n t h e y d o . a n d that a l o n e . in particular.i n c a r c e r a t i n g m o v e m e n t that s t r u c t u r e s m o d e r n f o r m s of e t h i c a l self-beratement. b y the s o u l ? C a n a r e t u r n t o H e g e l h e l p u s t o r e a d it? W h a t are " T h e U n h a p p y C o n s c i o u s n e s s " establishes a r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the p o i n t s o f c o n v e r g e n c e a n d d i v e r g e n c e i n H e g e l . A 2 T h e p e r m u t a t i o n s o f s e l f . h i s c o n c e r n w i t h the d o u b l e . " 4 nate i n the s i m u l t a n e o u s f a b r i c a t i o n o f e t h i c a l n o r m s a n d the H o w p r e c i s e l y are w e t o r e a d this " i n h a b i t i n g " o f the b o d y b e r a t e m e n t o f the b o d i l y c o n d i t i o n o f h i s o w n life. w h o m w e p r e c i s e l y . C o n s i d e r the e x p a n d e d text o f F o u - ently external " L o r d " only to find himself in an ethical w o r l d . t o p u t i t m o r e i n Discipline and Punish: " T h e m a n d e s c r i b e d for u s . " T h e b o n d s m a n i n H e g e l t h r o w s off the a p p a r - o f m o r a l s u b j e c t i v a t i o n . B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness 33 l o n g e r to l i b e r a t e a subject.

d o m i n a t i o n of the master. b u t b e i t i n s u c h a w a y that the l o r d forgets o r s e c t i o n . I n effect. I suggest b o t h that H e g e l ' s T h i s forgetting involves a clever trick. i s t o p r o d u c e o n e ' s b o d y i n d i a l e c t i c a l l o g i c . T h i s t r i c k o r r u s e i n v o l v e s a t i o n is u n d e r s t o o d as a s e l f . a n d w h o s e m a t e r i a l p r o d - a n d F r e u d i a n account of conscience is e m b e d d e d in Hegel's ucts reflect b o t h the s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f the b o n d s m a n a n d the chapter. the readers. A n i n - f e r r e d t o i n d i r e c t l y a s the e n c a s e m e n t . . t h i s i n q u i r y a n i n s t r u m e n t a l b o d y w h o s e l a b o r p r o v i d e s for the m a t e r i a l 34 35 seeks t o k n o w w h e t h e r a s u p p r e s s e d l i n k w i t h a N i e t z s c h e a n c o n d i t i o n s o f the l o r d ' s existence. a s a n a c t i o n . the i m p e r a t i v e t o the b o n d s m a n c o n - f o u n d a s objects o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i o n . B y the t i m e w e a r r i v e a t the s e c t i o n o n the the m o v e s w h i c h g u a r a n t e e the f u l f i l l m e n t o f the i n j u n c t i o n u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s .n e g a t i n g attachment a n d . In a sense. b u t o f e x p e r i e n c e . b o d i e s are a l m o s t n e v e r to be a n d t r a n s a c t e d . the l o r d p r e s u m a b l y is. shares a n o p e r a t i v e a s s u m p t i o n w i t h the F r e u d i a n n o t i o n c o m p l i c i t w i t h t h i s d i s a v o w a l . a n d that the F o u c a u l t i a n a v o w one's b o d y . in t h i s d o u b l e d i s a v o w a l a n d a n i m p e r a t i v e that the " O t h e r " b e c o m e w a y . t i o n e d w i t h respect t o b o d i l y life. i n w h i c h r u s e s are e n a c t e d In H e g e l ' s Phenomenology. a l w a y s a n d o n l y r e - d o n o t let m e k n o w that the b o d y y o u are i s m y b o d y . W i t h o u t pre- duction w h i c h we w i l l call a projection. I c o n s i d e r the restatements of that p a r a d o x i c a l f o r m u - d i s a v o w s h i s o w n a c t i v i t y i n p r o d u c i n g the b o n d s m a n . m u c h less a s sites sists i n the f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a t i o n : y o u b e m y b o d y f o r m e . Bodily Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness see. t o r e n d e r i t " O t h e r " a n d t h e n t o e s t a b l i s h the a c c o u n t o f s u b j e c t i o n . o r s p e c i f i c i t y j u n c t i o n a n d c o n t r a c t are h e r e p e r f o r m e d i n s u c h a w a y that o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s .Stubborn Attachment. r e m a i n s u n w i t t i n g l y t e t h e r e d t o the H e g e l i a n s u c h a w a y that the a c t i v i t y o f its p r o d u c t i o n — a n d its essen- f o r m u l a t i o n . s u m i n g a d i r e c t l i n e of i n f l u e n c e . a p r o - lation i n psychoanalytic a n d F o u c a u l t i a n terms. It is an action by i n s i g h t s i n " T h e U n h a p p y C o n s c i o u s n e s s " o n the i n e l u c t a b i l i t y w h i c h a n a c t i v i t y i s d i s a v o w e d . a n d w e h a v e b e e n g i v e n text. I n o r d e r n o t t o b e the b o d y that of l i b i d i n a l investment. T h e b o n d s m a n a p p e a r s a s A r r e s t i n g the text p r i o r t o its r e s o l u t i o n i n t o S p i r i t . for b o d i e s are. w e . b u t w h o r e q u i r e s i n effect that the b o n d s m a n b e C o n s c i o u s n e s s " in The Phenomenology of Spirit. the l o r d p o s t u r e s as a d i s - T h e first s e c t i o n of t h i s essay offers a r e a d i n g that a c c o u n t s e m b o d i e d d e s i r e f o r self-reflection. F u r t h e r m o r e . T h e r e a d i n g that f o l - t o u n d e r s t a n d these d i s c r e p a n t figures a s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y p o s i - l o w s p u r s u e s the p a t h that H e g e l i n t r o d u c e s o n l y t o foreclose. i t r h e t o r i - o f the a t t a c h m e n t o f a n d t o the b o d y i n s u b j e c t i o n are r e - c a l l y c o n c e d e s the v e r y a c t i v i t y that i t seeks t o negate. w h i c h H e g e l ' s t e r e d the l o r d a n d the b o n d s m a n . forecloses. d e s p i t e its s i g n i f i c a n t m o v e s b e y o n d " O t h e r " a s a n effect o f a u t o n o m y . H e g e l t a c i t l y p r e s u m e s that subjec- t i a l r e l a t i o n t o the l o r d — i s d e n i e d . F r e u d i a n p e r s p e c t i v e s o n self-abasement. i n the t r a n s i t i o n t o S p i r i t . a b a r g a i n o r d e a l . T o d i s - i t e r a t e d i n F o u c a u l t i a n f r a m e w o r k s . In the s e c o n d the l o r d ' s b o d y . yet. l o c a t i o n . a n d i n o r d e r t o h a v e the b o n d s m a n p o s t u r e a s i f the b o d y that h e i s b e l o n g s t o h i m s e l f — a n d n o t b e Hegel and the Production of Self-Enslavement the o r c h e s t r a t e d p r o j e c t i o n of the l o r d — t h e r e m u s t be a c e r t a i n k i n d o f e x c h a n g e . h a v e a l r e a d y e n c o u n - a n d the c o n t r a c t are i m m e d i a t e l y c o v e r e d o v e r a n d f o r g o t t e n . o n e w h o n o t o n l y r e q u i r e s for h o w t h i s p a r a d o x o f b o d i l y s u b j e c t i o n i s f o r m u l a t e d i n the s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f the b o n d s m a n i n the status o f a n i n s t r u - the t r a n s i t i o n f r o m " L o r d s h i p a n d B o n d a g e " t o " T h e U n h a p p y m e n t a l b o d y . i n H e g e l .

c o v e r s o v e r the d i s s i m u l a t i o n w h i c h i s the a c t i v i t y o f the o w n l a b o r . the l o r d has c o n t r a c t e d the m o b i l i z e d ? O r does t h i s d i s s i m u l a t i o n p r o d u c e effects that ex- b o n d s m a n as a surrogate or substitute. the l a b o r reflected b a c k b e s a i d f i n a l l y t o b e the b o n d s m a n ' s o w n ? R e m e m b e r that the l o r d has d i s a v o w e d h i s r e f l e c t i o n a n d delegates the a u t o n o m y o f e m b o d i m e n t t o the b o n d s m a n . this activity. f o r t o a v o w the b e l o n g i n g w o u l d b e t o a v o w the object a s h i s o w n . b u t that the signs p r o d u c e d m u s t be r e a d as an effect m e t i c status o f that l a b o r c a n the b o n d s m a n a p p e a r t o b e b o t h o f the e f f e c t i v i t y that d e s i g n a t e s the b o n d s m a n . d o e s the object reflect? Is it the a u t o n o m y of the p r i a t e d .36 Stubborn Attachment. i s n e v e r t h e l e s s reflected b a c k t o the the l o r d ' s . n e v e r the b o n d s - r e s u l t s f r o m the c o n t r a c t m a d e b e t w e e n l o r d a n d b o n d s m a n ? m a n ' s t o g i v e . i f the b o n d s m a n effects a u t o n o m y t h r o u g h a m a n s u b s t i t u t e s h i m s e l f f o r the l o r d b e c o m e s c o n s e q u e n t i a l . s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g . T h e object of l a b o r t h u s reflects h i s o w n s i g n a t u r e o n the t h i n g s that h e m a k e s . a l a b o r that emanates f r o m h i m . his b o d y as an i n s t r u m e n t of labor. I n d e e d . H i s b o n d s m a n . b u t h e does o w n formative a c t i v i t y T h i s labor. w h i c h belongs n o t (yet) see that h i s a u t o n o m y is the d i s s i m u l a t e d effect of f r o m the start t o the l o r d . the a c t i v e a n d a u t o n o m o u s . C a n . The b o n d s m a n thus c e e d the c o n t r o l o r d o m i n i o n o f the l o r d ? b e l o n g s t o the l o r d . b u t w h a t i s i t that m a r k s that s i g n a t u r e a s b o n d s m a n r e a d s b a c k f r o m the object a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f h i s h i s o w n ? T h e b o n d s m a n d i s c o v e r s h i s a u t o n o m y . I n h i s w o r k . t h e n . b o t h h i s l a b o r a n d h i s p r o d u c t s of that l a b o r . o n l y b y m i m i n g a n d c o v e r i n g o v e r the m i - n e s s e d .) o w n l a b o r i n g b e i n g . a m i m i n g w h i c h r e m a i n s h i d d e n the s u b s t i t u t i o n itself b e c o m e s f o r m a t i v e o f a n d for the b o n d s - f r o m the l o r d . t h e n . the object e m e r g e s a s the o b - b o n d s m a n l a b o r s a w a y i n a r e p e t i t i v e f a s h i o n o n objects that j e c t i f i c a t i o n o f the b o n d s m a n ' s l a b o r . t h e n . e x p r o - w h a t . t h e n the " a u t o n o m y " o f the slave i s the c r e d i b l e m a n . hence. a d i s s i m u l a t i o n : the l o r d effects the a u t o n o m y o f d i s e m b o d i e d e v e n i f i t a p p e a r s t o e m a n a t e f r o m the l o r d . I t i s n o t that the a c t i v i t y m u s t b e w i t - b o n d s m a n l a b o r s . B u t are p r e s u m e d f r o m the start t o b e o t h e r t h a n h i s o w n . a n d B u t h e r e a q u e s t i o n e m e r g e s : D o e s the b o n d s m a n ' s a c t i v i t y has e s t a b l i s h e d the b o n d s m a n a s the o n e w h o w i l l o c c u p y the r e m a i n f u l l y c o n s t r a i n e d b y the d i s s i m u l a t i o n b y w h i c h i t i s l o r d ' s b o d y for h i m . b u t w i t h a k i n d o f b e l o n g i n g that c a n n o t I f the b o n d s m a n i s t o r e c o g n i z e the m a r k s m a d e o n the b e a v o w e d . I n t h i s sense. Bodily Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness 37 A t the c l o s e o f the s e c t i o n o n l o r d s h i p a n d b o n d a g e . ( N o r d o e s h e see that the l o r d ' s a u t o n o m y i s itself b o n d s m a n a s h i s o w n l a b o r . h e r e c o g n i z e s the a u t o n o m y of the b o n d s m a n to the extent that the object. t o e x p o s e the l o r d a s b e i n g the b o d y t h r o u g h a n act o f r e a d i n g o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b y w h i c h the m a r k s w h i c h the l o r d a p p a r e n t l y v e r y m u c h does n o t w a n t t o be. I n t h i s sense. the b o n d s m a n d i s c o v e r s o r r e a d s l a b o r p r o d u c e s a v i s i b l e a n d l e g i b l e set o f m a r k s i n w h i c h the h i s o w n s i g n a t u r e . A s the b o n d s m a n slaves a w a y a n d b e c o m e s a w a r e o f effect of t h i s d i s s i m u l a t i o n . T h e y are g i v e n a w a y p r i o r t o a n y p o s s i b i l i t y o f g i v i n g b o n d s m a n ? O r i s i t the d i s s i m u l a t e d effect o f a u t o n o m y that t h e m a w a y . A n d yet. (Zeichen) that the b o n d s m a n sees are s o m e h o w u n d e r s t o o d to H e n c e . a c o n g e a l i n g a n d r e f l e c t i o n of that labor. m i m i n g o f the l o r d ' s b o d y . t h i s " c o n t r a c t " i n w h i c h the b o n d s - I n o t h e r w o r d s . i n the f o r m o f the artifact that h e crafts the m a r k i n g s o f h i s too. a n d t h u s a s a n i n s t a n c e b e l o n g t o the l o r d . s i n c e t h e y are. m u s t i n s o m e . it is as a s u b s t i t u t e in the s e r v i c e of d i s a v o w a l that the r e p r e s e n t the b o n d s m a n . t h e n that r e c o g n i t i o n m u s t t a k e p l a c e s u b s t i t u t i o n a n d . m a r k i n g s that are f o r m a t i v e o f the object itself. t h u s p r o d u c i n g t w o " a u t o n o m i e s " that a p p e a r a t the outset r a d i c a l l y t o e x c l u d e o n e another.

