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1st to 2nd week LO1

I Introduction

Class Beadle –number


other words, to discover the truth of very
own history.
This subject will focus on the point of view of
the Filipinos and not of the Spaniards and
Americans. Even so, facts are not twisted to
accommodate national prejudices. The facts
would be allowed to stand as facts.

ordinarily embraced an area of many
square miles and contained numerous
barrios or villages.
In the beginning, the Spaniards
continued the native barangays,
confirming the chiefs in authority under
the title of cabeza de barangay.
B As next step, the towns were
organized with a native official called the
gobernadorcillo (literally means “little

Grading system

We will discover the negative effects of the
Spanish administration, but nevertheless, we
will also discover the good that Spain had
done in the Philippines, and other
administrations. We will manifest the true
essence of impartiality

Lectures, reporting – include
references/basis , paper, debate

-why and how – approach of learning – not
merely parrot-like.


Name, course, age, hobbies, work if any.

Minor subject – no one fails unless you insist
– pls submit requirements

2. Significance of study of phil history:
-For a long, long time books on Philippine
history have been written through the eyes of
foreigners, especially Spanish and American.
Thus, one reads that Magellan discovered
the Philippines, that Filipino guerillas who
fought the Americans in 1899-1901 were
bandits, that the Catholic Church unified the
Filipinos, and many more statements which
play down if not ignore completely, the role of
the Filipinos in the development of their
polity. Consequently, foreign-oriented books
prevaricate the facts of Philippine History. In

We therefore minimize the number of dates
in order not to burden unnecessarily the
minds of the students.
Finally, history is important because a better
understanding through the study of history,
can provide valuable insight for our future
generations. It allows us to avoid making the
same mistakes over and over again – history
repeats itself.
Break it down
Book recommend - Teodoro Agoncillo
Do not limit. Use other books in lib.

Foundations of Philippine politics
and governance –
A During Spanish occupation, the unit of
local administration was pueblo which



He was the representative of the
provincial governor.
Arbiter of Local questions, except
those assuming a serious legal
Responsible for the collection of
Break it down

C Assisting the gobernadorcillo were
Such positions before were filled by
appointments by the Spanish officials,
eventually the position became generally
Appointive vs elective
No term - has term
Appointment – election, right of suffrage
Different modes of termination - through

Philippine Constitution

4.1 Deals about Political Law – is that branch
of public law which deals with the
organization and operation of the
governmental organs of the State and
defines the relation of the State with the
inhabitants of its territory.


Policy determining
Primarily confidential or
Highly Technical
(NSTP 1) has anyone taken or
taking up? Will give this in exam

Necessity for the Study
The fundamental law provides that all
educational institutions shall include the
study of the Constitution as part of the
curricula – May be part of coverage of the
Civil Service exam.
Every citizen, regardless of calling, should
understand the mechanics and motivations of
his government. WHY? This is because
“sovereignty resides in the people and al
government authority emanates from them” It
is Upon active involvement in public affairs of
every Filipino that the success of Republic of
Philippines will depend.
Two classes of service


Career service – opportunity for
advancement to higher career
position, Permanent Laborers
Non-Career service - limited tenure,
meaning within a specific period,
upon expiration of such period,
position is deemed abolished
Elective officials, confidential staff
Emergency and seasonal personnel

Gen. Public service or government related
works needs of such exam

4.2 Background of the Study

The inhabitants of the Philippines originally
consisted of desperate tribes scattered
throughout its more than 7 thousand islands
(7,100 islands). These tribes were generally
free and were each governed by a system of
laws promulgated by datu or council of
The discovery of the Philippines by Magellan
in 1521 brought the people of the territory
under the common rule of Spain. This rule
lasted for more than 300 years.
Then, Rizal and other propagandists were
later to ignite the spirit of nationalism that
was to fuel the Philippine Revolution.
Started by Bonifacio and won under the able
generalship of Emilio Aguinaldo, the
Philippine Revolution finally ended Spanish
sovereignty in Philippines. On JUNE 12,
1898, Philippine independence was
proclaimed and on JUNE 21 1899. First

