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Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol. 34, No.4, pp.

Copyright © 1995 Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved
0008-4433/95 $9.50+0.00

~ Pergamon

T. M. SUNt and W. T. YEN~
t Asia Minerals Corp., Vancouver, B.C., Canada

t Department of Mining Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
(Received 16 December 1992; in revised/arm 3 May 1994)

Abstract-A model for the Zadra elution process was developed based on pore diffusion inside the carbon
particles, the dispersed plug flow in the elution column, and the gold desorption from carbon as a first
order reaction. A set of process description equations was obtained. Numerical solutions for the system
equations are given using the finite difference method, and the stability for the method was also analyzed.
Fitting of experimental elution concentration profiles using this model was presented. The model can fit
both the concentration profile and the recovery curve, and can simulate the elution process up to the final
stage. It was found that the elution process is controlled by a first order rate constant and the effective
intraparticle diffusivity in the carbon particle. The parameter analysis showed that the rate constant was
dependent on the elution temperature and the chemical composition of the eluant. The effective intraparticle
diffusivity was relatively constant under the experimental conditions.



Cp(t,y, r)



number of the equal intervals for column and particle,
concentration of gold cyanide in the column solution
(mol dm :")
concentration of gold cyanide in the column solution at
t, y (mol dm -3)
calculated concentration of gold cyanide at the exit of the
column (mol dm :")
experimental concentration of gold cyanide at the exit of
the column (mol dm -3)
concentration of gold cyanide in the carbon particle pore
(mol dm ")
pore concentration of gold cyanide at t,y, r (mol dm ")
particle diameter (em)
axial dispersion coefficient (em" S-I)
effective intraparticle diffusivity (cnr' S-I)
molecular diffusivity of gold cyanide in dilute solution
(em? S-I)
rate constant for gold desorption (S-1 or h- 1)
external mass transfer coefficient in particle surface
(em S-1)
length of the carbon packing area in the column (em)
number of carbon particles





IX, {3, W




number of moles of gold in a subvolume at time t
Peclet number
carbon loading of gold (kg t- 1)
initial carbon loading of gold (kg r ')
average initial carbon loading of gold (kg r ')
radial distance in carbon particle (em)
rate of gold desorption per unit volume carbon (mol
cm- 3)
radius of carbon particle (em)
Reynolds number
column cross-sectional area (em")
time (s)
interstitial flow velocity (em S-I)
mass flux of gold (mol s -I cm -2)
weight of carbon (g)
distance along the column axial direction (em)


constriction factor for carbon pores
tortuosity of carbon pores
porosity of carbon particle
void fraction of the packed column
viscosity of solution (g cm- I S-I)
density of solution (g em -3)
density of carbon particles (g em:")
sum of the squares of the deviations (g em -3)

commonly used methods in the gold industry are the Zadra,
Anglo American Research Laboratories (AARL) and Micro
processes. The Zadra process is carried out by pumping a hot
caustic cyanide solution through the column and then to an
electrowinning cell for gold deposition [1]. The barren electrolyte is recycled to the column as eluant. In the AARL elution
process, the loaded carbon is acid washed and soaked in a hot
caustic cyanide solution for 1 h [2]. Hot de-ionized water is then
passed through the column. In the Micro process, the eluant
contains large amounts of organic solvents such as methanol,

The carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process for the recovery of gold from
cyanide leach pulps is used widely in modern gold-producing
plants. The success of the CIP process is attributed to the
development of elution methods for gold and silver from the
loaded carbon. Carbon elution is usually carried out at high
temperature in a column in which the eluant is pumped through
a packed carbon bed in the upflow direction. The operation
is isothermally carried out in a batch mode. The three most

