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Chapter10:Air - Water Vapor Mixtures
b) The PsychrometricChart and Air-Conditioning Processes
We noticefrom the developrnent
in Sectiona) thatthe equationsrelatingrelativearrdspecifrc
(wei
humidity,temperature anddry bulb), pressure(air, vapor)andenthalpyarequitetedious
andinconvenient.For ftis reasona PsychrometricChart relatingall the relevantvariables
wasdevelopedwhich is extemely usefirlfor designingandevaluatingair-conditioningand
coolingtowersystems.
thepsycbrometricchartis quiteconfirsing,howeverwith somepracticeit
At first appearence
Themost
becomesar exfemely usefultool for rapidly evaluatingair-conditioningprocesses.
popularchartin commonusageis that developedby ASHRAE (AmericaaSocietyof
Heating,RefrigerationandAir-ConditioningEngineers),howeverwe feel thatthe
constructionofa simplifiedversionofthe chartbasedon approximations
ofthe various
equationscanbe a very usefi:ltool for developinganunderstanding
of ifs usage.This
approachwassuggested
by MagedEl-Shaarawiin his article"On thePsycbrometricChart"
published
in theASHRAETransactions
@aper#3736,Vol 100,Paxt1, 1994)andinspiredus
to producethe following simplifiedpsychrometricchart:
pEychrqmelric
Simplilied
cnaflat 1 atntotalprcsure
F
*

g
.a
15 E
F

rg

5

=
.c
=
@

t0

ttF/ rw.dlo€{r'nEr!*i.dlh6mdApdi€dchqtT_t

1t2925m35

'C
Orybulblamparatura

1,CtEdsl0bht!,

leadingto the constantslopewet bulb temperature enthalpy(red)lines definedby: nair'+'xtrltrug +lT['c]) ctry ai'l= T['c]+tp.Kl lines It is normalpracticeto separateout tlre overlappingenthalpy/ wet bulb temperature allowingthemto be separatelyevaluated.pS .dioedh-hacd.ti:-m wftiellis tulthe!Anallyr€duc:ed te: r***."'"'*L *p1 ctry /t{c l.Jr. -rrLu(^* rl = lfLH v l l ./trg l.Pg) which is obtainedfrom sieamtablesovertherangefrom Tsat= 0.c{T. in the constructionof thechartis ihat the enthalpyofthe Themajor simplifuingassumption to be constantthroughoutthe adiabaticsaturationprocess(describedin mixtureis assumed Sectiona).. Noticethat on the saturationcurvethe wet anddrv bulb temperatures samevalues. lattofl arrl at {D= 0. l &i fllat spedfc 101umeat sa p. atr . the specific volume oftle air-vapor mixhre (greenlines) is determinedfiom the ideal sas relation as .]* r['e +15ooroslthaipy Note that on the ro = 0 axis (dry air) h = T fcl Finally.:^r-r" \"oIJ wherethe gasconsta:rtR6 = 0.e .oll .clEFter1ft| Ihe Ptychcret c c@(u@47t212o14) 11f25t?o14 Thebasicinformationusedto constructthe chartis thewatervaporsaturationdata(Tsat..PsJ pressure101.P_C.t"f/ "l 'l= +1731 .d 7_11/Chaddl6.[']ft * o. l-n ^""f 0P* ) .The specifrchumidity rrris thenevaluatedusingtherelativehumidityq asa parameterto produce thevariousrelativehumiditycurves(bluelines)asfollows: .thdhdAdi€dCh.htrl 2tg . whereP is the standardatrnospheric J Thesaturationcurve(100%relativehumidity)alsoknownasthe dewpoint cuwe is drawnas havethe a redline.325[kPa]. This impliesthatthe evaporatingliquid addeddoesnot significantlyaffectthe / enthalpyofthe air-vapormixture.Thuswe introducean obliqueenthalpyaxisand entha$y(black)linesasfollows: lnp/ww.0I 'C tbrough50"C.287ftJ/kg.

10hh!nl 3rl .Referto the link: MATLAB programfor plotting a SimplifiedPsychrometricChart Ar excellentNebcuide (Jniversity ofNebraska-LincolnExtensionPublication)on How to usea SimplifredPsychrometric Chart hasbeenprovidedby DavidShelton.oaio€d'i/h€diadcd/lh€.ClEpter 10b:The PEyclrd*ic C@(U@d1Am11t p8lchrorrelrie Simplllled charlat 1 dm lotalpresure E e E l() 8- m 1520$m35 'C Dr! bulblemperature in MATLAB andusedto plot the Thefour equationshigblightedabovewereprogramrned simplifiedpsychrometricchartsshownabove.ndAldledchelT 11/ChaBc./.Usethepsychrometricchartto determinetle specifichumidity to the enthalpyh [78 kJ/kg-air].&gl.This guidereducesthe confusionby separatelyexplaining4 of the 6 setsof curveswhich makeup a psychrometricchart.1 .89m3.Definitely readthis guidebefore continuing.llw. DRY BULB is 32oCwith a Solved Problem 10.thewet-bulbtemperatureT*6 [ 18gm-moisture. It9.andis also availableasa pdf-Iile (968k).Assumetlat the outsideair ternperature : relativehunidity g 60%. T6o[23"C].thedew-pointtemperature Indicateall the valuesdeterminedon the chart.5'C].andthespecificvolumeofthe dry air v [25.&g-air]. 10.

