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Introduction to On Board

Diagnostics (II)
On board Diagnostics Regulations in the U.S.A. for
light and medium duty vehicles (internal combustion engines)
are introduced to implement the air quality standards.
In this respect California Motor vehicle Pollution
Control Board (CMVOCB) was created in 1960.
California and the federal government used a
driving cycle to certify 1966 vehicles and newer
models which was referred to as either California
Cycle or the Federal Test Procedure (FTP)
The following OBD II requirements are in force:
All vehicle’s emission control systems and components that can affect emissions must be
monitored. Malfunctions must be detected before emissions exceed 1.5 times the standard
specified by EPA.
Malfunctions must be detected within 2 driving cycles.
If a malfunction is detected a Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) is illuminated.

Introduction to On Board
Diagnostics (II)
The First major Clean Air Act was adopted by the Congress in
1970.
Congress established the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) with the overall responsibility of regulating motor
vehicle pollution to the atmosphere. Congress also identified
the Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) programs as an
alternative for improving the air quality.

Introduction to On Board
Diagnostics (II)
All of the previous regulations led to the appearance of the
charcoal canister, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valves, and
finally the catalytic converters in 1975.
Moreover, in 1977 amendments to the Clean Air Act mandated
inspection and maintenance for vehicles used in highpollution areas affected by high Hydro carbon (HC) emissions.

with the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emissions caused by malfunction of the vehicle’s emission control system. The California Code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD II was adopted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) OBD II is the next generation OBD system of vehicles designed to reduce the time between occurrence of the malfunction and its detection and repair. including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989.Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) On Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems were designed to maintain low-emissions of in-use vehicles. .

Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) OBD II system is designed to satisfy EPA regulations which limit the amount of HC emissions from the vehicle. and monitoring the entire emission control system. OBD II will also minimize the damage to other vehicle systems or components. Such diagnostic systems are implemented by incorporating additional software and hardware in the vehicle electronics system to collect and analyze data already available to the on-board computer. .

31 gms /mile Š CO 4.60 gms/mile (non-diesel) Š 1. The following standards are enforced 100% after 1996: Š HC 0. Hydro Carbons Analyzer.20 gms/mile Š NOx 0.S. and other Analyzers. Standards have been set for the vehicle half-life (5 years or 50000 miles which ever comes first) and full cycle (10 years or 100000 miles).Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) The U. The vehicle is operated according to a prescribed schedule of speed and load to simulate highway driving as well city driving. The emissions are then measured using the above instruments. Federal Government has published test procedures that include several steps such as Dynamometer test.25 gms/mile (diesel) .

A. The standards for European and Asian made vehicles have different standards which are more relaxed.Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) These FTP regulations are enforced by EPA for all Light and Medium Duty vehicles made in U. .S. The European and Asean standards are not yet completely finalized by their countries.

Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) OBD II requires the manufacturers to implement new comprehensive on-board diagnostic systems beginning in the 1994 model year. the EPA regulations grew stricter. As emissions increased. to replace OBD I The EPA in 1978 issued its first policy for Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) of vehicles that emitted Hydro Carbons into the atmosphere. on-board computers and oxygen sensors in 1981. . resulting in the introduction of the 3-way catalytic converter.

2002) Components are monitored for : uCircuit continuity and out of range values of sensors. New requirements for thermostats for 20002000-2002 implementation include the following: uDetection of malfunctions that will affect the coolant temperature temperature and disable OBD II monitoring functions due to lower than normal temperature operation of the vehicle uDetection of malfunctions that will prevent vehicle from reaching reaching normal operating temperature.Oxygen sensor Š Emissions related sensors and actuatorsactuators. and output components where applicable.2 g/mi for Hydro Carbons per vehicle PCV must be monitored for this reason and its requirements are: Detect PCV hose disconnections that can cause increased emissions emissions Meet all design guidelines concerning hoses and valve connections connections and materials to ensure positive crankcase ventilation.closed loop fueling performance Š Thermostats (implementation: 2000 . actuators. sanity. or logic checks for input components. and wires uFunctional checks for output components listed above uReasonable value checks during vehicle operation such as rationality. actuators. including: Š Catalytic converters Š Evaporative control System Š Emissions control system Š Emissions related powertrain performance .2004) Š Fuel system . .OBD II monitors more components and systems than OBDOBD-I. rationality.EGR monitoring Š Detection of engine misfire Š PCV (Positive Crankcase Ventilation) (implementation: 2002 . PCV (Positive Crankcase Ventilation) failure will increase the emissions emissions by 1. This is required due to: uThermostat degradation can extend the time of openopen-loop operation at startstart-up uProlonged openopen-loop operation will increase emissions u“warmed“warmed-up” coolant temperature is a must for all OBD II monitoring operations. operations. switches. Thermostat monitoring is the new addition to the existing OBD II requirements.

Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) The intent of OBD II systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a powertrain component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emissions exceed the threshold value tied to the applicable EPA emission standard. by illuminating the Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) . The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards.

Once per trip evaluation: uCatalyst efficiency (conversion efficiency) uHeated catalyst (time to attain rated temperature) uEvaporative system (air flow /vapor leak detection) uSecondary Air system (proper air amount during idle) uOxygen sensor (output voltage and response frequency) uOxygen sensor heater (proper current and voltage drop) uEGR system (proper exhaust gas flow rate into intake manifold) . and illuminating MIL and storage of a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) if a fault is detected.Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) Both CARB and EPA regulations require monitoring of systems.

uincrease in emissions greater than 50 % of standard is considered objectionable.Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) Continuous evaluation: uMisfire detection (percent misfire and specific cylinder number) uFuel system performance (proper fuel delivery and nozzle flow) uComprehensive component monitoring .Input sensor and output actuator that can affect emissions. .

OBD II standardizes on number of sensor readings. Standard nomenclature for all OBD II codes (SAE J 1930) is mandated. OBD II standardizes on most Trouble Codes (TC) for vehicle malfunctions identified by regions. such as powertrain. etc.A.S. OBD II mandates a standard scan tool (SAE J 1978) with a single standard plug for all vehicles manufactured in U. for all vehicles. message priorities. Diagnostic test modes (SAE J 1979) include: uFault code handling u“Readiness” codes uReal time vehicle information u“Freeze Frame” information. message formats. body. . etc.Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) OBD II is an onboard diagnostics and service methodology.

. OBD II standardizes on diagnostic method of storing trouble codes and displaying Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) which cannot be removed until the malfunction is repaired.Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) OBD II standardizes on the amount of memory (“Freeze Frame”) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensors when it logs an emission related intermittent (“history”) Trouble Code(TC).

Also identify identify the specific cylinder experiencing experiencing misfire. (open-loop) or closedclosed-loop operation. Complicated computations are carried out. Item Legal Requirement Diagnostic technique technique ______________________________________________________ Catalytic Converter monitoring Illuminate MIL Dual sensors placed when HC conversion efficiency at the front and rear end of the falls to 60% converter ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Misfire monitoring Illuminate MIL on detecting Measure change in misfires in predefined crankshaft speed predefined % of misfires in any cylinder(s) and estimate indicated cylinder(s) within 200 or 1000 revolutions torque developed by revolutions depending on cold start each cylinder after (opencombustion. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ .Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) OBD II provides additional information to technician for diagnosis diagnosis and repair of emission related problems.

of Measure deviations of fuel demand monitoring stoichiometric ratio which last for a from stoichiometric ratio over longer time stored within adaptive prolonged amount of time. exceed defined value of Lambda sensor with O2 sensor limits due to fuel system components not complying with specification. Compare mixture controller. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ________ .Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Fuel System Illuminate MIL when deviations.

Use sensors fails to indicate increase in to detect these changes. exhaust manifold or catalytic changes In openconverter’s second chamber. open-loop operation. . manifold intake temperature or . Monitor response time of two lambda sensors in front and rear of the catalytic converter.450 volts. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ EGR monitoring Illuminate MIL when EGR operation Monitor manifold temperature change. Lambda sensor reacts slower on variations of the A/F mixture. fails to indicate increase manifold pressure change. decrease of about 50 engine RPM. In closed closed-loop operation the air flow should should be into catalytic converter’s converter’s second chamber in threethree-way catalytic converter. . on EGR flow flow and in Manifold pressure or engine RPM change as well. the air flow should be into exhaust manifold manifold provided manifold temperature temperature is below threshold and engine load is _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________ ________________________________________________________________ below threshold. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Secondary Air Illuminate MIL when lambda sensor Monitor lambda sensor reading when system monitoring deviation does not correlate with secondary air is introduced into the secondary air flow changes. Check input input circuit voltage for detecting short circuit or open circuit. Bias is 0.450 0. EGR can be intrusively induced induced during normal operation.________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Oxygen sensor monitoring Illuminate MIL when the switching frequency of the controlcontrol-loop exceeds predefined limit. or interrupted interrupted when EGR operation is occurring occurring and monitor these changes. thus increasing the period of the lambda sensor regulation regulation which is the inverse of the closedclosed-loop frequency.

.5 time the applicable standards. such that a malfunction is signaled as the emissions exceed 1. including the catalyst and evaporative system. to prevent serious damage to the catalytic converter .Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) Most components are monitored. OBD II requires the detection of relatively low rates of engine misfire.

which allows the computer to store in memory the exact operating conditions when a fault occurred. which means that a single inexpensive generic tool can be used to read out fault codes. so intermittent faults can be investigated by revisiting the same conditions when the problem occurred. A standard access electrical connector which is identical for all vehicles is required. . OBD II also includes “Freeze Frame”.Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) Further.

Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) Although OBD II requirements reflect state-of-the-art diagnostic system capability. there are limitations which apply to the current techniques for detecting malfunctioning components. but are limited with the ability to determine whether they are functioning accurately within the range. These limitations do not allow OBD II systems to take the place of the FTP test for measuring vehicle emissions. The reason is that monitoring systems can detect when components are functioning within their operating range. .

an onboard computer to predict when a vehicle will fail an emission test.” OBD II rules are copied from the CARB rules until 1997. .Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) OBD II is associated with IM240. the enhanced inspection/maintenance program for states with air quality program like California. IM240 also gets into the area of the new ASE (Automotive Service Engineering) tests for the “super mechanics. OBD II rules for 1998 will be taken from EPA’s standards which include among other things.

Introduction to On Board Diagnostics (II) OBD II standardizes that many trouble codes which are set when a malfunction is detected in the emission related component of the vehicle will be stored in computer memory without a prospect for erasure prior to repair. . OBD II however turns on the Malfunction Indictor Light (MIL) selectively in malfunction situations that require immediate attention of the driver for safety reasons. OBD II mandates that all trouble codes are logged when they are set and are retrieved by the scan tool when commanded.

Introduction to On Board
Diagnostics (II)
Specific “Freeze Frame” diagnostic data must be stored when
the first malfunction is detected. If a second malfunction in the
fuel system or misfire function occurs, then the first data must
be replaced with the subsequent malfunction data. Diagnostic
data must be made available when requested by the Scan tool.
Results of the most recent tests and limits to which those results
are compared with, must be made available for all emission
control systems, for which OBD II diagnostics are conducted.
The message content and down loading protocol is defined for
all fault codes, specific data values, and “Freeze Frame” data.

Introduction to On Board
Diagnostics (II)
Malfunction must be detected before emissions exceed a specified threshold
(generally 1.5 times the standards). In most cases, malfunctions must be
detected and logged within two (2) driving Cycles (California Cycles) or
trips.
R & D(research and development) activity in monitoring malfunctions of
vehicle components such as catalytic converters continues at a very rapid
pace.
There is plenty of room for the application of advanced control and signal
processing techniques to control vehicle exhaust emissions using OBD II.

Powertrain and Emission
Controls in Passenger
Vehicles

An Overview:
On-line diagnosis of internal combustion engines in passenger vehicles
is mandated due to the strict environmental regulations in the U.S.A
and in some European countries (e.g.., the EFTA (European Free Trade
Agency) partners) to control Hydro carbon emissions from the exhaust.

Powertrain subsystem consists of the engine and transmission including the
exhaust emission control apparatus which needs to be continuously
monitored by the engine controller (computer) for potential defects
leading to decreased effectiveness in emission control system (e.g., three-way
catalyst) resulting in increased emission of hydrocarbons which are regulated
by the EPA.

Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) The powertrain components relevant to emissions are: Š Š Š Š Throttle & Manifold Exhaust & Fuel system Combustion & Rotational dynamics Automatic Transmission Each of the above components is further divided into the following subcomponents: Throttle & manifold: Š Š Š Š Throttle Body assembly Idle Air Control Valve (IACV) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Intake Manifold .

Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) Exhaust & Fuel system consists of the following components: Exhaust & Fuel system: Š Exhaust valves Š Exhaust Gas line Š Fuel Pump Š Fuel Level Sensor Š Vacuum Sensor Š Canister Vent Š Fuel Feed and Metering Š Fuel Injection nozzles Š Oxygen sensor Š Catalytic Converter .

Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) Combustion and Rotational dynamics consist of the following components: Combustion and Rotational dynamics: Š Engine Š Crankshaft assembly and flywheel Š Crank angle sensor Š Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor Š Coolant Temperature sensor Š Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor Š Engine Speed sensor Š Knock sensor Š purge solenoid .

Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) Automatic transmission consists of the following components: Automatic Transmission: Š Torque Converter Š Automatic transmission input shaft Š Transmission lockup clutch Š Hydraulic pump and hydraulic circuit Š Solenoid valves Š Throttle Position sensor Š Vehicle Speed sensor Š Transmission input shaft speed sensor .

the OBD II system should illuminate the Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) and store the Trouble Code in the computer memory for all malfunctions that will contribute to increased HC emissions. . In addition. and to identify the location of the problem in order to assist mechanics in properly performing repairs. The Powertrain is controlled by the Powertrain control module (PCM) computer to deliver the required torque to the vehicle requested by the driver and to limit the vehicle emissions to the required minimum to meet EPA regulations.Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) The goal of the On-Board Diagnostics is to alert the driver to the presence of a malfunction of the emission control system .

Throttle & Intake Manifold: The Throttle Body assembly is an air valve.7) of air/fuel that gives the minimum HC emissions and meet EPA regulations. This has the effect of reducing oxygen content in the engine cylinder. It regulates the air flow into the engine and thereby contributes to the control of engine speed and power. This in turn reduces the combustion temperature of the cylinder flame. Intake manifold is the main air passage from the throttle valve to the engine cylinders. MAP sensor is used to compute the density of the air in the intake manifold. The required fuel is in direct proportion to this air mass which is controlled by the PCM to maintain the exact stoichiometric ratio (14. The Manifold vacuum is the difference between these two pressures which is measured. The amount of air through the intake manifold to the cylinder is the same for each cylinder on each intake stroke. IACV (idle air control valve )provides additional air flow during starting of the engine and during idle. Then each cylinder requires an amount of fuel determined by the density of the air in the cylinder. . This has the important effect of reducing the NOx (Oxides of nitrogen) emissions which is regulated by the EPA. EGR (exhaust gas recirculation)provides exhaust gases to the intake manifold. Barometric absolute pressure is used to compute the EGR flow. IACV bypasses the throttle to provide additional air to compensate for the loads during closed throttle.Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) The powertrain functions are described to show how the PCM controls the emissions while delivering the torque to the vehicle requested by the driver.

This has a considerable effect in reducing emissions and meet EPA regulations. The Fuel Level Sensor measures the amount of fuel in the tank. The extra oxygen required for this oxidation is supplied by adding air to the exhaust stream from an engine driven air pump. The fuel in the fuel tank is filtered. The vacuum sensor measures the inlet vacuum which is a measure of fuel pump suction which affects pump priming.Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) Exhaust & Fuel system: Exhaust valves of the engine cylinders purge the exhaust through the Exhaust Gas line which then passes through the catalytic converters in which most of the HC and CO (carbon monoxide) are oxidized to CO2 (Carbon dioxide) and water. . The inlet vacuum is monitored to ensure that inlet flow of the fuel to the cylinders is not restricted. is normally introduced into the exhaust manifold. This air called secondary air. The Fuel Pump supplies metered fuel which is electronically injected through nozzles operated by solenoids under control of the PCM.

to match the mass air flow which minimizes HC emissions. The air flow is controlled by the throttle valve which is operated by the driver’s pedal. The Fuel Feed and Metering is performed. The Fuel Injection nozzles inject the fuel as a spray that spreads the fuel into the cylinder in an atomized manner to mix with the air for complete combustion.Powertrain and Emission Control in Passenger Vehicles (contd) Canister vent & Fuel system The Canister Vent is used to direct fuel vapors out to a canister where the vapors are absorbed by active char coal in the canister. by the PCM. The purge of the fuel vapors is done via purge valve periodically. .