In the plug flow reactor. Dispersed plug flo\\' model The eluant flow in the gold elution column is principally of the plug flow type superimposed with some degree of back mixing or intermixing because of the packed carbon particles.y.•. +D1 ~~I)HY-~~I.304 T. little work has been done on the modelling of gold cyanide elution from activated carbon. The mass flow of gold cyanide per unit time may be defined as follows: entering by bulk flow = eliSCy. After the development of a set of system description equations and its numerical solution. 1. The flow field may be modelled by a dispersed plug flow model. A subvolume located a distance )' from the entrance of the plug reactor contains three types of material changes: bulk flow (in and out). but the elution profile was still not simulated very well. as well as Vegter and Sandenbergh [6]. YEN: GOLD ELUTION FROM ACTIVATED CARBON acetone. the gold is continually desorbed from the carbon particles as eluant flows through the length of the reactor.H. M. SUN and W. or acetonitrile [3]. KINETIC MODEL FOR CARBON ELUTION The Zadra elution system is schematically shown in Fig. rate of accumulation Substituting gives of gold cyanide ac eS~Yat' all these terms into eqn (1) and dividing by eS~y Elution Column = C. -u . The plug flow reactor may be divided into a number of subvolumes.!'. dispersion (in and out) and desorption of gold from carbon particles. and the reaction rate is assumed as spatially uniform within each subvolume (as shown in Fig. Fig. C) = . Carbon elution column.y Loaded Carbon rate of desorption from carbon = (l-e)S~y(rAu). The elution kinetics are based on the pore diffusion model and the dispersed plug flow model. This paper aims to analyze and establish a kinetic model for the Zadra elution system. 2). ~)' . entering by axial dispersion leaving by axial dispersion = -(EDIS~~)I . which has received considerable attention.. The experiments were conducted in a batch stirred tank system. y+!'. The long elution time is primarily due to the slow diffusion of the aurocyanide ion within the micropores of the relatively large particles of activated carbon. T.I' -(eDIS~~)1 CJ . which could be used to simulate AARL elution curves. not in an elution column. A preliminary model for the AARL elution process was developed on the assumption that the elution behavior of gold was dominated by the changing sodium concentration during the washing cycle [7].. Unlike the adsorption process. Van der Merwe and Van Deventer [8] also demonstrated an intraparticle-film diffusion model with a shifting equilibrium. the model was affirmed by experimental elution data. The first attempt to model the gold elution in the Zadra process was presented by Adams and Nicol [4]. They used a semi-empirical kinetic model to quantitatively describe the elution kinetics. + ~)' l-e --rAu E ac = ---. The Zadra elution process. 2. A similar model was further studied by Adams [5].-C. in which the pore diffusion in the carbon particles was not considered. 8]. of eluant in the packed column and the intraparticle diffusion flow of gold cyanide within the porous carbon particles to the surface. The elution requires 6-48 h for completion depending on the method employed. 1. A mass balance on gold cyanide in a subvolume at any instant in time t yields the following equation: rate of\ ( in-out )bulk (rate of\ flow + in-out )axialdispersion (1) rate of gold desorptiOn) from particles +( ( rate of ) = accumulation . The elution process can be divided into two parts: the plug flow leaving by bulk flow = ellSCy .--~---------Eluted Carbon Fig. The effects of chemicals on the Zadra elution were considered.::-. Some modelling work has been performed on the AARL elution process [7.(2) ct Heat ~F(L) Exchanger .L----------:"<:.-. .

