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Vector Calculus

References: Skilling, Fundamentals of Electric Waves § 2; Lorrain & Corson, Intro. to Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, § 1; Hecht, Optics, § 3.2, Appendix 1

In 1864, James Clerk Maxwell published a paper on the dynamics of electromagnetic Þelds, in

which he collected four previously described equations which relate electric and magnetic forces,

modiÞed one, and combined them to demonstrate the true nature of light waves. The four equations

are now collected into a group that bears his name.

To interpret the four Maxwell equations, we must Þrst understand some concepts of diﬀerential

vector calculus, which seems intimidating but is really just an extension of normal diﬀerentiation

applied to scalar and vector Þelds. For our purposes, a scalar Þeld is a description of scalar values in

space (one or more spatial dimensions). One example of a scalar Þeld is the temperature distribution

in the air throughout the atmosphere. Obviously, a single number is assigned to each point in the

space. On the other hand, a vector Þeld deÞnes the values of a vector quantity throughout a volume.

For example, the vector Þeld of wind velocity in the atmosphere assigns a three-dimensional vector

to each point in space. In my notation, scalar quantities are denoted by normal-face type and

vectors (usually) by overscored bold face, e.g., f [x, y, z] and g[x,y,z] describe scalar and vector Þelds,

respectively. Unit vectors (vectors with unit magnitude, also called unit length) are indicated by

bold-faced characters topped by a caret,

In vector calculus, spatial derivatives are performed on vector AND scalar Þelds to derive other

vector or scalar Þelds. The Þrst-order diﬀerential operator ∇ (called “del ”) has three components:

¸

·

∂ ∂ ∂

,

,

∇=

∂x ∂y ∂z

**where are unit vectors in the x, y, and z directions respectively. The del-operator may be applied
**

to a scalar Þeld to create a 3-D vector Þeld (the gradient operation), or to a vector Þeld to create

a scalar Þeld (the divergence), or to a vector Þeld to create a 3-D vector Þeld (the curl ). The Þrst

two operations may be generalized to operate on or generate 2-D vectors, whereas the curl is deÞned

only for 3-D vector Þelds.

6.1

GRADIENT

**Derives a Vector Field ∇f from a Scalar Field f
**

Applying ∇ to a scalar Þeld f[x, y, z] with three dimensions (such as the temperature of air at all

points in the atmosphere) generates a Þeld of 3-D vectors which describes the spatial rate-of-change

of the scalar Þeld, i.e., the gradient of the temperature at each point in the atmosphere is a vector

that describes the direction and magnitude of the change in air temperature. In the 2-D case where

the scalar Þeld describes the altitude of landform topography, the gradient vector is the size and

direction of the maximum slope of the landform.

¸

·

∂f

∂f

∂f

∂f ∂f ∂f

,

,

y +ˆ

z

= a vector

=x

ˆ +ˆ

∇f [x, y, z] ≡

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂x

∂y

∂z

43

gy . • [gx .44 CHAPTER 6. At each coordinate [x. y. y. VECTOR CALCULUS As implied by its name.x: Scalar Þeld represented as contour map and as 3-D display. the gradient vector at [x.2 DIVERGENCE Derives a Scalar Field ∇ · g from a Vector Field g ∇ • g [x. y]. Gradient of the scalar Þeld is a vector Þeld. the magnitude of the gradient |∇f| is the slope of the scalar Þeld. gz ] ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂gz ∂gx ∂gy + + = a scalar ∂x ∂y ∂z . the vector points “uphill” and its length is equal to the slope. z] points “uphill” in the direction of maximum rate-of-change of the Þeld. . 6. z] ≡ = · ¸ ∂ ∂ ∂ .

