Shubham VYAS,
Alstom T&D India Ltd, India.

Delay in industrial or project construction is one of the major barriers of developing countries such as India
& China & most of the south east countries. A survey was conducted in different projects such as power plant,
factory construction, multi story building construction etc. across the country.
The critical factors need to be identified which causes influencing negatively duration project construction.
Systematical and scientific approach is one of the techniques by which we can identify the root cause. In this
analysis we found some key factors causing the delay problems in construction project such as motivation,
payment, classical technique etc. also we found a technique is adopted.
Keywords: Project construction, delay in construction, delay elements, impact of delay and technique for
avoiding delay.
According to Mansfield, (1994) - They presented that the
causes of delay and cost overrun in Nigerian construction
project were attribute to (a) Poor contract management. (b)
Inaccurate estimations. (c) Over all price fluctuation. (d)
Shortages of materials and equipment. (e) Finance and
payments agreements.
According to Al-Momani (2000) - He identified causes of
delay in 130 public projects in Jordan. The main cause of
delay where related to design, user changes, weather, site
condition, late deliveries, economic condition and increase
in quantity. The study suggested special factors will help
industry practitioners in minimizing contract disputes.
Delay has strong relationship with failure in ineffective
performance of contractors.
Completion time is extremely important in construction.
Execution time is one of the performance measures of
construction projects, which are time, cost, and quality.
Project success is measured by these measures which show
the performance of the construction parties involved,
mainly the owner and the contractor. All the parties look
for project completion by a specified time, in the most
economical manner, with the required quality.

The main aim of this study is to find out what are the
major causes of delay? Delay in project construction
causes stress to overall team. As we know time is money
(Procrastination is the thief of time (Edward Young),
which itself defines delay in project construction means
overrun, loss of capital and revenue, increases market risk,
delay in production, increasing material cost as well as
lack of efficiency. While completing project at right time
leads profit, market growth, increasing customer’s trust
and increasing self as well as team’s confidence.
In previous studies Safety, Equipment & Daily target was
not included in there studies, which also leads to cause
delay in project construction.
Similar survey was conducted by Ogunlana in 1996 at
Thailand, Bangkok, and His analysis that there are three
major categories of delay in project construction (a)
Problems of shortages or inadequacies in the industry
infrastructure. (b) Problems caused by clients and
consultants. (c) Problems caused by contractor
Chan and Kumaraswamy (1997) conducted a survey to
find delay causes in Hong Kong construction projects and
he found five major factors: delay – (a) poor risk of
management and supervision
(b) Unfocused site
condition. (c) Slow decision making. (d) Client- initiated
variation. (e) Work variance.

Volume IV Issue 2(1), May 2013

Research Methodology:
A survey questionnaire was used to carry out the study.
The questionnaire was divided into two parts- part one
consist of basic questions & background of the project and