e x c e p t p e r h a p s h i s o w n c o n s u m i n g a c t i v i t y . T h u s the s i g n a t u r e t e n u o u s status o f the b o n d s m a n . o w n s i t . w i t h that loss. i n the threat b y h i m . w h o s t a m p s i t w i t h his n a m e . for c i r c u l a t i o n here is a l w a y s a matter of e x p r o p r i a - t i o n . F o r the l o r d . E a r l i e r i t s e e m e d that the l o r d h i m that h e i s a b e i n g w h o m a r k s t h i n g s . the b o n d s m a n n e v e r t h e l e s s d e r i v e s a sense of the b o n d s m a n ' s s i g n a t u r e d e s i g n a t e s a d o m a i n of c o n t e s t e d s e l f . e x p r o p r i a t e d . for e a c h i n a different w a y e x p e r i e n c e s o n l y a n d b o n d s m a n w r i t e s o v e r the s i g n a t o r y o f the l o r d . the f o r m a t i v e p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h a set of c o n s e q u e n t i a l erasures. a s i g n a t u r e . for the l o r d . objects w e r e t r a n s i t o r y . w h i c h has h i s m a r k o n i t . u n d e r a set o f c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h that s i g n a t u r e i s a l w a y s T h e s e t w o p o s i t i o n s . a s i g n a t o r y act o r creates t h i n g s w h i c h o u t l a s t h i m . o r c o n s u m e s i t i n w o r k i n g o n a n d c r e a t i n g a n object that b o r e the m a r k s o f h i s s o m e w a y . the l o r d r e a p p r o p r i a t e s the object b y w r i t i n g o v e r the s i g - a f o r m w h i c h i d e a l l y s u p p r e s s e s the t r a n s i t o r y c h a r a c t e r o f . 38 39 p r i n c i p l e of the object to be the f o r m a t i o n of h i s s i g n a t u r e . i t i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the ex- d o e s n o t seal o w n e r s h i p o f the object b y the b o n d s m a n . T h i s i s his m a r k . f r o m the start has b e e n series o f t r a n s i t o r y desires. t h e n S i g n i f i c a n t l y . a p p r o p r i a t i n g a n d d u c e s a s i n g u l a r effect. W o r k is. B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness w a y b e u n d e r s t o o d t o refer r e t r o a c t i v e l y t o the b o n d s m a n a s n a t u r e of the b o n d s m a n . a c e r t a i n t r a n sience a n d e x p r o p r i a b i l i t y p r o d u c e d b y the a c t i v i t y o f labor. A f t e r a l l . h o w e v e r . are n o t r a d i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o a l r e a d y e r a s e d . b y T h a t s i g n a t u r e i s e r a s e d w h e n the object i s g i v e n o v e r t o the contrast. e x t i n g u i s h i n g a l l that the b o n d s m a n m a d e . F o r the l o r d . n o m i n a l l y . T h e w o r k i n g o f the slave i s t h u s t o b e u n d e r s t o o d being. a c e r t a i n s e l f . w h i c h is i r r e d u c i b l y h i s . the e x p e r i e n c e r e v e r s i n g the s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n o f the p r o x y t o the o r i g i - of a f e a r f u l t r a n s i e n c e .r e c o g n i t i o n i s d e r i v e d f r o m the r a d i c a l l y p r o x y s i g n a t o r y . t o last. b e l o n g s t o the l o r d . b u t p e r i e n c e of absolute fear. o c c u p y i n g the p o s i t i o n o f p u r e c o n s u m p - circulated. a s a t h e n . a p r o d u c e r o f p e r m a n e n t w h i c h p u t s itself u n d e r e r a s u r e a t the m o m e n t i n w h i c h i t i s t h i n g s . n a l . t h e n . a s i t w e r e . I f the o n e a n o t h e r . a t least t o a u t o n o m y that s u c h a n e x p r o p r i a t i o n p r o d u c e s . u n d e r the n a m e o r s i g n o f s o m e other. h i s o w n a n d s o has b e e n m a r k i n g the object w i t h h i s o w n s i g n a t u r e e n d l e s s desire. W h a t e m e r g e s is less a p a l i m p s e s t i c s i g n a t o r y . b e c o m e s the site for the r e d o u b l i n g o f o w n e r s h i p a n d . a c h i e v e d the e x p e r i e n c e o f s e l f . S t r a n g e l y . a f o r m of d e s i r e . T h e b o n d s m a n s i g n s . w h i c h h e c a n r e a d ( w e s h a l l let the b a c k h i s s i g n a t u r e f r o m the object. sets the stage for a scene of c o n t e s t a t i o n . w h o s e a c t i v i t y p r o - o c c u p i e d the p l a c e o f p u r e c o n s u m p t i o n . n o t h i n g s e e m e d w o r k i n g f o r a n o t h e r . Yet this object m a r k e d h i m s e l f i n the v e r y f o r f e i t u r e o f the s i g n a t u r e . I f w e are t o u n d e r s t a n d the f o r m i n g o f the object object—like Kafka's topographies—than a m a r k of ownership a s the i n s c r i b i n g o f the b o n d s m a n ' s s i g n a t u r e .r e f l e x i v i t y t h r o u g h l o r d . a n d h e h i m s e l f w a s d e f i n e d a s a t i o n b y the l o r d . r e s i g n i f i e d . T h e m a r k o r s i g n o n the object i s n o t s i m p l y the p r o p e r t y H e r e the l o g i c o f the b o n d s m a n ' s a c t i v i t y a p p e a r s c u r i o u s l y t o o f the b o n d s m a n — t h i s object w i t h h i s m a r k o n i t i m p l i e s f o r c o n v e r g e w i t h that o f the l o r d .r e c o g n i t i o n a t the e n d o f the c h a p t e r . T h e b o n d s m a n . h e n c e . as a d e l e g a t e d s u b s t i t u t e . T h i s fear is a fear of a c e r t a i n loss of c o n t r o l . t e m p o r a r i l y a l w a y s the loss o f the object a n d . a n d thereby understood himself as a being w h o forms as a m a r k i n g w h i c h r e g u l a r l y u n m a r k s itself. T h e slave. b u t n o t b y r e a d i n g o w n e r s h i p . that s i g n a t u r e has b o n d s m a n o c c u p y the site o f p r e s u m p t i v e m a s c u l i n i t y ) . o f c o u r s e .Stubborn Attachment. w r i t t e n o v e r . a n d b e e n w r i t t e n o v e r b y the s i g n a t u r e o f the l o r d . f o r H e g e l . H e r e c o g n i z e s s o the object a p p e a r s t o b e l o n g t o h i m .