(12) where Qo(r) is the initial gold distribution in the carbon particles along the direction of the radius (r). (13) at (14) and at the inlet of the column. Initialand boundary conditions Before the loaded column is subjected to elution with a pure eluant. the desorption rate of gold cyanide at layer r inside a carbon particle can be assumed as a first order reaction with respect to the carbon loading at any instant in time t: ey 0 Cp(t. the gold cyanide diffuses at location r through a small distance I1r per unit time. Single carbon the pores of carhon or in the column. the gold cyanide penetrates the carbon particle with a reasonably sharp front moving into the particle with increasing time . following partial differential equation: oCp = ~ ~(r2De ot r2 or t Gp r -4nr the initial gold concentration is at and the gold loading on the carbon at the initial time is The desorption of gold cyanide from a porous carbon particle involves the simultaneous processes of carbon desorption and pore diffusion. For simplicity.r) Pore diffusion model for gold desorption from carbon particle ( -D oCp4nr r (9) + ~ OCp) _ r or ~ oQ . Thus. either. we have 3km rAu =:: -'R [Cplr=R ..e.T. 3. is found by solving eqn (7). rAu = W(4nR2)/(~nR3). T. either upstream (closed) or downstream (closed) of the reaction section of the column. thus: =0 . D10C oQ 2 oCp ~rpCat = 4nr ~rGp7it. the above equation oC at = becomes: 02C oC D1 oy2 -u oy 1-£ (3) + -G-rAu' (4) where kc is the rate constant (S-l) and -oQ/ot is the gold desorption rate per unit weight of carbon. (10) in the pores of the carbon particle = 0 at t = 0 (11) = Qo(r) at = t 0.C]. the rate of gold desorption from the carbon particle in eqn (3) can be calculated from the average mass flux of gold cyanide from the surface of the carbon particle to the bulk fluid in the column: ESTIMATION Gold distribution within activated carbon particles During the adsorption process.y. = C(t. y. The spherical symmetry condition is applied to the carbon particles: oCp or -= 0 at r At the surface of the carbon particle. Gp ot C = . OCp)_ or we obtain ~ oQ. The closed-closed vessel boundary conditions [9] are taken for eqn (3) as follows: at the outlet of the column. M. the gold concentration inside carbon particle pores. oC -= oy 0 at y =L.) and km is the mass transfer coefficient (cm S-l).. and rearranging the equation. continuous at the surface. y) As ~y . The gold distribution within . a mass balance (molls) for gold cyanide between rand r + ~r in the spherical particle is 2)1 GP. Gp ot y = O. i. r ( -Dey oCp4nr 2)1 2 The first the normal desorption. Because the eluant is pumped into the column at a slow flow rate of two bed volumes per hour. Boundary conditions (13) and (14) are the Danckwerts boundary conditions [10]. Defining rAu as the gold desorption rate per unit volume of carbon in mol S-l cmc-3. The gold elution column is a closed reactor in the Zadra process. the initial gold concentration in the elution column is Fig.u oy (5) the (6) term on the right hand side of eqn (6) represents diffusion and the second term is the rate of gold If the effective intraparticle diffusivity De is indethe radial distance r. pendent of = 0. (15) the molar flux must be (16) (7) PARAMETER When Cp. SUN and W. eqn (6) may be rearranged as: oCp = De(02Cp ot or2 Q(t.~ 0. there is no gold in solution. Then. Assuming the carbon particle is spherical and the radius is R. as shown in Fig. 3. there is no dispersion or radial variation in the eluant concentration. r) r+~r When ~r ~ 0. YEN: GOLD ELUTION FROM ACTIVATED CARBON 305 (8) 2 where W is the mass flux of gold cyanide (mol S-l cm.