Oxygen sensor: Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) The Oxygen sensor is used to monitor the residual oxygen (after catalysis in the converter) in the exhaust gases. The oxygen sensor is used as stoichiometry detector and is connected in a closed loop in a Limit Cycle control. This is the target for realizing minimum emissions. The oxygen sensor output is a switch signal (ON/OFF) that brings back the A/F ratio to 1 when it varies between 0. .7) air/fuel ratio. The oxygen sensor output is calibrated to measure the air/fuel ratio (which is proportional to oxygen in the exhaust gases) in the engine cylinders. This ratio.07.93 to 1. is one (1) for stoichiometric (14. called Lambda.

. . indicated by the Exhaust Gas Oxygen (EGO) Sensor.7) air/fuel ratio.Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) Oxygen sensor The reason that oxygen sensor behaves in this manner is that the catalytic converter is most efficient in eliminating all pollutants by oxidizing HC to CO2 and reducing NOx to N2 when the exhaust gases indicate a stoichiometric (14. Catalytic Converter is a three way catalyst which will oxidize the Hydro carbons including CO to CO2 and reduce the NOx to N2 in the exhaust gases simultaneously thus removing pollutants.

Another variable variable which must be measured for engine control is the throttle angle or the throttle valve position which is measured by the Throttle Angle Sensor. The Crankshaft assembly and flywheel house the Crank Crank angle sensor which senses the position of the Top Dead center (TDC) of the cylinder and provides provides the necessary ignition spark at the correct crank angle between the reference point on the flywheel and the horizontal horizontal centerline of crank shaft. The amount of fuel needed for the combustion in the engine cylinder is a direct function of of the throttle position and the mass of air through the intake manifold which is controlled by the driver’s accelerator pedal. During engine off condition.Combustion and Rotational dynamics: (Figures 1 to 3) The Engine provides the mechanical power to the vehicle. The correct air mass is computed by compensating for for the intake air temperature which is measured by the intake air temperature sensor. The Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) (MAP) sensor measures the intake manifold pressure which is also used to measure the amount of air going into the cylinder as a second method to determine the amount of fuel that should be sent to the fuel injection nozzles for spraying spraying into the cylinder. To reduce these HC emissions. This can be used to measure the mass of air going into the cylinder. . It is important to detect knock and avoid avoid excessive knock to avoid damage to the engine.7). When the pedal is pressed the throttle plate rotates and allows more air to pass through through the intake manifold. Engine speed is measured by engine speed sensor similar to crankshaft position sensor. This is to ensure that accurate amount of fuel is used in the cylinder to achieve fuel economy as well as to reduce emissions by efficient combustion. The collected fuel is released into the fuel intake through a purge purge solenoid valve controlled by the PCM periodically. they are collected by a charcoal filter in a canister. This mass of air is measured with the Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor. The angle of rotation of throttle plate is measured by the throttle angle sensor. the fuel stored in the fuel system tends to evaporate into the atmosphere. An Engine Speed sensor is needed to provide an input to PCM to compute ignition ignition timing. The engine engine cylinders perform the combustion of air/fuel mixture at stoichiometric ratio (14. The throttle plate is mechanically linked to the accelerator pedal pedal which is operated by the driver. Knock is caused by a rapid rise in cylinder pressure during combustion combustion caused by high manifold pressure (MAP) and excessive spark advance. Knock is detected by the Knock sensor.

The engine torque is controlled in synchronism with the shift to reduce impact due to shift. . the lockup clutch is engaged and is disengaged during shifts. Efficient transmission of engine output to the automatic transmission input shaft is performed through a transmission lockup clutch similar to a standard pressure-plate clutch placed inside the torque converter (the fluid coupling used as a torque amplifier). The shifting process is adjusted by the hydraulic pressure of the clutch so that the clutch is smoothly engaged.Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger Vehicles (contd) Automatic Transmission: The Automatic transmission uses a hydraulic or fluid coupling to transmit engine power to the wheels. The transmission’s input. Automatic transmission is controlled by inputs from the vehicle speed sensor and throttle position sensor which senses the vehicle load. primed by the hydraulic pump. The automatic gear shift points. The optimal shifts and lockup operations are carried out using a solenoid valve to open and close the hydraulic circuit. the point at which the lockup clutch is activated.shaft speed is monitored during shifting by the speed sensor after the ON/OFF signal is output from the shift solenoid valves. which improves fuel economy and emissions. and the clutch’s hydraulic pressure level are controlled by the PCM. During cruise. In order to smoothly engage the lockup clutch the hydraulic fluid pressure is adjusted by controlling the output current applied to the lockup solenoid valves.

The following standards are in the Diagnostics Committee documents: documents: SAE J 1930 Diagnostic Terms.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual OBD II Standards Manual: HSHS-3000 manual contains two sets of documents. Abbreviations. and Acronyms Acronyms SAE J 1962 OBD II Diagnostic Connector SAE J 1978 OBD II Scan Tool SAE J 1979 Diagnostics Test Modes SAE J 2012 Trouble Code Definitions SAE J 2186 Data Link Security SAE J 2190 Enhanced E/E Diagnostics Test Modes SAE J 2201 Universal Interface for OBD II Scan SAE J 2205 Expanded Diagnostic Protocol For OBD II Scan Tools The following standards are in the Multiplex Committee documents: documents: SAE J 1850 Class B DATA Communications Network Interface SAE J 2178/1 Class B DATA Communications Network Messages: Detailed Header Formats & Physical Address Assignments SAE J 2178/2 Class B DATA Communications Network Messages : Data Parameter Definitions SAE J 2178/3 Class B DATA Communications Network Messages : Frame IDs For Single Byte Forms OF Headers SAE J 2178/4 Class B DATA Communications Network Messages : Message Definitions For Three Byte Headers . Definitions. Diagnostics Committee documents Multiplex Committee documents.

The mechanic uses Scan Tool. The requirements for each SAE standard are described below: . Each SAE standard specifies one particular component for compliance. stuck at 1 and stuck at 0 (ground) faults. Misfire 4. A special Connector . 10. and internittent faults. Fuel system 8. and actuators.. Catalyst 2.inputs & actuators-outputs) The comprehensive components are mostly inputs and outputs to the powertrain which are sensors. The nine monitors are: 1. Secondary Air System 6. to collect diagnostic messages from the vehicle. The HS-3000 Manual specifies SAE standards for the above OBD II tools. These have to be tested for circuit continuity. SAE J 1978. OBD II has to communicate the diagnostic information to the vehicle mechanic via a communication network using diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). SAE J 1962. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. Air Conditioning System Refrigerant (for CFC only) 7. Comprehensive components (sensors. Oxygen Sensor 9. Heated Catalyst 3. and for range/performance problems. is used to facilitate the interface for communication.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual OBD II has ten (10) major monitoring requirements: nine specific monitors and one catch all. Evaporative system 5.

including mechanical terms. definitions. abbreviations. and acronyms. This also applies to all new documents printed or updated by a manufacturer starting 1993 model year. The standard is updated periodically periodically by the task force.7. Connector onnector terminals 2. ground. and 15 must be compatible with the C assignment and use of their mating terminal in the vehicle connector. . and ISO 9141 serial data link (2 pins). These These terms only should be used by OBD II.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual OBD II diagnostics are required to comply with SAE standards listed listed in the HsHs-3000 manual. Powertrain terms are approved in 1993. The pin assignments are specified in the standard for SAE J 1850 serial data link (2 pins). Battery ground must be noise free and a clean signal ground. All documents related to emissionemission-related vehicle and engine service procedures shall conform to the emission related nomenclature and abbreviations provided in SAE J 1930. These These are intended for compliance through out the motor vehicle industry.10. Battery power (pin 16). Chassis ground is pin 4 and is defined in SAE J 2201. Battery ground. They relate to the following areas: SAE J 1930 defines the diagnostic terms applicable to electrical/electronic electrical/electronic systems. SAE J 1962 is a 16 pin connector located under the instrument panel panel on the driver side of the vehicle. Common names for components and systems are recognized as beneficial beneficial for technicians working on multiple models of vehicles. The SAE standards are under the control and maintenance maintenance of the Vehicle E/E System Diagnostics Committee. connector. Signal Ground (pin 5). The standard will be continuously updated by SAE for compliance by OBD II in future. SAE J 1962 defines minimum set of diagnostic connector requirements requirements that all diagnostic tools must satisfy to perform OBD II monitoring and diagnostic functions functions on board the vehicle.

shape. Ease of access to technician. and mechanical specification of material. mating requirements. The Connector design must be compatible with previous vehicle configurations.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual The salient features of the SAE J 1962 standard that specifies the OBD II’s diagnostic connector are: Consistent location in the vehicle’s instrument Panel (IP). . and Ease of attachment of equipment without affecting normal vehicle operation. Ease of Visibility to the technician. and terminal assignments. must meet the electrical (10 A DC).

Provide a user manual and/or help facility. The Universal interface (SAE J 2201) requirements for Scan Tool (SAE J 1978) . Ability to perform Expanded Diagnostic protocol functions as described in SAE J 2205.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual OBD II Scan Tool ( SAE J 1978 0): SAE J 1978 standard defines the requirements of the OBD II Scan Tool. . are described in detail in the standard. Test Modes (SAE J 1979) . (Expanded Scan Tool protocol) to enable these functions with SAE J 1978 Scan tool. 7. 6. The Scan Tool must support the following OBD II functions: 1. Obtaining and displaying OBD II emissions related diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). and later use SAE J 2205. 8. EPA regulation is that SAE J 1978 must have the capability to perform bidirectional diagnostic control. 5. Obtaining and displaying OBD II emissions related “freeze frame” data. General characteristics. This is an important function of OBD II. electrical and mechanical characteristics are also described in the HS-3000 standard. Vehicle manufacturers will use manufacturer specific messages to perform these functions. Data Communication Network Interface (SAE J 1850) . Obtaining and displaying OBD II emissions related test parameters and results as described in SAE J 1979. Obtaining and displaying OBD II emissions related current data. 3. and Enhanced test modes (SAE J 2190).Automatic hands-off determination of the communication interface used. (SAE J 1850) . Interface connector (SAE J 1962) requirements . Clearing the storage of OBD II emissions related diagnostic trouble codes. OBD II emissions related “freeze frame” data storage and OBD II emissions related diagnostic test status. 9. 4. Obtaining and displaying the status and results of vehicle’s on-board diagnostic evaluations. and Diagnostic Trouble codes (SAE J 2012). 2.

emission-related Powertrain Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs (DTCs). systems. Diagnostic test modes from mode $01 to Mode $08 are described in in the standard. and messages for different Modes with their explanation including including the method to determine if the data is valid. Mode $01 is request current powertrain diagnostic data which are: uAnalog inputs and outputs uDigital inputs and outputs uSystem status information ucalculated values Mode $ 02 is request powertrain “Freeze Frame” data for the same items listed above Mode $03 is request emission). Mode $08 is request control of onon-board system test. status. or component. All these requests are made by the Scan Tool SAE J 1978. and request and response response messages necessary to be supported by the vehicle manufacturers and test tools to meet EPA related OBD II requirements. . Test Mode $ 08 is Request for Control Control of On Board system instead of the data. PID $1E in table for Mode $01 is added for Auxiliary input status. Mode $05 is request Oxygen sensor monitoring test results. These messages are for use by the service tool capable of performing performing OBD II diagnostics. PIDs. For each test mode this standard specifies: uFunctional description of test mode. The diagnostic message format. Mode $06 is request onon-board monitoring test results for nonnon-continuously monitored systems.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Diagnostic Test Modes (SAE J 11979): SAE 1979 defines the diagnostic test modes. There are 14 figures showing 14 tables describing PIDs. response time (100 ms) and various various related data items are described in detail in the standard. Mode $07 is request onon-board monitoring test results for continuously monitored systems. PID $1D in table for Mode $01 is added as as alternate locations for Oxygen Sensor. Mode $04 is Clear/Reset emission related diagnostic information. uRequest and response message formats. All test Modes except mode $ 08 are related to Request for Powertrain’s emission related diagnostic data or test results or Diagnostic trouble Codes. Examples of messages are included in the standard for explaining some complex test modes .

However only one Code must be stored in OBD II for each fault detected. Powertrain. P0P0-P3 for Powertrain is OBD II’s main concern. C0C0-C3 for Chassis. Low and High Circuit input. Each group has a generic code as the first Code/Message that indicates the generic nature of the fault. . Range/Performance Problem. Diagnostic Trouble Codes are defined to indicate a suspected trouble trouble or problem area as a directive to the proper service procedure. The DTCs are defined by four basic categories. circuit. The messages are organized such that different different messages related to a particular sensor or system are grouped together. P0P0-P3 for Powertrain.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Diagnostic Trouble Codes (SAE J 2012): SAE J 2012 defines the Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs (DTCs)) for OBD II. The manufacturer has a choice to define more specific DTC for each lower level fault in that group. Appendix C of the manual gives the Powertrain diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs (DTCs)) as P codes. The standard has DTC code groupings designated as SAE Controlled. and U0U0-U3 for Network Communication. This prevents any manufacturer to change change any SAE Controlled DTCs and SAE to change Manufacturer’s DTCs. DTCs. and reserved for future use. Manufacturer Controlled. This standard focuses on diagnostic code format and code messages for automotive electronic electronic control systems of all light and medium duty vehicles. The manual gives examples of how to devise Codes to comply comply with the standard. followed by three digits. General Circuit Malfunction. Each defined fault code is assigned a message to indicate the circuit. The DTC is intended to indicate only a malfunction needing needing service and not when vehicle functions are normal. The DTC consists of an alphaalpha-numeric designator. component. The decision to illuminate the MIL (Malfunction Indicator Light) for any DTC is based on how the system malfunction affects emissions. B0B0-B3 for Body. or system area that was diagnosed as faulty. Controlled. Malfunction.

Computer-coded engine operating parameters shall not be changeable without the use of specialized tools and procedures accessible to only authorized persons. The standard defines several levels of accessibility. like secured functions. Any reprogrammable computer code shall employ proven methods to deter unauthorized reprogramming. and read only data. responsible to ensure that the standard is complied with. Procedure is defined to provide legislated “tamper protection”. while meeting manufacturer desired security concerns for tamper resistance and allowing legitimate service.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Diagnostic Trouble Codes (SAE J 2012): Data Link Security (SAE J 2186): SAE J 2186 defines the security practices that must be implemented in accessing Diagnostic information only by authorized persons. The emission related data is accessible only to authorized personnel from EPA. Normal communications are not affected. CARB and EPA require that enhanced tampering protection for the 1999 model year that shall include data encryption and electronic access to manufacturer computer for security access. unsecured functions. One such technique enables certain operations such as Block download only if security access is successful. .

OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Enhanced Test Modes (SAE J 2190): SAE J 2190 extends the diagnostic test modes defined in SAE J 1979 1979 to include access to emission related data not included in SAE J 1979 and access to nonnon-emission relate data as a supplement to SAE J 1979. This activity is also coordinating with ISO diagnostic services task force to promote common diagnostic capabilities throughout auto industry. that include nonnon-emission systems. No distinction is made between emission and nonnon-emission related diagnostics. . protocol. and with enhanced diagnostics tools. either onon-vehicle or offoff-vehicle. Test modes include capabilities such as: Š Request diagnostic session Š Request diagnostic “Freeze Frame” data Š Request Diagnostic Trouble Codes/status Š Clear diagnostic information Š Request diagnostic data Š Security access Š Disable /enable normal message transmission Š Request / define diagnostic data packets Š Enter /exit diagnostic routine Š Request diagnostic routine results Š Input /output control Š Read /write block of memory Messages must be used with SAE J 1978 Scan Tool only using EDP protocol. and vehicle electronic modules. SAE J 2190 includes test modes identified for diagnostics beyond minimum regulated requirements. These messages can be used with J 1850 data data link as described in SAE J 1850 standard. This standard describes the data byte values for diagnostic diagnostic messages transmitted between diagnostic test equipment.