Philippine Republic was established with
Aguinaldo as its president.
The Malolos Constitution, under which the
new government was established, was the
first democratic constitution ever to be
promulgated in the whole of Asia.
Then, American period came. Disregarding
the declaration of independence by the
Filipinos, the erstwhile belligerents concluded
the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898,
which provided for the cession or surrender
of Philippine Islands by Spain to the United
States. However, the superior forces of the
invader easily put an end to the PhilippineAmerican War.
Later, Phil. Bill of 1902, the Philippine
Assembly was created in 1907 to sit with the
Philippine Commission in a bicameral


When you say bicameral

Senate vs House of Rep. (congress)
24 members

Elected at large

250 members, district
rep. and party-list
Former: directly from
territorial unit he is
seeking to represent
Latter: Indirectly thru
the party he

Later, Philippine Autonomy Act was enacted,
popularly known as the Jones Law. It
continued until 1935 when it was supplanted
by the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which
authorized the establishment of
Commonwealth of Philippines.
Tydings-McDuffie Act promised
independence to the Filipinos IF they could
prove their capacity for democratic
government during a ten-year transition
period. Eventually, Filipino did. Especially
when they survive the rigors during the world
war II.
Accordingly, on July 4, 1946, the US formally
withdrew it sovereignty over the Philippines.
Pres.Manuel A. Roxas thereupon asserted
the freedom of the Filipino people and
proclaimed the Republic of the Philippines.
So we had the Constitution of 1935 it
continued until under the administration of
Former Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos. Nov. 30
1972, the draft of Constitution of 1973 was
formally approved by the Constitutional

the people at a plebiscite held on Feb. 2,
1987, and was ratified by vote of around 16
M in favor and around 4.9M against.

On the first acts of the new President was the
promulgation of a provisional or FREEDOM
CONSTITUTION which was to be in force
pending the adoption of a new Constitution to
be drafted by a Constitutional Commission,
which she also created. The draft was
approved by the body and was submitted to

Legislative – enacts law
Executive – enforcement of law

Claro M. Recto – according to arizala

Judiciary – interprets law/ applies the law

Break it down.

Doctrine of separation of powers – intended
to prevent a concentration of authority in one
branch so as to avoid the abuse in its

Quiz matter
1 Commonwealth Constitution 1935
2 Constitution of 1973 – enforced during the
Marcos regime
3 Freedom Constitution – as a result of the
people power upheaval that deposed Pres.
Marcos – Corazon Aquino proclaimed the
4 Constitution of 1987 – plebiscite

That there should be interdependence –
Blending of powers.
“Check and Balances” – so as to avoid
encroachment of one department to another
department. Quiz matter

When you say plebiscite, - electoral process
by which an initiative in the constitution is
approved or rejected by the people.

Legislative ,Congress – can create a
proposed bill, but can be checked by
President (executive branch) thru his veto
power, which in turn may be overridden by
the legislature

4.3 Supremacy of the Constitution

Executive , President – can proclaim
amnesty but can be refused by legislative to
give its concurrence to such amnesty.

Paramount law to which all other laws must
conform and to which all persons must defer.

Judiciary – Can convict in a criminal case but
president can pardon the same.

Later, of course Martial Law was lifted.
Due to irregularities happened during the
Marcos regime, what later came to be known
as the “people power revolution that led to
the ouster of Marcos and replaced by Pres.
Corazon C. Aquino

Quiz matter

Meaning, no act shall be valid, however
noble its intentions, if it conflicts with the

4.4 Structure of the Government
What are the branches of government

Igorots (descendants of Indonesian B)

3th to 4th week

3 Malays – they use metals and ornaments
made of iron (more progressive) in facts they
have their own alphabet.

II Pre-colonial Phil., before the country
was colonized.

Coming of Islam – such religion was
introduced in Old Malaysia by Arab traders.

1 Geographical foundation of the

Foreign Influences - Because of their relation
fo foreign by way trade, Fiilipinos learned
from the Chinese the use of umbrellas,
porcelain, gongs the manufacture of gun
powder and mining methods. Also, Chinese
custom of the ancient Bisayans of wearing
white, instead of black to show that they were
mourning the death of any of their relatives.

