Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems

ME 597/ABE 591
Dr. Monika Ivantysynova
MAHA Professor Flud Power Systems
MAHA Fluid Power Research Center
Purdue University

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Design and Modeling of Fluid Power
Systems

Dr. Monika Ivantysynova, Maha Professor Fluid Power Systems
Mivantys@purdue.edu
http://www.purdue.edu/ME
Phone: 765 447 1609
Fax: 765 448 1860
@ Maha Fluid Power Research Center, 1600 Kepner Drive
Lafayette, IN 47905

http://engineering.purdue.edu/Maha
© Dr. Monika Ivantysynova
Tuesday, August 25, 2009

2

Design and Modeling of Fluid Power
Systems, ME 597/ABE 591

Course Description
ME 597/ABE 591 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems
1 Semester, 3 classes/week, credits 3
Prerequisites: ABE 435 or ME 309, ME 375 or consent of instructor.
This course provides an introduction into modeling and design of fluid power
components and systems. Modeling techniques based on physical laws and
measured performance characteristics will be applied to design and analyze
component and system performance.
Fundamentals: - design principles of displacement machines,
- flow and pressure control,
- motion control using resistance control,
- motion control using displacement controlled actuators,
- variable speed transmissions,
- modeling of flow in lubricating gaps,
- transmission line models,
- secondary controlled systems,
- load sensing systems.
© Dr. Monika Ivantysynova
Tuesday, August 25, 2009

3

Design and Modeling of Fluid Power
Systems, ME 597/ABE 591

© Dr. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. 3. To determine steady state and dynamic characteristics of fluid power components and systems based on measurements. 2. Note that for all physical quantities the SI system of units will be used consequently in this course. August 25. 2009 4 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. To learn how to model fluid power components and systems based on physical laws and when to use these models. 4. ME 597/ABE 591 . To learn to design fluid power systems and to understand the function of components and how to model their steady state and dynamic behavior.Course Objectives 1. To learn how to design advanced energy saving hydraulic actuators and to predict their performance.

Contents 1. bulk modulus. impedance model of lines. solubility of gas. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. volumetric and torque losses 5. viscosity. Displacement machines classification. Steady state characteristics. vane type machines. piston machines. accumulators 4. Fluid properties. scaling laws. gear machines 6. Gap flow models © Dr. Displacement machines design principles. Modeling of transmission lines. power density. measurement methods and modeling 7. August 25. types of fluids 3. circuit and system design methods 2. 2009 5 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 . Introduction and overview of components.

nonlinear and linear system models 11. model of displacement chamber pressure 9. Flow and pressure pulsation.Contents 8. 2009 6 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. pressure and flow control valves 10. linear and rotary actuators © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 . Servo. August 25. Resistance control. Modeling of valve controlled systems. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. modeling of steady state and dynamic performance.and proportional valves.

August 25. load sensing systems 15. Secondary controlled actuator. Special system design aspects. 2009 7 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Contents 12. pump control systems 13. modeling and application 14. Modeling of displacement controlled actuators. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. ME 597/ABE 591 . Hydrostatic transmissions © Dr.

(2005). Inc. John Wiley & Sons. Hoboken. 2009 8 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. Hydraulic Control Systems. Hydraulic Control Systems. Oklahoma. John Wiley & Sons. Manring.C. USA H. (1998). New Dehli. ME 597/ABE 591 . BarDyne. I. (2001). ISBN-81-85522-16-2 Fitch. Inc.T. Inc. Hydrostatic Pumps and Motors. M. E. Hydraulic Component Design and Selection. E. and Hong. J.Literature Ivantysyn. New Jersey © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. August 25. Merritt. and Ivantysynova. Noah D. Akademia Books International.

Power Transmissions & Actuators „Any change of pressure at any point of an incompressible fluid at rest. The hydrostatic pressure is given by the ratio of the force acting on a fluid column and the related area. ME 597/ABE 591 .Fluid Power Systems Pascal‘s Law Hydrostatic Systems. 2009 9 9 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. we can build machines to multiply forces! © Dr. August 25.“ formulated 1651 by Pascal F1 F2 A2 A1 pressure p Thus it is possible to transmit forces using the static pressure of a fluid. is transmitted equally in all directions.