z].y. If a paddle-wheel placed in the ßuid does not revolve.3. imagine a vector Þeld that describes motion of a ßuid (e. water or wind). The ßux z of the vector Þeld through the surface element is the scalar (“dot”) product of the Þeld with the normal to the surface: = g•da dz =⇒ z = Z g•da surface area The divergence of the Þeld describes total ßux through the surface area A enclosing the volume. z] = ∂x ∂y ∂z gx gy gz µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶ ∂gy ∂gx ∂gz ∂gx ∂gz ∂gy − − − = x ˆ +y ˆ +ˆ z = a vector ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y To visualize curl. such as the total outgoing vector ßux per unit volume. If the wheel does revolve. the Þeld has no curl. x ˆ y ˆ ˆ z ∂ ∂ ∂ ∇ × g [x.g.3 CURL Derives a 3-D VectorField from a 3-D Vector Field g The curl of a vector Þeld describes a spatial nonuniformity of the 3-D vector Þeld g[x. A vector Þeld with nonzero divergence has a disparity between input and output ßux 6.6. Consider a vector Þeld g and an inÞnitesmal surface “element” which is described by the normal vector da directed outward.. The direction of the curl vector is that of the axis of the paddlewheel when . y. the curl is nonzero.from the volume. CURL 45 The divergence at each point in a vector Þeld is a number that describes the total spatial rate-ofchange. then the divergence must be zero: Z ∇•g = g•da surface area = 0 if no “source” or “sink” of vector Þeld in volume . Unless the volume encloses a net “source” or “sink” of the vector Þeld (a point from which the vector Þeld “diverges” or “converges”).

Two vector Þelds with nonzero curl. E and D. µ and ²are denoted µ0 and ²0 and both are set to unity in CGS units. As is true for the refractive index n. the quantities are: µ0 ²0 = 4π · 107 newton/amp2 = 8. In MKS units. which is the sum of the external Þeld E and any local Þeld P generated within the matter due to polarization from the incident E Þeld. Note that some points in the Þeld can have zero curl while others have nonvanishing curl. 6. ² and µ in fact determine . H is a similar construct for magnetic Þelds.85 · 10−12 f arad/meter. much was known about electric and magnetic eﬀects on materials. Faraday had discovered that a time-varying magnetic Þeld (such as from a moving magnet) can generate an electric Þeld.z. the permittivity and permeability in matter are larger than in vacuum. Since we will consider propagation of light only in vacuum. we can ignore the Þelds D and H in matter. D deÞnes the total electric Þeld in a material.y. The algebraic sign of the curl is determined by the direction of rotation (clockwise =⇒ positive curl). Both vector Þelds shown in the examples of divergence have zero curl. The electric Þeld E has units of Volts/meter. The “paddlewheel” rotates in both cases. The paddle will rotate only if the vector Þeld is spatially nonuniform. since a paddle wheel placed at any point in either Þeld will not rotate. Both electric and magnetic Þelds were known to be vectors that could vary in time and space: E[x. and µ > µ0 .t].y. and B and H are related by the so-called constitutive equations: D = ²E B = µH where ² is the electric permittivity of the material and µ is its magnetic permeability. and Ampere demonstrated the corresponding eﬀect that a time-varying electric Þeld (as from a moving electric charge) produces a magnetic Þeld. while the magnetic Þeld B is measured in Tesla or Gauss: 1 T esla = 104 Gauss = 1 Newton W eber =1 meter Amp − meter Two other vector Þelds are required when describing propagation of electromagnetism through matter: the electric displacement D and the magnetic Þeld intensity H. In vacuum. VECTOR CALCULUS the rotation is maximized and its magnitude is that rotation rate. ² > ²0 .4 Maxwell’s Equations By 1864. In fact (though we won’t discuss it in detail).z.46 CHAPTER 6. These respective describe how well the electric and magnetic Þelds penetrate matter.t] and B[x.