General response Message uMode AE .Return to Normal Operation uMode 21-23 .Request Diagnostic Data Packet(s) uMode 2C .Request Diagnostic Data by PID(s) uMode 2A .Test Device Present uMode 7F .Request status of DTCs uMode 18.Request device Control .Request DTC information uMode 14 .Dynamically Define Diagnostic Data Packet uMode 3F .Request diagnostic “Freeze Frame “ data uMode 13.Initiate diagnostic operation (limited) uMode 11.Request DTCs by Status uMode 20 .OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Enhanced E/E Diagnostic Test Modes: The following extended diagnostic Test modes are in force: uMode 10.Clear diagnostic information uMode 17.Request module reset uMode 12.

Physical addressing is used for all diagnostic messages in this standard. The standard defines the message length. Messages for J 2190 start at 10H and end at FFH.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Enhanced E/E Diagnostic Test Modes: For each test mode this standard gives a functional description of the test. message response requirement. Each device must be assigned a unique address in this scheme which is the method J 1850 uses to communicate with devices. . and their formats. Messages 0 to FH and 40H to 4FH are reserved for SAE J 1979. and an example for clarification where necessary. request message data byte content and report message data byte content .

This interface connects the SAE J 1962 test connector to the hardware/software of the SAE 1978 OBD II Scan Tool which will use this interface to communicate with vehicles for accessing required OBD II functions.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Universal Interface for OBD II SCan Tool: SAE J 2201 defines the vehicle communication interface for OBD II Scan Tool described in SAE 1978. and other requirements used by SAE J 1978 Scan tool. cable length of the Connector to Scan Tool. The standard defines the required message structure support. . Appendix A of the standard gives examples of interface implementation that have met the requirements of this standard. The standard describes in detail the software requirements of the program in the PCM that facilitates communication between the Scan Tool (external) and the internal OBD II components in the vehicle. chassis ground. The interface defines several standard terms and interface functionality. signal ground. The medium of communication is the serial data link described in SAE J 1850.

supporting diagnosing and servicing emissionemissionrelated components and systems. model year. This standard provides the following EDP definitions: Š Control type Š Transmit type Š Receive only type Š Miscellaneous type These message formats are defined in the standard. Š To describe to the OBD II Scan Tool the messages to be received and processed by the Scan Tool. . etc. These additional messages will be specified in service information provided to the service technician by the manufacturer. year. manufacturer. formats. The protocol will enable the service technician to input messages messages not required to meet specific OBD II requirements but which are are necessary to repair vehicles. The codes for EDP definition fields of the format are defined. through the OBD II’s communication interface. with vehicle modules using vehicle specific messages. and different different data fields compared to the SAE J 1979 message formats. data security.Expanded Diagnostic Protocol for OBD II Scan Tools: SAE J 2205 defines the expanded diagnostic protocol (EDP) for OBD OBD II Scan Tool (SAE J 1978). This includes at a minimum. Appendix Appendix A includes examples of the use of the EDP protocol that the Scan Tool must support. validation of data . This is due to the requirement that vehicles must be able to be repaired using only a SAE J 1978 Scan Tool and other nonnon-microprocessor based tools. The extended protocol regarding message formats. Š To describe to the OBD II Scan Tool how to process the data in the received message. The purpose of the expanded diagnostic diagnostic protocol is to define the encoding technique to be used: Š To describe to the OBD II Scan Tool the messages to be transmitted transmitted to a vehicle and how they are to be transmitted. The EDP must support ISO 91419141-2 interface as well. Extensive message message format information is included which needs to be supported by the Scan Tool. The standard defines the functionality that will support the use of the Scan Tool. This standard standard requires that SAE J 1978 OBD II Scan Tool must support the the EDP messages which may be unique to a given vehicle manufacturer. EDP is a means for allowing vehicle manufacturers manufacturers to communicate. This standard defines the requirements for diagnosis and service information to be provided by motor vehicle manufacturers. These messages may have different message headers. and other details are explained explained in the standard.

4 Kbp/s Kbp/s version uses single wire and the 41. Additionally the network supports the prioritization of message frames such that in case of contention. Kbp/s.4 Kbp/ Kbp/ Variable Pulse Width Type (VPW). and another at 41. This standard describes two specific implementations of the network network based on 10. The 10. . The consequence of this protocol is indeterminate latency latency and peak bus utilization profile. As a consequence this standard follows the ISO conventions but uses different descriptive styles to define define the message formats.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual CLASS B Data Communications Network Interface . except the highest priority message is guaranteed minimum latency at the expense of other messages.6 Kbp/s Kbp/s uses 2-wire differential bus as the media/physical layer for message standard tandard defines the physical layer and the data link layer of s the ISO (International standards Organization) open system Interconnect Interconnect (OSI) model. Open architecture approach allows addition or removal of any number of modules in the network without adverse effect on the network performance. The vehicle application for this class B network is defined in SAE J 1213 to allow sharing of the vehicle parametric information. J 1850 uses CSMA (carrier (carrier sense multiple access) protocol to implement Open architecture.SAE J 1850: CLASS B Data Communication Network Interface . The standard defines a singlesingle-bus topology where all the devices on the network transmit and receive receive on a single path at the same time with identical communication data. contention.SAE J 1850 standard defines the communication requirements of the the network that satisfies the needs of the vehicle manufacturers to perform OBD II functions in a cost effective manner. Also the class B network must be capable of performing Class A network functions which operate at less than 10 Kbp/s.6 Kbp/s Kbp/s Pulse Width Modification (PWM). the higher priority frames win the arbitration and complete their transaction. J1850 data communication network interconnects different electronic electronic modules on the vehicle using an Open architecture approach. The network uses a Masterless bus control and priority arbitration.

bus protocol commands. error detection and correction schemes.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual CLASS B Data Communications Network Interface . Appendix B defines the I/O EMC test plan for the electro magnetic compatibility test to regulate electrical noise of the data signals. their formats. . The class B network maps into the OSI model as illustrated in Figure 1 of the standard. physical addressing of the devices.6 Kbp/s version. and data link layers in the OSI model. SAE J 1850 is the most important standard in the Data Communication phase of the OBD II.SAE J 1850: Although this standard focuses on the physical. diagnostic communication legislation requirements. the application layer is also described since this needs to be included for emission-related. Appendix D gives the PWM wave form analysis that specifies the data signal wave form characteristics for the 41.4 Kbp/s version. The physical dimensions of the network and its electrical characteristics are described in detail. Appendix C gives the VPW wave form analysis that specifies the data signal wave form characteristics for the 10. Appendix A lists the application-specific features. The standard describes in detail the data link layer’s diagnostic messages.

The standard also specifies field sizes. The general structure of the message frame is described with inframe response included in Figure 1 and without the response in Figure 2 of the standard. basic protocol definition.Detailed Header Formats and Physical Address Segments: (SAE J 2178/1): SAE J 2178/1. SAE J 1979 standard defines the information contained in the header and data fields of emission related diagnostic messages. SAE J 1850 defines only two message formats. scaling.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Class B Data Communication Network Messages. . This standard covers all these formats and forms to identify the contents of messages which can be sent on the SAE J 1850 network. SAE J 2190 standard defines the information contained in the header and data fields of other diagnostic messages not related to emissions. the electrical specifications. The consolidated header format has two forms: a single Byte form. SAE J 1850 standard defines the class B network interface hardware. The standard defines the information contained in the header and data fields of non-diagnostic messages. and the error detectioncorrection scheme using CRC (cyclic redundancy check) Byte. and a three byte form. representations. They are the single Byte format and the consolidated header format. is the Class B Data Communication Network Messages’ Detailed Header formats and Physical Address Assignments specification. and data positions used within messages.

. The standard defines the terms and definitions of the data formats. Section 7 defines the data fields used by the different header formats. The overview of the standard is given in Figure 3 of the standard. Appendix A describes two allowed network architectures. namely single network. the first part (this standard) describes the two allowed forms of message header formats. Single Byte. like reports or acknowledgments.Detailed Header Formats and Physical Address Segments: (SAE J 2178/1) (contd): SAE J 2178 consists of four parts. Messages defined by this standard are classified into two categories: Requests (commands: load or modify) or queries for data. SAE J 2178/1. and Consolidated header formats. section 8 defines the physical address assignments.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Class B Data Communication Network Messages. and multiple network architectures. The overall structure of messages is described as follows: Š Š Š Fully define SAE standard messages Reserve messages for future SAE standardization Reserve messages for Manufacturers for their Unique messages The message formats in this standard are mandatory for using J 1850 network except the many message codes reserved for manufacturers which are allocated can be used. The system architecture for the different possible headers used in class B are described in sections 5 and 6. and Responses. This also contains the physical node address range assignments for the typical subsystems of the automobile.

PRN structure is given in Figure 3. Appendix A and B provide cross references to find the PRN by the number or by name. The first 256 PRNs defined in this standard are identical to the SAE J 1979 PID definitions.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Class B Data Communication Network Messages. PRN identifies a specific parameter by name. The second part of the parameter definition is the SLOT. . Parameters are assigned Parameter Reference Numbers (PRNs) which are described in the standard. and its transfer function. and its associated SLOT. its scaling. Offsets. its limits. The SLOT defines the mathematical characteristic of parameters in terms of its numeric presentation. PRN structure is shown in Figure 3 in the standard. SAE J 1979 refers to PID numbers which are single byte reference number.Data Parameter Defintions: (SAE J 2178/2): SAE J 2178/2 Data Parameter Definitions standard defines the parameters used to describe the data variables used in normal vehicle operation as well as diagnostic operation. unit measure . The standard contains detailed lists of PRN assignments which are used for reference.

the Frame ID corresponds to the PRN number or a grouping of PRNs. . The header defines the Message identifier or Frame ID and becomes the name that is broadcast normally periodically to all the nodes on the network. With single byte form of header. and the first byte of the single byte form of the consolidated header is defined under 7 bits as hexadecimal number. priority. Figure 3 of the standard defines the Frame ID for one byte headers and the first byte of the single byte form of the consolidated header.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Class B Data Communication Network Messages. The information in the header field implicitly defines the target. and message type information. while the data field contains additional addressing and parametric information. except those that are allocated to vehicle manufacturers for non-emission related messages. This standard describes the overall structure of messages and has wide application in OBD II since these have to be used on J 1850 exactly as they are specified here. source. The characteristics defined by the header are described in the standard. This standard focuses on the Frame ID which is the first byte of the message. defines the messages specified for networks using one byte header or the single byte form of the consolidated header as specified in SAE J 1850. The first byte of the one byte header is defined as an 8 bit hexadecimal number.Frame IDs For Single Byte Forms of Headers (SAE J 2178/3): SAE J 2178/3 Frame IDs for Single Byte Forms of Headers standard.

and data positions used within messages. standard defines the information contained in the header and the data fields of non-diagnostic messages for SAE J 1850 data communication class B networks. SAE J 1850 type # 3 messages have a separate address assignment due to absence of secondary addressing. which is Function Read. SAE J 1979 standard defines the specifications of emission-related diagnostic message header and data fields which OBD II is mainly concurred with. data fields. SAE J 2190 defines other diagnostic data fields. Section 6 of the standard shows the valid extended address assignments from the message definition tables. The information in this standard follows the same format as the Frame IDs for Single Byte Forms of Headers in SAE J 2178/3 standard described above.Message Definition for Three Byte Headers (SAE J 2178/4): SAE J 2178/4 Message Definition for Three Byte Headers. This standard focuses on the message definition for the three byte form of the consulted header format.OBD II for L & MD Vehicles STD Manual Class B Data Communication Network Messages. . Section 7 lists the secondary message definitions. field sizes. representations. scaling. Section 5 of this standard provides the list of functional target addresses or Primary IDs for all of the functionally addressed messages on J 1850 except type #3. This standard describes and specifies the header fields.

In addition the performance of emission control apparatus are continuously monitored using OBD II Diagnostics criteria. and switches are checked for correct operation.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Since OBD II became effective in 1994 ( adopted from CARB regulations). All the powertrain components described in previous section on Powertrain and Emission Controls in Passenger vehicles including sensors. actuators. powertrain control strategies are focused on monitoring powertrain components for failures with criteria tied to emission levels in addition to basic functionality. The following is a list of the major CARB related OBD I I diagnostic requirements for all vehicle manufacturers: .

Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics OBD I I Diagnostic Requirements uEngine Misfire Detection uCatalyst Efficiency Monitor uOxygen Sensor & Heater Monitoring uFuel System Monitoring uEvaporative System Monitoring uEGR System Monitoring uSecondary Air System Monitoring uComprehensive Components Monitoring (all sensors. and switches) . actuators.

In another circumstance . poor fuel metering. engine load or MAP (Manifold absolute Pressure). or faulty electrical system. Other techniques used to identify torque reduction due to misfire. If misfire is not detected during the next three subsequent consecutive consecutive driving “Trips” when similar conditions occur then the original fault will be erased and the MIL will be turned off by the engine controller. Increased misfire rates can damage the catalytic converter. To eliminate other causes of torque reduction due to rough roads and other driving events. cylinder. throttle position. Misfire is detected if the offending cylinder can be identified. Using the crankshaft sensor input. Other advanced advanced signal processing algorithms can be used such as Principal Component Analysis and Clustering to compress the data and isolate isolate the misfiring cylinder. oxygen oxygen sensor. include signal processing using several algorithms.Engine Misfire Detection: Misfiring is the lack of combustion in the cylinder. If a certain percent of misfires within 200 or 1000 1000 revolutions is detected . the the speed reduction is monitored using Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) technique to identify the misfiring cylinder. Misfiring can be caused by worn ignition components. If more than one cylinder is misfiring a separate DTI (diagnostic trouble trouble code) is required. the instantaneous crankshaft speed is calculated. If a misfire is detected. OFF. If a second misfire is detected the engine controller will turn turn on the MIL (Malfunction Indicator Light) to alert the driver. One signal processing method analyzes the amplitude and phase of each of the first twelve frequency components of the crankshaft angular velocity signal taken continuously during the torque reduction time. converter. Engine misfire will contribute to a deceleration of the crankshaft’s rotational speed speed due to the momentary absence of engine torque during the powerstroke of the cylinder that is misfiring. Excessive Excessive exhaust emissions will be the result even with few misfires. Engine misfire is detected by monitoring crankshaft speed fluctuations. all the main engine operating parameters parameters such as engine speed . which is an OBD II requirement. Freeze Frame is used to identify a consecutive misfire in the next driving cycle defined by the EPA as the next driving “Trip” after ignition OFF. This is called “Freeze Frame”. The The specific cylinder experiencing misfire must be identified. engine coolant temperature. . and the speed signal signal is analyzed to detect the misfire. if “similar conditions” are not encountered during next eighty subsequent trips trips the original fault will be turned off by the engine controller. a fault code (DTC) is set. values are stored away in memory.

. MIL and “hard” fault code is set permanently on second driving cycle. Type B misfire (during starting of engine): This misfire is evaluated in first 1000 revolutions after engine is started. Thermostat (coolant temperature) monitoring and misfire detection detection monitoring are extremely important due to increasingly tighter controls mandated on emissions.The Freeze Frame can also be used for OffOff-Board diagnostics and trouble shooting by service technicians. Misfire detection will set coolant temperature fault code since that is the likely cause of misfire detection at at this time. until second driving cycle. MIL and “hard code” are set on second driving cycle. Misfires can damage the catalyst converters by raising the catalyst catalyst temperature beyond safe values. up to three 200 revolutions are evaluated on first driving cycle for misfire detection before illuminating MIL. However MIL need not be steadily illuminated when misfire ceases. cycle. Up to four 1000 revolutions are evaluated for misfire detection excluding the first 1000 revolutions before illuminating temperature fault code. section. MIL must be illuminated on misfire detection during first 200 revolutions’ revolutions’ evaluation during the second driving cycle. Type A misfire is defined below: For type A misfire. ceases. Misfire detection is described in more detail in a later section.