The Philippines is an archipelago that
consists of 7,107 isands..
300,000 sq. kilometers
Region : Southeast Asia
2 seasons, dry ( March to June) and wet
season (July to October)
Natural Resources – rice is the main crop
Export products include
Coconut, sugar, resins, abaca etc.
Early Settlers – During Ice Age, a skull of
man was discovered in the Tabon caves,
Palawan. From this skull it was earned that
man had been in the Philippines 20,000
years, more or less
Early Stone Age - they use stone
implements and tools.
1 Indonesian A
2 Indonesian B

2 Pre-colonial life and culture
The Social Classes
A Nobles - composed of chiefs and their
families were the upper class. They were
highly respected in their community. Known
as Lakan.
B Freemen – middle class
C Dependents – also known as alipin, low
social status of dependent was acquired by:

Captivity in battle
By failing to pay his debts
By inheritance
By purchase
By being pronounced guilty of a

C1 Aliping namamahay – had his own
house and family, kind of work are
planting and harvesting crops, helping
the construction of house his master etc.

C2 Aliping sagigilid – had no house of his
own, lived with his master and could not
marry without the latter’s consent.

Women’s position in Society – The position of
Filipino women before the arrival of the
Spaniards was high. The custom of the
period made women the equal of men.
They could own and inherit property and sell
it, they could engage in trade and industry,
they can give name to their children.
The Government – the community called
barangay was the unit of government. It
consisted of from 30 – 100 families
The Tagalog word barangay was derived
from the Malay Balangay, a boat which
transported the Malay immigrants to the
Philippines. Spaniards changed the letter l
Each barangay was independent and was
ruled by a chieftain.
Chieftain can exercise the powers of
executive, the legislative and the judiciary.
(review meaning of executive etc…)
He is aided in his role as lawmaker by a
council of elders. The one which makes
Relations bet. Barangays – there were trades
between them. Sometimes, alliances were
concluded between barangays for mutual
protection against a common enemy. An
alliance was sealed thru a process called
consisted in drawing blood from the arms of
the contracting parties, mixing their

respective blood in a cup of wind and
drinking the mixture. Having drank this, the
contracting parties then became “bloodbrothers”

How a law was made – The chieftain of
barangay made the laws of the community.
When he had a law in mind, hen called in the
councils of elders to ask its opinion. If the
elders approved the proposed law, the
chieftain ordered a town crier, called
umalohokan, to announce to the people the
approval of the law.
Relate to new process / procedure of making
law. Quiz matter



A bill is introduced by any member of
the HR or Senate
First reading involves only reading of
number and title of the measure and
its referral by senate president or
speaker to proper committee for
study. The bill may be terminated in
the committee or it may be
recommended for approval, with or
without amendments.
Once reported out, the bill shall be
calendared for second reading. It is
at this stage that the bill is read in its
entirety, scrutinized, debated upon
and amended when desired. *most
important reading.
3rd reading will be made. Members
will merely register their votes. No
further debate is allowed.
Once bill passes third reading, it is
sent to another chamber, where it
will also undergo three readings.
If approved it will be submitted to
president for consideration.

-can be approved by president by
signing the same or not signing it,
after the lapse of 1 month from the
receipt thereof it will be considered
as approved by the president.

Spice Islands under the command of
The expedition consisted of five ships,

Deciding cases -- chieftain as judge and
elders as members of jury. If conflicts arose,
it will be resolved by arbitration
ADR alternative dispute resolution.
The trial is usually held in public. The man
who had more witnesses was usually
adjudged the winner. The loser had no other
alternative than to accept the decision of the
5th – 6th
III.Spanish period.
1 Discovery of new lands
The Magellan expedition – Ferdinand
Magellan was a Portuguese who went to
Spain to offer his services to the King. He
had seen battles in Malacca and Africa for his
King. But instead of rewarding him, the king
of Portugal ignored him. Magellan was hurt
and so left Portugal for Spain. Magellan was
able to see King Charles I of Spain. The
meeting between the two was held in 1518.
Magellan, with the help of illustrations,
explained to the young King that he could
reach the Moluccas then known as Spice
Islands. So impressed was the youthful King
that he agreed to send an expedition to the