for eqn (3) we have 048 8 km = 1.2 0. P\I-I).j is the gold concentration at the column positionj at time t.67 B 33 UO. It can be converted to higher temperatures by eqn (21) [9]: 1'Au. eqn (4) becomes: (22) For eqn (7): Dispersion coefficient (D1) In a packed column.j (24) 1-8 + (rt. [15]. Cp appendix.011 Pe=-+--Re' . where 13 = 8. Qo.j.j. According to the method detailed previously [16. 111' in the radius direction and uniform time increment ~t in the t direction. 1.T. can be expressed as: (17) where Qav is the average initial carbon loading of gold. Ci.1')2 ~t 211y' (27) And for eqn (9) we have (28) (20) where D iB is the molecular diffusivity of gold cyanide. (1-2L1. . the initial distribution of gold on carbon. rt..'.)and (LI. Equations (3).09( k+l +w--Ck where where d is the particle diameter and Pe is the Peclet number. owing to the very low particle Reynolds number (Re) for the elution system. such as in the Zadra elution process. the stability criteria are: !1t D --~1 (~y)2 D1 -~- 1 ~ II l1y ~ 2' (29) 2' (30) Because the presence of a lower-order linear term in the para- .-!3)+(1-2L1. y and l' are replaced in a particular way by finite difference ratios.j).8 x 10-5 cm2 S-I at 61°C [14].() Then. (18) e 8 k-l C .j External mass transfer coefficient DO PI/-I}. SUN and W.1ok . Thus. w=D-e Ci.+ !3)CU-I) .. The values of j and k are equal to o at t = 0 and increase by 1 as the time increment passes by !1t. and R is the average radius of the carbon particles. YEN: GOLD ELUTION FROM ACTIVATED CARBON 306 the carbon particles is generally not homogeneous. (4) and (7) can be reduced to "equivalent" discrete equations using uniform space increment ~y in the y (25) (26) (11. Because explicit representations have been used for the numerical solutions.. II I1t (21) where /1b and /12' are the liquid viscosities at temperatures T1 and T2. The following equation is a generally accepted correlation for the axial dispersion in packed columns [12]: 0.-!3). For the dispersed plug flow model.U-I)+--l1t· 8 The external mass transfer coefficient km in eqn (9) can be estimated by the following correlation [13]: )0. l7]~ it was found that (rt. respectively. dividing the range of R into PN equal intervals of ~r.)+(rt. the results computed by eqns (23) and (25) must be examined for stability. =w--Ck For the interface point.. was derived as shown in the l. mass conservation dictates that the first three coefficients on the right side of eqn (25) sum to one for all values of DI~ ~t and l1y. the distribution of gold in the carbon particle can be assumed as a linear distribution along the radial direction of a particle at an adsorption time less than 24 h.+!3)should be positive and (rt. (19) Although the applicability of eqn (19) for a packed column under desorption conditions was not verified. and dividing the range of L into BN equal intervals of ~y. According to the SEM analysis with a dispersive X-ray system [11].). Hence.+!3) ~ 1 to avoid instability. = (rt.u+I)+(1-2rt. For 1 ~j ~ BN and 1 ~ k ~ PN -1.P:-. Cp .-!3)Cu-1).the derivatives with respect to t. All the approximations introduce truncation errors. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Partial derivatives can be approximated by finite differences in many ways. ..(k-l) 8 . It requires a prolonged adsorption time to achieve a uniform distribution. direction. M. the dispersion coefficient can be related to the Peclet number by the following equation [9]: ud D1=-p' P/. is the gold concentration at column position j and inside pa~iicle position k at time i.)Cu-I).. this equation suggests that the Peclet number for axial dispersion under the present condition is approximately independent of the flow velocity under elution conditions. +(1-2w)C P\I-l). T. Au(CN)2' in dilute solution.=D1--. According to Carnahan et al.p I1t (111')2 .

~y and ~t go to zero. 148°C.•.03 0.. both in concentration profiles and recovery curves. the combination of two series of search values. . void fraction of packed column and density were assumed to be the same for all samples at no measurements. 4(a).63 kg t-I Au.70 () '0 c > -1 -5 De=1. It is apparent that both De and kc (31) 1500 The truncation error tends to zero as ~r. which was then filled with water and heated to the desired temperature with an electrical heating pad. Q = 9. The specification of the carbons is shown in Table 1. This implies that the solutions of the finite difference equations converge to the exact solution of the partial differential equations as ~r. The elution flow rate of two bed volumes per hour was controlled by compressed nitrogen gas. ~y and ~t go to zero. R. were determined by measuring the weight (Wt) of about 200 randomly selected particles (n) and calculated by the following equation: 4 Time k=1 5 6 8 7 9 (Hour) Fig. Specifications of the loaded carbon samples (33) Qo (kg t-I) Bp B rc (g cm-3) Sample A Sample B Sample C 9. the stability constraint for equation (23) is given as ~t D--~e (~r)2 " I 2' Equations (3). Elution of gold from the carbon with NaCN-NaOH : NaCN. 1 g 1-1. A mass of 50 g of loaded carbon was packed in the column.63 0. The objective of this method is to minimize the sum of the squares of the deviations between the experimental and theoretical elution profiles. This is expressed mathematically as a ::J W I 0 300 150 0 n <I> = 450 [Cexp - Ccalf.4 0.55 0.45 bolic partial differential equation does not influence the stability bounds [18].11x10 u c FITTING TO EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS experimental fitted curve 0 600 Q) Fitting the numerical results to the experimental results is conducted using the least squares method. NaOH. (4) and (7) were used to calculate the gold concentration profile and recovery as a function of time. 0'1 E 1200 - c· .45 8. NaOH..5 cm dia. Figures 4(a).63 kg t-1 Au. 5(a) and 6(a) demonstrate the gold concentration profile of the eluant at the exit of the column.45 4. M. Other parameters used in the model. 148°C.55 0. To minimize the objective function <I> for the given search parameters. YEN: GOLD ELUTION FROM ACTIVATED CARBON 307 Table 1.T. SUN and W.J o . The eluant was prepared by dissolving analytical grade reagents in de-ionized water. 4(b).. 0 (32) 2 3 where Cexp is the experimental result and Cca1 is the gold concentration predicted by the model at the exit of the elution column. Experimental data from a laboratory elution column (2. De and kc' are calculated on an IBM mainframe with a FORTRAN program.4 0. 0 80 o experimental Calculated 70 - 60 k=0.4 0. 5(b) and 6(b). The corresponding recovery curves for the elution process are shown in Figs 4(b).55 0.. Three different loaded carbon samples were obtained from the production CIP circuits of Canadian gold mines. 1350 . T. The recovery curve is the integrated desorption curve of the gold concentration against the bed volume of the elution.•.61 0. It is also noted that the requirement of convergences places a severe restriction on the interval sizes in the rand y direction and hence results in long computing times.. The temperature was maintained at ± 2°C with a Parr temperature controller. 100 90 ~ -0.11x10 ~ (]) h em 2 /s 50 0 u 0 (]) ~ 40 30 20 10 2 3 4 Time 5 6 7 8 9 (Hour) Fig. 1 g 1-1. such as particle porosity.. Elution of gold from the carbon with NaCN-NaOH: NaCN.. The results demonstrate that the calculated curves agree well with the experimental data..70 900 c 0 u -1 -5 2 em /s 750 ::J « h De=1.2 1050 "§ C Q) k =0. Q = 9. 20 cm high) were used to examine the model.••. 10 g 1-1. The average equivalent particle radii. 10 g 1-1.