fr$d rw.usethepsycbromehic ehartto determine if the windows of that room which are in contactwitl tle outsidewill becomefoggy.11r25t2014 Chdd 106:ThePsychrmeficCtulu@1r2m14) Simplitiedp€lctrrgrFlric chartd 1 atn tolal preEEure d r 6 g f E o (l)=18 15 g 1g - o tlJ 20 tzj gl 'C Drybulbtenpafature is 8"C.ndicd/tEndAFdiedche(7_1 1/ioludal6.htnl .If theair in a Solved Problem 10.2: Assume thattheoutsideair temperature rdomis at25oCwith a relativehumidityE = 40%.dioeduhc.

htnl 5€ . fi pr&w. At thatpoint tle watervaporcondenses tle temperature as approaches 8'C alonglhe saturationline.This definesthe "comfod zone"which is portrayedon the Psycbrometric Chartasshowabelow.Thuswith the aid ofthe chartwe eitherheator cool. andthewindowswill becomefoggy.q F 1fl9 = io = L erl 8'c Dr! bulbtemperdJre'C sl0 fll Theair in contactwith thewindowswill becomecolderuntil the dewpoint is reached. Oneofthe major applicationsofthe Psychrometric Chartis in air conditioning.1115 14 cheB* 16: ThePEyctrnefic c@. andthe relativehumidityI between40% and60%. addmoistureor dehumidif asrequiredin orderto bring the air into the comfortzone.lu@d7@n14j SinpliliedpEyctrronrelrle chartat 1 dn lotalpre€sure 2s€ e .Notice thatunderthe conditionsof25"C and40%relativehumiditythe dewpoint temperature is sltghtlyhigherthan 10'C.olioedr'inelFicdfr EmdAtdi€d/Cti4t7_1llohadstlb.andwe find thatmosthumansfeel comfortablewhenthetemperature is between?Z"Cand27'C.

trtr/ ^w.Using thePsychrometric Chartneat$ plot therequiredair conditioningprocessandestimate(a) the (b) theheatremoved[(l)-(2).&g-dry-airl.a 3 = Lt) 1t 22 27 Zg 25 &r 'C A5 0r! bulblemperalure Solved Problem 10.3: outsideair at 35'C and60%relativehumidityis to be ednditionedby eoolingandheatingso asto bring the air to witlin the "eomfortzone".dio. q. q.oot: amormtofmoistureremoved[ 11.11t6t 14 crEraer1ft: ThePbyctrmebicCtunq@.5g-H204rg-dry-air].€dutr€dEicdnEmdApdi€dCrEd 7_11rclfls106htn' 6i9 . 48kJ&g-dry-airl."os= 10kJ.ld712. and(c) theamountofheatadded(2)-(3).1?o14) pEphromatric Simplified 6arl at 1 atrrtotalpreGsure d 258 E g p E g .

4g-H20lkg-dry-air].and(c) the lowest temperature thatcouldberealzed[18.5"C]. Itbrvw.Wateris addedastheair passesthrougha seriesofwicks andlhe mixtureexitsat 27oC.1(b.4 : : Uot ary airat 40"C and10Yorelativehumiditypassestbrough an evaporativecooler.Usingthepsycbrometricchartdeterrnine(a) the outletrelative humidity t457"1.diodr'm6dEdcd/tEndApdi€drch4t7_1 rchd.11t25?o14 chsd* 16: ThePsyclro€tric c@lu@d1am14l SirrpliliedpE!|ehromelric dranat 1 almlotalpreasure d 25E E a .a a = a L'J 15 2B 22 25 27 n 'C DryhulbErrperalure g5 lJohdJreremocal Solved Problem 1 0.O) the amormtof wateradded[5.htnl .

An interestingapplicationofusing a swampcoolerto cool drinkingwaterin extremelyhot environmentsis describedin thepostingof Rich Oppelin the At War blog of theNewYork Times:'Drinking From Socksr An interestingandinformativedescriptionon PsychrometricChart Usefor livestockand greenhouse applicationshasbeenpresentedin a UniversityofConnecticutwebsiteby MichaelDarre. dry climates.htnl .w E = E € iD a 7A22 e527 n 'C Dr! hulbtenperafiJre This type ofcooler is extremelypopularin hot.dloed/n€chttcdd'€.andis popularlyknownasa SwampCooler. On to Sectionc) CoolingTowersfor SteamPowerPlantsF t@/ vqw.Otherwebsitestlat we foundinterestingis that of g{ikipcdia on Psychromeaics. andoneby SamHui (HongKong University)on usingthepsychrometric 'Climatic chaxtin the Designof Buildings'.ft dAdiedctEp(7_l lchdsl(}r.d* lobj ThePsyclrdetric c@(lJ@d7l2lt14) Sjmpllliedp8ydrronelricehafi at 1 almtolal pre€sure a g E .11t25ttu14 ch.