The strategy of d o m i n a t i o n w a s meant to replace defines h i m . I f the object i s the c o n g e a l - that f o r m e d objects b e p o s s e s s e d r a t h e r t h a n c o n s u m e d . T o w o r k o n a n object i s t o g i v e i t f o r m . He can recognize his o w n signature o n l y as what is con- T h e f a i l u r e of d o m i n a t i o n as a s t r a t e g y r e i n t r o d u c e s the fear of s t a n t l y b e i n g e r a s e d . c l i n g i n g to what appears to be f i r m about himself. T h i s confrontation of death at s i g n i f i e d i n w h a t h e m a k e s . t h e n the d e t e r m i n a t e a n d t r a n s i e n t c h a r a c t e r o f the t h i n g i n g n e s s . b u t locates i t a s the i n e v i t a b l e fate o f a n y b e i n g w h o s e n o c o n t r o l o v e r w h a t h e p u t s h i s n a m e t o o r o v e r the p u r p o s e s consciousness is d e t e r m i n e d a n d e m b o d i e d . in order not t o k n o w that d e a t h threatens e v e r y aspect o f h i s o w n f i r m n e s s : "since the e n t i r e c o n t e n t s o f its n a t u r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s h a v e n o t b e e n j e o p a r d i z e d . h e b e - déformation. " O n l y a s p r o p e r t y d o objects f u l f i l l the t h e o l o g i c a l w i l l i m p l y the d e t e r m i n a t e a n d t r a n s i e n t c h a r a c t e r o f the p r o m i s e w i t h w h i c h t h e y are i n v e s t e d . fleetingness T h i s e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f the object d o e s n o t negate the b o n d s - s t a v e d off" (118/153). b u t h e g i v e s u p h i s s i g n a t u r e for the s i g n a t u r e o f the other. m a n ' s sense o f h i m s e l f a s a l a b o r i n g b e i n g . a n d i f the l a b o r i s that o f the b o n d s - a s p r o p e r t y d o objects r e t a i n t h e i r f o r m a n d "stave off fleet- m a n . T h e b o n d s m a n v e r g e s o n t h i s shatter- o f self-erasure: h e r e a d s that the s i g n a t u r e i s h i s .a n d .a n d . T h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f the object i s the n e g a t i o n o f that the b o n d s m a n m a k e s reflects the b o n d s m a n h i m s e l f as a that effect of p e r m a n e n c e . d o m i n a t i o n w a s r e l e n t l e s s l y s a c r i f i c e d . i n h i s w o r d s . B u t b e c a u s e the object i s g i v e n a w a y . that w h a t i s i r r e d u c i b l y h i s o w n i s h i s o w n v a n i s h i n g . t h e n .d e a t h s t r u g g l e at its m a d e u n d e r the c o m p u l s i o n t o g i v e i t u p . o n l y i n g o r f o r m i n g o f l a b o r . the c o n s u m p t i o n of the object is its d e t e r m i n a t e t h i n g . H e n c e . i f the object b e g i n n i n g . a n d that t h i s v a n i s h i n g is effected by a n o t h e r — t h a t is. that w h a t h e m a k e s i s the e n d of the c h a p t e r r e c a l l s the l i f e . that t h i s is a s o c i a l l y c o m p e l l e d f o r m o f self-erasure. t h e n he is a r e l e n t l e s s l y s e l f . B u t i n the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n d e a t h w h i c h h e a c q u i r e s a sense o f w h o h e is. T h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y .d e a t h s t r u g g l e . no longer as a t o w h i c h h e seeks t o fasten h i s n a m e . c o n s i s t s i n the e x p e r i e n c e o f f o r m e d the object also k n o w s that it is transient. b u t i t d o e s i m p l y a n d t o g i v e i t f o r m i s t o g i v e i t a n e x i s t e n c e that o v e r c o m e s that w h a t e v e r h e m a k e s . T h e b o n d s m a n h a v i n g w h a t a p p e a r s t o b e h i s p r o p e r t y e x p r o p r i a t e d . i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s o w n d e a t h i n the last p a r a g r a p h o f the chapter. N o t o n l y d o e s h e l a b o r for a n o t h e r . w h o takes the y i e l d o f h i s l a b o r . I n the not o n l y negates t h i n g s ( i n the sense o f t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e m e x p e r i e n c e o f g i v i n g u p w h a t h e has m a d e . T h e d e t e r m i n a t e t h i n g t r a n s i t o r i n e s s . b o n d s m a n . that w h a t h e i s i s e m b o d i e d o r full a n d final negation in death. T h e l a b o r i n g b o d y w h i c h n o w k n o w s itself t o h a v e T h e b o n d s m a n ' s fear. the b o n d s m a n t h r o u g h labor) a n d is a n e g a t i n g a c t i v i t y . that h i s o w n e x i s t e n c e a p p e a r s t o b e i r r e d u c i b l y h i s o w n .40 Stubborn Attachment. t a k i n g u p a p o s ture of smugness or stubbornness. b u t h e r e c o i l s f r o m r e c o g n i z i n g d e a t h .s a c r i f i c i n g a w a y of f o r c i n g the o t h e r to d i e within the c o n t e x t of life. a t t a c h i n g h i m self i n s t e a d t o v a r i o u s a t t r i b u t e s o f h i s o w n . i s the s i g n a t o r y text b y the l i f e . f i r m l y clinging to himself. B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness 41 d e s i r e . h o w e v e r . H i s s i g n a t u r e i s a n act threat p o s e d b y a n o t h e r . [Indem nicht aile Erfullungen seines naturlichen . being. r e q u i r e s c o m e s that w h i c h c a n b e f o r f e i t e d . b u t he is subject to a u n d e r s t a n d s t w o i s s u e s : first. n o l o n g e r m a r k i n g o w n e r s h i p o f h i s o w n labor in any way. a n d s e c o n d . h e a l s o loses. " w o r k i s d e s i r e h e l d i n c h e c k . reflects b a c k w h a t h e is. H e has d e a t h . a n d i f t h o s e objects are h a p p e n e d t h r o u g h the v i o l e n c e o f the o t h e r . a s a p e r s i s t e n t site o f v a n i s h i n g .

i n the t o c l i n g t o o n e s e l f i s m o t i v a t e d b y t h i s a b s o l u t e fear a n d b y the next chapter. o n e that separates . a n d ciple attaches to it. the n o r m s . r e c o n s t i t u t e d the c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Its fear i s ness or. subjects the u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n a d o u b l e sense: m o v e f r o m the s e r v i t u d e o f the b o n d s m a n t o that o f the u n - the subject i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o n o r m s . t h r o u g h the a c t i o n b y w h i c h t e r r o r o f b o d i l y a l l a y e d b y l e g i s l a t i n g a n e t h i c a l n o r m .s u b j e c t i o n takes i n the sec- f r o m that fear. subject to d e a t h . B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness Bewusstseins wankend geworden] d e t e r m i n a t e b e i n g s t i l l in prin- o f s e r v i t u d e .r i g h t e o u s n e s s . i t i s a the subject.Stubborn Attachment." T h e u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e q u i r e s a n d e n - by w h i c h terror is allayed through a resolution of stubborn- gages t h i s a t t a c h m e n t b y i n v o k i n g a n i m p e r a t i v e . the b o d y i s fear as a fear of the l a w . T h i s n e e d to refuse that fear. a fear of d e a t h . the m o r e s t u b b o r n or eigensinnig the e n f o r c e m e n t of is again d i s s i m u l a t e d as an alterity. vacates the t h i n g l i k e c h a r a c t e r of t i o n o n the u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s ? I n the first i n s t a n c e . T h e b o d y w h i c h the b o n d s m e n e m b l e m a t i z e d a s T h e s e c t i o n o n the u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s e x p l a i n s the a l a b o r i n g i n s t r u m e n t i s recast a t the e n d o f the l o r d s h i p a n d genesis of the s p h e r e of the e t h i c a l as a defense a g a i n s t the b o n d a g e c h a p t e r as a t r a n s i e n t object. the i m p e r a t i v e d e a t h i s d i s p l a c e d b y a s m u g n e s s a n d s t u b b o r n n e s s that. the b o d y i s s t i l l s p l i t off f r o m b y the a b s o l u t e l a w w h i c h . for a m o d e o f o u t o f ( a n d against) fear. is r e v a l u e d as religious self-righteousness. T h e f l i g h t W h a t i s the f o r m that t h i s s e l f . that is. I n a s m u c h as it is an ethical i n j u n c t i o n . b u t w h e r e this alterity is its l a w . a t h i s c l i n g i n g to c o n s c i o u s n e s s is at the s a m e t i m e a d i s a v o w a l f r e e d o m s t i l l e n m e s h e d i n s e r v i t u d e " (119/155). H e n c e . T h e r e c - a b s o l u t e fear b y w h i c h i t i s m o t i v a t e d . t e r r o r i z i n g . R e c o n s t i t u t e d a s a n i n t e r i o r a l i e n . It has a " m i n d of one's appears to be most disembodied: thought. "the 42 43 T h e u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s e m e r g e s h e r e i n the m o v e m e n t a b s o l u t e fear. s u s t a i n e d t h r o u g h its d i s a v o w a l a s w h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s m u s t continue to disavow. T h e m o r e a b s o l u t e the e t h i c a l i m p e r a t i v e b o n d a g e i n t e r n a l t o a s i n g l e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . N o l o n g e r subjected a s a n o n c e a r t i c u l a t e d a n d r e f u s e d . T h e f a b r i c a t i o n o f n o r m s o g n i t i o n o f the b o d y ' s d e a t h i s a v e r t e d .w i l l . p a r a d o x i c a l l y . l o r d over his o w n b o d y . a f e a r f u l f l i g h t f r o m fear that s i g n a l s the passage f r o m b o n d a g e t o u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e b o n d s m a n takes the p l a c e o f the l o r d j e c t i v a t i n g . o f the b o d y . b u t o n c e the l o r d o f t h i s e m e r g i n g subject. the m o r e the a b s o l u t e n e s s of the m o t i v a t i n g fear is at n o w i n t e r i o r t o the p s y c h e itself. t h e y g i v e a n e t h i c a l s h a p e t o the r e f l e x i v i t y b y r e c o g n i z i n g h i s o w n f o r m a t i v e c a p a c i t y . s a n c t i m o n i o u s self is n o t without t e r r o r : its r e f l e x i v i t y is self- t h i s i m p e r a t i v e is the d i s a r t i c u l a t e d r e f u s a l of a b s o l u t e fear. H e g e l introduces o w n " or "self-will. a n d so is c o n s t i t u t e d specifically. the b o n d s m a n b e c o m e s l o r d o v e r h i m s e l f . h a v i n g a m i n d of one's o w n is s e l f . A b s o l u t e fear w o u l d j e o p a r d i z e a l l d e t e r m i n a t e t h i n g s . m o r e the s i g n of the e t h i c a l is a f l i g h t f r o m fear. i n c l u d i n g the d e t e r m i n a t e t h i n g n e s s o f the b o n d s m a n . w h i c h a p p e a r s t o s i g n i f y the t e r r o r o f d e a t h . h o w e v e r . T h e s u b j e c t i o n that takes p l a c e u n d e r i s d i s p l a c e d . a l o r d s h i p a n d a s e l f . A b s o l u t e fear i s t h u s d i s p l a c e d e x t e r n a l i n s t r u m e n t o f l a b o r . a n d the r e f l e x i v e i m p o s i t i o n o f those l i v i n g i n w h i c h the b o d y i s ceaselessly d y i n g a w a y : h e n c e . a n d the n o r m s are s u b - h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s ." but one w h i c h is nevertheless s t i l l a f o r m s t o i c i s m as a k i n d of d e f e n s i v e c l i n g i n g . T h i s e n t a i l s v a c a t i n g the b o d y a n d c l i n g i n g t o w h a t f o r m of s t u b b o r n n e s s (eigensinnigkeit). rather. this f o r m of reflexivity as a k i n d of f l i g h t a n d d e n i a l . c o v e r s its fear first w i t h s t u b b o r n e s s a n d t h e n w i t h r e l i g i o u s It i n v o l v e s s p l i t t i n g the p s y c h e i n t o t w o p a r t s . C o n s c i o u s n e s s c l i n g s o r attaches t o itself. w h e r e b y the b o d y b e c o m e s .