Lines Hydrostatic Motor Mechanical Work Electrical Sensors and Electronic Devices Signal Microprocessor © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. 2009 10 • 10 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. Energy hydr. August 25.Basic system structure Power Transmission in hydrostatic systems High Pressures 50MPa Easy Overload Protection Excellent Dynamic Behavior Flexible Arrangement Hydrostatic System Energy Source Hydrostatic Pump mech. Energy Control Elements and Transm.

2009 11 11 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. August 25.System structure ISO Symbols for Circuit Design Control of energy transmission ISO International Organization for Standardization © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. ME 597/ABE 591 .

August 25. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. ME 597/ABE 591 . 2009 12 accumulator Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Circuit design ISO Symbols for Circuit Design a basic selection of ISO 1219:1991 fixed displacement pump single rod cylinder variable displacement pump single rod cylinderdouble acting fixed displacement motor double rod cylinder variable displacement motor variable displacement machine © Dr.

Circuit design ISO Symbols for Circuit Design type of valve operation Directional control valves valve with two positions pneumatically valve with three positions hydraulically 2/2 directional control valve electrically 4/3 directional control valve manually proportional valve – hydraulic resistance continuously changeable 4/3 directional control valve. 2009 13 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. August 25. electro hydraulically operated and centered by springs © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.

August 25.Circuit design ISO Symbols for Circuit Design pressure relief valve filter pressure reduction valve cooler check valve reservoir pilot operated check valve compressor throttling valve flow meter adjustable throttling valve © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. 2009 14 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .

which is operated by an solenoid. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. The circuit is protected against overload by a pressure relief valve. ME 597/ABE 591 .Circuit design Design of a circuit diagram A fixed displacement pump driven by an electric motor operates a single rod cylinder. 2009 15 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. Draw the circuit! fixed displacement pump EM electrically electric motor 2/2 directional control valve single road cylinder pressure relief valve EM reservoir © Dr. The lifting function is realized using an easy 2/2 directional control valve. August 25.

August 25. ME 597/ABE 591 .Displacement machine Axial piston pump & motor Power source in fluid power systems Transfers mechanical power into fluid power or when working as motor Transfers fluid power into mechanical power © Dr. 2009 16 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.

ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.Displacement machine Displacement machine How it works? The ideal working process assuming an ideal fluid Indicator diagram Distributor (Control spool) Cylinder p 2 Inlet D C p Piston Pumping p1 Outlet Suction B A Vmin V Vmax The displacement machine works as pump © Dr. August 25. 2009 17 12 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.

2009 18 • 13 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. August 25. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.Displacement machine Displacement machine When changing ports – the machine works as motor The ideal working process assuming an ideal fluid Indicator diagram Distributor (Control spool) Cylinder p 2 Inlet Piston D C p p2 Motoring p1 Outlet p1 B A Vmin V Vmax The displacement machine works as motor © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 .

incompressible © Dr. ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. 2009 19 14 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. August 25.rigid parts • .Displacement machine Assumptions for ideal working process of displacement machines • Ideal machine means: • .ideal switching between port connection • Ideal fluid means: • .no clearance between moveable parts • .

2009 W input/output relationship vK Q = vK ⋅ AK Volumetric flow: Piston work: dsK = vK ⋅ dt Δp ⋅ Q 20 25 F AK 1 Q AK Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .Basic equations machine Displacement With linear motion Cylinder Pressure difference: Force acting on piston: F = Δp ⋅ AK Piston Piston displacement: W = F ⋅ dsK = Δp ⋅ Q ⋅ dt Power: © Dr. August 25. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.

Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. August 25.Basic equations machine Displacement With rotary motion Cylinder Pressure difference: Displacement volume: Torque: Piston V = 2 ⋅π ⋅ r ⋅AK T = Δp ⋅ AK ⋅Δp ⋅ r = Δp ⋅ V 2⋅π Piston work: dA = T ⋅ dϕ = Volumetric flow: Power: W Q = V ⋅n Δp ⋅ Q © Dr. 2009 T Δp ⋅ V 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 2 ⋅ π ⋅n⋅dt = Δp ⋅ n ⋅ V ⋅ dt with ω = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ n input/output relationship n V 21 26 Q T 2⋅π V Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .

August 25. 2009 p1 p2 p1 22 Q p2 Q or Q p1 Q Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. p2 p2 >p1 Fixed displacement p1 p1 p2 Closed circuit pumps Variable displacement Q Q p2 p2 >p1 p2 >p1 Reversible pump Q p2 p1 p1 Overcenter pump or Q © Dr. This allows to vary the flow rate at pump outlet.Classification of pumps according to circuit configuration Open circuit pumps Q p2 Volume displaced per revolution can be varied. ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.