According to EPA regulations. The catalyst monitor evaluates the converter efficiency as mandated mandated by the OBD II to ensure that the catalyst is cleaning up the exhaust gases and reducing emissions from the exhaust gases. the output of the oxygen signal at the far end end of the converter should be flat. without any oscillation. the fuel injectors are shut off by the engine controller. The term threethreeway refers to the ability of the converter to simultaneously oxidize oxidize HC and CO and reduce NOx. and/or palladium. . This characteristic enables the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the reduction of NOx in the exhaust gas simultaneously. Therefore Deceleration fuel cutoff cutoff (DFCO) is sued to control catalyst temperature during vehicle coastdown. Since unburned fuel into the converter can cause catastrophic catastrophic failure. The diagnostic evaluates the oxygen storage capacity of the converter by comparing the signal output of the postpost-converter oxygen sensor with the prepre-converter oxygen sensor. Spark advance is filtered and thresholds are set to control torque reversal ”bump” while still protecting the converter. Misfire detection is described previously. The diagnostic consists of measuring measuring the average ripple in the output signal wave form of the oxygen sensor at the the far end of the converter and comparing the ripple with a similar oscillation at the input signal wave form of the oxygen sensor at the near end (closest to the engine) of the converter. Catalyst converters operate efficiently within a prescribed temperature range when placed at proper location in the exhaust gases’ path.Catalyst Efficiency Monitor: There are three types of catalysts: pellet (bead). reliable. For a converter whose oxygen storage storage capacity is good. This is done by decreasing decreasing the A/F ratio’s lambda value to less than 1. As a second check the catalyst temperature at the the outlet is monitored and compared to the catalyst temperature at the input to the converter. The sensitivity of the outlet gas temperature to catalyst efficiency may be too low to reliably detect the difference at the the 60% HC conversion efficiency level. palladium. NOx. Converter also must have an over temperature detection algorithm to detect excessive temperature in the converter. section. The misfire detection diagnostic which is previously described is s an important preventive measure that protects the converter i from extreme temperature spike that can severely reduce converter converter efficiency or even cause catalyst destruction altogether. The output signal wave form of the oxygen sensor (lambda sensor) . misfire detection is a must for safe converter converter operation.at the front end of the the converter close to the engine. along with rhodium as catalytic materials. The diagnostic system is required to detect when the hydrocarbon emission (HC) concentration of the catalyst (closest to the engine ) is more than 40 to 50% of the engineengine-out emission concentration. . it creates an exothermic reaction resulting in a higher outlet catalyst temperature. The check is performed with the vehicle vehicle operating at between 20 and 50 miles/hr with the speed held at a reasonably steady state condition. and components of the converter. a catalyst is regarded as malfunctioning when when the average hydrocarbon conversion efficiency falls between 50 and 60%. converter. This is is due to the converter’s ability to store oxygen when the gas is lean (and rich in oxygen) and give up oxygen when the gas is rich (and (and short of oxygen). oscillates between lean and rich value of 100 millivolts and 900 millivolts due to closedclosed-loop control strategy that keeps the Air/Fuel ratio at stoichiometry (lambda value equal to 1). degraded. But this is not always reliable. To prevent unburned fuel from entering the converter. This algorithm cannot work for coastdown conditions or overrun conditions. If the difference is above a value that corresponds to more than 60% 60% converter efficiency then the converter efficiency is considered good. Catalyst converter diagnostics are described in more detail in a later section. and failed catalysts are explained in detail in a later section. and metal monolith. degraded. when the engine intake manifold pressure is drive too low to allow coastdown allow complete combustion. ceramic monolith. They differ differ in the method by which they support the noble metals which convert convert exhaust gases to HC and NOx free gases. Operation at temperatures which exceed the recommended maximums may cause irreversible irreversible damage to the catalyst. ThreeThree-way catalytic converters typically contain platinum. If the catalyst is functioning functioning properly. Signal characteristics from the oxygen sensors for fresh.

and vehicle operation. A fault code is stored if the oxygen sensor at the upstream of the converter is oscillating slower than the system frequency. If the A/F ratio is fluctuating due to excessive correction. after the sensor attains the operating temperature (above 300O C ). the voltage across the heater is checked. This can cause a deviation in the A/F ratio from from the optimum stoichiometry value. In case of a faulty faulty sensor the MIL shall be illuminated and the DTC shall be stored stored in the computer. Oxygen sensor diagnostics are described in more detail in a later later section. The OBD II diagnostic requires that the heater of the oxygen sensor sensor must be monitored periodically for its normal operation. depending upon the fuel controller. If the oscillation is slower than normal meaning that the oxygen sensor sensor is responding slowly to the A/F ratio input. Using this information the controller can detect deviations of the average value in the A/F ratio that determines the system frequency. If the voltage is not present a fault code (DTC) is set. The PCM has a special input circuit for detecting short circuit or open circuit (break) of the sensor wiring and monitors the switching switching frequency (closed(closed-loop) of the control loop.25 Hz to 2. . provided by the oxygen sensor.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Oxygen Sensor & Heater Monitoring: An oxygen sensor performs best best when its operating temperature is maintained within a specific range above 260O C. the current carried by the heater element is checked ( Max. For this reason a heater is used to keep the oxygen sensor temperature at the desired desired value. accounts. it is an indication of a faulty fuel system. During the closed loop operation of the vehicle. the heater is directly controlled by the the controller without any relay. The circuit continuity is checked. Fuel system must be checked before deciding deciding that oxygen sensor is faulty. to the pre set data map of optimum fuel required for each load and engine RPM. and the lambda sensor voltage stays near bias (450 mv) mv) and engine does not go into closed loop. and all fuel control oxygen sensors for for malfunction. Additionally Additionally the controller compares the output signal (voltage) of the additional lambda sensor downstream of the converter with the oxygen (lambda) sensor signal upstream. the sensor voltage should oscillate between about 100 to 250 mv at the low end and 700 to 900 mv at the high end. If If system is operating lean. then it is misfire problem. resulting in increased emissions. 20 A). the sensor is having an open circuit and is defective. upstream. The OBD II legal requirements requirements are: The diagnostic system shall monitor the output voltage. If the heater is found defective on any of these accounts. Oxygen sensor diagnostic requires the following checks: Circuit continuity . and any other parameter that can affect emissions. the PCM sets a fault code. the the response rate. The deviation can be detected by monitoring the signal output oscillation of upstream oxygen (lambda) sensor and comparing it with the system operation frequency (1. as well as the temperature of the the oxygen sensor.25 Hz to 2. then it is due to the sensor being exposed to high heat for a long long period of time.and the bias voltage of 450 millivolts in the sensor circuit are verified.5 Hz) obtained from the the controller. For added reliability.5 Hz. If system is operating rich and the lambda sensor indicates lean. Slow transient response in A/F shift can also be caused by fuel control problem or carbon deposits or due to mild driving mode. fuel injection system. A MIL is also illuminated. The frequency of oscillation of this sensor voltage voltage is between 1. The voltage across the sensor should read 450 millivolts with the ignition key On and engine not started. all fuel control oxygen sensors for malfunction.

injection solenoids. The PCM adds correction correction factors to injectior pulse width to increase fuel injection during cold start. in closedclosed-loop operation. The PCM determines the required injector pulse width to maintain maintain Air/Fuel ratio within the lambda control window (0. The lambda closedclosed-loop control system provides feedback to the PCM on the necessary necessary correction to the preset data points. During deceleration. If the PCM PCM correction passes a predetermined threshold. consequently fuel system monitoring is done by using predetermined data map with optimal fuel required for each load (MAP value) and engine RPM point. and lambda control. injector pulse width. its diagnostics are crucial to control emissions and consequently consequently to OBD II. and wide wide open throttle. intake air system leakage. MIL is illuminated at that time. Excessive spark advance will cause engine knock. Some possibilities are defective fuel pressure regulator. The systems involved in this control are fuel metering. ignition circuit.93 to 1. Ignition timing affects emissions. The legal OBD II requirements are: The diagnostic system shall monitor monitor the fuel delivery system for its ability to provide compliance compliance with emission standards. the fuel system is deemed faulty and a fault code is stored and MIL is illuminated. The amount of fuel is determined by the duty cycle of the injector pulse width. The powertrain control strategy is to provide the correct Air/Fuel ratio under all operating conditions.07). contaminated fuel injectors. and rational parameter values within limits of operation. These include fuel pump. rated current. If the fuel correction exceeds the limit. voltage. or exhaust system leakage. control. that some component in the fuel supply system is outside of its operating range. fuel fuel pump. either in absolute value or in in update rate. Fuel system diagnostics diagnostics are described in more detail in a later section. components of the fuel system are deemed faulty. . Since fuel system has a major impact on emissions. The corrected information information is stored in the PCM’s memory so that the next time that operation point is reached. less less correction of the Air/Fuel ratio will be required. All electronic components components are checked for circuit continuity. If these values exceed defined limits. Diagnostic technique: Deviations of the stoichiometric ratio which last for a longer time are stored within the adaptive adaptive mixture controller. and MAP sensor. PCM closes fuel injection. it indicates a faulty faulty fuel system.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Fuel System Monitoring: Monitoring: For fuel control strategies multipoint pulsed fuel injection system system is assumed. fuel injectors. except during during coldcold-start. defective manifold absolute pressure pressure (MAP) sensor. rated voltage. ignition timing. engine RPM sensor.

. The following is the procedure: At idle position. together with other parameters like the the amount of fuel. Included in this line is the canister purge solenoid valve. There are two principal causes of fuel vapor in the fuel tank: increasing ambient temperature temperature and return of unused hot fuel from the engine. therefore. time. contained in the flow stream. The evaporative control system consists of a vapor ventilation line that exits the fuel tank and enters fuel vapor canister.5 KPa. A pressure sensor in the fuel tank would provide a pressure profile profile which will determine if a leak existed in the system. Only a certain a volume of fuel vapor can be contained by the canister. and the lambda controller is monitored for its reaction. Control of the purge valve must allow for two criteria: Š There must be enough vapor flow so that charcoal canister does not not become saturated and leak fuel vapors into the atmosphere. The OBD II diagnostic system shall control the air flow of the complete complete evaporative system. Purge vapors could otherwise result in upto 30% increase in Air/Fuel mixture richness in the engine. The amount of fuel vapor in the canister and therefore. is not known. For leak detection of the evaporative system. small amount of purge vapors. The layout of a typical evaporative evaporative emission control system is described in a later section. it requests a duty cycle (ratio of ON time to OFF time). the purge valve is closed entirely to minimize the possibility of unburned HCs in the exhaust. The canister canister consists of an active charcoal element which absorbs the vapor and nd allows only air to escape to the atmosphere. When lambda control is not operating.Evaporative System Monitoring: Hydro Carbons (HC) in the form of fuel vapors escaping from the the vehicle. From time to time. Purge control valve is situated in the pipe line that connects the intake manifold of the engine to the charcoal canister. only low dutyduty-cycles and therefore. When the PCM commands the purge valve to meter vapor from the canister. will indicate possible leaks. The complete system is turned off and the pressure within the canister is monitored for variation with time. The pressure gradient. The The canister purge valve meters the amount of flow from the canister. This allows the amount of vapor flow to be regulated depending depending on the engine operating conditions. The vapors vapors in the canister must therefore be purged into the engine and burned by the engine so that the canister can continue to store vapors when they are generated. primarily from the fuel tank are required to be monitored to reduce emissions as legislated legislated by EPA and required by OBD II. during coldcold-start. To accomplish this another purge line leads from the char coal canister canister to the intake manifold. KPa. If a leak is detected detected the MIL is illuminated. The complete test suite is more elaborate and is described in detail in a later section. Š Purge flow must generally occur under lambda closedclosed-loop control so that the effect of the purge vapors on A/F ratio can be detected and the fuel metering corrected. During engine operation vacuum in the intake manifold causes flow flow through the charcoal canister because the canister vent opening at the charcoal filter end is at atmospheric pressure. Therefore it is critical that the lambda control system is operating and adjusting adjusting the fuel requirement as the vapors are being purged. manufacturers may occasionally turn off the evaporative purge system in order to carry out a check. Under deceleration fuel cut off. In addition . a valve installed installed at the atmospheric side of the canister which is the output to the active carbon filter is shut off and the canister pressure is decreased decreased to about -1. the diagnostic system shall also monitor the complete evaporative system for the emission emission of HC vapor into the atmosphere by performing a pressure or vacuum check of the complete evaporative system. are allowed into the intake manifold. the canister purge purge valve is activated.

EGR pintle valve position is monitored by the PCM for proper opening. and the time of the valve opening. engine coolant temperature. This amount is compared with the required amount obtained from the table with predefined values. and engine RPM. The net effect is to reduce the flame temperature at part load while retaining the power of the engine. and the amount of exhaust gas delivered by the pintle valve. . Finally the Engine RPM (900 . Engine coolant temperature is monitored for an increase in value during EGR operation. The OBD II diagnostic consists of several algorithms to monitor all the functions listed above. The OBD II diagnostic has to monitor the pintle valve. manifold absolute pressure (MAP) pressure. The reduction of temperature reduces NOx emission produced by the engine. By mixing a portion of the exhaust gas with fresh intake air/fuel mixture the oxygen content is reduced without reducing the mass of gas processed by the cylinder.EGR System Monitoring: During overrun and heavy load of the vehicle the peak combustion temperature of o the cylinders of the engine will increase to more than 3000 F. MAP pressure is monitored for increase in pressure during EGR operation. the EGR malfunction is detected.1100) is monitored for a decrease of about 50 RPM during EGR (DTC for fault is P0401 for no decrease in RPM when vehicle speed is 25 MPH with brakes applied) operation. The engine acts partially like an external combustion engine in that the combustion process must impart energy to the inert exhaust gas as well as to the air charge. The amount of exhaust gas ingested is monitored from the EGR pintle valve flow rate. the fuel is cut off. If there is a significant difference between the actual and the needed values. A measured quantity of exhaust gas is introduced into intake manifold via a pintle valve connecting the exhaust gas to the intake manifold. During EGR operation. The correct amount of exhaust gas is obtained from predefined engine RPM/load (MAP) table showing optimum EGR valve openings & gas amount.

Then intentionally disable EGR operation for a small predefined amount of time and measure the critical parameters. The predefined operating condition is deceleration which means that the test is performed during deceleration of the vehicle. The first method is to intentionally open the EGR valve through a measured value during normal operation when there is no need for EGR and measure the response of critical system system parameters due to this perturbation namely.OBD(II) In addition the electrical characteristics of the pintle valve are checked. and twentytwenty-five percent use the intrusive perturbation method to detect EGR malfunction. Different frequencies of testing are also used in the diagnostic. Another method requires eight tests to be performed within a two minute period before a fault code is stored when two two failures occur within that period. Engine RPM. and the circuit continuity including open circuit as well as short short circuit in the wiring. diagnostic. Currently about fifty percent of the manufacturers monitor the EGR passage temperature. If a test reveals no fault . and closedclosed-loop fuel system correction. twentytwenty-five percent monitor the EGR valve signal (position). The hardware failure code of P1406 is set for out of range voltage voltage signal from the pintle valve position sensor of more than 10% from commanded value. Another manufacturer monitors the exhaust gas pressures on both sides of an orifice in the passage to the EGR valve. EGR diagnostics diagnostics are described in more detail in a later later section. One method is to requires three three successive tests. Different DTCs are set for tests performed with similar EGR diagnostic objectives objectives due to differences in test time. The legal OBD II requirement is: The diagnostic system shall monitor monitor the EGR system on vehicle for low and high flow rate malfunction. more than one one diagnostic is necessary before a fault code is stored and the MIL is illuminated. EGR fault code is set. each revealing an EGR fault. If the pressure differential is not within permissible limits. The pressure drop across the orifice is measured as the exhaust exhaust gas flows through the orifice. the next test is performed eleven minutes later. pintle valve position. temperature. including the voltage. If the critical parameters do not conform to the desired values EGR malfunction is indicated. coolant temperature. If the difference in critical parameter values do not not conform to the expected values then EGR malfunction is indicated. The second method is to wait for the condition of the vehicle when the EGR is operated by the PCM as a consequence of engine overrun or high load. Due to uncertainties encountered in EGR monitoring. A much simpler algorithm measures the increase in coolant temperature temperature during EGR and if the increase in not within desired range EGR malfunction is indicated. There are two methods used in verifying that EGR is functioning properly meaning meaning no sticking valve or clogged EGR passage. before a fault code is stored. the current drawn by the moving pintle. . pintle. and critical parameter values. In addition increase increase in manifold absolute pressure (MAP) during EGR and if the increase is not within desired range EGR malfunction malfunction is indicated. MAP pressure.