San Antonio
On March 17m 1521, he sighted the
mountains of what is now Samar. This event
marked the coming of the first Spaniards in
the Philippines. He befriended the raja there
and his brother Agu and sealed their
friendship with a blood compact. This was the
first blood compact(review what is blood
compact) between Filipinos and Spaniards.
He erected cross in different places in the
Philippines. He proceeded to Cebu and
Magellan persuaded the Cebuanos to
become Christians.
Meanwhile, a quarrel between two chieftains
of the neighboring island of Maktan occurred.
Raja Sula asked Magellan’s help to defeat
his rival, Raja Lapulapu who according to
Sula refused to recognize the King of Spain
as his sovereign. So Magellan went to
Maktan . Lapulapu who refused to listen to
Magellan’s demand to pay tribute prepared to
fight to the last. In the battled that followed,
Magellan was wounded in the leg. Seeing
this the brave people of Maktan rushed ar
him and killed him with their spears. With
death of Magellan, the Spaniards fled to their

ships and left. Some of them, however,
returned to Cebu, while attending a party
given by Raja Humabon, they were
massacred. The Cebuanos massacred them
because some of them not only robbed the
natives, but also raped some Cebu women.
What is The importance of the Expedition –
The remaining Spaniards decided to leave

Only Victoria ship succeeded in reaching the
Spain. Commanded by Sebastian del Cano.

In other words, the government had
the monopoly of the planting,
inspection, sale and purchase of
tabacco and its manufacture into
cigar and cigarette.

1.) Such expedition proved that the
word is round.
2.) Colonization of the Philippines by
Spain, with this, contacts between
European and Filipinos.

Not only that, the government also
had other monopolies, such as those
on wine and liquor, gunpowder,
playing cards.

Chapter 5
Social and Economic conditions
Slow Economic Development

Purpose : to make the Philippines
The government of Monopolies –
Basco is remembered for his role in
establishing government
monopolies. > The most important
of which was the tabacco monopoly.
King issued decree, according
thereto (1) the cultivation of tabacco

it was a policy by which the individual
was given full freedom to engage in
economic activities without much
interference by the government. So
Manila was opened to foreign trade --kasi nga ung monopoly restricted ung
commerce pero ayun nabuksan ung
manila. Now, the establishment of foreign
firms in Manila led to decline of Spanish
business interests. This was because
foreign firms were better managed and
knew better business methods than
Spaniards who were contented with their
old methods. Because of this, Sinibaldo
de Mas recommended the abolition of
the tabacco monopoly which was
approved by the King.
Another reasons of abolition of monopoly
of tabacco were the anomalies
happened, namely:

SEGWEY: At present monopoly is
punishable – it is a crime.

Spanish officials were lazy
They only wanted “white collar” jobs
– meaning jobs in the office and not
a manual labor job such as planting
crops etc .

Basco Economic plans

outside the provinces selected to
grow tabacco was prohibited
(2) Contraband sale of tabacco was
also prohibited
(3) the government had the
exclusive right to purchase all
tabacco products
(4) The government had the right to
prohibit the exportation or
importation of tabacco by any
agency not connected with the

Ex. Agreement with other or
Combines with another person or
persons to have an unreasonable
price regarding certain merchandise.

It restrains free competition in the

Opening of Ports – The restrictive policy
of Spain in the Philippines led to
economic STAGNATION. When,
however, the European nations adopted
the policy of “let alone: in commercial
and trading ventures, Spain was forced
to follow their example. Let alone means,

The Spanish officials in charge of
inspection and classification of
tabacco committed abuses like
talking the lands away from tabacco
farmers who failed to produce the
required quota of tabacco.
In most casesm inspectators also
searched the houses of farmers for
the purpose of looking for the allged
contraband tabacco but in reality the
purpose was to abuse the farmer’s
In other cases, there were not paid
the value of tabacco crop and
instead they received nothing but
paper promises, that is, promissory
notes saying that they would receive
the amount due them.

