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Direct - Indirect Speech

Direct Speech adalah kutipan asli suatu pembicaraan tanpa
adanya suatu perubahan. Sedangkan Indirect speech adalah
bentuk kalimat laporan yang berguna untuk menceritakan
kembali pembicaraan/pendapat seseorang yang mana
mengalami modifikasi tertentu. Di bawah ini akan diberikan
kepada anda materi Direct - Indirect speech secara lengkap.
Pembahasan Direct – Indirect Speech
1. Direct Speech
Cara penulisan direct speech selalu diapit oleh tanda kutip,
kalimat selalu diawali huruf kapital. Tanda titik dua (:) atau
koma (,) diletakkan sebelum direct speech bilamana kata
penghubung/pelapor (reporting verb)-nya berada di muka, dan
tanda koma (,) harus diletakkan setelah direct speech bilamana
kata penghubung diletakkan setelah atau diantara direct
speech nya. Tanda baca seperti tanda seru (!), tanda tanya (?)
yang menunjukkan jenis kalimat direct tidak mengalami
perubahan
2. Indirect Speech
Ada tiga jenis indirect speech :
A.

Imperative(request)
Yang di laporkan adalah suatu perintah. Karena kalimat
perintah biasanya tidak mengenal subject, maka verb dalam

direct imperative tidak mengalami perubahan. Verb dalam
indirect menjadi 'to infinitive'.
Contoh 1 :
Direct

: He said to his servant, “Go away at

once!”.
Indirect

: He ordered his servant to go away at

once.
Contoh 2 :
Direct
Indirect

B.
1.

: “Watch TV”.
: He told me to watch TV.

Declarative (statement)
Bila terdapat Tenses, maka penjabarannya sebagai
berikut :

·

Simple Present Tense menjadi Simple Past Tense
Jika Direct Speech menggunakan Simple Present Tense, maka
Indirect Speech menggunakan Simple Past Tense. Contoh
kalimat sebagai berikut :
Direct

: Linda said : “I buy my dictionary at the

book shop”.
Indirect

: Linda said that she bought her dictionary

at the book shop.

· Present Continuous Tense menjadi Past Continuous
Tense
Jika Direct Speech menggunakan Present Continuous Tense,
maka Indirect Speech menggunakan Past Continuous Tense.
Contoh kalimat sebagai berikut :
Direct

: She said : “I’m doing my English

homework”.
Indirect

: She said that she was doing her English

homework.

·

Present Perfect Tense menjadi Past Perfect Tense
Jika Direct Speech menggunakan Present Perfect Tense, maka
Indirect Speech menggunakan Past Perfect Tense. Contoh
kalimat sebagai berikut :
Direct

: John said : “I have finished doing my

reports”.
Indirect

: John said that he had finished doing his

reports.

·

Present Perfect Continuous Tense menjadi Past
Perfect Continuous Tense

Jika Direct Speech menggunakan Present Perfect Continuous
Tense, maka Indirect Speech menggunakan Past Perfect
Continuous Tense. Contoh kalimat sebagai berikut:
Direct

: He said : “We have been living here for

three years”.
Indirect

: He said that they had been living there

for three years.

·

Future Tense menjadi Past Future Tense
Jika Direct Speech menggunakan Future Tense, maka Indirect
Speech menggunakan Past Future Tense. Contoh kalimat
sebagai berikut :
Direct

: Laila said : “We will leave for

Singapore”.
Indirect

: Laila said that they would leave for

Singapore.
·

Past Continuous Tense menjadi Past Perfect
Continuous Tense
Jika Direct Speech menggunakan Past Continuous Tense, maka
Indirect Speech menggunakan Past Perfect Continuous Tense.
Contoh kalimat sebagai berikut :

Direct

: He said : “I was reading an English

novels”.
Indirect

: He said that he had been reading English

novels.

2.

Bila terdapat modal, maka penjelasannya sebagai
berikut :
Direct

: “ I can watch TV”.
: “ I may watch TV”.
: “ I must watch TV”.

Indirect

: She said that she could watch TV.
: She said that she might watch TV.
: She said that she had to watch TV.

3.

Bila terdapat Interogative Sentence
a) Reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi ask atau inquire.
Dengan mengulangi kata Tanya dan mengubah tense jika
pertanyaan dimulai dengan kata Tanya. Contoh kalimat sebagai
berikut :
Direct : He said to me , “where are you going?”
Indirect : He asked me where I was going”

b) Dengan menggunakan if/whether sebagai penghubung
antara reporting verb dan reported speech dan mengulang
tenses.
Direct : He said to me, “Are you going away today?’
Indirect : He asked me whether I going today

Di bawah ini adalah tabel Perubahan Tenses dari direct speech
ke indirect speech.
No
01
02
03
04
05
06
07

Direct Speech
Simple Present
Present Continuous
Present Future
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Simple Past
Past Continuous

Indirect Speech
Simple Past
Past Continuous
Past Future
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous

Atau bisa lebih dipermudah dengan tabel berikut di bawah ini,
yaitu:
N

Direct Speech
o
01 V1 (eat)
02 V2 (ate)
03 Am/is/are
04 Do/does
05 Do/does not
06 Did not
07 Was/were
08 Am/is/are + V-ing

Indirect Speech
V2 (ate)
Had + V3 (had eaten)
Was/were
Did
Did not
Had not + V3
Had been
Was/were + V-ing

09 Was/were +V-ing
10 Has/have + V3
11 Will/shall/can/may/must
Could/might/should/would
12
+ V1/be

Had been + V-ing
Had + V3
Would/should/could/might/had to
Could/might/should/would +
have+ V3/been

PERUBAHAN ADVERB OF TIME (KETERANGAN WAKTU)
YANG PERLU DIPERHATIKAN:
Direct :

Indirect :

Now

Then

Today

That day

Tonight

That night

This week

That week

Yesterday

The day before

The day before yesterday

Two days before

Last night

Last week/year

A year ago

The night before
The previous week/year

A year before/The

previous year
Three years ago

Three years before

Tomorrow

The next day/The following

day
The day after tomorrow

In two day’s time/The

following day
Next week/year
On Sunday
Here
This book
This

The following week/year




On Sunday
There
The book
That

These

Over there

Those
Over there

PERUBAHAN-PERUBAHAN AUXILIARIES (KATA BANTU)
YANG HARUS DIPERHATIKAN:
Can

Could

May

Might

Might →

Might

Must

Would have to (kegiatan yang akan datang)/had

to (keharusan yang biasa)

Source :
 http://catur-education.blogspot.com/2012/03/normal-0false-false-false-in-x-none-x_2946.html

 http://triicecsfabregas.blogspot.com/2012/03/direct-andindirect-speech.html
 Jack, Saharuddin Hasan. 2003. The Easiest Way of
Comprehending English Grammar. Jakarta : Batavia Press
Djauhari, Imam D. 1996. Mastery on English Grammar.
Surabaya : Indah Surabaya
 http://irena040506.wordpress.com/2010/05/21/direct-andindirect-speech/
 http://wantosakti.wordpress.com/category/ug-softskill/
 http://www.belajarbahasainggris.us/2012/04/penjelasandirect-dan-indirect-speech.html