y. the electric Þeld and magnetic Þelds can have the form: ˆEy [x. t] + ˆ zEz [x. z. This constraint aﬀects the derivatives of the components of the electric Þeld: ∂Ex ∂Ey ∂Ey ∂Ez ∂Ez ∂Ex = = = = = =0 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y (9) . t] = x ˆBx [x. The electric Þeld E has no variation along x or y at a particular value of z.4. y. z. Ampere’s Law ∂t µ ∇·E = The scalar ρ is the electric charge density [coulombs/m 3 ] and the vector Þeld J is the electric current density [amps/m 3 ]. z.6. y. z. y. this variation will be shown to be sinusoidal. z. y. z. z. Faraday’s Law of Magnetic Induction − ∂t ∂E B +² = ∇ × − J. t] + y ˆBy [x. y. t] = x ˆEx [x. z. y. These source terms only are nonzero in media. t] E [x. y. t] B[x. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 47 v and n via: v = n = 1 √ µ² √ µ² c =√ µ0 ²0 v Maxwell collected the four diﬀerential equations relating the electric vector Þeld E and the magnetic vector Þeld B listed below and solved them to derive the character of electromagnetic waves. t] + y We will now solve these equations for a single speciÞc case: an inÞnite plane electric Þeld wave propagating in vacuum toward z = +∞. ρ Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields. The locus of points of constant phase (often called a wavefront) of a plane wave is (obviously) a plane. t] + ˆ zBz [x. If we consider the propagation of light only in a vacuum. Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields ∂B = ∇ × E. but can vary with z. neither electric charges nor conductors are present and both source terms vanish. Coulomb’s Law ² ∇ · B = 0. such as copper wire. The deÞnition of curl may be used to rewrite the four vector equations of Maxwell as eight scalar equations: ∂Ez ∂Ex ∂Ey + + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂Bx ∂By ∂Bz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂Bx − ∂t ∂By − ∂t ∂Bz − ∂t ∂Ex +µ² ∂t ∂Ey +µ² ∂t ∂Ez +µ² ∂t = 0 Gauss’Law for E (1) = 0 Gauss’ Law for B (2) = = = = = = ∂Ez ∂y ∂Ex ∂z ∂Ey ∂x ∂Bz ∂y ∂Bx ∂z ∂By ∂x ∂Ey Faraday’s Law ∂z ∂Ez − ∂x ∂Ex − ∂y ∂By − Ampere’s Law ∂z ∂Bz − ∂x ∂Bx − ∂y − (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) In the general case.

(13) by rotating the coordinate system about the z axis such that E is aligned with the x-axis so that Ey [z. z] = Ex [z. y.t] can be written as: E [x. t] = E [z. We can now Þnd a relation between By and Ex by standard solution techniques of diﬀerential equations. t] + Ey [z.y. VECTOR CALCULUS and the 4-D vector Þeld E[x. z. the only existing electric Þeld is transverse to z! This alone is a signiÞcant result. t] = y ˆ − cos [kz − ωt] vφ .z. t] (10) From (9) and Gauss’ law for electric Þelds (1). 3. z] = 0 (12) Therefore. t] = +kE0 · −ω k = E0 cos [kz − ωt] ω E0 ¡ ω ¢ cos [kz − ωt] = k E0 = cos [kz − ωt] vφ µ ¶ E0 =⇒ B [z. t] = ∂z · ¸ − cos [kz − ωt] −By [z.t]. We can simplify eq.y. t] + Ey [z. we Þnd that: ∂Ez ∂Ez ∂Ex ∂Ey + + = 0 =⇒ =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z (11) Since the derivative of Ez with respect to z vanishes. t] (13) i. t] + Ez [z.z. which we select to be 0: Ez [x. t] (15) Given the expression for E[x. y.4.48 CHAPTER 6. so the only remaining equation is: ∂By ∂Ex = (4) ∂t ∂z which says that the time derivative of the magnetic Þeld By is equal to to the negative of the space derivative of Ex . y.5) to Þnd the magnetic Þeld: ∂Bx ∂t ∂By − ∂t ∂Bz − ∂t − = = = ∂Ez ∂Ey ∂Ey ∂Bx ∂Ey − =0− =⇒ = = 0 =⇒ Bx [t] is constant ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂t ∂z ∂Ex ∂Ez ∂Ex ∂By ∂Ex − = =⇒ =− ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂t ∂z ∂Ey ∂Ex − = 0 =⇒ Bz [t] is constant ∂x ∂y (3) (4) (5) We can arbitrarily set the constant term Bz = 0. the electric Þeld is now expressable as: E [x.e. z. y. t] = x ˆ E0 cos [kz − ωt] ∂Ex = −kE0 sin [kz − ωt] =⇒ ∂z Z Z ∂Ex dt = −(−kE0 ) sin [kz − ωt] dt =⇒ −By [z. t] = 0 by assumption (14) The expression for the electric Þeld is: E [x. then The z-component of the electric Þeld Ez is an arbitrary constant.. t] = Ex [z. we can substitute these results into Faraday’s Law (eqs. Assume that: E is a vector Þeld that varies sinusoidally with z : − E [x. y. t] = x ˆ Ex [z. z] = Ex [z.