Social life – the social life of any
Christian community during the
Spanish times revolved around the
church. This was because the friarcurate was the all- powerful person
in whole community and what he
wanted done was followed.
Beside the church was the municipal
building called tribunal where the
gobernadorcillo or captain held
If a fiesta was to be held, the captain
had to consult the friar-curate. The
latter also determined the amount to
be spent for the Mass for the
fireworks for the participants in the
play to be staged before and during
the fiesta and a thousand other
things connected with the town
Also during the fiesta cockfighting
was allowed. Gambling in other
forms was also allowed. This
tendency to gamble was, and is still
strong among the poor so that
instead of improving their condition
they usually ended up deep in debt.
The baptisim of child or a marriage
was celebrated with much pomp.
Expenses were high for the Filipino
would not like to be called kuripot or
tight-fisted. Para daw memorable.
Activities :
Discuss with your classmates the
similarities and differences between
the fiesta yesterday and the fiesta
today. Are you in favor of fiestas?

Give your reasons for your Answer

There were only two branches of

DEBATE: Resolve, that fiesta should


2 Foundations of Spanish Rule:

No legislative – alternate –
issues of governor-general.
Relate to 3 branches of
government. (review mo sila –
what are the 3? What are the

Reasons for Spanish Colonozation:

During the Spanish period spices
commanded high prices thus the trade in
spices was very profitable. It was for this
reason that King Charles was persuaded to
send the Magellan expedition to the Orient in
search of Spice Islands.

He is also the commander-inchief of the armed forces.

Spanish claim to the Philippines was based
on two reasons: (exam matter)
1.) The first was that since the
“discovery” of the Philippines was
made by the Spain. Therefore, the
Philippines was rightfully owned by
2.) The second was that Spain, being in
actual possession of the Philippines,
was therefore its owner.
Break it down!!!! What are claims? What
do you think is valid?

The Audiencia – The judicial powers
of the government were exercised by
the Audiencia and the lower courts.
The Audiencia was established in
Philippines in 1584 in order to give
justice to the aggrieved people in the
The Audiencia was the highest court
insofar as civil and criminal cases
were concerned. Moreover, political
and administrative matters were
referred to it by the governor. When
there was no governor or when the
latter could not perform his duties,
the Audencia exercised his political
and administrative powers. It also
audited the finances of the

kinds of Governments

The Central Government


Local government – Below the
central government was the
provincial government.
Provinces which were already
peaceful and recognizing the
authority of Spain were

governed civil provincial
governors. Provincial governor
was called alcalde mayor. He
was appointed by the governorgeneral (review appointive vs

Below the provincial government
was municipal government.
Town or municipality composed of
several barrios, was headed by the
gobernadorcillo (little governor), also
called capitan municipal or simply
captain. Today, he is called Mayor.
The City and its Government

During the first century of Spanish rule,
there were only two cities, namely, Cebu
and Manila. As conquest and settlement
continued, the Spanish officials created
one city after another.
The union of Church and State
Because the early Kings of Spain
helped much in propagating and
defending the Catholic faith, they
became closely identified with
Church. There was in Spain a union
of Church and State. In this regard
some friars were appointment and
became members of some agencies
of Central Government. In the local
government , the friars most often
than not were the
>health officer
> the inspector of schools
>the examiner of pupils who wanted
to study in the primary school

>the censor who approved or
disapproved dramas and other
writings to be published
In this way, they became very
In some cases, a high Church official
was also eligible to become
governor-general during the latter’s
absence or illness.
Hold a debate: Resolve that the
Union of Church and State will be
beneficial to the Philippines today.
Campaign for reforms na ito eh.
-so what are those? Ung ginawa nila
or sinalihan nila. Page 101 of book.
109 or you can do google or internet
LO2 7th to 8th week
I The beginning of Filipinos nationalism
Lack of Unity during Spanish period. – the
Filipinos never had any unity before during
the Spanish period. They were divided into
barangays or tribes with their respective
chieftains. It is true that there were alliances
among barangays but these alliances were
loose and not permanent. Filipinos at that
time never considered themselves as one
people with a common heritage. They called
themselves merely inhabitants. With the
coming of the Spaniards, the great majority of