6(b). NaOH. system [eqns (3). 5 7 6 8 9 (Hour) Fig. 0 NaCN. The finite difference approximation of the model is accurate as long as the convergence criteria [eqns (29}-(31)] are satisfied. 140::C.J .78 1 c De=1.11x10 50 '0 h- -5 2 cm C /s Q) > o -- 80 experimental Calculated 0 70 0 60 k =0.. M. using the finite difference method.40 c -0 W 100 2 /s o 0 2 7 6 345 2 0 9 8 4 3 Time (Hour) Fig. YEN: GOLD ELUTION FROM ACTIVATED CARBON 308 400 1500 1350 .:> ""6 <.:> 60 k =0. owing to neglect of the porous diffusion inside carbon particles. 148°C. of gold elution in a DISCUSSION The numerical solution to the pore diffusion-axial dispersion model.11x10 u c 0 u 750 -1 C Q) -5 2 /s cm c 0 U 250 k =0. 100 100 0000 90 90 0 80 o ~ experimental - 70 ~ Calculated "0 ""6 <. are hardly applicable to the final stage of elution.. The suggested model can simulate the complete elution process.. Elution of gold from the carbon with NaCN-NaOH: 4 g 1-1.40 h -1 -5 c De=1. 148°C. 10 g 1-1. The agreement between the experimental and fitted concentration profiles also indicates that the difference equation 5 6 7 8 9 (Hour) Fig. such as that seen in Ref. 5(b). 6(a). as shown in Figs 4(a). 10 g 1-1.2 1200 o E experimental - fitted c- curve 1050 ~ ~ "§ C Q) 900 k =0. NaCN. [4]. Elution of gold from the carbon with NaCN-NaOH : NaCN. The demonstrated ability to fit the long tail is seen as an indication of the importance of the porous diffusion in the elution of gold cyanide from loaded carbon. 5(a). Elution of gold from the carbon with NaCN-NaOH: 2 g 1-1. NaOH. A long tail in the elution profile.J "- "- 01 E c- .78 h c De=1. 2 BV h-1• are sufficient to describe the characteristics column.T. Elution of gold from the carbon with NaCN-NaOH: 4 g 1-1.. indicates that the elution of a small portion of the gold cyanide is delayed by the pores inside the core of the carbon particles. 2 BV h-I. 5(a) and 6(a). NaOH. 10 g 1-1. NaOH. T.. (4) and (7)] is accurate for the gold elution column. SUN and W. 2 BV h-I. 2 BV h-I. 10 g 1-1. NaCN.. 140:lC.11x10 200 300 '0 fitted :J Q) -0 -6 experimental <{ 600 Q) :J W o - 300 u :J <{ 350 01 Q) 40 0::: 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 0 2 345 Time 6 7 8 9 (Hour) 2 3 4 Time Fig. 2 g 1-1. fits the experimental elution profiles and the recovery curves of the pressurized Zadra process. . Other carbon elution models.11x10 50 2 cm /s 0 0 0 u u Q) cm o o Time lY -5 o 50 0 > -1 150 0 Q) h :J 450 150 C curve De=1.

