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There is a lot of fluff (“flavour”) in the core rules, so this a

condensed summary…
Characters in Pathfinder belong to a class (“job”). There are many
classes and some overlap and differ slightly.
In D&D there are 6 ability scores, which are used differently
depending on what class one is —some are useless, other are
Physical: Strength, Dexterity, Constitution
Mental: Wisdom, Intelligence, Charisma
Pathfinder does not have team roles as guidelines (unlike D&D4),
but it is helpful to get the basic idea of what makes a good party
where nobody treads on each others toes. In 4e there they are
divided into controller (which affect enemy), defender (aka.
tank), leader (eg. healbot, buff/debuffer) or striker.
A spellcaster casts magical spells and are based off one of the
three mental abilities (Int, Wis, Cha). They can be spontaneous
(you pick known when you level) or prepared casters (you pick in
the morning).
Spells can be divine or archane —the former is granted by a god
and can be cast in armour, while the latter has a spell failure % in
armour —wizards (arcane) wear cloth, while paladins (divine) are
clad head to toe in heavy armour.
Many spells of various classes overlap, but there is a lot of diversity.
A psionic cast psychic “spells” (correctly called powers) in much
the same way, but are a bit of an addition that doesn’t really fit in.
Every level you get more hit point, which are determined based on
hit dice (HD). Different classes get different hit dice (NB. Pathfinder
has dice increase by 2 compared to D&D 3.5; also monsters have
racial HD which is doesn’t depend on class):
d6 — sorcerers and wizards
d8 — monks, bards, clerics, rogues and druids
d10 —fighters, paladins, rangers
d12 —barbarians
These also affect how good your attack bonus is (Base attack
bonus, BAB).
Additionally there are three saves —fortitude (based off
constitution), reflex (based off dexterity) and will (based off
wisdom). Classes have good save and bad saves. For example, a
wizard has a good will save, but poor fortitude and reflex, while a
fighter has a good fortitude save, but bad will and reflex save. So a
wizard would be bad at ducking a fireball (refl) or resisting a poison
(fort), but good at resisting enemy spells (will), while a fighter would
be good at resisting poisons, but not spells.

Weapon and armour proficiency depends on the class too. Fighters
can use basically any weapon, while wizards cannot.
Different classes require different amount of prep. Monks are very
simple, while spellcasters need some study of spells needed.
Fighters are highly customisable too. Also unlike 4e or WoW the
classes are not balanced: wizards are way better than alchemists.
Online there are many guides on how to use each class (simply
google “pathfinder guide bard” for example).
Below are classes with fluff in italics (copy-pasted) and some semi
cryptic notes and a list of importance of the various abilities for that
D12–10 HD
Barbarian: The barbarian is a brutal berserker from beyond the
edge of civilized lands.
Rage based Tank (they buff when they rage, but get fatigued from
Fighter: Brave and stalwart, the fighter is a master of all manner of
arms and armor.
Technical prowess based Tank (gain an extra feat every level).
Paladin: The paladin is the knight in shining armor, a devoted
follower of law and good.
Tank with limited Cha-spellcaster (divine) and healing. Special
mount (= riding animal, eg. horse).
Monk: A student of martial arts, the monk trains his body to be his
greatest weapon and defense.
Unarmed Tank (martial arts). special move: flurry of blows (many
karate attacks)
Cavalier: Mounted upon his mighty steed, the cavalier is a brave
warrior, using his wit, charm, and strength at arms to rally his
companions and achieve his goals.
Mounted Tank.
Dex > Str > Con > Cha > Wis > Int
Samurai: ???
Tank (gives some buff). Str>Dex>Con>Wis>Int>Cha

Soulknife: A warrior who creates a unique weapon out of mental
Psionic tank with a mental weapon (kind of cool if given a chance…)
Psychic Warrior: A soldier who combines psionic power with
physical prowess.
Wis based psionic
Ranger: A tracker and hunter, the ranger is a creature of the wild
and of tracking down his favored foes.
Good at killing particular creatures and with limited Wis spellcaster