the Filipinos were given one religion – the
catholic religion. This does not mean
however that the Filipinos were united. The
muslims had their own religion and did not
consider themselves subjects of the Spanish
King. Consequently, they did not call
themselves Filipinos.
The most important policy of the Spaniards to
divide the Filipinos among themselves, the
pupose was to prevent them from uniting so
they would remain weak and being they
would not be able to challenge Spanish
power. They called it “divide and rule”
The education of Some Filipinos – The
Spaniards in the Philippines formed many
colleges for men and women. But these
colleges and also the universities were
exclusively for the Spaniards. Their doors
were closed to Filipinos. Whatever little
education some Filipinos had was received
from their home.
In19th century schools were opened but in
many cases these schools were hated by the
Filipino pupils because the method of
teaching was crude. Moreover, cruel
punishments were inflicted on erring pupils –
Tomsawyer -kwento mo law school experience mo re
cruelty. Binabato ng eraser if not able to recit
verbatim the article, pinpahiya sa klase,
sometimes bad words were spoken against
you. But I think its effective as far as
retention is concerned…..bla bla

Later the said universities admitted natives.
So nakapagaral yung mga Filipinos in UST
etc. As a result, a good number of those
children became lawyers, physicians,
pharmacist teachers, merchants etc. It was
these educated Filipinos who asked for
reforms in the administration of the
Philippines. Thus, they questioned the
Spanish misdeeds, incompetence, greed and
The Cavite mutiny – on 20 January 1872, the
Filipino workers and some marine
detachment mutinied. This mutiny was
caused by the revocation by the GovernorGeneral of the privilege of Filipino workers to
be exempted from forced labor and from
paying tribute.
The mutineers killed some Spanish soldiers.
And the governor-general called it a rebellion
kahit na mutiny lang. So the arrest of
Filipinos allegedly connected with the mutiny
was ordered. Among those arrested were
Fathers Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and
Jacinto Zamora, otherwise known as GomBur-Za --- they were sentenced to death.
The execution of Gom-Bur-Za – During their
trial the government failed to prove
convincingly that the accused seculars were
really connected with the January mutiny.
The governor-general promised to present
documents to prove that the three priests
were connected with rebellion as he called
the mutiny. But he never presented any
document. Unitil the present time, no
document has been found to show that

Gomes, Burgos, and Zamora were, in any
way, connected with the mutiny.
Nevertheless, they were sentenced to death
by garrote.
The importance of the execution of the
three priests lies in the fact that Filipinos who
witnessed the execution began to think and
feel as Filipinos, not as Ilokanos, Tagalogs,
Bisayans, Bikolanos and others. They
suspected that because they belong to a
colored race, the Spaniards who had always
felt superior to the Filipinos took them for
beasts of burden. From this time on, they
began to feel the necessity for unity.
The execution of Gomes, Burgos and
Zamora halted the secularization movement.
The Spanish government continued its cruel
measures to frighten the Filipinos into
submission. BUT the seeds of Filipino
nationalism had been planted.
Again, why Filipinos had no unity before and
after the arrival of Spaniards?
They don’t consider themselves as Filipinos
but inhabits who have different nationality.
E.G ilokanos, tagalog, bisayans, bikolanos
The Campaign for Reforms – ten years
that elapsed after the execution of Gomes,
Burgos, and Zamora were peaceful years. It
was peaceful period because the Filipinos

were cowed into silence by the Spanish
authorities. No one questioned the act of the
Spaniards during that time.
But the campaign for reforms continued. The
reform movement which they led included
making the Philippines a province of Spain.
As a province and not as a colony of Spain,
the Philippines would be represented in the
Spanish law-making body called Cortes. The
Filipinos would became Spanish citizens. As
Spanish citizens they would enjoy all the
rights and privileges Spanish citizens. They
would be obliged to discharge the duties of
Spanish citizens. Being Spanish citizens, the
Filipinos could not be treated cruelly by the
friars and the Spanish civil authorities. This
policy of making the Filipinos Spanish
citizens has been called ASSIMILATION.
*exam matter
Breakdown – reform movement want:

Province spain – Philippines
Filipinos acquire rights and privileges
No cruelty

Life of Marcelo H. Del Pilar
Why the reform movement failed - the
campaign to introduce reforms waged by
patriotic Filipinos in spain and in the
Philippines failed. True enough, that some
laws beneficial to the Philippines were
passed, such as the Maura law which
provided for the compulsory teaching of