This creates creates extra heat to speed warmwarm-up of the converter and EGO sensor. The other valve switches air flow to the exhaust exhaust manifold or to the catalytic converter. depending depending on coolant temperature. One valve switches air flow to the exhaust manifold or to the air cleaner cleaner (atmosphere). enrichment. enabling the PCM to go into closedclosed-loop mode more quickly. The MIL is illuminated. the fault fault code is set. The extra oxygen from the secondary air improves the converter’s converter’s ability to oxidize HC and CO in the second converter chamber. This can happen if excessive amounts of HC and CO are oxidized in the exhaust manifold manifold during periods of heavy loads which call for fuel enrichment. or air cleaner. The air routing is controlled based on engine engine coolant temperature and Air/Fuel ratio. the secondary air is used to supply oxygen to the the second chamber of the threethree-way catalyst. and any air switching valve (solenoid). the secondary air is not let into exhaust exhaust manifold but directed into the air cleaner where it has no effect on exhaust temperatures.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Secondary Air System Monitoring: Secondary air system is used to improve the performance of the catalytic converter (Three way) by providing extra oxygen rich air to either the converter itself or to the exhaust manifold. palladium. The control of the secondary secondary air is done by using two solenoid valves similar to the EGR pintle valve. NOx. in dualdualchamber converter system. palladium. The catalyst temperature must be above about 200o C to efficiently oxidize HC and reduce NOx. If the control is openopen-loop and if the coolant temperature is below threshold and Air/Fuel Air/Fuel ratio is not too rich. During startstart-up and such heavy loads. . to warm it up. then the lambda sensor is monitored for correlated deviations deviations when the secondary air flow is changed from exhaust manifold. the first chamber contains rhodium. and lambda value. indicated by the lambda lambda sensor. HC and CO are oxidized in the exhaust manifold by routing secondary air to the exhaust manifold in controlled quantify by the PCM. During engine warmwarm-up when the catalytic converter is cold. during closedclosed-loop operation. If coolant temperature is higher than threshold and the Air/Fuel ratio ratio is rich (lambda < 1) then the secondary air is directed to the air cleaner which exits to the atmosphere. In a dualdual-chamber converter. and platinum to reduce NOx and to oxidize HC and CO. or during severe deceleration. After warmwarm-up. During openopen-loop control (cold converter) the converter is liable to be damaged damaged if excessive heat is applied to it. The OBD II requirement requirement is that the secondary air system shall have the diagnostic system monitor the the proper functioning of the secondary air delivery. The critical parameters of the secondary air system are monitored monitored and if found to be out of permissible range of values. Secondary air diagnostics are described in more detail in a later later section. If the control is closedclosed-loop. or catalytic converter. The second chamber contains only platinum and palladium. then the air flow is directed to the exhaust manifold.

ignition coil. and power supply. solenoids. actuators (valves). ground. 230230-233 uIndividual fuel injectors DTCs 251251-296 uEGR sensor/ valve DTCs 400400-408 uIdle air control (IAC) valve DTCs 505505-507 uSecondary air valve DTCs 410410-419 uFuel level sensor DTCs 460460-464 uCatalytic converter DTCs 420420-434 . fuel injectors. fuel pump. solenoids.109 u Intake air temperature sensor DTCs 110110-114 uOxygen sensor sensor DTCs 130 -167 uMass air flow (MAF) sensor DTCs 100100-104 uThrottle position sensor DTCs 120120-124. 220220-229 uCrankshaft angle sensor DTCs 335335-344. 385385-389 u Engine coolant temperature sensor DTCs 115115-119.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Comprehensive Components Monitoring includes all the sensors. 125125-126 uKnock sensor DTCs 325325-334 uEngine speed sensor DTCs 320320-323 uVehicle speed sensor DTCs 500500-503 uMisfire (sensor) detector DTCs 300300-312 uCanister vent valve DTCs 440440-455 u Purge valve DTCs 465465-469 uIgnition coil (ignition control) DTCs 350350-379 uFuel system (fuel metering) DTCs 170170-195. and the associated wiring. The The following components with their DTCs are described below: uManifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor DTCs 105 .

. the corresponding diagnostic trouble code (DTC) assigned in SAE J 2120 to that fault. and power source.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics The OBD II diagnostics consist of conducting tests on all the sensors and actuators listed above. If any fault is detected in any of the tests of these devices including . wiring. electrical circuit. is displayed and the malfunction indication light (MIL)is illuminated. sensor or actuator component. The nature of these tests is described below.

Low Circuit Input. and acronyms. SAE J 1979. the upper most nibble of the two -byte code message as defined in SAE J 1979 will define the source system as follows: P0 . P1 belong to manufacturer. components. and P1 0001. and the rest are reserved for future use. and SAE J 1930. The assignment of the proper designator should be determined by the PCM.0000. . please refer to SAE J 2012. The P0 codes are defined by four different categories: General Circuit Malfunction. abbreviations. In case of ambiguity.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics SAE J 2012 standard defines the recommended practice for diagnostic trouble codes (DTC) of all comprehensive components listed above. The DTC consists of an alpha-numeric designator p0 .p3 for powertrain. Manufacturers can define specific DTCs to meet their controller algorithms. where p0 codes belong to SAE controlled codes. The P0 codes are followed by three digit codes assigned to individual faults. and High Circuit Input. Parameter Identification numbers (PIDs) and their definitions with actual examples for compliance. This standard defines diagnostic trouble codes for all the circuits. Then the DTCs for different faults for each sensor and actuator listed above will be described. but all DTC words must meet the terms’ definitions specified in SAE J 1930 standard for Diagnostic terms. For more detailed knowledge of the DTCs and their messages. The main aspects of these definitions are covered below. The definition of these four categories of faults will be described first. Range/Performance Problem. namely P0 codes. definitions. SAE J 2012 provides guidance (definitions) for message formats. and systems which are controlled by SAE.

This can be due to stuck at 0 or stuck at 1 fault. This could be due to short circuit in the circuit wiring. component. or a complete break down of the function resulting in a wrong response including no response. frequency or other signal measured at the control module input terminal or Pin is at or near zero. or an open circuit. or skewed values indicating poor performance of the circuit. The signal type (voltage. . intermittent. Range/Performance: This is the case when the component is functional in general terms except that the response value is not within the normal operating range. or system connected. or system. frequency) shall be included in the message in place of the word “input”. component. Low Circuit Input: The circuit voltage. This is measured with the external circuit. or erratic.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics General Circuit Malfunction: This is a general purpose failure resulting in the component not responding with expected value or any value.

auxiliary emission controls 400 . P03 . frequency or other signal measured at the control module input terminal or Pin is at or near full scale. DTCs are defined to indicate a suspected trouble or problem area and are intended as a directive to the proper service procedure. idle control.Fuel and Air metering 100-199.Computer and auxiliary outputs 600. The decision to illuminate MIL for any DTC is manufacture specific based on their testing of how each system malfunction affects emissions.485. P02 . DTC codes are grouped in different categories. Since OBD II focuses on emissions control only DTCs upto P04 followed by three digit fault code are covered here. and P05 . or system connected.574. .Fuel and Air metering. The signal type (voltage.Ignition system or Misfire 300-389. Each category has 100 codes assigned to it as follows: P01 .Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics High Circuit Input: The circuit voltage. component. P06 . and P07 Transmission 700 . DTC s should not be used to indicate the absence of problems but only to indicate specific fault. and auxiliary inputs 500 .vehicle speed.605. frequency) shall be included in the message in place of the word”input”. This is measured with the external circuit.790. P04 .

component.e. The messages are organized such that different messages related to a particular sensor or system are grouped together... Same groupings should be used as in SAE controlled area. For these. Manufacturers who define their own DTCs in this area are urged to remain consistent across their product line when assigning codes in manufacturer controlled area. provided only one code is used consistently to describe that fault. implementation differences. Non-Uniform DTC: These are fault codes that have very little commonality among manufacturers due to system differences. 100s and 200s for fuel and air metering. i. In cases where there are various fault messages for different types of faults. . the group also has a “Generic” message as the fault Code/Message of the group. Each defined DTC is assigned a message to indicate the circuit. 300 for ignition system or misfire. Undefined DTCs are reserved for future use. etc. Manufacturer has a choice to use the specific or generic fault code.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Core DTCS: Core DTCs are those codes which have achieved compliance uniformly throughout the industry. and fault message is assigned. or diagnostic strategy differences. Even though the service procedures for rectifying each of these DTCs may vary among manufacturers. a common DTC number. the fault indicated by the DTC is common enough to be assigned a particular fault code. or system area that is faulty.

The service procedure would then allow the service technician to determine the type of fault and the specific location of the fault. On these types of systems. a shorted sensor input. an open sensor input. component. and system codes will be used. The messages are intended to allow the manufacturers to use them as often as possible yet still not conflict with their specific repair procedures. as is done in complex cases. For example. coils. and switches. or system. the manufacturer should choose the fault code most applicable to their diagnosable fault. if a fault is detected in in the throttle position sensor circuit. a Code P0120 would be stored indicating some type of problem with that circuit.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics In a case where messages are broken down into more specific fault descriptions for a circuit. Each code should lead to a specific repair procedure(s). instead of burdening the OBD II with determining the specific type of fault. Examples: As a guide to clarify the above points a few examples are given. such as sensors. actuators. and even out of range sensor output would all set the same fault code. general circuit. For manufacturers choosing to implement basic diagnostics that provide general fault information but depend on service procedures and Off-board diagnostics to isolate the problem. . component.

The root cause of this fault can be any one of electrical or mechanical problems. the manufacturer has the choice to select either of two codes: P0120 (general malfunction). For example. depending on the manufacturer’s diagnostic procedures. but would use the more specific code/message associated with the particular circuit. if the input signal at the PCM is stuck at near 0 volt. and SAE J 1930 are complied with. The powertrain control strategies in performing OBD II diagnostics depend on each manufacturer who has considerable flexibility as to how the diagnostics are implemented provided the above guidelines of SAE J 2012. A typical use of OBD II procedure is given below as a generic example: The diagnostic mode is entered by switching on the ignition and then simultaneously depressing the OFF and Warmer buttons on the climate control system (cadillac). Identification of the root cause is done using the diagnostic procedures and is not implied by the DTC message. manufacturers choosing to allow the OBD II to better isolate the fault to specific cause would not use the general fault code/message. or system. . or P0122 (specific low circuit input ). in diagnosing a 5 volt reference throttle position sensor. SAE 1979.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics However. thus allowing the manufacturer the flexibility in assigning DTCs. component.

After all fault codes are displayed. special code appears on the display indicating the end of display. Each fault code is displayed in sequence starting with the code that checks that all display segments are working correctly. For non-emissions related faults the MIL light goes out automatically if the malfunction clears. identifies the failed components. For emissions related faults the MIL light will not go out until cleared from memory by the mechanic. After verifying that all display segments are working. However the PCM stores the DTC associated with the detected failure until the diagnostic system is manually cleared or until a specified number of engine cycles (twenty) occur with no malfunction. . The mechanic notes the fault codes that are displayed . For some DTCs (of lesser consequence) there is no activation of the “check engine” MIL light. the fault codes for all component failures are displayed in sequence.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics The fault codes are displayed by flashing the “Check Engine” light and entering the display mode. The fault codes must comply with the SAE J 2012 standard. and the engine control system awaits further action by the mechanic. and using a reference manual. beginning with the lowest and proceeding to the highest code. Typically the “check engine” light on the instrument panel is illuminated whenever any fault occurs.

The voltage of cold O2 sensor is about 0. P0130 which indicates the sensor circuit malfunction. These procedures are outlined in the shop manuals. the average value of its output voltage is measured using the OBD II procedure which will be explained presently. To check the operation of the O2 sensor . Recall also that this voltage swing requires that the O2 must be at a temperature above 2000 C.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics whenever a defect occurs the mechanic must follow a specific procedure to isolate the particular problem.5 volt with a bias of 0. Possible causes of fault code P0130 include: O2 sensor is not functioning correctly Circuit wiring is defective ( stuck at some value) The control (circuit) unit processing O2 sensor signal is not functioning properly Further investigation is required to attempt to isolate the specific problem.45 Volt and the electronic control system will not go into closed-loop operation when O2 is cold. the O2 sensor switches between 0 (100 mv) and 1 volt (900 mv) as the A/F mixture switches between the extreme conditions of lean and rich . An example procedure will be illustrated for an Oxygen sensor fault. . If you recall from the Oxygen sensor behavior described earlier.

Thus to say . If this voltage is less than 0. The mechanic can then jumper the input leads together at the input to the control unit. etc. the control unit is faulty and should be replaced. If the O2 sensor voltage is between 0.05 volt. “00” corresponds to 0 volts and “99” corresponds to 0. To clear DTC the mechanic pushes “OFF” and “HI” buttons on IP simultaneously until “00” is displayed on IP. the mechanic is directed by the procedure to investigate the circuit wiring of the O2 sensor for defects. .57 volt.99 volt. If the indicated sensor voltage is greater than 0. the mechanic follows the following procedure: If the O2 sensor voltage is less than 0. Using this voltage. the control unit is functioning correctly and the O2 sensor must be investigated for defects.57 volt tests are performed to determine whether O2 sensor or the control (circuit) unit processing the O2 sensor signal is faulty.37volt and more than 0.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics The desired voltage is displayed on the Instrument panel (IP) in multiples of 1/100 volt. simulating a O2 sensor short circuit.37 volt and 0. when diagnosing a problem.05 volt. the mechanic might wish to clear a fault code from the PCM memory. and must read the sensor voltage value using the OBD II display procedure. A good reason to do this can be to test whether the failure is “hard” or intermittent.

and display formats are included in SAE J 1979. PID definition. which PIDs that module supports. the mechanic has several choices of test modes including: ♦ Request current powertrain diagnostic data (mode $01) ♦ Request current powertrain Freeze Frame” data (mode $02) ♦ Request Emission related DTCs ♦ Request OBD II test results of continuously monitored / non-continuously monitored systems ♦ Request control of OBD II system. for each module. . Mode $01: The purpose of this mode is to allow access to current emission related data values.. All data values returned for sensor readings will be actual readings.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics After all fault codes are cleared. Not all PIDs are applicable or supported by all systems. for compliance. not default or substitute values used by the PCM because of a fault with that sensor. The OBD II module will respond to this message by transmitting the requested data value last determined by the PCM. PID $00 must be supported by all modules that respond to a Mode $01 request as defined in the standard SAE J 1979. The request for information includes a Parameter Identification(PID) value that indicates to OBD II the specific information requested. PID $00 is a bit encoded PID that indicates. because tools that conform to SAE J 1978 use this request to determine the protocol information supported for OBD II communications. scaling information.

fault code 109 is assigned. assigned. actuators. The expected value is estimated using coolant temperature sensor reading reading and engine parameters.109): MAP sensor diagnostics are performed for deterioration of piezoresister or capacitor characteristics. If the sensor is indicating out of range reading fault code 111 is assigned. In case of electrical circuit malfunction fault code 105 is assigned.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics For more detailed information on all the request modes that you can use to perform OBD II diagnostics using OBD II communications. and systems indicated below will be briefly described. If the sensor is indicating very high reading fault code 113 is assigned. . The powertrain control strategies to perform OBD II diagnostics in general are described so far. The expected value is estimated using mass air flow sensor reading and engine parameters. Manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor (DTCs (DTCs 105 . If the sensor is indicating very high reading fault code 108 is assigned. assigned. In case of thermister circuit malfunction fault code 110 is assigned. If the sensor is indicating out of range reading fault code 106 is assigned. refer to the HS -3000 SAE standards manual. If the sensor is indicating very low reading fault code 112 is assigned. Now the specific diagnostics performed for DTCs of the sensors. Intake air temperature (IAT) sensor (DTCs (DTCs 110110-114): IAT sensor diagnostics are performed for deterioration of thermister characteristics. If the the sensor is indicating intermittent faulty reading. If the sensor is indicating very low reading reading fault code 107 is assigned. and Scan Tool (SAE J 1978) . If the sensor is indicating intermittent faulty reading fault code 114 is assigned.