Invest. 2. Carnahan. Int. pp. including the long concentration tail in the elution profile at the final elution stage. pp. CONCLUSIONS A model for the Zadra carbon elution process was developed and the system description equations and the initial and boundary conditions have been defined. Modelsfor Flow Systems and Chemical Reactors. Constantinides. 111. and it is a function of the elution temperature and chemical composition of the eluant. McGraw-Hill. M. J.11 Sample C 4. the porous diffusion and the dispersed plug flow in a gold elution column have been considered. This further confirms the importance of pore diffusion within the carbon particles for the gold elution process. C. Min. The model has two parameters. 18. Marcel Dekker. E. Rep. The gold desorption was assumed to be a first order reaction. 19. E. J. De and kc' besides the physical and initial parameters. Miner. Wen and L. Nicol.0 0. Marcel Dekker. Con! on Gold. SUN and W. Afr. R. 13. which accounts for the variation in the cross-sectional area of carbon particle pores and is a function of the ratio of maximum to minimum pore areas. Zadra. J. The effective intraparticle diffusivity in the study can be related to the physical properties of carbon by eqn (34) [9]: De D1B(J =-- 309 desorption process. Davidson and D. A. and! is the tortuosity. 16. V. Vol. 1279 (1991). the ratio of De/D1B is 0. Typical values of the system are: ! = 3-5.0 0. S. Metall. SAIMM. F. the gold Table 2. T. The elution profiles of experimental and calculated results have a reasonable fit. Metall. rather. the rate constant. The effective intraparticle diffusivity of gold cyanide in carbon is not significantly affected by the composition of the eluant with these experimental conditions. M. McDougall and C. 667 (1991). 8. The experimental conditions and the fitted parameters Sample A Initial carbon loading: Qo (kg t-I) Elution conditions: Temperature caC) NaCN (g I-I) NaOH (g I-I) Flow rate (BV h -1)* Fitted parameters: kc (h-I) Dex 105(cm2 S-I) * BV h-1. Trans. Engng 4(12). 458-519. Engel and H. pp. ko of gold desorption in the carbon is the key factor for the gold elution.0 0. The experimental conditions and the fitted parameters are summarized in Table 2. 10. Streat and D.22. Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations in Science and Engineering. 1975. N. 17. For the experiments. p. NY. Applied Numerical Methods. J. The kinetics constant kc is related to the elution conditions in the column. Fan. Engng Chem. the elution profile is characterized by the effective intraparticle diffusivity.11 REFERENCES 1. C71 (1990). J.70 1. Muir. p.61 140 2. pp. 2. P. G. which can provide a better understanding of the mechanism of gold cyanide elution from activated carbon. they consist of a series of tortuous. Adams and M. Heinen. John Wiley & Sons. S. which indicates that the pores inside the carbon particles reduce the diffusivity of gold cyanide complex within the carbon particles to about 22 % of that in a normal dilute solution. 1987. A. B. p. 4843 (1952). bed volume per hour. M. in Ion Exchange and Sorption Processes in Hydrometallurgy (edited by M. is smaller than the gold cyanide diffusivity of 5. Vol. J. although the initial carbon loading and the chemical conditions were different. W. 87-178. 1980.16. H. Ind. E. 205 (1992). T. 77. The effective diffusivity value of 1.11 x 10-5 cm2 S-1. N. Mines. Gold 100 Proc. Lapidus and G. 2nd Edn. 1992. M. C. . which was caculated from the experiments. 2. interconnecting paths of varying cross-sectional areas [19]. 11. M. 1969.78 1. Erdahl in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics in Queen's University for many helpful discussions.06 x 10-5 cm2 S-1 estimated by eqn (21). Danckerts. John Wiley & Sons. Sect. 56-126. 9. H. D. 15. 254 (1977). Prentice-Hall. Inst. Stange. 99. J. 14. Nonlinear Analysis in Chemical Engineering. kc. De' and the rate constant for gold desorption. Acknowledgements-The research was partially supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Fundam. Wilson and C. Duncanson. 229 (1992). Engng Sci. This is because the pores in the carbon particles are not straight and cylindrical. Adams. 9. 7. Extractive Metallurgy of Gold. (J = 0. The authors wish to thank Dr R. A numerical solution for the model using the finite difference method has been obtained. IV. B. From Table 2 it is clear that. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering. L. Fleming. Naden).9 (1966).0 10 2. D. The model can describe the complete elution process. NY. Hydrometallurgy 28(2). M. Bur. J. The model has been programmed in FORTRAN on an IBM mainframe. 1. 543-92. O. Pinder. D. J. Sandenbergh. 12. McGraw-Hill. Using the fitted parameters it is possible to quantitatively study the effect of experimental conditions on the elution process. Scott Fogler. pp.26-0. 1975. Ross. 1 (1953). the effective intraparticle diffusivities were the same within the range of experimental conditions and samples tested. Engng 4(7-11). 4. (34) . A. 6. 5. 149-350. so De/D1B = 0. Luther and J. 216. 1982. Wilkes. ! where (J is the constriction factor.0 10 2. G. A.11 Sample B 8. Y. The Society of Chemical Industry. Vegter. In this model. Schmid and M.03 148 4. Curley-Fiorino. Min. Hydrometallurgy 14(1). M. 429-519. Inst. A. Applied Numerical Methods with Personal Computers. Miner. B. Vegter and R. 759-94. Geankoplis. pp. 1987. 1986. The stability conditions were also given.0 10 2. M.. J. Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry of the Elements.63 148 1. Finlayson.T. Hence.8 [9]. Chem. F. Van Deventer and V. 570. 3. 47 (1985).40 1. YEN: GOLD ELUTION FROM ACTIVATED CARBON In this model. L. Hydrometallurgy 30.