11. 10. May 2013 Some photographs are sowing below which proofs that material get damage & rejected by quality due to poor storage area. 9. mid level employees. second major factor is lack of strategic planning which was also noticed by Odeh AM & Battaineh HT at Nigeria in 2012 his study.4 % of the total delay was caused due to Engineering. 11. “s” refers is the score given to each factor by the respondents and “N” refers total no. 25 www. “f” refers frequency which is constant (f = 1) in our survey.661 second part consist of 80 factors of delay.. Fig 3: Elements of delay and there percentage Table 1 gives the Mean valve & priority of delay causes based on all respondent. Lew et al.3 % of the total delay was caused due to Daily target. etc. contractors and labours and created a brief idea of causes of delay. 1996. which were grouped into ten different categories such as engineering.2 % of the total delay was caused due to material. sixth major factor of delay is Payment to vendors & employee which was also noticed by Odeyinka and Yusif in his study at Nigeria in 1997. fifth major factor of delay is Team work & co ordination. Volume IV Issue 2(1). material. 10. 7. 10.1 % of the total delay was caused due to Risk management.net .9 % of the total delay was caused due to Equipment. we ranked each elements of delay. Total number of questionnaires distribution and responses given below (fig 2).scholarshub. Where “M. Numeric data is used to analyze the result mathematically & correctly.3 % of the total delay was caused due to Safety.S” refers mean. seventh and final major cause of delay is Un-preferable of work condition. Third major factor is decision making power which was also noticed by Assaf and Al-Heji at Saudi Arabia in 1995. Un-preferable of work condition. on the basis of study. analysis & calculation.1 % of the total delay was caused due to Time management. of responders. On that response we identified first major cause of delay is lack of daily target & review. 2003) – the method is used to determine the mean of the variance cause and effect of delay. 7. We took interviews of Project engineer. Analysis: This study was conducted in both private & public projects. 7. First of all we adopted Ishikawa or fish bone (fig 1) technique to find out major causes of delay and then we started focusing on each & every elements of delay.. forth major factor of delay is Quality of material get damage due to poor storage area which was also noticed by Chan and Kumaraswamy in his study at Hong Kong in 1997.1 % of the total delay was caused due to Employee (fig 3).QGLDQ-RXUQDORI&RPPHUFH 0DQDJHPHQW6WXGLHV    .2% of the total delay was caused due to External causes. In our survey respondent provide data as “Yes” or “No”.4 % of the total delay was caused due to finance & 15. where “Yes” denotes “1” & “No” denoted “0”. Total number of questionnaires distribution and responses (fig 2) Data calculation method: This method of calculation was adopted from Chan and Kumaraswamy.

May 2013 26 www.Poor material storage area (Photograph taken at HIL Mahan) Fig..Project construction area (Photograph taken at JP Nigri) Fig.661 Fig. 4.net . 6 & 7 .QGLDQ-RXUQDORI&RPPHUFH 0DQDJHPHQW6WXGLHV    .scholarshub.No working plate form (photograph taken at JSPL Angul) Volume IV Issue 2(1). 5 .

and Yusif. 37-45 [2] Chan DW. P.661 Result and Conclusion: Technique that used to avoiding delay (fig 7): Before conducting this survey. May 2013 27 www. Promkuntong. 7.. 785-792. [6] Ramanathan C al. [4] Kometa ST. (1997) ‘The causes and effects of construction delays on [10] Completion cost of housing project in Nigeria’.15(1):55–63 [3] Al-Momani AH.12 (4):254-60. References: [1] Ogunlana.S O K. Int j project Manager 1994. lack of manpower etc. Following things can be adopted to avoid delay in project construction. Constructions manage econ 1994. d) Payment. While the main causes of delay element are Employee (15. Harris FC. [8] Kasimu Al Mohammed. 31–44 . Causes of delay and cost overrunin Nigerian construction projects.1%) and Equipment (11. Understanding need of customer. f) Un-preferable of work condition g) Team work and coordination.20. Construction delay causing risks on time and cost – a critical review. We concluded that there are seven main cause of delay in project construction they are a) Lack of daily target & review. Construction delays in a fast growing economy.No..9%).scholarshub. causes of constructional delay : traditional contracts. a) Increase in project costs b) Increases market risk c) Overall efficiency decreases d) Increasing man-hours (decreasing safety of individuals) e) Delay in production f) Decreasing customer’s faith & trust g) Delay in local or region development h) Increase in land acquisition costs i) Increases material cost j) Increases stress to overall team Volume IV Issue 2(1). it also helps to avoid delay & controlling project. 2.A. identifying goal. 141 (1996). 2 (3). Causes of delay in Nigeria construction Industry (2012) vol 4. [9] Odeyinka. Journal Financial Manage Property Construction.18(1):51–9. Lack of recourses. Daily target review and reinforcement Impact of delay: During our study we found some major impacts of delay. Olomolaye PO. Int J Project Manage 1997. V. Construction delay: a quantitative analysis. Vol 1 37-57 (2012) [7] Odeh AM . 12:433-43. b) Lack of Strategic planning. but the result was something unexpected.QGLDQ-RXUQDORI&RPPHUFH 0DQDJHPHQW6WXGLHV    . Kumaraswamy MM. International journal of project Management Vol. we assume that delay can be created by Rework. Inter. . Int J Manage (2002). e) Decision making power. Strategic planning.Battaineh HT. Attribute of UK construction clients influencing project consultants performance. Motivation. comparing Thailand with other economies.net . H.Flow chart should be followed during project construction. [5] Mansfield NR. A. 67-73. Jearkjirm. A comparative study of causes of time overruns in Hong Kong construction projects. c) Quality of material get damage due to poor storage area. Fig.national Journal of Project Management 2000.