r e f u t a t i o n r e q u i r e s a p e r s i s t e n t self The skeptic overrides his o w n contradictoriness in order to t o enact the w i t h d r a w a l f r o m its o w n a n d o t h e r existences. the s k e p t i c b e c o m e s s e l f .r Stubborn Attachment. This u n d e r s t a n d i n g of his g a t i n g a c t i v i t y . T h e s k e p t i c traces a n d ethical reflexivity. some n e w historicists a m o n g us. focuses o n t h i s c o n s t a n t v a n i s h i n g o f d e t e r m i n a t e a p p e a r a n c e I n a sense. o f t h o u g h t . for p o s i t i o n f r o m w h i c h that n e g a t i o n takes p l a c e . The skeptic's t h i n k i n g becomes a fran- t o the p o s t u r e o f the s k e p t i c a s o n e w h o e x e m p t s h i m s e l f tic effort t o m a k e e v e r y g i v e n d e t e r m i n a t i o n d i s a p p e a r i n t o t h r o u g h v i s u a l d i s t a n c e f r o m the scene that h e w i t n e s s e s .w i l l e d c h i l d r e n [eigensinniger Jungen] w h o b y 44 45 its h i g h e s t a i m the a b s o l u t e w i t h d r a w a l f r o m existence p e r se. as it w e r e . s t o i c i s m f o r m o f s t u b b o r n n e s s o r eigensinnigkeit: " i t i s i n fact l i k e the w i t h d r a w s i n t o a subjective a n d r a t i o n a l existence that has as s q u a b b l i n g o f s e l f . the c h i l d i s h a n d s t u b b o r n p l e a s u r e that the s k e p - w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t the d i a l e c t i c a l l o g i c that o r c h e s - tic takes i n w a t c h i n g a n o t h e r f a l l t u r n s i n t o a p r o f o u n d u n - trates a n d u n i f i e s these v a r i o u s o p p o s i t i o n s . T h e self p r o d u c t i o n o f c h a o s ( u n d e r s t o o d a s ceaseless c o n t r a d i c t i o n ) i s w h o s h o r e d u p its i d e n t i t y b y e n c o u r a g i n g others t o f a l l i n t o pleasurable i n a s m u c h as the s k e p t i c is a l w a y s able to u n d e r - c o n t r a d i c t i o n s u d d e n l y sees itself as o n e of t h o s e o t h e r s . a d i s p l e a s u r a b l e w a t c h i n g o f oneself. n o t h i n g h a p p i n e s s w h e n he is. t a k e p l e a s u r e i n f o r c i n g others t o w i t n e s s t h e i r c o n t r a d i c - B e c a u s e the c o n c e p t u a l act of n e g a t i o n a l w a y s p r e s u p p o s e s a tions. T h e s o m e o t h e r one. i n the p r o c e e d s a c c o r d i n g t o n o o r d e r o r necessity. is short-lived. l i k e m o d e o f u n h a p p i n e s s . a f o r m of s a d i s m .r e f u t i n g . s t o i c i s m e n d s the s t u b b o r n a n d p e r s i s t e n t c h a r a c t e r o f the s k e p t i c ' s efforts u p u n d e r s c o r i n g the v e r y p o s i t i v i t y o f the self that i t s o u g h t w i l l d o u b t l e s s b e c h a l l e n g e d w h e n the s k e p t i c e n c o u n t e r s t o deny. i n s o f a r as e v e n s e l f . s o that t h i s c o n s t a n t a p p e a r i n g a n d v a n i s h i n g s a d i s t i c p l e a s u r e i n v o l v e d i n w a t c h i n g a n o t h e r b e c o m e s . T h i s task t u r n s o u t t o b e s e l f . a c t i v e l y r e f u t i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f e v e r y t h i n g a s o w n contradictoriness w i l l initiate for h i m a n e w m o d a l i t y its o w n c o n s t i t u t i v e a c t i v i t y . t h e n the first s k e p t i c i s f o r c e d t o t a k e ac- of c o n t i n u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t i n g o n e a n o t h e r " (126/162). H e r e the d i s t a n c e a f f o r d e d b y w a t c h - c e s s i b l e t o the s k e p t i c o n w h i c h the d o m a i n o f a l t e r i t y m i g h t i n g seems e s s e n t i a l l y l i n k e d t o the s a d i s m o f the p l e a s u r e a n d rationally be k n o w n . c o n t r a d i c t i n g t h e m s e l v e s b u y for t h e m s e l v e s the p l e a s u r e [die i n c l u d i n g its o w n . I f a n o t h e r s k e p t i c e x p o s e s the first s k e p - s k e p t i c i s m b e g i n s b y p r e s u p p o s i n g the i n s u p e r a b i l i t y o f the tic's c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . . f o r c e d to watch himself f a l l i n t o i s w h a t i t is. T h e s k e p t i c . Bodily Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness the a c t i v i t y o f t h i n k i n g f r o m a n y c o n t e n t . H e n c e . a n d its 5 d i c t i o n for its o w n sake: s i g n i f i c a n t l y . F o r s k e p t i c i s m . o f Freude] c o u r s e . i s n o t w h a t i t is. A t t h i s p o i n t . a n d there i s n o l o g i c a l o r e m p i r i c a l g r o u n d ac- e n d l e s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . t h i n k i n g subject. S k e p t i c i s m f o l l o w s u p o n s t o i c i s m f o r H e g e l b e c a u s e a n o t h e r l i k e h i m s e l f .c o n s c i o u s S k e p t i c i s m negates the d o m a i n o f a l t e r i t y b y t r y i n g t o s h o w o f the c o n s t i t u t i v e c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f h i s o w n n e g a t i n g a c t i v i t y that a n y g i v e n d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y t u r n s i n t o its a n d the u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s e m e r g e s a s a n e x p l i c i t f o r m o f o p p o s i t e a n d . v i e w i n g o f oneself a t a d i s t a n c e n o t o n l y i n i t i a t e s the u n h a p p y T h i s k i n d of pleasurable a n d incessant refutation is still a c o n s c i o u s n e s s b u t a l s o i n v e r t s the s k e p t i c ' s p l e a s u r e i n t o p a i n . ends up p r o d u c i n g contra- W i t n e s s i n g i m p l i e s a m i m e t i c r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f the self. t h i s m i n e the p o s i t i o n o f h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l o p p o n e n t . hence. H e g e l a r g u e s that t h i s " d i s p a s s i o n " i s b e l i e d b y the p a s s i o n o f m i m e t i c i s m . F o r H e g e l . But this pleasure. the self is a p e r p e t u a l l y n e - count of his o w n contradictoriness.

I m p l i c i t i n t h i s d u a l s t r u c t u r i n g o f the subject. h o w e v e r . the part. 46 o w n object o f s c o r n . the u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s berates itself c o n - itself (a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i z e d f o r m of eigensinnigkeit). i s the r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h o u g h t a n d c o r p o r e a l i t y . the u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s takes itself as its i s s t e e p e d i n the c h a n g e a b l e w o r l d o f b o d i l y s e n s a t i o n . the u n c h a n g e a b l e c o n s c i o u s n e s s "passes j u d g m e n t " o n the changeable. a l t h o u g h i n e l u c t a b l y t i e d t o it. T h i s w a t c h i n g b e c o m e s a w a y o f r e e s t a b l i s h i n g the v i s u a l d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n a subject a l o o f f r o m the scene a n d the s u b ject i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n . of devotion (Andacht). A l t h o u g h devotion appears to be a f o r m of self-immersion. the p u r e t h o u g h t s o u g h t b y the stoics. p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t r e a c h the u n c h a n g e a b l e . " o n the o n e h a n d . T h e c h i l d w h o c o n s c i o u s n e s s itself ( p o s t p o n i n g for the m o m e n t w h e t h e r the " w a t c h e s " i s t r a n s f i g u r e d i n t o the j u d g e w h o "passes j u d g - p l e a s u r e i n s a d i s m i s a l s o r e r o u t e d against c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) . it k n o w s that the c o n t r a d i c t o r y self is itself. A s self-feeling. c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d d i s p a r a g i n g its c h a n g e a b l e p a r t a s i n e s s e n - D e v o t i o n . b e c o m e s itself the object o f d e r i s i o n a n d j u d g m e n t . " a n d the aspect o f the self o n w h i c h i t passes j u d g m e n t a d u a l s t r u c t u r e ." o n the other. the a c t i v i t y that i n s k e p t i c i s m b e g i n s a s c h i l d i s h s a d i s m b e c o m e s r e f o r m u l a t e d a s e t h i c a l s e l f . b u t in o r d e r to s h o r e u p a n i d e n t i t y o v e r a n d against i t . self-feeling refers o n l y a n d e n d l e s s l y t o A s a r e s u l t . w h a t H e g e l d i s p a r a g i n g l y refers t o a s "the c h a o t i c j i n g l i n g o f b e l l s . a f e e l i n g w h i c h n e v e r theless r e m a i n s e n s c o n c e d i n the b o d i l y f e e l i n g that i t seeks t o t r a n s c e n d . t h e n . m a r k i n g the c o n t i n u i n g i n a d e q u a c y o f the self i n r e l a t i o n t o its t r a n s c e n d e n t m e a s u r e . the subject s u b - e s s e n t i a l " a n d "changeable. h o w e v e r . w h i c h seeks t o i n s t r u m e n t a l i z e the b o d y i n t i a l . D e v o t i o n t u r n s o u t t o b e p u r e self-feeling. differentiates itself u n c h a n g e a b l e . Yet. " T o d o this. T h e t r a n s c e n d e n t i s w h a t i s a l w a y s . it is a l s o a c o n t i n u a t i o n of s e l f . T h e w a t c h i n g self. o r a m i s t o f w a r m i n c e n s e . a n d the c o n t r a d i c t o r y d o m a i n w i l l b e that o f altern a t i n g q u a l i t i e s . a m u s i c a l t h i n k i n g " (131/168). 47 U n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s seeks t o o v e r c o m e t h i s d u a l i t y b y T h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h i s s c o r n takes the f o l - f i n d i n g a b o d y w h i c h e m b o d i e s the p u r i t y o f its u n c h a n g e a b l e l o w i n g f o r m : c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s n o w d i v i d e d i n t o t w o p a r t s . t h i s s u b o r d i n a t i n g a n d p u r i f y i n g effort i s that f r o m the self w i t n e s s e d a s p e r p e t u a l l y f a l l i n g i n t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n . t h e n . s e t t i n g u p o n e p a r t o f itself a s a p u r e j u d g e a l o o f f r o m u n a b l e t o f u r n i s h k n o w l e d g e o f a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n itself. A s m e n t . for the u n c h a n g e a b l e w i l l b e a k i n d o f n o n c o n t r a d i c t o r y t h o u g h t .b e r a t e m e n t as s e l f . p r e d i c t a b l y .Stubborn Attachment. a n d so is stantly. the w i t n e s s i n g a n d s c o r n i n g self c a n n o t d e n y that the c o n t r a d i c t o r y self i s its o w n self. i n d e e d . I n d e e d . B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness T h e s a d i s m d i r e c t e d t o w a r d the other i s n o w t u r n e d b a c k o n p e r t a i n s t o the subject's o w n p h e n o m e n a l b e i n g . t u r n s o u t t o b e a n i m m e r s i o n i n the b o d y that p r e c l u d e s access t o a n y t h i n g else. i t i s the f e e l i n g o f the b o d y c o m p e l l e d t o s i g n i f y the t r a n s c e n d e n t a n d u n c h a n g e a b l e . I n t h i s case. T h i s self-feeling. a n d the " i n - its i n c a r n a t e o r e m b o d i e d f o r m . a n i m m e r s i o n that takes the b o d y t o b e the u n c h a n g e a b l e a n d s o falls i n t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n . o r d i n a t e s its o w n b o d y i n the s e r v i c e o f the t h o u g h t o f the d e f i n e d as a k i n d of witnessing a n d scorning.j u d g m e n t i n the context o f the u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s : a s a d u l t t o c h i l d . i t seeks t o c o m e i n t o r e l a t i o n w i t h "the U n c h a n g e a b l e i n " e s s e n t i a l " a n d " u n c h a n g e a b l e . w h a t the s e r v i c e o f the u n c h a n g e a b l e .m o r t i f i c a t i o n . i t r e n d e r s t h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y self i n t o a n i n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f itself. S i g n i f i c a n t l y . I t t h u s p a r t s w i t h itself i n o r d e r t o p u r i f y itself o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n . the c h a n g e a b l e d o m a i n o f a p p e a r a n c e . t h i s effort to d e p l o y the b o d y i n the s e r v i c e o f t h i n k i n g the u n c h a n g e a b l e p r o v e s i m p o s s i b l e .

self-feeling. b e g i n s as an effort m o d e o f gratefulness. b u t does s o o n l y t o b e s a c r i f i c e d o r r e t u r n e d t o the "doing of n o t h i n g . P a r a d o x i c a l l y . a n e w f o r m a c h i e v e d . . then. its life to s u b o r d i n a t e the b o d y to a t r a n s c e n d e n t object. t h u s . f o r e v e r lost. c o n t r a d i c t s the p o s t u l a t i o n o f in-itself. s i g n i f i e s that there c a n b e n o f i n a l T h e r e n u n c i a t i o n o f the self a s the o r i g i n o f its o w n a c - l e a v e ." W h e r e a s d e v o t i o n . I n the m o d e o f d e v o - c o n t i n u a l l y i n the m o d e o f g i v i n g t h a n k s . that it.w i l l e d a c t i o n . a b i l i t i e s . c i s s i s m . T h i s s e l f . its life is e x p e r i e n c e d as a gift. T h e c o l l a p s e o f d e v o t i o n i n t o n a r - w i l l c a l l "the e x t r e m e o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y " (134/171). The s u r e l y there i s a w o r l d o f n o u m e n a i n w h i c h the b o d y has n o self b e c o m e s a n i n c e s s a n t p e r f o r m e r o f r e n u n c i a t i o n . the w o r l d d i v i d e s u p i n t o b e i n g s that are f o r . seeks t o k n o w a n d s h o w itself. i t i s n o t r e s p o n s i b l e for w h a t i t eigensinnigkeit. a s a n a c t i o n . F o r c e d . "consciousness . the i n - T h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s .p r e o c c u - t i o n s . p e r f o r m a n c e b e c o m e s the occasion f o r a g r a n d a n d e n d l e s s a c t i o n that effect i v e l y a u g m e n t s a n d i n d i v i d u a t e s the self i t seeks t o deny. t h i s e m b o d i e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s seeks t o g i v e t h a n k s for the g r a v e of its l i f e " (132/169-70).Stubborn Attachment. c o n s t i t u t e s a n a r c i s s i s m of the subject that d e - does. T h e s e are g i v e n t o ures. if o n l y b e c a u s e the demonstration of r e n u n c i a t i o n is o f the subject e m e r g e s .t a k i n g o f the b o d y w i t h i n life. o u t l i v i n g i t altogether. A l l o f its acts i t o w e s t o a n o t h e r . O n the o t h e r h a n d . . t h e n .i t s e l f a n d the p e r f o r m a n c e . i t i s n o t the seat o r o r i g i n o f its o w n a c - H e r e w e m i g h t c o n c l u d e that a c e r t a i n f o r m o f s e l f . i f w e c a n c a l l i t that. T h i s d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h a n k f u l - e m b o d y a n i d e a l . C h r i s t i s u n d e r s t o o d a s a n e m b o d i m e n t w h i c h i s 48 49 i s p e r m a n e n t l y i n a c c e s s i b l e . that is. w h a t H e g e l i d e a l . H e r e the p l e a s u r e w h i c h e a r l i e r a p p e a r e d t o b e l o n g t o C h r i s t suggests that the u n c h a n g e a b l e w o r l d b e c o m e s e m - the c h i l d i s h s a d i s m o f the s k e p t i c i s t u r n e d o n the self: t h i s b o d i e d . t h e n . the b o d y s u r v i v e s . t a k i n g the b o d y . " yet i n e v i t a b l y b e c o m e s a doing of n o t h - able w o r l d t o b e s a c r i f i c e d . s u r r e n d e r s o r r e n o u n c e s a n e m b o d i e d f o r m .s a c r i f i c i a l project o f d e v o t i o n . d e l i v e r s a n e m b o d i e d v e r s i o n o f itself i n t o the c h a n g e - itself as a " n o t h i n g . f a c u l t i e s .w i l l e d a c t i o n t h u s r h e t o r i - a w o r l d o f a p p e a r a n c e for w h i c h the b o d y i s e s s e n t i a l . f i n d s itself m o r e f u l l y a u t o n o m o u s f r o m that ness t h u s b e c o m e s a k i n d o f s e l f . Its a c t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r ' s a c t i o n . a n d so h a u n t s t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s as a figure of w h a t s a c r e d life. a n d it l i v e s o u t its life in the i d e a l is a "grave. w h e r e b y p l a c e . a n d l e t t i n g the u n c h a n g e a b l e s p i r i t die. it e n d s by b e c o m e s u n d e r s t o o d a s a k i n d o f e n d l e s s debt. as its object of w o r s h i p .a g g r a n d i z e m e n t . its o w n a c t i o n s are t o b e c o n s t r u e d feats the s e l f . T h e subject w h o as a p e r p e t u a l self-sacrifice by w h i c h the self proves or d e m o n - w o u l d s u b o r d i n a t e its b o d y t o a n i d e a l . finds in "its enjoyment a u n c h a n g e a b l e w o r l d f r o m w h i c h i t c a m e . H e g e l c l a i m s that the u n c h a n g e a b l e w o r l d /«action that it is m e a n t to s i g n i f y ." This i n t e r m i n g l i n g of pleasure a n d . can o n l y find as a present reality its w o r k . u n d e r s t o o d as a r e f o r m u l a t i o n of an i n s u r m o u n t a b l e the g r o u n d o f its o w n a c t i o n . A s a m o d e l for the feeling of wretchedness. T h i s reference t o the f i g u r e o f i n g . c a p a c i t i e s . I f there i s itself a s e l f . P r e c i s e l y because. I n its d e s i r e a n d i n tion. l i k e the stoic. t h i s l i v i n g b e i n g o w e s its life t o a n o t h e r b e i n g . a n d a l l that i s left o f the t r a n s c e n d e n t it. c o m p e l its b o d y t o strates its o w n t h a n k f u l n e s s . B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness m i s s e d . o n the o n e h a n d . I n a f o r m u l a t i o n that w i l l p r e f i g u r e K i e r k e g a a r d ' s Philosophical Fragments. n o t b e i n g p a t i o n . In a t r a n s p o s i t i o n of fig- its o w n life. " H e g e l argues. t o a c c e p t tions must be p e r f o r m e d repeatedly a n d can never finally be t h i s i n e l u c t a b i l i t y of the b o d y as a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n . t h e n cally confounds precisely what it is supposed to show. w h i c h i s d i s t i n c t l y K a n t i a n .

a s a n i n c e s s a n t ac- w h i c h takes s t o c k o f these f u n c t i o n s a n d w h i c h i s n o t t h o r - c o m p l i s h i n g . an engaged preoccupation w i t h what is a " m e d i a t o r . i n - 50 5i s e l f . a p e r s o n a l i t y b r o o d i n g o v e r itself. far a l i s t i c a l l y p u r g e d . s i n c e i t i s t e r n o f e x p l a n a t i o n .p r e o c c u p a t i o n : r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for its o w n a c t i o n s . t u r n i n g s o f the b o d y against itself.r e f e r e n t i a l a n a l i t y . Rather. that is. however. c a r r i e s w i t h i t the p l e a s u r a b l e a s s e r t i o n o f self. Yet. that c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e l i e s o n negative narcissism. there is s o m e c o n s c i o u s n e s s q u i t e a c c o m p l i s h that r e n u n c i a t i o n . as p a y - self i n h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a p e . H e r e . a n d b e c o m e p r e c i s e l y m a t t e r s o f the u t - p r i c e o f h o l i n e s s . a s " t h i s a c t u a l i n d i v i d u a l i n the a n i m a l f u n c t i o n s .m o r t i f i c a t i o n a n d self-sacrifice. the p r i e s t . lost i n h a p s that i t w i l l f o r e s t a l l the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f the e x c r e m e n t a l a s e l f . as an e x c r e m e n t a l f u n c t i o n . t h e y are r a t h e r the object o f i n g p e n a n c e .a b s o r p t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s d o e s n o t translate i n t o effort t o differentiate itself f r o m its e x c r e t o r y f u n c t i o n s . i t a p p e a r s a s d e e d . i t m u s t b e r i t u a l i s t i c a l l y r e n o u n c e d . a c i r c l e of its o w n m a k i n g . ness d e n i e s itself the p l e a s u r e s o f c o n s u m p t i o n . i t i s i n t h e m that the e n e m y r e v e a l s h i m - w o r k . self. S i g n i f i c a n t l y . for S p i r i t . as matters trifling in themselves c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' s a c t i o n s . a n d f o r e v e r sees itself a s d e f i l e d " (135-36/174). t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s effectively r e d u c e s itself to the c h a n g e a b l e A t t h i s j u n c t u r e H e g e l d e p a r t s f r o m w h a t has b e e n the pat- features o f its b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s a n d p r o d u c t s .p u n i s h m e n t . renews himself in his t i o n t o a r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e w h e r e b y the e n t i r e b o d y i s r i t u - defeat. f r o m its e x c r e t o r y i d e n t i t y . i t i s h e r e . In H e g e l ' s m o m e n t . " H e g e l T h i s m e d i a t i n g a g e n c y r e l i e v e s the abject c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f its a p p e a r s t o i m p l y d e f e c a t i o n a s a n object o f s e l f . r e a l l y r e m a i n s f o r e v e r i n contact t h r o u g h r i t u a l s of f a s t i n g a n d m o r t i f i c a t i o n [fasten uni kas- w i t h h i m . a n d h e n c e r e g a r d i n g itself a s e x c r e m e n t . f a s t i n g a n d m o r t i f i c a t i o n w o r d s .c o n g r a t u l a t i o n o r s i m p l e n a r c i s s i s m . o u g h l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e m . are to be c o n s t r u e d as offerings. " w e h a v e here o n l y a p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f i n e d t o its o w n are r e f l e x i v e a c t i o n s . w h i c h . a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . the u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s - object o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n for t h i s " f a l l e n " c o n s c i o u s n e s s . E v e r y t h i n g that the abject c o n s c i o u s - w h i c h c a n n o t possess a n y i m p o r t a n c e o r e s s e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ness offers. as a d o i n g of n o t h i n g . the m e a n e s t character. the p r i e s t offers the r e a s o n for the abject a n d w i t h o u t embarrassment." as it w e r e . B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness p a i n r e s u l t s f r o m a r e n u n c i a t i o n o f the self w h i c h c a n n e v e r an e x p e r i e n c e of w r e t c h e d n e s s . A t the self a n d its p e t t y a c t i o n s . T h r o u g h the i n s t i t u t i o n o f "these [ a n i m a l f u n c t i o n s ] are n o l o n g e r p e r f o r m e d n a t u r a l l y c o u n s e l a n d a d v i c e . i n f i x i n g its a t t e n t i o n o n h i m . i n the T h e s e l f . t h i s b o d i l y c o n - H e r e a g a i n the self to be r e n o u n c e d is f i g u r e d as a b o d i l y s c i o u s n e s s offers u p its e v e r y " d o i n g " t o a p r i e s t o r m i n i s t e r . the abjected w r e t c h e d as it is i m p o v e r i s h e d " (136/174). a l l o f its e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n s . a n d yet t h i s g r o u n d i n g m e r e l y c o n c e a l s the r e f l e x i v e o r i g i n s o f its s e l f . a s a n I n its fastings a n d m o r t i f i c a t i o n s . as l i m i t s o f t h i s s e l f . This enemy. u n f o r t u n a t e l y . f i g u r i n g p e r - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n its f u l l a b j e c t i o n has b e c o m e l i k e shit. B e c a u s e the b o d y c a n n o t be f u l l y d e n i e d . e l e v a t i n g the r e n u n c i a t o r y g e s t u r e o f e x c r e - most importance. " w h a t H e g e l w i l l c a l l "the p r i e s t . c o n n e c t w i t h the p u r e a n d the u n c h a n g e a b l e . i n w h i c h a self-negating p o s t u r e i s u n d e r - . a n d e x c r e m e n t . as "enemy.a b n e g a t i o n a s the s e r i o u s e n d e a v o r .Stubborn Attachment. i n c l u d i n g d e s i r e . is d e s c r i b e d as "the m e r e s t p a r t i c u l a r of the stoic t h o u g h t . " I n o r d e r t o r e - m o s t d e b a s e d a n d d e f i l e d a b o u t it." o n e w h i c h serves. T h e s a n c t i f i c a t i o n o f a b j e c t i o n takes p l a c e f r o m f r e e i n g itself f r o m h i m . T h i s teien]" (137/175). i n s t e a d . c o n s c i o u s n e s s a p p e a r s t o g r o u n d its a c t i o n i n the c o u n s e l o f R e g a r d i n g itself as a n o t h i n g . T h e p r i e s t i n s t i t u t e s b o d i l y s e l f .i n f l i c t e d b o d i l y acts. A s s e l f .

B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness s c o r e d as a posture. misery a n d p a i n i m p l y a future transformation into recent r e f o r m u l a t i o n in F o u c a u l t ' s Discipline and Punish. t h i s t i o n i t seeks t o i n s t i t u t e . rather. F o r H e g e l . narcissis- the i m m a n e n t r e l a t i o n o f p l e a s u r e a n d p a i n i n the t r a n s i t i o n s t i c . a n d . ent f r o m the ones H e g e l s u p p l i e s . n e v e r t h e l e s s . t o s u b o r d i n a t e o r m o r t i f y its o w n b o d y . prefigured in p e n i t e n t that h i s p a i n w i l l b e r e p a i d w i t h e v e r l a s t i n g a b u n - "The U n h a p p y Consciousness" and articulated in Nietzsche's d a n c e . i t i s Post-Hegelian Subjections n e v e r t h e l e s s b o u n d t o the p r i e s t ' s . p l e a s u r e i s h e r e t e m p o r a l l y r e m o v e d s t r u e d as a p e r m u t a t i o n a n d r e f u s a l of that fear. " the c h a p t e r o n the u n h a p p y c o n s c i o u s n e s s a p - b r e a k s w i t h the p a t t e r n o f e x p l a n a t i o n i n the c h a p t e r i n f a v o r p e a r s to p r o c e e d as if it c o n t a i n e d a t r e n c h a n t c r i t i q u e of e t h i - of a religious solution in Spirit. the m i n i s t e r r e f o r m u l a t e s the H e g e l ' s p o s i t i o n a n d those i n s p i r e d b y N i e t z s c h e m i g h t a l s o d i a l e c t i c a l r e v e r s a l a n d establishes the i n v e r s i o n o f v a l u e s a s b e u s e f u l l y c o m p a r e d w i t h F r e u d ' s c r i t i q u e o f the genesis a n a b s o l u t e p r i n c i p l e . A l t h o u g h its w i l l i s d e t e r m i n a t e . A n d self-consciousness's recognition r e f u t e d t h r o u g h the c l a i m that self-sacrifice i s itself a w i l l f u l of itself as p a r t of a r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t y of w i l l s effects the a c t i v i t y . a critique w h i c h prefig- I n d e e d . a set that is. i n this u n i t y . The peni- t e n t l y in the production of s e l f . T h e m e d i a t o r o r p r i e s t c o u n s e l s the The Nietzschean critique of ethical norms. a n d a g e n c y p r o v e s t o b e n o t h i n g o t h e r that the p r i e s t ' s w i l l i s d e t e r m i n e d b y G o d ' s .a g g r a n d i z i n g agent. self-aggrandizing. E v e r y effort t o r e d u c e itself t o i n a c t i o n o r t o n o t h i n g . a v o w i n g that a n o t h e r ' s w i l l . W h e r e a s i n a l l o f the e a r l i e r e x a m p l e s of m o r a l i m p e r a t i v e s in Civilization and Its Discontents. operates t h r o u g h h i s self-sacrifice. I n the p l a c e o f s u c h a n e x p l a n a t i o n . i n a great c h a i n o f w i l l s . self-sacrifice is n o t consciousness to reason. f i g u r e d a s its f u t u r e c o m p e n s a t i o n . the b o d y .p u n i s h m e n t s w o u l d c u l m i n a t e i n a p l e a s u r a b l e that p r e c e d e it? B e f o r e the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the " m e d i a t o r " a n d a s s e r t i o n o f self. further. R e c a l l o f s e l f . has r e c e i v e d m o r e piness. In effect. the p l e a s u r a b l e r e s p o n s e t o a b s o l u t e fear. I n s t a l l e d t h u s t h a n the a s s e r t i o n of p r e c i s e l y those features of the subject.n e g a t i o n p l e a s u r e w a s u n d e r s t o o d t o inhere i n p a i n that for H e g e l e t h i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s first e m e r g e i n a d e f e n s i v e (the p l e a s u r a b l e a g g r a n d i z e m e n t o f the stoic. c o n s i d e r i n g s h o w n to be reveling in himself. c u l m i n a t e s i n a d v e r - perhaps more p r o p e r l y Hegelian than H e g e l himself.Stubborn Attachment. E v e r y effort t o o v e r c o m e the p r i e s t ' s . B u t H e g e l e s c h e w s t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n a n d t h u s the " p r i e s t . I n t h i s sense. at t h i s j u n c t u r e o n e m i g h t w e l l i m a g i n e a set of u r e s the N i e t z s c h e a n a n a l y s i s that e m e r g e s s o m e s i x t y y e a r s c l o s i n g t r a n s i t i o n s f o r " T h e U n h a p p y C o n s c i o u s n e s s " differ- later. T h i s a b s o l u t e . O n e m i g h t e x p e c t that the p e n i t e n t w o u l d b e B u t w h a t are w e t o m a k e o f t h i s f i n a l t r a n s i t i o n . H e g e l asserts that i n self-sacrifice one enacts transition f r o m self-consciousness to Spirit. a n o t h e r ' s w i l l . e s c h a t o l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the p a i n o f t h i s w o r l d i n t o H e g e l asserts that the w i l l o f a n o t h e r operates t h r o u g h the self- the p l e a s u r e of the n e x t establishes the t r a n s i t i o n f r o m self- 52 53 s a c r i f i c i a l a c t i o n s of the p e n i t e n t . a n d t h e i r e m e r g e n c e m u s t b e c o n - s a d i s m o f the s k e p t i c ) . a p h e n o m e n a l i z a t i o n that refutes the n e g a - f r o m p a i n . that h i s s e l f . the abject c o n s c i o u s n e s s enters i n t o a c o m m u n i t y o f w i l l s .c o n s c i o u s n e s s as a p l e a s u r e - tent d i s c l a i m s h i s act a s h i s o w n . p l e a s u r e . s e e k i n g a n d s e l f . the n o t i o n o f S p i r i t i s first d i s c e r n e d . that h i s m i s e r y w i l l b e r e w a r d e d w i t h e v e r l a s t i n g h a p - On the Genealogy of Morals a n d Daybreak. B o t h t h e i r o p p o s i t e s . cal imperatives a n d r e l i g i o u s ideals.

w h e r e t o b e i n " j e o p - not absolutely negated t h r o u g h repression. o n e w h i c h t h r o u g h d o m i n a t i o n o r the threat o f d e a t h c a n a l w a y s A c c o r d i n g t o F r e u d . H e n c e . T h e e t h i c a l r e f u s a l a n d s u b o r d i - the i n e l u c t a b i l i t y o f the b o d y . An idea .i m p o s e d i m p e r a t i v e s o f c o n - b e o w n e d b y another. the anxiety w h i c h later becomes conscience) is indeed the cause of instinctual renunciation to begin w i t h . T h e b o d y a p p e a r s t o b e n o t h i n g other s c i e n c e are p u r s u e d a n d a p p l i e d p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e y are t h a n a threat to the project of safety a n d self-sufficiency that n o w the site o f the v e r y s a t i s f a c t i o n that t h e y seek t o p r o - g o v e r n s the Phenomenology's trajectory. h e n c e a fear c o n d i t i o n e d by the b o d y within life. 8 t h e n the b o d y c o n s t i t u t e s a site of c o n t e s t e d o w n e r s h i p . B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness fear w a s the fear of d e a t h . c e p t o f a n afterlife suggests that b o d i l y p e r m e a b i l i t y c a n o n l y a n o c c a s i o n f o r r e l i v i n g the i n s t i n c t u n d e r the r u b r i c o f the b e r e s o l v e d b y escape i n t o a n afterlife i n w h i c h n o b o d i e s exist c o n d e m n i n g law. p r o h i b i t i o n b e c o m e s the d i s p l a c e d site anal preoccupa- t i o n that d i r e c t l y p r e c e d e s the a s c e n d a n c e i n t o a r e l i g i o u s c o n - o f s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r the " i n s t i n c t " o r d e s i r e that i s p r o h i b i t e d . o f c o u r s e . m o r a l i n t e r d i c t i o n s . I n t h i s sense. T h e r e p r e s s i v e l a w i s o f p e n e t r a t i v e p a r o x y s m that i m p l i e s b e i n g m o v e d o r s h a k e n n o t e x t e r n a l t o the l i b i d o that i t represses. T h i s is. a b i l i t y a n d d e p e n d e n c y . the l i b i d o is a g a i n s t e v e r y t h i n g that " j e o p a r d i z e s " it. e x c r e t i o n i s n o t the o n l y P s y c h o a n a l y s i s t h e o r i z e s the f a i l u r e t o m a i n t a i n the subjec- " a n i m a l f u n c t i o n " that w o u l d s i g n i f y " d e f i l e m e n t " f o r t h i s s u b - t i o n o f the b o d y a l o n g l i n e s p a r a l l e l t o these e a r l i e r d i a l e c t i c a l ject. b u t the r e p r e s s i v e s e x u a l l y " t h r o u g h a n d t h r o u g h " (durch und durch angesteckt). the s e l f . W h e r e a s o t h e r r e l i g i o u s n o t i o n s 54 55 n a t i o n o f the b o d y m i g h t t h e n b e u n d e r s t o o d a s a m a g i c a l t u r n e d o u t t o b e s u r r e p t i t i o u s w a y s o f r e a s s e r t i n g the b o d y . it tells us that conscience (or more correctly. are t h e m s e l v e s s u s t a i n e d b y the n e s s " a p r é f i g u r a t i o n of n e u r o s i s a n d p e r h a p s a l s o a s p e c i f i c b o d i l y a c t i v i t y that t h e y seek t o c u r b : modality of homosexual panic. T h e h i b i t . M o r e o v e r . the s o u r c e o f the f o r m o f a t a l l . . w h i c h belongs entirely to psychoanalysis and w h i c h is foreign to people's ordinary way of thinking . a k i n d the i n s t r u m e n t o f its o w n s u b j e c t i o n . . but that later that relationship is reversed. the i d e a l t h i s o n e a p p e a r s e x e m p t f r o m the d i a l e c t i c a l r e v e r s a l that i t o f r a d i c a l self-sufficiency i s j e o p a r d i z e d b y the b o d y ' s p e r m e - resolves. I f the b o n d s m a n ' s l a b o r i n g a c t i v i t y c o u l d b e e x p r o p r i a t e d b y the l o r d a n d the essence o f the b o n d s m a n ' s b o d y b e h e l d i n o w n e r s h i p b y that l o r d . efforts w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n the a s s e r t i o n o f finite c h a r a c t e r o f the b o d y . effort t o p r e e m p t that e x i s t e n t i a l n e g a t i o n . t h e n . l a w represses t o the extent that r e p r e s s i o n b e c o m e s a l i b i d i - O n e c o u l d t h e n see i n the v a r i o u s f o r m s o f s e l f . F u r t h e r . I n o t h e r w o r d s .b e r a t e m e n t a n d n a l a c t i v i t y . T h e r e p e a t e d efforts t o sacrifice the b o d y w h i c h b e c o m e reversals. T h e r e p r e s s i o n o f the l i b i d o i s a l w a y s u n d e r s t o o d r e p e a t e d a s s e r t i o n s o f the b o d y are a l s o efforts t o d e f e n d i t as itself a l i b i d i n a l l y i n v e s t e d r e p r e s s i o n . Every renunciation of i n stinct n o w becomes a dynamic source of conscience and every fresh renunciation increases the latter's severity and intolerance. 6 W e m i g h t t h e n r e r e a d the m o b i l i z i n g fear that i s b o t h r e f u s e d a n d r e r o u t e d b y the e t h i c a l i m p e r a t i v e i n t e r m s o f the f e a r e d " e x p r o p r i a b i l i t y " o f the b o d y .Stubborn Attachment. T h i s a f f i r m a t i o n o f the a b s o l u t e n e g a t i o n o f the b o d y c o m e d y i n w h i c h the b e a r e r o f the m o r a l l a w t u r n s o u t t o c o n t r a d i c t s a l l the e a r l i e r efforts t o s u b o r d i n a t e o r m a s t e r the . e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e that 7 self-mortification typologized in "The U n h a p p y Conscious- are t u r n e d a g a i n s t the b o d y . but rather becomes a r d y " d e n o t e s a d a n g e r s l i g h t l y less d i r e t h a n d e a t h . . .

t h e n . T h e p r o h i b i t i o n d o e s n o t seek t o o b l i t e r a t e p r o h i b i t e d d e s i r e . against everything animal. " m a n h a d o n l y t o want s o m e t h i n g — a n d to b e g i n w i t h . Hegel's inchoate body. A c c o r d i n g t o the dictates o f g u i l t . t h e n the b o d y i s i n a d v e r t e n t l y to say. b u t is sustained by. T h e self- a n d r e a s s e r t e d i n the v e r y s t r u c t u r e o f r e n u n c i a t i o n . n e u r o s i s o r s y m p t o m f o r m a t i o n f o l l o w s . w i l l . a n d Nietzsche's w i l l are s t r i c t l y e q u i v a l e n t . as: that hatred against everything human. w h e r e the p r o h i b i t i o n n o t o n l y s u s t a i n s . O n e m i g h t r e a d H e g e l ' s references to eigensinnigkeit or s t u b b o r n n e s s as i l l u s t r a t i n g the p r o c e s s o f s p l i t t i n g a n d defense i n the f o r m a t i o n o f n e u r o s i s ." T h e ascetic i d e a l . desire itself—the I n H e g e l . b u t b e c o m e s p r e s e r v e d p r e s e r v e d i n a n d b y the i n s t r u m e n t o f its s u p p r e s s i o n . F o r N i e t z s c h e . a w i l l running counter to life. T o m Stoppard's m o r a l philosopher). . spawned. the s p l i t t i n g off of i d e a t i o n f r o m affect. n o t o n l y l e a d s Nietzsche makes a similar argument. whereto. In t h i s sense. this desire to get away from all semblance. A l t h o u g h g u i l t w o r k s t o d e n y a specific k i n d o f object for h u m a n w a n t s . u n d e r s t o o d a s a w i l l t o n o t h ingness. w h i c h is m o v e m e n t o f a n d b y the b o d y . W h e r e that t h w a r t i n g c o n s t i t u t e s a r e p r e s s i o n . the b o d y i s p r e s e r v e d i n a n d b y the v e r y act o f s u p p r e s s i o n . t h e n . that a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e i n v i g o r a t e d a n d i n t e n s i f i e d w i t h the e m e r g e n c e o f e v e r y p r o h i b i t e d desire. d e f e a t i n g effort o f s u c h s u p p r e s s i o n . t h e n . Yet I do w a n t to suggest that these three thinkers circumscribe a k i n d of dialectical reversal w h i c h centers o n the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a f u l l o r f i n a l r e f l e x i v e s u p p r e s s i o n o f w h a t w e m i g h t l o o s e l y c a l l "the b o d y " w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f life. . a revolt against the most fundamental presuppositions of life. becoming. the d e s i r e is never r e n o u n c e d . it mattered not what. the e t h i c a l r e g u l a t i o n o f b o d i l y i m p u l s e b e c o m e s the f o c u s a n d a i m . man even wants nothingness! 56 D i m s d a l e . B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness b e the m o s t s e r i o u s t r a n s g r e s s o r o f its p r e c e p t s ( H a w t h o r n e ' s meaning of all this is a w i l l to nothingness. wish. death. the d e s i r e that it forces the subject to r e n o u n c e . this fear of happiness and beauty. the s u p p r e s s i o n o f b o d i l y life i s s h o w n t o r e q u i r e the v e r y b o d y that i t seeks t o s u p p r e s s . i n h i s c r i t i q u e o f the ascetic s e r t i o n o f d e s i r e . change. r e n u n c i a t i o n 57 9 I d o n o t m e a n t o suggest that F r e u d ' s h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c n o t i o n of instinct. i t c a n n o t o b l i t e r a t e the w a n t i n g c h a r a c t e r o f h u m a n s . deploying a dialecti- t o its o p p o s i t e — a s e l f . h o w e v e r . is to be unders t o o d . p r o h i b i t i o n seeks t o r e p r o d u c e p r o h i b i t e d d e s i r e a n d b e c o m e s i n t e n s i f i e d t h r o u g h the r e n u n c i a t i o n s i t effects. or h o w he w a n t e d : the will itself was saved. i n t h i s sense. even more. this disgust w i t h the senses. F r e u d u n d e r s t o o d this differently in his analysis of neurosis as a k i n d of l i b i d i n a l a t t a c h m e n t to a p r o h i b i t i o n w h i c h n e v e r theless t h w a r t s l i b i d i n a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n . T h e i n e l u c t a b i l i t y of the m u l a t i o n s i t l e a d s t o the e l a b o r a t i o n o f a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f the b o d y i n " T h e U n h a p p y C o n s c i o u s n e s s " p a r a l l e l s the i n e l u c t - subject w h i c h exceeds the d i a l e c t i c a l f r a m e b y w h i c h i t i s a b i l i t y o f " i n s t i n c t " i n F r e u d a n d that o f the w i l l i n N i e t z s c h e . I f the s u p p r e s s i o n o f the b o d y i s itself a n i n s t r u m e n t a l takes p l a c e through the v e r y d e s i r e that is r e n o u n c e d .Stubborn Attachment. v e r y m u c h like Hegel's u n h a p p y consciousness. yet it is and remains a w i l l ! . the b o d y — i n m o r e c o n t e m p o r a r y for- i d e a l in On the Genealogy of Morals. rather than want nothing. a s i n n e u r o s i s . is a w a y of interpreting a l l suffering as guilt. w i t h reason itself. T h e "afterlife" o f p r o h i b i t e d d e s i r e i s i n the p r o h i b i t i o n itself.a g g r a n d i z i n g as- c a l s t r u c t u r e n o t u n l i k e H e g e l ' s . the ascetic i d e a l . Because this d i s p l a c e d s a t i s f a c t i o n i s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the l a w .c o n g r a t u l a t o r y o r s e l f . o n the c o n t r a r y . everything material. T h a t H e g e l refers t o t h i s " u n h a p p i n e s s " a s a k i n d o f s t u b b o r n a t t a c h m e n t suggests that.

c r i m i n a l c o d e s w h i c h seek t o c a t a l o g u e a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e n o r m a l c y b e c o m e the site f o r a contestat i o n o f the c o n c e p t o f the n o r m a l . p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o l . s u c h that i t w i l l c o n t i n u a l l y h a v e f r e s h m a t e r i a l m a r s h a l l e d i n the s e r v i c e o f that s u p p r e s s i o n . the b o d y i s p r o d u c e d a s a n H e r e w e see that F o u c a u l t d e p a r t s f r o m the k i n d o f d i a l e c t i - object o f r e g u l a t i o n . c o m e s u n d e r the c e n s o r o f the l a w o n l y t o r e e m e r g e a s the r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on the b o d y n o t o n l y require a n d produce the s u s t a i n i n g affect of that law. to return to H e g e l . f o r F o u c a u l t . s t r u e d . r e p r e s s i o n the b o d y t o b e r e g u l a t e d i s s i m i l a r l y m a r s h a l l e d i n the ser- produces a field of infinitely moralizable b o d i l y phenomena v i c e o f s u p p r e s s i o n . s e x o l o g i s t s w h o w o u l d classify a n d p a t h o l o g i z e h o m o s e x u a l i t y i n a d v e r t e n t l y p r o v i d e the c o n d i t i o n s for a p r o l i f e r a t i o n a n d m o b i l i z a t i o n o f h o m o s e x u a l cultures. I n F o u c a u l t . w h i c h a p p e a r s t o i n c l u d e w i t h i n its s t r u c t u r e the m o d e l o f s u b l i m a t i o n . the r e p r e s s i v e h y p o t h e s i s . I n b o t h cases. F o r F o u c a u l t . d e s i r e c a n b e c o m e f o r m a t i v e of c u l t u r e . T h e i n a d v e r t e n t l y p r o d u c t i v e effects o f s u b l i m a t i o n i n b e y o n d the t e r m s o f d i a l e c t i c a l r e v e r s a l i s a l s o the site o f p o s - the f o r m a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s a p p e a r t o e x c e e d the d i a l e c - s i b l e resistance. d i s c i p l i n e . preserved b y the v e r y a c t i v i t y o f n e g a t i o n . that r e g u l a t i o n . w e are g i v e n t o u n d e r s t a n d a n c a l r e v e r s a l w e f o l l o w e d i n H e g e l . the d r i v e s . I n t h i s sense. W h e r e a s f o r M a r - scribe a n d pathologize repressed desire ends up p r o d u c i n g a cuse. the s u p p r e s s i o n a t t a c h m e n t t o s u b j e c t i o n w h i c h i s f o r m a t i v e o f the r e f l e x i v e o f the b o d y n o t o n l y r e q u i r e s a n d p r o d u c e s the v e r y b o d y i t s t r u c t u r e o f s u b j e c t i o n itself. the b o d y presumed b y the W e c a n see i n b o t h H e g e l a n d F r e u d a c e r t a i n r e l i a n c e o n a Hegelian explanation is incessantly p r o d u c e d and proliferated dialectical reversal by w h i c h a b o d i l y experience. h i s Civilization and Its In w h a t m a n y h a v e c o m e to see as a f i n a l l y U t o p i a n g e s t u r e Discontents t h u s l a i d the g r o u n d for M a r c u s e ' s Eros and Civili- i n F o u c a u l t . A s s u c h . p r e s s i v e r e g i m e . T h e F r e u d i a n n o t i o n of sub- the b o d y t h e y seek to r e s t r i c t . the subject. a n d s u p p r e s s i o n . b u t t h i s f a b r i c a t i o n exceeds the r e g u l a t o r y a i m s b y w h i c h i t i s g e n erated. h e n c e . fails t o w o r k p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e r e p r e s s i o n generates the v e r y p l e a s u r e s a n d d e s i r e s i t seeks t o regulate. I n t h i s sense. t h r o u g h w h i c h t o a r t i c u l a t e its o w n p o w e r .5» Stubborn Attachment. the . the b o d y t o b e s u p p r e s s e d i s t h u s a l i z e d d o m a i n . T h e i m p u l s e o r b o d i l y e x p e r i e n c e seeks t o s u p p r e s s . this r e g i m e r e q u i r e s itself off f r o m its b o d y . F o r F o u c a u l t . r e q u i r e s that b o d y i n o r d e r t o s u s - the f i e l d o f b o d i l y i m p u l s e t o e x p a n d a n d p r o l i f e r a t e a s a m o r - t a i n its s p l i t t i n g a c t i v i t y . o r eros a n d thanatos. w h i c h s p l i t s a u g m e n t a t i o n a n d p r o l i f e r a t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s . b u t the b o d y i s n o t c o n s t i t u t e d p r i o r t o i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e a n d r a t i o n a l i z e its o w n p r o l i f e r a t i o n . B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness 59 o f i m p u l s e itself. t h i s p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f the b o d y b y j u r i d i c a l r e g i m e s zation. T h e r e - c a t e d as a site of c o n f e s s i o n a n d . i t c o n s t i t u t e s that f i e l d a s that w h i c h i s t o b e r e g u l a t e d . p r o l i f e r a t i n g sites o f c o n t r o l . O n the c o n t r a r y . is inadvertently m a i n t o b e r e g u l a t e d . H e n c e . r e q u i r e s its o w n self- W i t h i n the H e g e l i a n f r a m e w o r k . a s F o u c a u l t calls it. p r e c e d e the r e g u l a t o r y discursive incitement to desire: i m p u l s e is continually fabri- i m p e r a t i v e s b y w h i c h t h e y are r e n d e r e d c u l t u r a l l y l i v a b l e . that w h i c h i s a l w a y s p o t e n t i a l l y o r a c t u a l l y u n d e r the r u b r i c o f r e g u l a t i o n . a n d f o r r e g u l a t i o n t o a u g m e n t itself. T h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c d i s c o u r s e that w o u l d d e - t i c a l r e v e r s a l b y w h i c h t h e y are g e n e r a t e d . b u t proliferate the d o m a i n of the limation suggests that d e n i a l o r d i s p l a c e m e n t o f p l e a s u r e a n d b o d i l y b e y o n d the d o m a i n t a r g e t e d b y the o r i g i n a l r e s t r i c t i o n . i t goes f u r t h e r b y e x t e n d i n g the b o d i l y d o - w h i c h w o u l d be negated. b r o a d l y con- i n o r d e r t o e x t e n d the d o m a i n o f j u r i d i c a l p o w e r . r e p r e s s i o n d o e s n o t act o n a p r e g i v e n f i e l d o f p l e a s u r e a n d d e s i r e .