Oxygen sensor diagnostics are described in detail in alter section. If the O2 sensor is indicating slow response fault code 133 is assigned. The expected value is estimated using closed-loop frequency and engine parameters. In case of O2 sensor heater circuit malfunction fault code 135 is assigned. fault code 134 is assigned. In case of Zirconia electrode circuit malfunction fault code 130 is assigned.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Oxygen Sensor (O2 ) Sensor ( DTCs 130-167): O2 sensor diagnostics are performed to check deterioration of electrochemical pumping action that generates voltage sensitivity to the oxygen density in the exhaust manifold. If the O2 sensor is indicating very high voltage fault code 132 is assigned. The other codes from 135 to 167 are assigned to similar faults for other O2 sensors and heaters in other catalytic converters in the system. If the O2 sensor is indicating no activity. . If the O2 sensor is indicating very low voltage fault code 131 is assigned.

If the sensor is indicating very high reading fault code 103 is assigned. In case of electrical circuit malfunction fault code 100 is assigned. The expected value is estimated using MAP sensor reading and engine parameters. If the sensor is indicating intermittent faulty reading fault code 104 is assigned. If the sensor is indicating very low reading fault code 102 is assigned.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Mass air flow (MAF) sensor (DTC 100-104): MAF sensor diagnostics are performed for deterioration of electrical and resister characteristics. . If the sensor is indicating out of range 1reading fault code 101 is assigned.

For switch B circuit . In case of switch A circuit malfunction fault code 120 is assigned. The expected value is estimated using air flow sensor reading and engine parameters. If the switch A circuit is indicating intermittent faulty reading fault code 124 is assigned. If the switch A circuit is indicating out of range reading fault code 121 is assigned. . For switch C circuit . fault codes 225-229 are set for identical faults listed above. If the switch A circuit is indicating very low reading fault code 122 is assigned. 220-229): TP sensor diagnostics are performed for deterioration of potentiometer operated switch A circuit characteristics. If the switch A circuit is indicating very high reading fault code 123 is assigned.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Throttle position Sensor (TPS) ( DTCs 120-124. fault codes 220-224 are set for identical faults listed above.

fault codes 34 0-344 are set for identical faults listed above. If the sensor A circuit is indicating out of range reading fault code 336 is assigned.389): Crankshaft angular position sensor diagnostics are performed for deterioration of magnetic reluctance of sensor A circuit characteristics. 385. . For sensor B circuit . If the sensor A circuit is indicating very high reading fault code 338 is assigned. The expected value is estimated using engine speed another engine parameters. If the sensor A circuit is indicating very low reading fault code 337 is assigned. If the sensor A circuit is indicating intermittent faulty reading fault code 339 is assigned. In case of sensor A circuit malfunction fault code 335 is assigned.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Crankshaft Angular Position Sensor ( DTCs 335-344. fault codes 385-389 are set for identical faults listed above. For sensor C circuit .

For insufficient coolant temperature for stable operation fault code 126 is assigned. If the sensor circuit is indicating out of range reading fault code 116 is assigned. In case of thermister and electrical circuit malfunction fault code 115 is assigned. If the sensor circuit is indicating very low reading fault code 117 is assigned. If the sensor circuit is indicating very high reading fault code 118 is assigned.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor ( DTCs 115-119. For insufficient coolant temperature for closed loop fuel control fault code 125 is assigned. 125-126): Engine Coolant Temperature sensor diagnostics are performed for deterioration of thermister characteristics. . If the sensor circuit is indicating intermittent faulty reading fault code 119 is assigned. The expected value is estimated using engine parameters.

Fundamentals of Powertrain
Control strategies & OBD II
Diagnostics
Knock Sensor ( DTCs 325-334): Knock sensor diagnostics are
performed for deterioration of piezoelectric or magneto restrictive
characteristics. In case of electrical circuit malfunction fault code 325 is
assigned. If the sensor 1 circuit is indicating out of range reading
fault code 326 is assigned. If the sensor 1 circuit is indicating very low
reading fault code 327 is assigned. If the sensor 1 circuit is indicating
very high reading fault code 328 is assigned. Knocking is detected by
the oscillation frequency of the piezoelectric device or the voltage
developed by the magnetorestrictive device when knocking occurs. If
the sensor 1 circuit is indicating intermittent faulty reading fault code
329 is assigned.
If the sensor 2 circuit is indicating same faults as listed above, fault codes
330-3334 are assigned to the respective faults. Knock sensor diagnostics
are described in detail in a later section.

Fundamentals of Powertrain
Control strategies & OBD II
Diagnostics

Engine Speed Sensor ( DTCs 320-323):
Engine speed sensor diagnostics are performed for eterioration of
magnetic reluctance characteristics.
In case of electrical circuit malfunction fault code 320 is assigned.
If the sensor circuit is indicating out of range reading fault code 321 is
assigned. If the sensor circuit is indicating no signal , fault code 322 is
assigned. The expected value is estimated using engine parameters.
If the sensor is indicating intermittent faulty reading, fault code 323 is
assigned.

Fundamentals of Powertrain
Control strategies & OBD II
Diagnostics
Vehicle Speed Sensor ( DTCs 500-503):
Vehicle speed sensor diagnostics are
performed for deterioration of magnetic reluctance and
electrical characteristics. In case of electrical
circuit malfunction fault code 500 is assigned.
If the sensor circuit is indicating out of range reading
fault code 501 is assigned. If the sensor circuit is
indicating very low reading fault code 502 is
assigned. If the sensor is indicating very high/erratic/
intermittent reading fault code 503 is assigned.

In case of detecting misfire in cylinder 1 fault code 300 is assigned.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Misfire Detector( DTCs 300-312): Misfire sensor diagnostics are performed for reduction of cylinder torque due to lack of combustion. The fault codes for misfires in cylinder 2 to 12 are similarly assigned to 301 .312 respectively. Misfire is described in detail in a later section. .

If the Purge flow sensor circuit has detected a high value. fault code 468 is assigned. In case of Purge flow sensor circuit malfunction fault code 465 is assigned. If the Purge flow sensor circuit is having range/performance problem purge flow fault code 466 is assigned. fault code 467 is assigned. fault code 469 is assigned. If the Purge flow sensor circuit has detected a low value. If the Purge flow sensor circuit has intermittent fault..Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Evaporative Emission control system (Purge flow) ( DTCs 465-469): Purge flow sensor circuit diagnostics are performed for deterioration of Purge flow sensor circuit . .

Evaporative system diagnostics are covered in detail in a later section. In case of evaporative emission control system malfunction fault code 440 is assigned. . If the evaporative emission control system has purge control valve circuit malfunction fault code 443 is assigned. If the evaporative emission control system is having incorrect purge flow due to faulty purge valve. If the evaporative emission control system has detected small leak. fault code 442 is assigned. fault code 441 is assigned. If the evaporative emission control system has purge control valve circuit shorted fault code 445 is assigned. If the evaporative emission control system has purge control valve circuit open. fault code 444 is assigned.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Evaporative Emission control system (Purge valve) ( DTCs 440-445): Purge valve diagnostics are performed for deterioration of evaporative emission control system.

Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Evaporative Emission control system (Vent valve) ( DTCs 446-449): If the evaporative emission control system vent control circuit malfunction fault code 446 is assigned. fault code 448 is assigned. If the evaporative emission control system vent control circuit open. If the evaporative emission control system vent valve/solenoid circuit malfunction. fault code 447 is assigned. Evaporative emission control system diagnostics are described in detail in later section. If the evaporative emission control system vent control circuit shorted. fault code 449 is assigned. .

fault code 450 is assigned. . fault code 451 is assigned. fault code 452 is assigned. If the evaporative emission control system pressure sensor is detected having leak. If the evaporative emission control system pressure sensor is experiencing intermittent fault. fault code 455 is assigned. If the evaporative emission control system pressure sensor has high input. fault code 454 is assigned. which is gross. If the evaporative emission control system pressure sensor has range/performance problem. If the evaporative emission control system pressure sensor has low input.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Evaporative Emission control system (Pressure sensor) ( DTCs 450-455): If the evaporative emission control system pressure sensor is experiencing malfunction. fault code 453 is assigned.

. If timing reference high resolution signal A has malfunction fault code 370 is assigned. If timing reference high resolution signal B has similar faults. fault code 350 is assigned. fault code 351 is assigned. In case of ignition coil primary/secondary electrical circuit malfunction. If timing reference high resolution signal A has intermittent fault. Similarly for the case of ignition coil B to L primary/secondary electrical circuit s' malfunction. If timing reference high resolution signal A has no pulses. fault code 374 is assigned. If timing reference high resolution signal A has too few pulses fault code 372 is assigned. fault code 373 is assigned. fault codes 375-379 respectively are assigned. In case of ignition coil A primary/secondary electrical circuit malfunction.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Ignition Coil ( DTCs 350-379): Ignition coil diagnostics are performed for deterioration of ignition coil primary/secondary characteristics. fault codes 352-362 are assigned. If timing reference high resolution signal A has too many pulses fault code 371 is assigned.

Fuel trim diagnostics are described in detail in later section.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Fuel Trim Fuel system (fuel metering) ( DTCs 170-195. If the fuel trim is indicating too lean system. 230-233 ): Fuel trim diagnostics are performed for deterioration of fuel trim values. If the fuel trim is indicating too rich system fault code 172 is assigned. If the fuel trim is indicating too rich system fault code 175 is assigned. If the fuel trim is indicating too lean system. . fault code 174 is assigned. In case of fuel trim malfunction (Bank 1)fault code 170 is assigned. fault code 171 is assigned. In case of fuel trim malfunction (Bank 2)fault code 173 is assigned.

fault code 254 is assigned. In case of Injection pump fuel metering control A (Cam/rotor/injector) Low value. In case of Injection pump fuel metering control A (Cam/rotor/injector) high value. In case of Injection pump fuel metering control A (Cam/rotor/injector) intermittent fault. . For control “B” faults similar to “A”. fault code 253 is assigned. and contribution/balance fault respectively. fault code 252 is assigned.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Individual Fuel Injectors ( DTCs 251-296): Injection pump fuel metering control circuit diagnostics are performed for deterioration of fuel injection characteristics. In case of Injection pump fuel metering control A (Cam/rotor/injector) range/performance problem. high value. fault code 251 is assigned. In case of Injection pump fuel metering control A (Cam/rotor/injector) malfunction. fault code 255 is assigned. fault codes 261-296 are assigned to injector coil circuits of cylinders 1 to 12 for low value. fault codes 256 to 260 are respectively assigned.

If the EGR sensor A circuit is indicating low value. If the EGR circuit is indicating range/performance problem . In case of EGR flow malfunction fault code 400 is assigned. fault code 403 is assigned. If the EGR sensor A circuit is indicating high value. fault code 402 is assigned. fault code 406 is assigned. If the EGR flow is indicating excessive flow. If the EGR circuit malfunction. EGR sensor/valve diagnostics are described in detail in later section. If the EGR flow is indicating insufficient flow.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics EGR Sensor /Valve ( DTCs 400-408): EGR sensor/ valve diagnostics are performed for deterioration of exhaust gas flow characteristics. fault code 401 is assigned. fault code 404 is assigned. . fault code 405 is assigned. Similar faults on sensor “B” circuit are assigned fault codes 407. 408 respectively.

Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Idle air control (IAC) valve 505-507 Idle control system diagnostics are performed for deterioration of idle air flow characteristics. In case of idle air control system malfunction fault code 505 is assigned. . fault code 506 is assigned. If the idle air control system is indicating lower than expected flow. If the idle air control system is indicating higher than expected flow .fault code 507 is assigned.

fault code 411 is assigned. In case of Secondary air injection system incorrect flow.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Secondary air injection system ( DTCs 410-419): Secondary air injection system diagnostics are performed for deterioration of Secondary air injection system flow characteristics. open . fault code 410 is assigned. or shorted. fault code 413 is assigned. fault code 418 is assigned. fault code 419 is assigned. In case of Secondary air injection system Relay A circuit malfunction . fault code 414 is assigned. In case of Secondary air injection system malfunction. Secondary air injection system diagnostics are described in detail in later section. In case of Secondary air injection system switching valve B circuit malfunction. In case of Secondary air injection system switching valve A circuit open . In case of Secondary air injection system switching valve A circuit shorted . . fault codes 415-417 are assigned respectively. In case of Secondary air injection system Relay B circuit malfunction .

fault code 462 is assigned. If the fuel level sensor circuit is indicating very low reading.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Fuel level Sensor ( DTCs 460-464): Fuel level sensor circuit diagnostics are performed for deterioration of fuel level sensor characteristics. fault code 464 is assigned. The expected value is estimated using flow parameters. If the fuel level sensor circuit is indicating very high reading fault code 463 is assigned. In case of fuel level sensor circuit malfunction fault code 460 is assigned. If the fuel level sensor circuit is indicating out of range/performance problem. fault code 461 is assigned. If the fuel level sensor circuit is indicating intermittent faulty reading. .

In case of Heated catalyst temperature. fault code 420 is assigned. for Bank 1. fault code 424 is assigned. below threshold. In case of Main Catalyst efficiency below threshold.Fundamentals of Powertrain Control strategies & OBD II Diagnostics Catalytic converter ( DTCs 420-434): Catalyst system efficiency diagnostics are performed for deterioration of characteristics. fault codes 430 to 434 are respectively assigned. fault code 422 is assigned. In case of Heated Catalyst efficiency below threshold. fault code 423 is assigned. Catalytic converter diagnostics are described in detail in later section. fault code 421 is assigned. In case of Catalyst system efficiency below threshold. For identical faults for Bank2 . . In case of Warm Up Catalyst efficiency below threshold.

The following sensors and actuators are tested and monitored by the OBD II diagnostics: Coolant temperature sensor Intake air temperature sensor Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor Engine Speed (Angular speed) sensor Exhaust Gas Oxygen (EGO) sensor Throttle Position (Angle) (TPS) sensor Crankshaft (angular) Position sensor Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor Knock sensor Ignition timing sensor Ignition actuator Idle air control (IAC) valve Secondary air valve EGR actuator (pintle valve) Fuel metering actuator Fuel injector . and checks the inputs and outputs of each device are within allowed range of values. switches. and wiring for proper connectivity. actuators (valves) .Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics OBD II tests all sensors.

A Sensor converts the physical quantity such as temperature. vacuum.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Each sensor circuit listed below consists of mainly three parts: Sensor. A signal processor. and a display device. RPM. air flow. or acceleration into an electrical signal so that it may be operated by the signal processor . velocity. pressure.

to increase power level.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics A signal processor performs some operation on the intermediate signal. it can be understood by the viewer. . and accuracy. reliability. The signal is then manipulated into a form so that when displayed.

such as temperature. . v0 is voltage. etc.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics The display device converts the signal from signal processor into a readable quantity. The sensor converts energy from the form of the measurement variable to an electrical signal. where K is the sensor calibration constant. An ideal analog sensor generates an output voltage which is proportional to the quantity being measured: v0 = Kq0. and q0 is the measured physical quantity.

An ideal sensor has a linear transfer characteristic. . Real sensor has noisy transfer characteristic. suitable for display.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics K is the sensor Calibration constant whose units are volts per physical quantity measured. As a consequence the sensor output needs signal processing which compensates for the noise and transforms it.

. and other is insufficient temperature for closed-loop operation or unstable operation. The reference voltage.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Coolant temperature sensor: Principle of operation: The sensor consists of a thermister mounted in a housing which is designed to be inserted in the coolant stream. This housing is threaded with pipe threads which seal the assembly against coolant leakage. The sensor output varies inversely with temperature. One is engine coolant temperature not correct. and the series resister in the circuit are critical sources of variation from correct temperature. The sensor is connected in an electrical circuit. A thermister is made of a semiconductor with a negative temperature coefficient. The relation between resistance and temperature is not linear in thermister. see Figure in handout. Diagnostics: The electrical characteristics of the thermister may deteriorate with time. Silicon temperature sensors provide a more linear output signal and are expected to replace thermister. OBD II DTCs : There are two failure modes.

Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Intake air temperature sensor Principle of operation: The sensor is similar in construction to the coolant temperature sensor. and the series resister in the circuit are critical sources of variation from correct temperature. OBD II DTC s are 110-114. The temperature vs voltage across the thermister is not completely linear. It is installed in the air intake manifold upstream of the air flow meter. OBD II DTCs : There is one failure mode. The reference voltage. The relation between resistance and temperature is not linear in thermister. It is intake air temperature not correct. Diagnostics: The electrical characteristics of the thermister may deteriorate with time. . Silicon temperature sensors provide a more linear output signal and are expected to replace thermister.

a film electrode is deposited on the inside face of two alumina plates forming a capacitor. The capacitor capsule is placed in a sealed housing which is connected to manifold pressure by a small diameter tube. The resistors are formed by diffusing a “doping impurity” into the silicon. Manifold pressure applied to the diaphragm cause it to deflect which changes the resistance due to piezoresistivity proportional to the pressure. causes their capacitance to change proportional to the applied pressure. There are two versions. The deflection of these plates when pressure is applied to them . A set of sensing resistors is formed around the edge of this vacuum. DTCs for these faults are 105-109. In the second version of MAP sensor.. An electrical signal voltage. proportional to the manifold pressure is obtained by connecting the resistors in a Wheatstone bridge. the frequency of oscillation is proportional to intake temperature. In strain gauge MAP sensor. and intermittent failure. . stuck at high signal. OBD II DTCs The failure modes of MAP sensor are diagnosed by OBD II.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II : Diagnostics Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor: Principle of operation: The sensor measures the the displacement of a diaphragm which is deflected by the manifold absolute pressure. The capacitor is placed in an oscillator circuit. resulting in incorrect output. the silicon diaphragm is sealed to a pyrex plate under vacuum. Diagnostics The electrical characteristics of the strain gauge MAP sensor may deteriorate. stuck at low signal.

OBD II DTCs The failure modes of Engine speed sensor are diagnosed by OBD II. Diagnostics The electrical characteristics of the magnetic reluctance sensor may deteriorate. DTCs for these faults are 320-323.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Engine Speed (Angular speed) sensor Principle of operation The sensor consists of a permanent magnet with a coil of wire wound around it. and intermittent failure. stuck at low signal. The number of tabs is half the number of cylinders of the engine. ... stuck at high signal. The disk is mounted on the crankshaft. A steel disk with protruding tabs pass between the pole pieces of this magnet. The sensor is of magnetic reluctance type so that a voltage is generated with the frequency which is a multiple of revolutions per minute (RPM) of the crankshaft. By measuring the frequency of this signal voltage the engine RPM is calculated.. resulting in incorrect output.

One uses Zirconia (ZrO2).Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Exhaust Gas Oxygen (EGO) sensor There are two types of EGO sensors. . both based on the use of oxides of materials. AS oxygen ions are negatively charged. But ZrO2 is most popular and is described here. The sensor consists of ZrO2 sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. and the other uses titanium oxide (TiO2 ). The polarity of this voltage is positive on the exhaust gas side and negative on air side. and the other electrode is exposed to normal air for reference. there will be a potential across the two electrodes if the oxygen ions on exhaust gas side are less than the oxygen ions on the normal air side. One electrode is exposed to exhaust gas in the exhaust manifold. The ZrO2 attracts oxygen ions and they accumulate on the ZrO2 surface just inside platinum electrode. The voltage depends on the concentration of the oxygen in the exhaust gas and the EGO sensor temperature. The electrode that is exposed to exhaust gas is coated with porous protective overcoat.

Must have rapid changes of output voltage in response to exhaust gas oxygen changes. DTCs for these faults are 400-408. .Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics EGO Oxygen sensor: Diagnostics: Check for abrupt change in voltage at stoichiometry.. Must have large difference in sensor output voltage between rich and lean A/F ratio conditions. Must have stable voltage with respect to exhaust temperature. OBD II DTCs The failure modes of EGO sensor are diagnosed by OBD II.

DTCs for these faults are 120-124. and a linear potentiometer driven by the connecting rod between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. and intermittent failure.. As the throttle butterfly valve rotates the potentiometer voltage varies in proportion to the angle of rotation of throttle. resulting in incorrect output. stuck at high signal. out of range/performance values. stuck at low signal. The material is a ceremet or resistive plastic compound.. . OBD II DTCs The failure modes of throttle sensor are diagnosed by OBD II.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II 6141Diagnostics Throttle Position (Angle) (TPS) sensor Principle of operation The sensor is a rotary potentiometer driven by the shaft of the butterfly valve in the throttle . The sensor uses a continuous resistive film manufactured with thick film technique. Diagnostics The electrical characteristics of the Throttle position sensor may deteriorate.

Diagnostics: resulting in incorrect output. and intermittent failure.. DTCs for these faults are 335-344. .Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Crankshaft (angular) Position sensor Principle of operation The crankshaft position sensor is similar in operation to engine speed sensor. OBD II DTCs The failure modes of crankshaft position sensor are diagnosed by OBD II. out of range/performance values. stuck at high signal.. stuck at low signal. The electrical characteristics of the Crankshaft position sensor may deteriorate.

out of range/performance values. stuck at low signal. placed in still air which provides compensation for changes in air temperature. Diagnostics: The electrical characteristics of the Mass Air Flow sensor may deteriorate. causing bridge unbalance thereby producing an input voltage to the amplifier... The second arm of the bridge is a similar self-heated wire. and intermittent failure. This voltage is converted to frequency which is measured by PCM using a counter. The counter value is proportional to the air flow rate (volume) from which the mass is computed by multiplying the volume by the air density at that temperature. resulting in incorrect output. The output voltage of the amplifier is a measure of the additional current required to heat the wire back to its original temperature. The output of the amplifier is connected to the bridge circuit and provides power for the circuit. The amplifier voltage changes the resistance in such a way as to maintain a fixed hot film temperature relative to the inlet temperature. which is balanced when there is no air flow over the hot film at constant temperature. the film cools and the resistance of the film element drops. When air flows over the film.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor Principle of operation: The sensor consists of a hot film element (resistor) which is electrically heated to a constant temperature. . The additional current required is a measure of the heat transfer and therefore of air mass flow rate. DTCs for these faults are 100-104. This element is incorporated in a whetstone bridge with power supply from the output of an amplifier whose input is the differential voltage. stuck at high signal. and amplifier output voltage. of the bridge resistors. that is measured by a temperature sensor. OBD II DTCs : The failure modes of crankshaft position sensor are diagnosed by OBD II.

also called jerk.. The output signal of the sensor forms a closed loop system that retards the ignition to reduce the knock detected at the cylinders. out of range/performance values. Diagnostics The electrical characteristics of the Knock sensor may deteriorate. and intermittent failure. OBD II DTCs The failure modes of knock sensor are diagnosed by OBD II. stuck at high signal.Knock sensor Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Principle of operation The sensor measures the sudden rise in cylinder pressure during combustion which commonly occurs with high manifold pressure and excessive spark advance. DTCs for these faults are 325-329. resulting in incorrect output. or the piezoresistance of a doped silicon semiconductor. and the output signal is responsive to the first time derivative of acceleration. The engine cylinder is mechanically resonant to the knock frequency band. The sensor consists of magnetorestrictive rods placed in a magnetic field of a coil. stuck at low signal. When excessive cylinder pressure is sensed the rods change the flux field in the coil which produces a voltage change in the coil. . The problem of detecting knock is complicated by the presence of other vibrations and noise in the engine. Another version of knock sensor uses piezoelectric crystals.

a variable reluctance sensor is mounted on the engine block near a harmonic damper. stuck at low signal. stuck at high signal. The damper has a notch cut in its outer surface. the decrease in magnetic flux generates a voltage pulse in the sensor circuit. and intermittent failure. OBD II DTCs The failure modes of ignition timing sensor are diagnosed by OBD II. . A harmonic damper is a steel disk-shaped device connected to the crankshaft at the end opposite the flywheel. DTCs for these faults are 350-379. As a notch in the rotating damper passes by a variable reluctance sensor.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Ignition timing sensor Principle of operation Wiegand-effect sensor or magnetic reluctance sensor can be used to set ignition timing. resulting in incorrect output. In the latter type. out of range/performance values. This voltage pulse is used to set ignition timing Diagnostics The electrical characteristics of the Ignition timing sensor may deteriorate..

Sensors and Actuators
Employed in OBD II
Diagnostics

Principle of operation
Ignition actuator
The ignition actuator receives its control pulse from an ignition timing sensor.
An ignition timing sensor measures the engine angular position to calculate the
position at which the spark should occur. The ignition timing sensor generates a
pulse that triggers an electronic circuit that in turn drives the coil primary. This
circuit, when so triggered, switches off the current in the coil primary, thereby
initiating the spark. The concept of an engine position sensor used as an ignition
timing sensor is described previously.
In another scheme, a permanent magnet
couples to a ferromagnetic element which mounted on the distributor shaft and
rotates with it. As this element rotates , the time varying magnetic field induces
a voltage in the coil that is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic field.
Each time one of the cogs on the ferromagnetic wheel passes under the coil axis,
one of the sawtooth-shaped pulses is generated. This wheel has one cog for
each cylinder , and the voltage pulses provide a timing pulse for calculating the
spark time for the corresponding cylinder.

Sensors and Actuators
Employed in OBD II
Diagnostics
Diagnostics

OBD II DTCs

The electrical characteristics of the Ignition actuator may
deteriorate, resulting in incorrect output, out of range/performance
values, stuck at low signal, stuck at high signal,, and intermittent
failure.

The failure modes of ignition actuator
are diagnosed by OBD II. DTCs for these faults are 350-379.

EGR actuator

Sensors and Actuators
Employed in OBD II
Diagnostics

Principle of operation

The EGR actuator is a vacuum operated

diaphragm valve, with a spring that holds the valve closed if no vacuum is applied.
The vacuum that operates the diaphragm is supplied by the intake manifold and is
controlled by a solenoid operated valve under control of the PCM. When the
solenoid is energized by the PCM the EGR valve is opened by the applied vacuum.
When the solenoid is deenergized the the vacuum is cut off from the EGR valve and
the spring holds the EGR valve closed. The amount of EGR is controlled by the
duty cycle of the pulsed control current that is proportional to the average time of
energized solenoid. The duty cycle, and the valve opening are properly controlled
to ensure exact amount of EGR is provided without adversely affecting emissions.
The duty cycle of the current pulse that energizes the solenoid ,
Diagnostics
and the EGR amount are correlated periodically by OBD II
diagnostics.
OBD II DTCs The failure modes of EGR flow are diagnosed by OBD II. DTCs for these faults
are 400-408.

Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Idle air control (IAC) valve Principle of operation The valve is an electronically controlled throttle bypass valve which allows air to flow around the throttle plate (which is closed due to low engine RPM and vehicle being stationary) and produces the same effect as if the throttle is slightly opened. Diagnostics The duty cycle of the stepper motor . The stepper motor controls the pintle movement accurately thus controlling the amount of bypass opening into the intake manifold. The initial position and the final position of the pintle valve are continuously checked. The duty cycle of the stepper motor is controlled by the PCM which monitors the pintle position and commands the stepper motor to move back the pintle to open the bypass by the calculated amount and move the pintle forward to close the bypass at the end of the duty cycle. . A stepper motor opens the pintle (valve) allowing a limited amount of air to bypass the closed throttle plate. OBD II DTCs The failure modes of idle air flow are diagnosed by OBD II. and the amount of bypass by the pintle valve are correlated periodically by OBD II diagnostics. DTCs for these faults are 505-507.

and A/F ratio. OBD II DTCs The failure modes of secondary air flow are diagnosed by OBD II. secondary air is directed to air cleaner where it has no effect on exhaust temperature. . The air routing is done by the PCM based on engine coolant temperature. One valve switches airflow to the exhaust system or to outside air cleaner. During heavy loads and during severe deceleration. During cold start the secondary air goes to exhaust manifold. Diagnostics The duty cycle of the current pulse that energizes the solenoid . and the secondary air flow are correlated periodically by OBD II diagnostics. secondary air goes into catalytic converter.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Secondary air valves Principle of operation: The secondary air is controlled by two solenoid valves similar to the EGR valve. DTCs for these faults are 410-419. The other valve switches air flow to the exhaust manifold or to the second chamber of the three-way catalytic converter. and during closed loop operation.

Compensation coefficients are dependent on driving conditions such as heavy load. The amount of fuel injected into the cylinder is determined by the length of time that the injectors are energized which is their duty cycle. The TBFI consists of one or two solenoid-operated fuel injectors that are mounted in a housing on the intake manifold. Fuel metering actuator delivers fuel in precise amounts under PCM control. idle. Fuel trim is used to find the correction factor. Diagnostics PCM monitors the rate of updating fuel trim and the correction factor to determine if the fuel metering actuator (and injectors ) is functioning properly OBD II DTCs The failure modes of fuel system are diagnosed by OBD II.Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Fuel metering actuator Principle of operation The actuator used for electronic control of fuel metering is the throttle body fuel injector. Fuel injectors are based on multipoint injection in which each each injector is mounted on the intake manifold of its cylinder. . or braking. The fuel is injected into and atomized by the moving air stream that flows into the intake manifold. Asynchronous injection is performed during start-up and acceleration. DTCs for these faults are 170-175. The injection time is synchronous with engine speed and is given by: intake air amount/engine speed x compensation coefficient (correction factor) + voltage-compensated injection time. PCM controls the amount of fuel.

The plunger is pulled away from the nozzle when the solenoid is activated. The plunger position is controlled by a solenoid and a spring. . Whenever the plunger is lifted from the nozzle. depending on whether the the control current is off or on respectively. the valve opens and a predetermined quantity of fuel is sprayed into the air flowing into the cylinder and mixed with this air. plunger. This valve opening is timed relative to the intake stroke by the PCM controller. The fuel injector consists of a spray nozzle and a solenoid operated plunger. which is closed or open. The amount of fuel is proportional to the time the valve is open. causing fuel to flow which is under pressure.Fuel injector Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Principle of operation Individual fuel injectors located in the intake manifold near the intake valve is the current practice. The solenoid. fuel flows at a fixed rate through the nozzle into the air stream going to the intake manifold. Each fuel injector is a solenoid activated plunger which is normally closed inhibiting fuel delivery. When activated. and the Air/Fuel ratio is proportional to the duty cycle of the pulse train from the PCM controller. The plunger acts as a fuel injection on-off valve. the plunger is tightly held against the nozzle by a spring. and nozzle act as an electrically switched valve. When no current is applied to the solenoid. The fuel flow rate is regulated by fuel pressure and nozzle geometry. The control current that operates the fuel injector is pulsed on and off.

DTCs for these faults are 251-296. and the fuel amount are correlated periodically by OBD II diagnostics. OBD II DTCs The failure modes of fuel injector are diagnosed by OBD II. .Sensors and Actuators Employed in OBD II Diagnostics Diagnostics The duty cycle of the current pulse that energizes the solenoid .

Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Diagnostics Powertrain Control Module (PCM) performs the following functions in relation to OBD II Diagnostics: Perform microprocessor-based self diagnostics to ensure correct operation of the PCM and safe storage of OBD II diagnostic data in memory. Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations in closed-loop control during normal operation. . Perform On-Board diagnostics in real time and alert the driver by illuminating MIL in case of a fault Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations during open-loop operation at start-up time.

watchdog timers. peripheral devices including A/D converters. Perform read and write test of RAM cells for fault free memory Perform processor functions in CPU. .Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Perform microprocessor-based self diagnostics to ensure correct operation of the PCM and safe storage of OBD II diagnostic data in memory. The PCM performs the following self diagnostics: Verify the checksum of the program memory in ROM with its function and correct version. Perform checks on stored vehicle data and verify that the data is not corrupted and is within reasonable limits of vehicle operation. and registers to verify that the processor is functioning properly.

