Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems

ME 597/ABE 591

Lecture 5

Dr. Monika Ivantysynova
MAHA Professor Fluid Power Systems
MAHA Fluid Power Research Center
Purdue University

Displacement Machines
Study different design principles and learn about the following topics
Axial piston pump design solutions (swash plate and bent axis)
Radial piston pumps and motors – piston support
Gear Pumps – internal and external – axial and radial gap compensation
Vane pumps – advantage and disadvantage of this design
Please study the appropriate chapters in
Ivantysyn, J. and Ivantysynova, M. (2001), Hydrostatic Pumps and Motors.
Akademia Books International. New Dehli. ISBN-81-85522-16-2
Aim: - To be able to select the right design for your system application!
- Knowledge about limitations of each basic design
- To apply models on system level for each design
© Dr. Monika Ivantysynova

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Design and Modeling of Fluid Power
Systems, ME 597/ABE 591

Displacement Machines
Swash Plate Machines

Axial Piston Machines
Piston Machines
F
In-line Piston Machines

Bent Axis machines
with external piston support

Radial Piston Machines
with internal piston support
External Gear

F
Gear Machines

Internal Gear
Annual Gear
F
Screw Machines

Vane Machines
Fixed displacement machines
© Dr. Monika Ivantysynova

others

Variable displacement machines
3

6

Design and Modeling of Fluid Power
Systems, ME 597/ABE 591

Bent axis axial piston pumps Synchronization of cylinder block Driving flange Cylinder block Using a bevel gear Using a universal joint © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova 4 18 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .

ME 597/ABE 591 .Bent axis axial piston pumps Synchronization of cylinder block connecting rod piston Piston rod Cardan joint Synchronization by piston rod Synchronization by pistons © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova 5 19 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.

achieved by synchronization the mechanism has finally three mechanism has finally two degrees degrees of freedom of freedom Piston can rotate about z -axis and 3 Piston can rotate about z 3 -axis © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova piston rod can rotate about z5-axis 6 20 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Kinematics of bent axis pumps Four link 3D mechanism Frame (1) Five link 3D mechanism Frame (1) Cylinder (4) Cylinder (4) Piston rod (5) Piston (3) Piston (3) Driving flange (2) Driving flange (2) Assuming a fixed connection between link 2 and link 4. ME 597/ABE 591 .

ME 597/ABE 591 .Piston Design Long piston with piston rod Short piston with piston rod Synchronization by universal joint or bevel gear Synchronization by pistons or piston rods Spherical piston with piston ring Conical piston with piston rings © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova 7 16 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.

Monika Ivantysynova 8 22 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Design Examples Pump control device Driving flange bearings Spherical valve plate © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 .

Monika Ivantysynova 9 23 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .Design Examples Driving flange bearings Fixed displacement pump Conical piston Spherical valve plate © Dr.

Radial Piston Pumps with external piston support with internal piston support Rotating cylinder body Stroke ring Suction Stationary cylinder body Delivery Suction Delivery eccentricity Rotating cam or crankshaft Displacement volume adjustable by changing eccentricity e © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova 10 29 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .

Radial Piston Pumps Multiple stroke radial piston pumps with external piston support with internal piston support Rotating cylinder body Stationary cylinder body Rotating cam Stationary stroke ring Only fixed displacement pumps realizable! © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova 11 30 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .

ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova 12 16 Piston rotation enforced by friction force Ff Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Piston support on outer stroke ring Plane valve plate Stroke ring Stroke ring Piston Rotating cylinder body © Dr.

Piston support on outer stroke ring Stroke ring Piston Piston roller guide Stroke ring borne in roller bearings © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova Piston sliding bearing 13 17 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .

Monika Ivantysynova 14 18 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Piston support on outer stroke ring Stroke ring Slipper support Hydrostatically balanced slipper Hydrodynamically balanced slipper Slipper pocket Ball joint inside the piston © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 .

ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova 15 19 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Stroke ring support Using a sliding carriage supported using line contact Stroke ring mounted on a pivot Change of eccentricity by pivoting the stroke ring about pivot axis © Dr.

ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova 16 Stroke ring Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Design Example Pump control system Slipper Piston Control journal © Dr.

Monika Ivantysynova 17 13 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.External gear pump Basic principle Radial gaps between teeth addendum circle and housing Housing Inlet Outlet Driving gear Qe = V ⋅ n -Qs Driven gear Axial gaps between housing and the gear pair must be very small to seal the displacement chamber © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 .