-1l . = dt e (dr)2 _C_P(i+_!l-'----. : _ Pi.P:-. ·+?wC ~ I. M. the time derivative '" 2 • in carbon at the interface. the mass flow at the interface between carbon and solution behaves as shown in Fig.j.j.P:-.c .c [rc.PN • (A4) dt l.P:-..c _P IJ. t.P:-. (dr):! k m (A6) (A7) . C ~ C Pi.'PN)]I(1 • I) .~ +C+2w) - .j. SUN and W. A I.j.1r Dedt w=--.310 T.P:-i PN.c l' 2 (A)2 ~-- PN.P:-.j. We wish to derive the relevant finitedifference approximation for gold concentration Cp at point PN on the interface between carbon and solution.c - - dt CPi.c _ ~- 2(1 +PN)dt PN. Interface (AI) PN.(P:-i-ll p C ) or 2 -_P PN-2 PN-l 2 + (dr)2 2 (PN.p ••. . it follows that . = PN.}.r Also. by ~ Cp(i+ll.•.-I) P(i+I).. .j. £p 1- -Q.e.(P:-.(P:-. In carbon (from Taylor's expansion) we have. _2_ (8: (A3) where v Substitution PN (AS) ac ( at Fig. The following procedure is based on the continuity of molar flux at the interface.j. from eqns (A4) and (7).c [C (ac)ar +dr Pi. +. approximately.j. c) denotes the derivative (aaC)2 (a solution Carbon at the interface between carbon and -C P(i+l).j.I).j.P_:-i between carbon and solution. (A2) CPU.j. YEN: GOLD ELUTION FROM ACTIVATED CARBON Interface APPENDIX Finite-difference solution approximations When the gold cyanide diffuses from the core of the carbon particle to its surface.(P:-i-I) The subscript i.PN - Qi.P:-i dr(aCp) ar PN. AI.J.J - P(i-I). -C Pi.j.I).p Then. of eqns (A2) and (A3) into eqn (4) gives D(_2_[c -_Cp-'----ij_.j.• .1r(_aC_p)] ar PN. T. is approximated + p) ] p) PN .~(Q('.11' cr Pc Qu ) PN.