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IGN SUDARYADI, M.Kes.

Rad-Biologi UGM

Chemical versus Nuclear Reactions:

1. 2Na+ + H2O ----> 2NaOH + 2H+
3-5 eV in this reaction
2.

4

2He

+

9

4Be

---->

12

6C

+

1

0n

10 million eV in this reaction
In a nuclear reaction, we have to balance both mass and proton number.
Transmutation : changing one element into another
35

17Cl

32

16S

+ 10n ------> 3215P + 42He

+ 10n ------> 3215P + 11p

Chemical reactions involve changes in the outer electronic structure of the atom
whereas nuclear reactions involve changes in the nucleus

quantum theory Discovery of x-rays in 1895 by W.C.Discuss the history of Radioactivity • A series of incidents spark the birth of nuclear radiology – – – – – Einstein: Relativity theory (1905). Roentgen Discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in 1896 Discovery of radium by Pierre and Marie curie in 1898 Rutherford: (1902) transmutations "changing one element to another“ .

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__________________________________________ atomic mass units charge (amu) __________________________________________ proton 1.• Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in mass.000549 neutron 1. All radio isotopes have a particular kind of radiation emission 2. All radio nuclides possess a characteristic rate of decay • Dealing with reactions in the outer ring that compromise and produce chemical reactions.007594 + electron 0.008986 none __________________________________________ . All radio nuclides have a characteristic energy of radiation 4. higher energy 3. Energy and mass are equivalent (Einstein) higher mass. • 1. • They have the same number of protons and electrons but have a different mass which is due to the number of neutrons.

Atomic Number (determines what the element is) 14C 6 (8) (8) ~ 8 Neutrons 14 = P+N = Atomic Mass Isotope (of a given element) same atomic number. different atomic masses (different # of neutrons) 14 6C 12 6C 235 92U 238 92U Stable Isotope – Non-Radioactive Isotope (not decomposing) Radioisotope or Radionuclide –unstable isotope that spontaneously decays emitting radiation Radioactive decay: not affected by temperature or environmental conditions .6 Protons.

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atomic number (# of protons in the nucleus) All hydrogen atoms have one proton __________________________________________ 1 H 2 H 3 H 1 1 1 __________________________________________ stable stable radioactive deuterium tritium mass = 1 mass=2 mass=3 no neutron 1 neutron 2 neutrons 1 proton 1 proton 1 proton 1 electron 1 electron 1 electron __________________________________________ 12 C 13 C 14 C 6 6 6 __________________________________________ stable stable radioactive mass=12 mass=13 mass=14 6 neutrons 7 neutrons 8 neutrons 6 protons 6 protons 6 protons 6 electrons 6 electrons 6 electrons __________________________________________ .m E Z 1 H 1 4 He 2 E.element m – mass z .

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007 0.00 f 0.Half-Life • Half-life is the amount of time needed for the activity to reach one half of the original amount.20 0.80 e λt λ ln ( 2 ) T1/2 0.40 Two half-lives 0.60 One half-life 0. f 1 2 t T1/2 1.00 0 20 40 60 Days 80 100 .

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Radiation is everywhere Cosmic Inhaled Radon Bodies Plants Radioactive Elements Rocks We live in a sea of radiation… .

or Why are Some Isotopes Radioactive? Radioactive isotope à à à Stable Isotope “RULES” A. Isotopes with Proton=Neutrons are more stable 80 unstable Belt of stability # of neutrons 0 unstable # of protons . 20. 50. When is an Isotope Stable.1. 8. 82 or 126 C. All nuclei > 84 protons are unstable (the nucleus gets too big. too many protons) B. Very Stable: Atomic Number 2.

Pb. Pb Fission Reaction Used for Radio Dating 238U – Geologic Time (106 years) t 1/2 = 4. Pa. Th. Po.Where do Radionuclides/Stable Isotopes Come From? Fission: Splitting the Nucleus to Release Energy and Sub Atomic Particles Decay Series: Series of Reactions That Ends With a Stable Isotope U. Po.P. Ra. Bi. (before present) t 1/2 =5700 yr .000 B. Bi. Pb. Th. Po. U. Rn.5x109 yr 14C – Up to 20.

Dead Tissue 14C/12C< 14C/12C tissue atmosphere Clock starts when you die Tissue ratio same as atmospheric ratio .14 7N + 10n à 146C + 11H (14C being produced all the time in the upper atmosphere) 14 6C à 147N + 0-1e (beta particle) Living Tissue 14C/12C.

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