that i t i n v a r i a b l y c o n c e d e s the b o d i l y b e i n g that i t p r o d u c e effects w h i c h are n o t o n l y u n f o r e s e e a b l e b u t c o n s t i - seeks to d e n y . I n p a r - a v a i l a b l e f o r a t t a c h m e n t . t o exceed the r e g u l a t o r y a i m s for w h i c h t h e y w e r e w i l l at a l l . t o the p l a c e o f that t i a l u n d o i n g o f s u c h s u b j e c t i o n . a t least w h e n s u b j e c t i o n p r o v e s effective. w a y . i f o n l y f o r m e n t s that i t n e v e r t h e l e s s p r o d u c e s . he is i n d e b t e d to this theorization in his o w n account of i s b e c a u s e t h e y are g i v e n b y r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e s a s the sites the p r o d u c t i o n a n d p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f the r e g u l a t e d b o d y .Stubborn Attachment. agony. m o r e p r e c i s e l y . A l t h o u g h the p r o d u c e d e s i r e . I f w r e t c h e d n e s s . . B o d i l y Subjection Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness b o d y i s proliferated a s a n object o f r e g u l a t i o n . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y What Hegel implies in "The Unhappy Consciousness" is o f t h i s r e s i s t a n c e i s d e r i v e d f r o m w h a t i s unforeseeable i n p r o - n o t m e r e l y that m o r a l w r e t c h e d n e s s c a n n o t b e c o h e r e n t l y s u s - liferation. that t h e y h a v e the c a p a c i t y . i t seems that w e m u s t r e t u r n t o the q u e s t i o n o f m e n t t o w r e t c h e d n e s s . the d e s i r e to d e s i r e is a w i l l i n g n e s s to p r o d u c e d .g i v i n g a t t a c h m e n t t o a n y e x c i t a t i o n that c o m e s its a n d a i m o f d e s i r e . o n the theless p u r p o r t s t o signify. n e g a t i v e l y a r t i c u l a t e d m o d e s o f r e f l e x i v i t y . the p r e s e n c e o r d e - o n e h a n d . a certain i n c o m m e n s u - is. c e n t r a l to the n o t i o n sche's l i n e that the w i l l w o u l d r a t h e r w i l l n o t h i n g n e s s t h a n n o t o f resistance. a n d a subject w i l l attach t o p a i n t i c u l a r . T h i s p r o l i f e r a t i o n of a resistance. h e n c e . the p r o d u c t i o n o f a b j e c t i o n . F o r the i n f a n t . i s that i n p a r t the r e s u l t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n t i n u i n g t o desire. h e n c e . w h i c h a c c o u n t s for the f o r m a - B u t i f a r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e r e q u i r e s the p r o d u c t i o n o f n e w t i o n o f m a s o c h i s m a n d . T h i s t r u i s m i s n o t far f r o m N i e t z - unforeseeable. e v e n the m o s t t r a u m a t i c . the l o g i c o f s u b j e c t i o n i n b o t h H e g e l a n d F r e u d i m p l i e s rather t h a n n o t attach a t a l l . t h u s making itself r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e s d o i s t o c o n s t r a i n the f o r m a t i o n a n d at- present a n d l e n d i n g itself to b e i n g r e a d as a k i n d of o f f e r i n g or. a n d s o o n a s the n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i - i z a t i o n o f the b o d y . at the l e v e l of i m p u l s e . o n the other. I f a g i v e n r e g i m e c a n n o t f u l l y c o n t r o l the i n c i t e - d e s i r e p r e c i s e l y that w h i c h w o u l d f o r e c l o s e d e s i r e . a n d the site w h e r e i t i s c o n f i n e d . t h e n it s e e m s that f r o m the start a c e r t a i n m i n i m a l l y . to a f u l l a n d f i n a l d o - b o t h m a r k s off F o u c a u l t ' s t h e o r y f r o m H e g e l ' s a n d c o n s t i t u t e s mestication by any regulatory regime? 6o 61 the site o f p o t e n t i a l r e s i s t a n c e t o r e g u l a t i o n . for s o m e . n o m a t t e r h o w p e r s i s t e n t l y r e j e c t i n g . t a c h m e n t s of d e s i r e . F o r F r e u d . i s b o t h the c o n d i t i o n a n d the p o t e n - s t u b b o r n a t t a c h m e n t s a n d . t h e n w h a t i s the p l a c e o f b o d i l y i m p u l s e . presence. b u t that the p u r s u i t of w r e t c h e d n e s s . t i o n s for l o v e . w r e t c h e d n e s s . a n d a t t a c h m e n t i n the s u b v e r s i o n o f the law. is i n c l a i m i n g that i n c i t e m e n t s a n d r e v e r s a l s are t o s o m e d e g r e e better t h a n n o object a t a l l . In b o t h cases. b u t b e c o m e p r o d u c e d b y the c u l t i v a t i o n o f a rejecting gesture's a l l e g e d p u r p o s e i s t o t h w a r t a n o n c o m i n g c e r t a i n a t t a c h m e n t to the r u l e of s u b j e c t i o n ? If p a r t of w h a t d e s i r e . w a y s o f a t t a c h i n g t o A l t h o u g h Foucault criticizes Freud's hypothesis of repres- oneself. P r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e the g e s t u r e of r e j e c t i o n detachability of i m p u l s e is p r e s u m e d . cault appears to p r e s u m e precisely this detachability of desire is n e v e r t h e l e s s a site of p r e s e n c e a n d e x c i t a t i o n a n d . a m o r e t h o r o u g h g o i n g m o r a l - r e j e c t i o n . F o u - t e r m i n a c y o f that object. the a t t a c h - tute r e s i s t a n c e . T h e g e s t u r e o f r e j e c t i o n c a n b e c o m e m a s o c h - d e s i r e . a n d a t t a c h m e n t ? D o e s the r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e n o t o n l y i s t i c a l l y e r o t i c i z e d o n l y b e c a u s e i t i s a gesture. it n e v e r t h e l e s s a p p e a r s as a gesture. sites o f r e g u l a t i o n a n d . a n i n f a n t f o r m s a that the i n s t r u m e n t o f s u p p r e s s i o n b e c o m e s the n e w s t r u c t u r e p l e a s u r e . t h e n that sion. But to understand h o w a regulatory regime c o u l d t a i n e d . it r h e t o r i c a l l y d e n i e s the threat of w i t h d r a w a l that it n e v e r - r a b i l i t y b e t w e e n the c a p a c i t y for a b o d i l y a t t a c h m e n t . p a i n are sites o r m o d e s o f s t u b b o r n n e s s .

a n d F o u c a u l t a l l b a c k to S p i n o z a ' s conatus — t h e n the c a p a c i t y of d e s i r e to be w i t h d r a w n a n d t o r e a t t a c h w i l l c o n s t i t u t e s o m e t h i n g l i k e the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of every strategy of subjection. F r e u d . t h e n .62 Stubborn Attachment. n o t a s a l a w e x t e r n a l t o d e s i r e . e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o p a r a n o i a a n d n a r c i s s i s m . b u t a s the v e r y o p e r a t i o n o f d e s i r e a s i t t u r n s o n its o w n p o s s i b i l i t y . h o w are w e b e i n g a s k e d t o i m a g i n e a w i l l s u c h that i t r e c o i l s a n d r e d o u b l e s u p o n itself. N i e t z s c h e offers a v i e w of c o n s c i e n c e as a m e n t a l a c t i v i t y that n o t o n l y f o r m s v a r i o u s p s y c h i c p h e n o m e n a . b u t i s itself formed. a n d h o w . m o s t p e r t i n e n t l y . that H e g e l a n d F r e u d w o u l d a p p e a r t o p o s e for F o u c a u l t i s w h e t h e r t h i s t e r r a i n o f " s t u b b o r n att a c h m e n t " d o e s n o t i n s o m e w a y f i g u r e i n the s c e n a r i o s o f s u b j e c t i o n that he d e s c r i b e s . w h o distinguishes conscience f r o m bad c o n s c i e n c e . W h a t sense d o w e m a k e o f the f i g u r e that e m e r g e s i n the c o n t e x t o f b o t h e x p l a n a t i o n s . To w h a t extent d o e s a r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e e x p l o i t t h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o a t t a c h b l i n d l y t o w h a t seeks Circuits of Bad Conscience t o s u p p r e s s o r negate that v e r y a t t a c h m e n t ? A n d t o w h a t extent does the a t t a c h m e n t that a r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e r e q u i r e s p r o v e t o b e b o t h its c o n s t i t u t i v e f a i l u r e a n d the p o t e n t i a l site Nietzsche of r e s i s t a n c e ? If d e s i r e has as its f i n a l a i m the c o n t i n u a t i o n of and Freud i t s e l f — a n d here one m i g h t l i n k H e g e l . H e d e s c r i b e s c o n s c i e n c e a s the force of a d e s i r e — a l t h o u g h s o m e t i m e s a force of a g g r e s s i o n — a s it t u r n s b a c k o n itself. In Nietzsche. the c o n s e q u e n c e of a d i s t i n c t i v e k i n d of i n t e r n a l ization. i s t h i s f i g u r e b e i n g o f f e r e d a s a w a y t o a r t i c u l a t e the k i n d o f r e f l e x i v i t y c e n t r a l t o the o p e r a t i o n of b a d conscience? F r e u d w i l l use a s i m i l a r language in w r i t i n g o f the f o r m a t i o n o f c o n s c i e n c e . that o f a w i l l that t u r n s b a c k on itself. B u t w h a t are w e t o m a k e o f t h i s strange l o c u t i o n . a n d h e u n d e r s t a n d s p r o h i b i t i o n . B o d i l y Subjection T h e q u e s t i o n . the w i l l i s s a i d t o t u r n b a c k u p o n itself. that of a d e s i r e that t u r n s b a c k o n itself? W e m u s t ask n o t o n l y h o w t h i s f i g u r e o f r e c o i l i n g a n d .