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The Physical Layer

Chapter 2

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

The Maximum Data Rate of a Channel
• Nyquist’s theorem:
Maximum baud rate = 2B
maximum data rate = 2B log2 m bits/sec

• Shannon’s formula for capacity of a noisy channel

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

Guided Transmission Media




Magnetic media
Twisted pairs
Coaxial cable
Power lines
Fiber optics

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

Magnetic Media • Write data onto magnetic media • Disks • Tapes • Data transmission speed • Never underestimate the bandwidth of a station wagon full of tapes hurtling down the highway. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. 2011 . Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.

© Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.Twisted Pairs Category 5 UTP cable with four twisted pairs Computer Networks. 2011 .

2011 .Coaxial Cable A coaxial cable Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Power Lines A network that uses household electrical wiring. 2011 . Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

© Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 .Fiber Optics (1) Three examples of a light ray from inside a silica fiber impinging on the air/silica boundary at different angles. Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

2011 .Fiber Optics (2) Light trapped by total internal reflection. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

2011 .Transmission of Light Through Fiber Attenuation of light through fiber in the infrared region Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

Fiber Cables (1) Views of a fiber cable Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 . Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.Fiber Cables (2) A comparison of semiconductor diodes and LEDs as light sources Computer Networks. 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.

© Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 . Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.Wireless Transmission • • • • • The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Transmission Microwave Transmission Infrared Transmission Light Transmission Computer Networks.

2011 .The Electromagnetic Spectrum (1) The electromagnetic spectrum and its uses for communication Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.The Electromagnetic Spectrum (2) Spread spectrum and ultra-wideband (UWB) communication Computer Networks. 2011 .

and MF bands. radio waves follow the curvature of the earth Computer Networks.Radio Transmission (1) In the VLF. 2011 . LF. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. they bounce off the ionosphere.Radio Transmission (2) In the HF band. Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 .

© Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 . Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.The Politics of the Electromagnetic Spectrum ISM and U-NII bands used in the United States by wireless devices Computer Networks.

© Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Communication Satellites • • • • Geostationary Satellites Medium-Earth Orbit Satellites Low-Earth Orbit Satellites Satellites Versus Fiber Computer Networks. 2011 . Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

some properties. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Communication Satellites Communication satellites. including: altitude above earth. number of satellites for global coverage. Computer Networks. 2011 . Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. round-trip delay time.

Geostationary Satellites (1) The principal satellite bands Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 . Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

© Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Geostationary Satellites (2) VSATs using a hub. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. Computer Networks. 2011 .

2011 . Computer Networks.Low-Earth Orbit Satellites (1) The Iridium satellites form six necklaces around the earth. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.

Computer Networks.Low-Earth Orbit Satellites (2) Relaying in space. 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Digital Modulation and Multiplexing • • • • • Baseband Transmission Passband Transmission Frequency Division Multiplexing Time Division Multiplexing Code Division Multiplexing Computer Networks.

(c) NRZI. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.Baseband Transmission Line codes: (a) Bits. (d) Manchester. 2011 . Computer Networks. (b) NRZ. (e) Bipolar or AMI.

Clock Recovery 4B/5B mapping. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. 2011 . Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.

Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. (d) Phase shift keying. (b) Amplitude shift keying. 2011 .Passband Transmission (1) (a) A binary signal. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. (c) Frequency shift keying.

© Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. (b) QAM-16. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. 2011 . Computer Networks. (c) QAM-64.Passband Transmission (2) (a) QPSK.

Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 . Computer Networks.Frequency Division Multiplexing (1) Gray-coded QAM-16.

2011 . Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. (a) The original bandwidths. (c) The multiplexed channel.Frequency Division Multiplexing (2) Frequency division multiplexing. (b) The bandwidths raised in frequency. Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.

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Frequency Division Multiplexing (3) Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. Computer Networks.

Computer Networks. 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Time Division Multiplexing Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

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(b) Signals the sequences represent Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.Code Division Multiplexing (1) (a) Chip sequences for four stations. 2011 .

Code Division Multiplexing (2) (a) Six examples of transmissions. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. (b) Recovery of station C’s Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 .

Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. and fiber Trunks and multiplexing Switching Computer Networks. ADSL. 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.The Public Switched Telephone Network • • • • • Structure of the telephone system Politics of telephones Local loop: modems.

(c) Two-level hierarchy.Structure of the Telephone System (1) (a) Fully interconnected network. Computer Networks. 2011 . (b) Centralized switch. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.

2. 3. 2011 . businesses). Switching offices (calls are moved from one trunk to another). Computer Networks. Trunks (digital fiber optic links between switching offices).Structure of the Telephone System (3) Major Components 1. Local loops analog twisted pairs to houses. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Conversion done by modems and codecs.Telephone Modems Use of both analog and digital transmission for computer -tocomputer call. Computer Networks.

Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Computer Networks.Digital Subscriber Lines (1) Bandwidth versus distance over Category 3 UTP for DSL.

Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Digital Subscriber Lines (2) Operation of ADSL using discrete multitone modulation. 2011 .

Digital Subscriber Lines (3) A typical ADSL equipment configuration. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. 2011 .

© Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Fiber To The Home Passive optical network for Fiber To The Home. Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. 2011 .

544 Mbps). 2011 .Time Division Multiplexing (1) The T1 carrier (1. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.

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Time Division Multiplexing
European System
E-carrier Level

E-1
E-2
E-3
E-4
E-5

Data Rate (Mbps)

2.048
8.448
34.368
139.268
565.148

Number of 64 kbps Channels (DS-0s)

30
120
480
1920
7680

Number of E-1s

1
4
16
64
256

Time Division Multiplexing (2)

Multiplexing T1 streams into higher carriers
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

SONET/SDH (1)

Two back-to-back SONET frames.
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

Computer Networks. 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.SONET/SDH (2) SONET and SDH multiplex rates.

2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.Wavelength Division Multiplexing Wavelength division multiplexing Computer Networks.

(b) Packet switching. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Circuit Switching/Packet Switching (1) (a) Circuit switching. Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. 2011 .

Circuit Switching/Packet Switching (2) Timing of events in (a) circuit switching. 2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. (b) packet switching Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. Computer Networks. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 .Circuit Switching/Packet Switching (3) A comparison of circuit-switched and packet-switched networks.

2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.Mobile Telephone System • First-Generation (1G) Mobile Phones Analog Voice • Second-Generation (2G) Mobile Phones Digital Voice • Third-Generation (3G) Mobile Phones Digital Voice + Data Computer Networks.

Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. smaller cells can be used. (b) To add more users. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.Advanced Mobile Phone System (a) Frequencies are not reused in adjacent cells. 2011 .

2011 . Computer Networks.GSM—The Global System for Mobile Communications (1) GSM mobile network architecture. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

2011 . Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall.GSM—The Global System for Mobile Communications (2) GSM uses 124 frequency channels. each of which uses an eight-slot TDM system.

GSM—The Global System for Mobile Communications (3) A portion of the GSM framing structure. Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. 2011 .

incl. 2011 .Digital Voice and Data (1) Basic services intend by IMT-2000 network • High-quality voice transmission. audio. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall. fax. © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. • Multimedia (music. Computer Networks. videos. television). chat). SMS. video). • Internet access (Web surfing. • Messaging (replacing email. films.

© Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. and (c) after.Digital Voice and Data (2) Soft handoff (a) before. (b) during. 2011 . Computer Networks. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.

2011 . © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall.End Chapter 2 Computer Networks.