2009 23 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 . August 25.Industrial applications Construction machines Aerospace Automotive Offshore Railway Fluid Power Systems Robotics Medical devices Manufacturing Materials handling Agricultural and forestry machinery © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.

Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. August 25. ME 597/ABE 591 . 2009 24 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.FP system design steps Specification System structure Performance Prediction Product Example: Steering System ( Servotronic made by ZF) © Dr.

August 25. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.FP system design steps Specification Circuit design Selection & Sizing of components Product Modeling System simulation Test Performance Prediction Manufacturing/Assembly Controller Design © Dr. 2009 25 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .

© Dr. Method Students will solve several sub problems of the entire system design work as part of the regular course homework. 2009 26 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. to understand the function of components and how to model their steady state and dynamic behavior to predict the system performance. The project should also proof the ability of writing an engineering report in an appropriate form.Engineering project Aim To demonstrate in form of an engineering project the ability to design fluid power systems. August 25. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. ME 597/ABE 591 .

Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. Please note that the new system is required to work independent from the existing other actuators and drives installed in the excavator. August 25. ME 597/ABE 591 .System Specification Design a new hydraulic actuation system for the boom and swing drive of a 5 t or 20 t excavator. 2009 27 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. The swing and boom are required to work simultaneously. The following system requirements are given: © Dr. The engine is sized to provide enough power for the boom and swing drive.

Size and select system components. The project includes the following tasks: 1. draw the hydraulic circuit diagram and a scheme showing the interface between the fluid power system and the entire machine structure. system complexity and an estimate of system costs. Create models to predict system dynamic behavior like actuator motion. velocity. 2. 2009 28 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems.Engineering project The project includes a comparison with at least one alternative system solution. © Dr. The comparison must include energy consumption. the power loss and energy consumption (include line losses) 4. Explain also the type of operation/ control of the boom and swing drive. Define the system structure. Create models to predict system performance. ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday. system pressure as function of time. include the order code in a summery table 3. August 25.

Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.Engineering project 5. August 25. © Dr. Include a circuit diagram which shows also the required sensors. Analyze system efficiency and power consumption for your defined operating cycle. 7. Document your proposed system. the system analysis and obtained results in form of an engineering report. for a selected component and your whole actuation system 8. Define measurement methods and test procedure to compare your simulation results with measured data. Solve models using Matlab/Simulink and plot results for minimum one operating/ working cycle of the machine. 6. 2009 29 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. ME 597/ABE 591 .

Method: Students will have to form teams of three students. Students will then have to learn to operate the test rig and to perform measurement. 2009 30 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. One lecture will be used for introduction into the problem and the existing test rig. To become familiar with test set up according to ISO 4409. The project should also proof the ability of performing a measurement. evaluation of test date and writing a measurement report in an appropriate form. August 25. ME 597/ABE 591 . Each team has to write a measurement report. design and operate an experimental test set up for performance testing of a positive displacement machine. measurement equipment and data acquisition system used on test rig. © Dr. Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.Experimental work project Steady State Performance Measurement of a Variable Displacement Pump Aim To learn to plan.

Perform the measurement. Note: Performing the measurement and completing the report will be part of your homework of lecture 5and will be graded (20% of your final grade) © Dr. 2. ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.Experimental work project Steady State Performance Measurement of a Variable Displacement Pump 1. 4. Study the test rig structure according ISO standard 4409 and describe it in the report accordingly. Evaluate the test results and complete a report. August 25. Specify operating conditions and values to be measured. 2009 31 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. 3. including measurement accuracy. describe sensors and data acquisition system. Each group needs to make arrangements for performing their measurements with Edat Kaya.

The aileron actuator contains a double acting cylinder. Draw the circuit using ISO standard! Use the following symbol for the electrically operated proportional valve © Dr. 2009 32 Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems. The hydraulic system uses a variable engine driven pump as power supply. The circuit is protected against overload by a pressure relief valve. August 25. The pump takes flow from a reservoir. which is also controlled by an electrically operated proportional valve.Homework Circuit Design – aircraft system application Draw the circuit of the flap and aileron actuation system of a small aircraft. The speed and the direction of rotation of the flap motor are controlled using an electrically operated proportional valve. ME 597/ABE 591 . Monika Ivantysynova Tuesday.