Monika Ivantysynova 18 14 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Two stage gear pump Inlet 1 p1 Driven gear Outlet 2 p4 p2 p3 Outlet 1 Driving gear Driven gear Inlet 2 Outlet 1 and inlet 2 can be connected or the pump can have two separate outlets p2 = p3 p1 = p3 the driving gear is pressure balanced! © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 .

Monika Ivantysynova 19 15 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 . Longer duration of teeth meshing leads to better sealing function © Dr.Internal gear pump Internal gear (ring gear) Pinion Advantages: Better suction ability Higher efficiency More compact design Less noise emission Suction zone Pressure zone Crescent shaped divider Using teeth of standard involute design requires a combination where the pinion has two or more fewer teeth than the ring gear! Pinion and ring gear are then separated by a crescent shaped divider.

ME 597/ABE 591 . © Dr.Internal gear pump Crescent shaped divider Many different tooth profiles have been applied in the recent past. Monika Ivantysynova 20 16 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.

Relative sliding velocity between pinion and ring gear is very small Pinion (z1) quiet operation and long service life Gerotor pump © Dr.Annular gear pumps Applying specially generated tooth curves it can be achieved. that the inner rotor (the pinion) has only one tooth less than the ring gear. Monika Ivantysynova 21 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. Ring gear (z2) Outlet Inlet Each tooth of the pinion maintains continuous sliding contact with a tooth of the ring gear. providing fluid tight engagement. thus eliminating the crescent-shaped divider. ME 597/ABE 591 .

Monika Ivantysynova Displacement volume is given by z1 times z2 tooth spaces 22 18 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Annular gear pump – Orbit principle 2 Pressure port Ring gear (z2) fixed Rotating pinion (z1) 1 Suction port Outlet Inlet Multiple delivery of each tooth space Rotating distributor © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 .

ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova 23 18 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Pressure compensated axial gaps Sealing ring Pressurized area A Sliding bearing Shaft seal Gear pair Axial gap FZ FZ End cap Bearing bushings housing Front cover Only one direction of shaft rotation possible! © Dr.

ME 597/ABE 591 .Pressure compensated axial gaps Driving gear Axial gap – pressure compensated Pressurized area Sealing 2FZ Sliding bearings © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova Driven gear 24 19 Improved volumetric efficiency Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.

Pressure compensated radial gaps Radial gap compensation Axial gap compensation Pressurized area Bearing bushing Small pressure zone achievable © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova 25 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.

ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova 26 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Gear pump – design example Driving gear Shaft seal inlet outlet Driven gear Bearing bushing performing a radial and axial gap compensation © Dr.

Monika Ivantysynova 27 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.design example Internal gear pump with axial and radial gap compensation Pinion Ring gear special shaped divider inlet Pressurized area outlet Moveable bearing shell Radial gap compensation © Dr.Internal gear pump. ME 597/ABE 591 .

Monika Ivantysynova 28 22 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .Screw Pumps With two meshing screws outlet inlet © Dr.

ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova 29 23 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Screw Pumps outlet t…thread pitch inlet outlet With three meshing screws © Dr.

Monika Ivantysynova 30 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Vane Pumps Classification of vane pumps Unbalanced vane pump Stator Rotor Balanced vane pump Only fixed displacement pump Fixed and variable pump design © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 .

e.Vane pumps. i. Monika Ivantysynova 31 37 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. operating pressure (20 MPa) © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 .basic working principle Single stroke vane pump – variable displacement volume inlet Overcenter pump – the direction of flow can be reversed by change of eccentricity. without changing the direction of rotation of the drive shaft outlet no flow! Relatively high friction between axial moveable vanes and rotor & between vanes and stator outlet Large radial forces exerted on the rotor inlet Limitation of max.

ME 597/ABE 591 .Vane pumps. Monika Ivantysynova 32 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.classification Multiple stroke vane pump Rigid vane pump Rotor © Dr.

ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova 33 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.fixed control journal inlet © Dr.Fluid distribution External fluid distribution Internal fluid distribution outlet stator rotor Distributor .

ME 597/ABE 591 .Rigid vane pump Stator ring Displacement volume: Rotor Pulsation free flow 1st rotor © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova 2nd rotor 34 vane Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.