7) Numerical simulation of casting solidification in

permanent metallic molds
T.R. Vijayaram, et al. (7 –2005) have used the numerical simulation for
casting simulation to predict and eliminate the defects like shrinkage,
porosity and hot tears. The aim of their work was to optimize the
design parameters, better understand the temperature history of the
solidifying casting and hence to
identify the hot spot region with the aid of obtained time-temperature
contours. They concluded that if their recommendations were followed
a defect free product will be obtained. (8) have used the the numerical
simulation to predict the final dimensions and residual stresses in the
die casting while comparing the obtained results against experimental
measurements taken on productions castings. (9) B.G. THOMAS et al
have developed a two-dimensional mathematical model to predict
stress generation in static-cast steel ingots during thermal processing
with the objective of understanding the role of stress generation in the
formation of defects such as panel cracks. Daming XU et al (10) have
proposed a mathematical model for mold filling processes under
centrifugal force field conditions . They have first compared a sample
simulation with a benchmark plate casting and then they have made
the simulation for a thin section casting with a titanium alloy melt of
assumed viscosity of 1.2 and 12 mm2/s respectively. The conclusion
they have drawn is that the flow behavior of the filling melts are
basically similar to each other although the less viscous melt tends to
fill into the thin section casting cavity faster. Ludmil Drenchev et al (12)
have used the numerical simulation to discuss the some aspects of the
macrostructure management of centrifugally cast particle reinforced.
They have used a specially developed software product to analyze of
many
technological regimes for casting cylindrical sleeves of composite alloy.
Nannan Song et al (13) have simulated numerically the solidifcation
process of horizontal centrifugal casting coupled with eutectic carbides
segregation . The results showed that the outer layer has a \sandwich
shape" solid
fraction manner. Results also indicate that the segregation of eutectic
MC is quite severe during centrifugal casting
process. It forms four zones of different content of carbides in radial
direction. The simulated results of MC carbides segregation
phenomenon agree with the experimental observations . Song Nannan
et al (15) have simulated the core filling process of cast high speed
steel roll for ductile iron as a core material. They have determined
based on the simulated results the optimal core filling parameters and

The stability of the system predictions are analyzed and the influence of the first trial used to start the evaluation procedure is discussed. Doru M. the proposed method is found to effectively simulate real-time casting process. Gerardine G. (52) have compared between the finite difference method (FDM) and the control volume formulation (CVF). The FDM is more accurate than the CVF for problems with interfaces between adjacent regions. Cho a et al have presented a finite element mesh management technique to analyze thermal stress distribution of mushy region including molten materials and solidifying shell through termination and elimination of the finite elements representing the molten materials on the element list. such as used for steel thin slabs. . As results. The CVF is (DX) order of accuracy for a Neumann type boundary condition whereas the FDM is (DX)2 order. A general form of the transient heat equation including latent-heat from phase transformations such as solidification and other temperature-dependent properties is solved numerically for the temperature field history. The resulting thermal stresses are solved by integrating the highly nonlinear thermo-elastic-viscoplastic contitutive equations using a two-level method. Stefanescu (20) has made a review of the fundamentals of solidification of iron-base materials and of the mathematical models that describe them.predicted the temperature fields. The FDM failed to conserve mass for a small number of nodes when both boundary conditions include a derivative term (i.e. We considered temperature-dependent material properties during simulation and adopted hybrid FDM/FEM method for enhancing accuracy: We validated the proposed technique by comparing with other methods. An analysis of truncation errors for the two methods is presented Two examples representing different physical situations are solved using the methods. Seid Koric and Brian G. In order to cope with the non-uniqueness of the inverse analysis. Botte et al. The system couples a module for solving the direct problem (the calculation of temperatures in the steel strand) with an inverse analysis module that was developed for evaluating the steel/mold heat fluxes from the information provided by thermocouples installed in the continuous casting mold copper plates. Thomas have developed a thermo-mechanical model to simulate the continuous casting of shaped sections. C. based on the consideration of the problem physics. a priori information on the solution. is incorporated. predicted the defects and proposed a method for eliminating the defects. either a Robin or Neumann type boundary condition) whereas the CVF method did conserve mass for these cases. Marcial Gonzalez et al (50) have developed a computational simulation system for modeling the solidification process in a continuous casting facility for steel slabs.

was primarily established by three-dimensional CAD software and proposed a plan to decrease the stress. 1993) specialized in thermo-mechanical modeling of continuous casting. Liao Dunming et al (54) have used the finite difference method to simulate casting thermal stress. C. (Abaqus Inc. MARC in order to include the residual stresses caused by casting in his finite element calculations. The model is validated both with a semi-analytical solution from Weiner and Boley (Weiner. 2006). Gao.The procedure has been implemented into Abaqus. The model is applied to simulate a 3D transverse section of the thin slab caster with a funnel. Zhu. P. which consisted of steel ingot mold. casting speed. The simulation system was developed to analyze temperature and stress fields during casting solidification process. known for a complex geometry.Y. riser of heat insulation. Wang (56) have used the finite volume method to numerically model and investigate the solidification of functionally graded materials by centrifugal casting_ Yi-tao YANG et al. a physical model system. 2005) using a user-defined subroutine (UMAT) to integrate the constitutive equations at the local level (Koric. (60) have used the numerical simulation to study some problems related to aluminium casting . with actual temperature dependant properties and realistic operating conditions as it moves down the mold. 1963) as well as with an in-house finite element code CON2D (Li. M.W. It has provided new valuable insights into a complex 3D mechanical state of transverse and axial stress of the solidifying shell retracted by the funnel geometry. Barral a et al.. Bonollo et al (55) have predicted the fluid dynamics and the thermal field induced by semi solid casting of an automotive component using the MAGMASOFT software package. flow rate of cooling water and so on.Numerical simulation of the behaviour of the electromagnetic casting (EMC) is being extensively used to improve the design of new casters and to analyse the influence of the casting parameters in the solidifying ingot. Results are compared with the experimental processing tests and with microstructural investigations. namely. slag layer. : . (58) have done simulation analysis of thermal stress during casting process of large-sized alloy steel ingot to quantitatively analyze the main reasons of common crack in the surface of alloy steel ingot with 5%Cr during production and to propose the direction of improvement. J. casting. Marco Aloe (61) has used the numerical simulation to study the microstructure formation. sprue pipe. and runner. mechanical properties and density variation of cast iron and compared the results with industrial cases. F. ingot size. casting temperature. 2004. E Heerschap (59) has integrated the casting simulation done by VIEWCAST and the finite element simulation done by MSC.

cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied . (67) has developed numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. melt temperature. Yu et al (64) have used the FE thermal analysis and experimental results to predict the microstructure . Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. With the simulation model.(62) has used the finite element method to simulate the FE prediction of residual stresses of investment casting in a Bottom Core Vane component of an aero – engine subjected to equiaxed cooling using two FEM codes (ABAQUS and ProCAST). Ravi (63) has put guidelines for effective impelementation and the best practices for efficient use of casting simulation technology. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. S. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained.M. Sabau (65) has used the numerical simulation to determine the alloy shrinkage factors and the casting dimensions for the casting of aluminum alloy A356 in shell molds made of fused silica and a zircon prime coat. B. single crystal turbine airfoils.the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold.O. complex shaped. melts inflow. Afazov et al. defects and chemistry variation of investment cast. mold movement. 65) Numerical Simulation of the Investment Casting Process A. the influence of typical process parameters (e. It considers .g. K. energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking .additionally to mass.S. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent.