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# Some Examples

:
An industry has a ½-inch-thick uninsulated mild steel tank storing a hot fluid. The fluid is heated
to 200oF, while ambient air is 70oF. The tank is 10 ft in diameter and 10 ft tall. The thermal
conductivity of mild steel is 314.4 Btu.in/ft2.h.oF and of glass wool is 0.25 Btu.in/ft2.h.oF.
i)

What is the heat loss for the uninsulated tank?

ii)

If the tank surface is insulated with 1-inch-thick aluminum-jacketed fiberglass, how
much heat we can save?

Ans: Heat loss takes place through two way: 1) heat loss through the wall, and 2) heat loss
through the roof.
Total heat resistance
Rtotal = Rtank + R surface coefficient
Rtank = d/K =0.5/314.4 = 0.0016 h.ft2.oF/Btu
Assuming that the surface is dull metal and the surface temperature is around 120 oF
Then R surface coefficient = 0.50 h.ft2.oF/Btu
U = 1/ (Rsurface + Rtank) = 1/0.5016 = 1.99 Btu/ft2.oF.h, where U = conductance
A = area = DH + r2 = (10ft)(10ft) +(5 ft2) = 392.7 ft2
Qtotal = UAt = (1.99 Btu/ ft2.oF.h) x(392.7 ft2)(200o-70oF)
= 101,591 Btu/h

Ans: If surface is insulated with 1-inch thick aluminum-jacketed fiberglass, the
Rinsulation = d/K = 1/0.25 = 4 h.ft2.oF/Btu (K is found at average temperature of around 140
o

F)
U = 1/ (Rsurface + Rtank + Rinsulation ) = 1/(0.0016 + 4 + 0.88) = 0.205 Btu/ft2.oF.h
Qtotal = UAt = (0.205 Btu/ ft2.oF.h) x(392.7 ft2)(130 oF)
= 10,465 Btu/h
Savings = 101,796 – 10,465 = 91,331Btu/h
%Savings = 91,331/101,796 x 100 = 89.7%

In any industry a fraction of energy can be saved by proper management. the inductance and capacitance of the phase conductors can be significant. The currents that flow in these components of the circuit impedance constitute reactive power. up to one ton is lost just through the line loss issue. However. As reactive current increases. (3) defined realistic goals. this needs to establish an energy management program as follows: Program Organization Four basic elements are essential to any energy management program: 1) top management commitment. Figure 1 is a typical energy management organization chart. The ratio of real power (transmitted to the load) to apparent power is the power factor. FACTS) throughout the system to control reactive power flow for reduction of losses and stabilization of system voltage. (1) Top Management Commitment: Top management must be dedicated and committed to an energy conservation program. and (4) program planning and implementation. This committee is appointed by management and headed by a coordinator. It must be willing to provide resources as required. When consider the high end of the scale. For systems with low power factors. Transmitting electricity at high voltage reduces the fraction of energy lost to resistance.usually as heat. which transmits no energy to the load. Reactive current causes extra losses in the transmission circuit. . some of its energy is lost . (2) Program Responsibility: The planning and implementation of an energy management program must be the clearly defined responsibility of an energy program committee. this means that for every 10 tons of coal burned for electricity generation. Proper management and reduction of waste energy can keep energy consumption and costs at a controlled minimum. The committee consists of representatives from each department. Employees will apply their best efforts to the program. it experiences resistance and as a result. the more electricity is lost. losses are higher than for systems with high power factors. The further the electricity has to travel. static VAR compensators. and flexible AC transmission systems. who reports to management.What are the causes of electric power loss in the transmission line and how can we reduce the losses? As electricity travels over miles of transmission lines to get to our homes. physical transposition of the phase conductors. the reactive power increases and the power factor decreases. In an alternating current circuit. Utilities add capacitor banks and other components (such as phase-shifting transformers. both personnel and financial. (2) clearly designated program responsibility. Demonstrate the ways of saving energy in the industry by proper management.

In all cases. goals should be specific. Energy management equipment inventory record (gas/electric) Location Description Quantity Rated input. An ideal audit lists each process step. the actual energy used. The audit will reveal where energy flow measurement is needed and whether its installation can be justified economically. An audit is made from a series of surveys that show where and how energy is being used and /or wasted. How large the initial and revised goals should be. the theoretical energy required for each step. it is essential to know how much energy each major area uses. will depend on individual circumstances. For effective planning. Goals may be shown on an energy budget using the format illustrated by the following Figure 2. (4) Program Planning: The first technical step in an energy management program is to conduct an energy audit. measurable.Analysis Figure 3.(3) Program Goals: An energy saving goal should be set initially in order to provide a later be revised following a more thorough analysis of potential energy savings. and the variance between theoretical and actual use. Btu/h or kW Annual use MBtu or kWh Remarks . Energy use by consumptio n area and process steps Buildings & grounds Heating Shipping Lighting Receiving Shop Assembly Combustion Actual energy used Theoretical energy requiremen t Variance between theory and practice Amount % of energy Goal Change from previous month An energy audit should be organized in three phases. and should offer sufficient incentive to all employees to make achievement a challenge. Phase I-Data Gathering Phase 11-Energy Balances Phase 111. or how they should be expressed.

if possible. An analysis of the energy audits will reveal which energy services (steam. and the corrective action recorded. on future energy costs) will reveal the merit of each potential improvement project and enable priorities to be set. electricity) show the most potential for immediate improvement. gas. By this way any industry can save a potential amount of energy. Most of these wastes can be eliminated by procedural changes requiring little capital investment. Selected projects should be implemented when approved. Management officer Plant energy management coordinator Consultant Energy management committee Engineering Production Department representative Purchasing Maintenance Maintenance representative . and can result in savings of 5 to 20 percent.Program Implementation: The obvious wastes found in the initial survey should have been corrected immediately. A cost/benefit analysis (based.

e. It has been decided to reline the inside brickwork with ceramic fiber with a cost of £1400 in order to save some energy and it would be benefited if the pay-back period is less than 2 years. the annual fuel cost is 14400 x 32 /100 = £4068 The annual fuel saving due to the relining for a pay-back period of two years is given by £4068/2 = £700 i. calculate the percentage saving in gas required to achieve the required pay-back period. The initial annual gas consumption is 150 x 2 x 48 = 14400 therm i.e.2% This order of reduction is well within that expected for ceramic fiber relining. Assuming the price of gas £32/therm. the existing gas consumption is 150 therm/cycle. Percentage annual fuel savings required = 700 x 100/4608 = 15.Example A kiln has two complete operating cycles per week and runs for 48 weeks per year. .