scholarshub.986 0.989 0.997 0.983 0.989 0.98 0.989 0.983 0.989 0.986 0.989 0.989 0.983 0.989 0.977 0.989 0.labours Rework Daily working Hours Estimated project completion was time too short Confusion Use of classical technique Change in design Market risk Bureaucracy Future planning Customer reliability Conflict between owners or partners Dependency .98 0.977 0.995 0.977 0.98 0.992 0.Supplier & Customer Change in scope of work Not following Personal protective equipment Unavailability of work permit Volume IV Issue 2(1). were 1 refers uppermost and 8 refer lowermost important cause of delay.992 0.989 0.661 Table 1: Showing mean & rank.986 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Delay elements DAILT TARGET ENGINEERING EQUIPMENTS MATERIALS TIME MANAGEMENT RISK MANAGEMENT Safety Delay causes Daily target & review Conflict bt ideas in terms of dail1 target Daily meeting for planning Poor communication system Strategic planning for daily work Ineffective management Ineffective supervision Goal not defined Complex design Design Fault Unskilled man force .992 0.Engineering team Insufficient data while designing Team work & co ordination Delay in design approval Customers requirement changes Installation problem Equipment size Certification of Equipments Calibration of Equipments Unavailability of correct tool for working Unavailability to test of equipment Use of classical tools Insufficient tools Material lead time Poor storage area Transit Damage Quality of material Wrong supply Short receipt Delay in procurement Supplied material was defective Lunch time of labours and Management staff is on same time Leaving work area .983 0.989 0.997 0.989 0.989 Priority 1 4 5 6 1 5 6 8 6 4 6 8 1 5 3 4 6 4 3 4 5 4 5 3 2 6 2 5 5 5 4 5 6 4 7 5 7 5 5 6 5 5 3 5 2 5 6 5 www.986 0.995 0.986 0.N.992 0.989 0.986 0.net . S..989 0.992 0.989 0.992 0.989 0.989 0.992 0. May 2013 28 Mean 0.986 0.986 0.992 0.992 0.QGLDQ-RXUQDORI&RPPHUFH 0DQDJHPHQW6WXGLHV    .

986 0.995 0.work area Delay in getting work permit from municipal corp.995 0.employees Weak feedback Frequent change of manpower Delegation ..992 0. temple Unavailability of water.977 5 1 4 5 6 4 7 6 4 6 7 6 6 6 6 7 6 2 3 7 5 7 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 1 ****** Volume IV Issue 2(1).989 0.net .992 0.own employees Inventories Low budget Casual approach of employees Unskilled man force .986 0.986 0.992 0. May 2013 29 www.in all field Wrong estimation Delay in payment .661 Lack of awareness about safety Unavailability of work condition Effect on environment Casual approach in term of safety Accident at site Risk while working with electrical equipment & working at height Natural causes .986 0.scholarshub. board Return of investment ROI Not using WBS .School.QGLDQ-RXUQDORI&RPPHUFH 0DQDJHPHQW6WXGLHV 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 EXTERNAL CAUSES FINANCE Employee    .986 0. law & regulation Land acquiring problem Local development Social problem .995 0.989 0.977 0.earth quack Changes in Govt.992 0.995 0.98 0.989 0.992 0.986 0.vendors Delay in payment .995 0.989 0.992 0.989 0.986 0.986 0.986 0.983 0. electricity Delay in final inspection .992 0.flood .not in our scope Lack of discussion Motivation Interpersonal relationship Rigidity of employee & labor Understanding portfolio & interest of employee Decision making power – employee 0.989 0.992 0.