100 milliseconds. 50 milliseconds. and fuel trim checks during closed loop operation of the vehicle. Catalytic converter's secondary air. including EGO sensor. Engine RPM sensor. and 1 second. The diagnostics are classified into priority levels from 1 to 8 or 9. Throttle position sensor. The next priority checks are periodic self tests. The next priority tests are sensors.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Perform On-Board diagnostics in real time and alert the driver by illuminating MIL in case of a fault . These include Oxygen sensor (lambda sensor) . The next priority tests are EGR intrusive tests. . and canister purge. The highest priority level tests are those that effect safety and emissions to a high degree according to OBD II regulations. and watchdog timers. 10 milliseconds. Crankshaft position sensor. MAF sensor. and Engine coolant sensor. 20 milliseconds. Misfire detection. 500 milliseconds. The PCM performs on-board diagnostics in real time by interspersing diagnostics with vehicle control functions. MAP sensor. The highest priority level tests are done every 1 millisecond. The next priority checks are the interrupt timers. followed by next priority level tests every 5 milliseconds. fuel level sensor. and ignition timer. pedal actuator. 200 milliseconds.

each sensor. Then the PCM returns to its normal vehicle control functions. In this manner the PCM spends about 15. actuator and control unit related to emissions control. This repeats for each priority level diagnostics. . The PCM also has adequate hardware test capability to find a short circuit. At this time the PCM saves its current state of the vehicle and performs the diagnostics. such as input.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II The PCM is interrupted by the real time scheduler during the performance of its normal vehicle control functions when the on-board tests are due. power supply. or output and comparing it with the expected value stored in the technical data for the sensor. The PCM tests each sensor by measuring each test parameter. This takes about 100 microseconds. including battery. and normal range of values and performance requirements for each component that it tests. or the noise level of a signal. The method of testing each component depends on the electrical characteristics and vehicle functions performed by the device. or open circuit. wiring harness.40% of its time to diagnostics and the rest to perform its normal vehicle control functions. The PCM maintains the low and high limits for each test parameter.

The noise level and the performance of each signal of the component is checked as well. it is deleted. coolant temperature. Actuators are tested similarly to the way the sensors are tested for short circuit. Thus defects that appearance or under certain conditions can be diagnosed. If discrepancies to the nominal values are diagnosed in any component under test . . such as engine speed. This is called analytical redundancy.. MAP sensor. and others. to verify the reasonableness of values provided by the components. This is called “Freeze Frame” since it gives the vehicle’s state at the instant of failure of that component. If the fault occurs only once during several cycles. and range and performance levels. open circuit.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II The PCM also compares the signals of the components under test with a combination of information provided by other sensors. the information is stored in memory with all the relevant supporting data. The test method also includes computing a test output of a sensor using different engine parameters and comparing them for compliance. The actuator under certain conditions is intrusively activated and its output is measured to verify against the expected value for proper operation.

In the case of a defect that completely impairs the vehicle performance the PCM has the full capability to switch the vehicle state to a safe state of lesser capability called “Limp Home” state. All relevant data for off-board diagnostics. it is not erased until the defect is repaired by the technician. SAE J 2012 provides the DTC message formats. that includes a halt of the vehicle. and vehicle repair. the PCM substitutes a corresponding reasonable value for that vehicle condition of operation. In this respect OBD II provides SAE J 1850 data link for communication of diagnostic data. in which the vehicle is brought to a safe degraded operating condition. The PCM also provides clear information to the driver by illuminating the MIL (Malfunction Indicator Light) in case of a defect without causing alarm for minor problems. requesting PCM for emissions related powertrain diagnostics data.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II If the fault persists for two cycles consecutively. and OBD II DTCs of all faults experienced by the vehicle so far to the external tester to facilitate off-board diagnostics. The PCM communicates with the OBD II scan tool and provides diagnostic data. . and SAE J 1979 provides the test modes. In case of an out of range output of a sensor . and repair are stored by the PCM in its memory for later use.

. secondary air system monitoring. A properly functioning catalyst shows a storage effect such that the oscillations of the lambda oxygen sensor at the down stream of the catalyst are minimal or zero. and compare the signals of the two sensors to verify that the catalysts are functioning properly. evaporative system monitoring.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II OBD II Functions: These include catalyst monitoring. Misfire detection is critical to emissions and is described in detail in a later section. and comprehensive component monitoring. In addition the PCM shall monitor the oxygen sensor situated down stream of the catalyst. If a certain percentage of misfires within 200 or 1000 revolutions is detected. oxygen sensor. EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) system monitoring. a fault code is stored by the PCM and the MIL is illuminated by the PCM. monitoring. Catalyst: PCM shall individually monitor the front catalyst or catalysts which receive untreated engine out exhaust gas for malfunction. fuel system monitoring. air /fuel mixture. misfire monitoring. Misfire Detection: The PCM shall monitor engine misfire and identify cylinder experiencing misfire. This is done by monitoring the oxygen sensor in front of the catalyst. while the upstream oxygen sensor is oscillating with amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle of the rich/lean.

The pressure gradient. the MIL is illuminated. and sensor temperature . The algorithm is two fold. If the leak persists for two consecutive cycles. and other parameters that can affect emissions. The algorithm involves monitoring for short circuit. then the oxygen sensor is deemed defective.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Oxygen sensor: The PCM shall monitor the output voltage. and monitoring the switching frequency of the closed-loop control. For leak detection of the evaporative system. Evaporative system: The PCM shall control the air flow of the complete evaporative system. or breaks. the response rate. The PCM illuminates the MIL in the event of a fault and stores the DTC and diagnostic data in memory. . the canister valve is closed. using intrusive purge operations. and all fuel control oxygen sensors for malfunction. The PCM shall also monitor the emission of HC vapors into the atmosphere by performing a pressure check and a vacuum check of the purge valve. voltage. the purge valve is activated and the lambda sensor is monitored for its reaction which should indicate a rich reading (high voltage of 900 mv). together with other parameters like the amount of fuel. and the canister pressure is decreased to about about -1. At idle position. and the canister valve. Then the complete system is turned off and the pressure within the canister is monitored for variation with time. may indicate a leak.5 KPa. If this is too slow or too fast relative to the limit cycle frequency of the air/fuel mixture. Heated sensors are monitored using heater current.

the fuel is cut off and the EGR valve is completely opened. The flow of exhaust gas to the intake manifold raises the manifold pressure. The algorithm is two fold: At overrun. Secondly monitor the increase of he manifold intake temperature when the EGR valve is opened. The algorithm consists in monitoring the lambda sensor for correlated deviations when the secondary air flow is changed from exhaust manifold or to catalyst chamber or to outside air cleaner. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system: The PCM shall monitor the EGR system for low and high flow rate malfunctions. and long term block learn. The algorithm is to monitor the deviations of the stoichiometric ratio which last for a longer time and store them within the adaptive mixture controller consisting of short term fuel trim. Fuel system: The PCM shall monitor the fuel delivery system. components of the fuel system are deemed defective.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Secondary Air system: The PCM shall monitor the secondary air delivery system and proper functioning of the air switching valves. This will result in illuminating the MIL and storing the DTC in memory. which is recorded. If these values exceed defined limits. .

we consider the open-loop control and in the next section we will describe the closed-loop control by the PCM. In both the conditions. the primary function of the PCM is to maintain the Air/Fuel ratio at or near stoichiometry. During this mode the PCM controls the fuel system to remain in stoichiometry by using MAP.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations during open-loop operation at start-up time. The modes in which this control is accomplished are : open-loop control and closed-loop control corresponding to start up and warm up condition respectively. The primary function of the PCM is to control the powertrain operation during the start up and during the warm up conditions. Engine RPM. . EGR and Coolant temperature sensor in stead of the lambda oxygen sensor. The open-loop control by the PCM is in effect during the start up of the vehicle when the electronic fuel control system is not controlled by the lambda oxygen sensor due to its low temperature (below 300 C). In this section.

Tables of da. The inputs to the lookup table is MAP. which is product Ra* da . Coolant temperature. MAP.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II The PCM obtains the mass air flow from the MAF sensor and obtains the mass fuel required to keep the air/fuel ratio equal to stoichiometry (14. . the density of air measured versus temperature are available in lookup tables. which are constant. and Ra is the volume at in take air temperature T. and EGR.7) from lookup tables. This lookup is performed by the PCM to comply with OBD II regulation mandated by CARB and EPA for controlling emissions. This is used as input into another lookup table that gives the duty cycle of the fuel injector..EGR volume flow rate da = Ma / Ra . Lookup tables with inputs: Engine RPM. Engine RPM. which gives the amount of fuel required to keep the A/F mixture at stoichiometry. T. or lookup table. where Ma is the mass of air. and EGR give directly the mass flow rate of air. Engine displacement and volumetric efficiency are engine design parameters. all of which are readily available by computation. The value of the speed density product Ra* da is given by: Ra = (Engine RPM/60) * ( Engine displacement/2)* volumetric efficiency .

The PCM continuously adjusts the output signal to the fuel injector to maintain stoichiometry by varying the duty cycle.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations in closed-loop control during normal operation. Closed-loop mode of control is selected by PCM when the lambda sensor has attained a temperature more than 3000 C. . to compensate for the engine performance over time. The fuel flow is corrected by using fuel trim correction using short term update and long term update scheme. Variations in engine transport delay with RPM are corrected by reducing the cycle frequency and duty cycle ramp rate with decreasing RPM. The intake Air/Fuel ratio is controlled in a closed loop by measuring the EGO at the exhaust manifold and altering the input fuel flow rate with fuel injector to correct for a rich or lean mixture indication.

.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations in closed-loop control. In case WOT. The PCM performs this by detecting high throttling angle sensor voltage or high MAP sensor value. the PCM adjusts the fuel control to provide enriched air/fuel mixture to maximize engine torque and neglect emission control. the PCM increases the duty cycle of the fuel injector to the maximum allowed value. which may result in A/F ratio of as low as 12:1. Acceleration Enrichment: When heavy load is demanded by the driver. This is for short time and is approved by EPA.

C. For open-loop control . and F is the fractional part of the correction factor. is given by: C = I*A + B*F. correction factor. and I is the integral part. closed-loop correction factor is zero. with decel fuel cut off mode in which the fuel injector is turned off or the duty cycle is drastically reduced.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations. where A and B are constants. For closed-loop operation. . A typical algorithm for fuel injection duration for the desired Air/Fuel ratio of stoichiometry is given by: T = base pulse width from lookup table for mass air flow + closed loop correction factor closed loop correction factor is the fuel trim block learn value alluded earlier. the PCM reduces the engine torque by cutting off fuel .. Deceleration Enleanment and Idle Speed Control: When the driver decelerates the vehicle very hard.

depending on the Mode of fuel control. K corresponds to A/F = 12:1. Fuel trim value I is reduced by 1. and increased by 1 for lean mixture. where factor K is determined by the PCM. When EGO indicates rich mixture . The base pulse width of fuel injector is proportional to mass air flow given by: T = K* Ra . The mass air flow is calculated by the PCM as described before. K=0. For deceleration.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations. I and F are determined from the fuel trim. For cold start. and EGO sensor. For closed-loop normal operation. K corresponds to stoichiometric Air/Fuel mixture. .

bypassing the closed throttle to prevent the engine from stalling due to lack of torque. The pintle is operated by a stepper motor. Idle speed is detected by the RPM sensor indicating a low value. The PCM adjusts the pintle to keep the idle speed around 600 to 700 RPM. The pintle valve is completely closed when engine is not idling. the PCM switches to idle speed control mode.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Diagnostics Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations. the vehicle is stationary. . Idle Speed Control: When the throttle angle reaches its closed position and engine RPM falls below a preset value (about 600). and throttle is closed. which withdraws the pintle from its closed position (seat) to open the bypass that lets a limited amount of air flow into the intake manifold. The PCM controls the idle air control pintle (valve) to let air to flow into intake manifold.

. The net effect is to retain much of the engine power while reducing the flame temperature at part load. The duty cycle of the EGR valve is obtained from predefined table lookup. EGR Control: At high engine load (high throttle angle). and high Engine RPM. This has the effect of reducing oxygen content without reducing the mass of gas processed. EGR is completely closed during cold start and during start up of the engine. The combustion imparts energy to the inert exhausts gas as well as to the air charge. and at high engine coolant temperature. the cylinder temperature at combustion reaches temperature greater than 30000 F which causes NOx emissions to increase beyond the OBD II limits. engine RPM. the PCM recirculates a small portion of the exhaust gases into the intake manifold.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Diagnostics Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations in closed-loop control. coolant temperature. thus decreasing production of NOx. The PCM controls the EGR valve depending on the throttle angle. For this reason.

The PCM uses the sensor similar to throttle position sensor to determine the amount of EGR fed into the air intake during open loop control mode. when it is not stoichiometric ratio. This sensor gives an electrical signal which is proportional to the amount of opening of the EGR valve that can be used to compute the amount of EGR from the knowledge of the valve’s duty cycle. to make air/fuel ratio calculation. which is detected by a valve position sensor. or the PCM can meter the exhaust gas in the same way as the PCM meters the fuel in the fuel injector. EGR Control (contd) : The EGR signal can either control a valve opening.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Diagnostics Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations in closed-loop control. .

to go into closed-loop mode as soon as possible when the emissions are lowest and meet OBD II requirements. During engine warm-up the Air/Fuel ratio is still rich as in during engine crank. when the engine is still cold. During warm-up when the catalytic converter is cold.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Diagnostics Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations. Secondary Air management: The PCM controls the powertrain operation in engine warm-up mode by selecting a warm-up time from a table lookup table based on the coolant temperature. and CO are oxidized in the exhaust manifold. The PCM controls the powertrain functions in open-loop mode and uses secondary air management to bring up the converter temperature as well as EGO sensor temperature. . or to the exhaust manifold. and EGO sensor. This creates extra heat to speed warm-up of the converter. enabling the PCM to go into closed-loop control. The catalyst temperature must be above 2000 C to efficiently oxidize HC and CO and reduce NOx to N2 . The PCM provides extra oxygen rich air to either the converter itself. the HC .

The extra oxygen from the secondary air improves the ability of the converter to oxidize the HC and CO in the second converter chamber. Secondary Air management (contd): The converter can be damaged if too much heat is applied to it. This can occur if large amounts of HC and CO are oxidized in exhaust manifold during heavy loads which call for fuel enrichment or during severe deceleration. and platinum to reduce NOx and to oxidize HC and CO. In the dual chamber converter.. .Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Diagnostics Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations. the PCM directs the secondary air to the air cleaner where it has no effect on exhaust temperature. After warm-up. dual-chamber converter system. In such cases. The second chamber contains only platinum and palladium. The PCM controls the secondary air using two solenoid valves similar to EGR valve. the main use of secondary air is to provide an oxygen rich air to the second chamber of the three-way catalyst. the first chamber contains rhodium.

This will simplify fuel calculation during open-loop control.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Diagnostics Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations. The second solenoid valve switches air flow either to the exhaust manifold or to the catalytic converter. Evaporative Emission Canister Purge: The PCM releases the collected fuel fuel vapors in the canister into the intake manifold via a solenoid controlled purge valve periodically. and Air/Fuel ratio which is not stoichiometric ratio in this mode. which is open-loop control. Secondary Air management (contd): The first solenoid valve switches air flow to the air cleaner or to the exhaust system. . The PCM controls the air flow depending on the engine coolant temperature. during closed loop operation.

These are all the PCM control functions performed to reduce emissions and comply with OBD II requirements.Functionality of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) in OBD II Diagnostics Perform powertrain control functions to reduce emissions and meet OBD II regulations. Automatic system Adjustment:: The PCM during closed-loop mode of control checks the open-loop calculated air/fuel ratios and compares them with closed-loop average limit values which are the ideal values for minimum emissions. This updated open-loop lookup table is stored in non-volatile RAM memory. This feature is important since it enables the PCM to adjust to long-term changes in engine and fuel system conditions due to wear and usage. This is similar to fuel trim algorithm for fuel injection control. When the engine is started next time the PCM uses the new lookup values which are closer to the stoichiometric ratio. . the PCM corrects the open-loop lookup table values so that the open-loop values are in close agreement with the closed-loop values. If the difference is large.