Cleric: A devout follower of a deity, the cleric can heal wounds,
raise the dead, and call down the wrath of the gods.
Healbot tank. Wis Spellcasting/Cha channelling (divine). Special
move: channel (cures folk in a cone).
Magus: There are those who spend their lives poring over ancient
tomes and texts, unlocking the power of magic, and there are those
who spend their time perfecting the use of individual weapons,
becoming masters without equal. The magus is at once a student of
both philosophies, blending magical ability and martial prowess into
something entirely unique, a discipline in which both spell and steel
are used to devastating effect. As he grows in power, the magus
unlocks powerful forms of arcana that allow him to merge his
talents further, and at the pinnacle of his art, the magus becomes a
blur of steel and magic, a force that few foes would dare to stand
Melee with Int Spellcasting. Special moves: spell combat (spellcast
and attack at the same time) and spellstrike (imbue a weapon with
a touch attack spell: when it hits the weapon deals damage and the
spell goes off).
Summoner: Bonded to a mysterious creature called an eidolon, the
summoner focuses his power on strengthening that connection and
enhancing his strange, otherworldy companion.
The Eidolon (summoned creature) acts as a tank, while the
summoner is a Cha Spellcasting.
Cha > Con > Dex > Wis > Int > Str

Alchemist: The alchemist is the master of alchemy, using extracts
to grant him great power, mutagens to enhance his form, and
bombs to destroy his enemies.
Crafter/Artillery. Int > Dex > Str > Wis = Cha > Con
Gunslinger: For a renegade few, battle sounds different than it
does for the typical fighter. The clash of steel and the sizzle of spell
energy are drowned out by the thunderous rhythm of gunfire—the
pounding beat of the gunslinger.
Rogue: The rogue is a thief and a scout, an opportunist capable of
delivering brutal strikes against unwary foes.
Skill monkey. Special move: sneak attack (deals extra damage when
unnoticed). Dex>Con>Str>Wis>Int>Cha
Ninja: ???
Skill monkey. Cha>Dex>Con>Str>Wis>Int
Bard: The bard uses skill and spell alike to bolster his allies,
confound his enemies, and build upon his fame.
Buffer thanks to bardic performances and Cha Spellcasting
Druid: The druid is a worshiper of all things natural—a spellcaster, a
friend to animals, and a skilled shapechanger.
Shapechanger and Wis Spellcasting (divine).
Wis > con > dex = str > int > cha
Inquisitor: Scourge of the unfaithful and hunter of horrors, the
inquisitor roots out the enemies of her faith with grim conviction
and an array of divine blessings.
Buffer and Wis Spellcasting.
Wis > Dex > Str > Int > Con > Cha
Wizard: The wizard masters magic through constant study that
gives him incredible magical power.
Artillery. Int Spellcasting (Archane). Int>Dex>Con>Wis>Str>Cha
Sorcerer: The spellcasting sorcerer is born with an innate knack for
magic and has strange, eldritch powers.
Artillery. Cha Spellcasting (Arcane). Cha>Dex>Con>Wis>Int>Str
Oracle: Drawing upon divine mysteries, the oracle channels divine
power through her body and soul, but at a terrible price.

Artillery. Cha Spellcasting. Hindered by a “curse” (chosen from a
list). Cha > Con > Dex > Str > Wis > Int
Witch: Lurking on the fringe of civilization, the witch makes a
powerful connection with a patron that grants her strange and
mysterious powers through a special familiar.
Artillery. Int Spellcasting. Int > Con > Dex > Wis > Cha > Str
Psion: A master of the mind, a seeker of knowledge of psionics.
Int based psionic
Wilder: A natural talent with psionics who channels emotion to
wield uncontrolled power.
Cha based psionic