Spanish in all schools, and laws introducing
reforms in the judiciary. But these laws were
not implemented in the Philippines. In other
words, they were dead laws.
Reasons for failure:
1 Spanish high officials in spain were too
busy with their own problems to listen to the
collective voice of the reformists.
2 the reformists in spain and in the
Philippines did not have the necessary
financial means with which to make their
campaign effective
3 the reformists themselves were not united.
There were jelousies among them. The unity
of the Filipinos in Spain was once
endangered by the rivalry for leadership
between Rizal and del Pilar.
4 the friars in the Philippines had influential
friends and supporters in spain. These
supporters opposed the introduction of
reforms in the Philippines. Against the rich
and powerful friars the poor Filipino
reformists could not do much to benefit the
Page 111 -120 or u can go for internet
Bonifacio and the Katipunan


17 – 18th week
The fourth Republic
Constitution of 1987
Deals about Political Law – is that branch of
public law which deals with the organization
and operation of the governmental organs of
the State and defines the relation of the State
with the inhabitants of its territory.
Structure of the Philippines:
Research Paper
What are the branches of government
Quiz matter
Legislative – enacts law
Executive – enforcement of law
Judiciary – interprets law/ applies the law
Doctrine of separation of powers – intended
to prevent a concentration of authority in one
branch so as to avoid the abuse in its


What is election?

Legislative ,Congress – can create a
proposed bill, but can be checked by
President (executive branch) thru his veto
power, which in turn may be overridden by
the legislature

By which people choose their officials in
definite and fixed period they entrust their
representatives the exercise of power of the

Executive , President – can proclaim
amnesty but can be refused by legislative to
give its concurrence to such amnesty.

Right of suffrage

Judiciary – Can convict in a criminal case but
president can pardon the same.
State cannot be sued without its consent.
Ex. A claim for damages for injuries sustained
by plaintiff while undergoing military training
as required by law was actually a suit against
the State since it would need the
appropriation of public funds to satisfy the
judgment if the claim were allowed. Although
against the chief of staff, it was dismissed,
the state had not waived its immunity.

Is predicated upon the theory that the people
who bear the burden of government should
share in the privilege of choosing the officials
of that government (theory of representative

Qualification for exercise of
1.Filipino citizen

Form of consent
Expressly – by law
Impliedly – if state commences litigation or
when it enters into contract.
E.g. services of an architect

That there should be interdependence –
Blending of powers.
“Check and Balances” – so as to avoid
encroachment of one department to another
department. Quiz matter

Is the right to vote.

Election Process

2 At least 18 yrs old
3 Resident of the PH at least 1 yr
4 Resident of the place where he
proposes to vote for at least 6
5 Not otherwise disqualified by

1 Persons convicted by final
judgment to suffer imprisonment
for NOT less than one year, unless
pardoned or granted amnesty
BUT right reacquired upon
expiration of 5 years after service
of sentence
2 Person adjudged by final
judgment of having committed
*any crime involving disloyalty to
*any crime against national
security – treason etc.
BUT the right is reacquired upon
expiration of 5 years after service
of sentence
3 Insane or incompetent persons
declared by competent authority
>Enfranchised citizen means
registered voter
Election vs suffarage
Participation to
vote only

Participation to
May exercise also

plebiscite and
Kinds of election
General vs special
Based on law
It covers
expiration of term
thru out the state
Covers Pres, VP,
Senate LGU etc

Based on
Under special
circumstances, eg
may namatay
Vacancy for specia

Disqualifications. - The following
persons are disqualified from
running for any elective local
(a) Those sentenced by final
judgment for an offense involving
moral turpitude or for an offense
punishable by one (1) year or
more of imprisonment, within two
(2) years after serving sentence;
(b) Those removed from office as
a result of an administrative case;
(c) Those convicted by final
judgment for violating the oath of
allegiance to the Republic;

Theories on suffrage
Natural right > inherent, once
born un na un
Social expediency > not a right
but a duty
Tribal > based on membership
Feudalism > privilege ,
accompanying the ownership of
land based on land.

(d) Those with dual citizenship;
(e) Fugitives from justice in
criminal or non-political cases
here or abroad;