Also note that the sinusoidal variations of E and B have the same arguments. which is perpendicular to Ex . µ ≡ µ0 .99 · 108 . which means that they oscillate “in phase”.11 · 10−17 2 m s 1.vφ ≡ c. only (6) does not vanish: µ² ∂ (E0 cos [kz − ωt]) ∂t = − ∂ ∂z µ ¶ E0 cos [kz − ωt] vφ =⇒ µ²E0 (ω sin [kz − ωt]) = − E0 (−k sin [kz − ωt]) vφ E0 k vφ k 1 1 =⇒ µ² = = 2 =⇒ v2φ = ωvφ µ² vφ q 1 vφ = µ² =⇒ → µ²ωE0 = In vacuum.26 · 10−6 µ0 ²0 = v-m amp2 − m coul J ´ = 1. ² ≡ ²0 . The permittivity and permeability of free space (vacuum) can be measured in laboratory experiments.11 · 10−17 ·³ coul 2 −m v-m 2 s 2 = = 1 J-s · v-m coul-m s2 1. thus allowing a calculation of the phase velocity of electromagnetic waves.5 PHASE VELOCITY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Given the form for the plane electromagnetic wave in a vacuum.6. PHASE VELOCITY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 49 where vφ is the phase velocity of the electromagnetic wave By = E0 Ex cos [kz − ωt] = =⇒ Ex = vφ By vφ vφ Note that the only existing component of B is By .5. we Þnd: ¶ µ ¶µ coul J 8. which agrees well with experiment. µ0 ²0 s . and c = q 1 µ0 ²0 .11 · 10−17 =⇒ c = 1 m = 2. 6. we can now use the three Ampere relations to Þnd something else useful: ∂Ex ∂t ∂Ey +µ² ∂t ∂Ez +µ² ∂t +µ² = = = ∂Bz ∂By − ∂y ∂z ∂Bx ∂Bz − ∂z ∂x ∂By ∂Bx − ∂x ∂y (6) (7) (8) Because E = x ˆE0 . Using the values for µ0 and ²0 given above.85 · 10−12 1.

they pull each other along. and in fact the propagation direction is deÞned by the direction: S = E × B —the Poynting vector 4.50 CHAPTER 6. which implies the allowed wavelengths are in the interval [∞ ≥ λ ≥ 0] Propagation of electric and magnetic Þelds in vacuum. we see an invariant brightness. the phase velocity of the wave. The same is true for hearing. the frequencies of visible wavelengths are quite high: ν ' 1015 Hz. This is not the case for all life. The pit viper can see radiation emitted by humans at a wavelength of about 10µ m. 6. which means that the phases of the sinusoidal variation of E and B are identical (in matter. [0 ≤ ω ≤ ∞]. t] = A0 cos [kz ∓ ωt] = A0 cos 2π λ We see electromagnetic radiation with detectors. The Copropagation of E and B: The wave travels in a direction mutually perpendicular to both E and B.e. Because water waves have a much lower frequency. he electric and magnetic Þelds of an electromagnetic wave are mutually perpendicular. The wave requires both electric and magnetic Þelds to propagate.. the amplitude and phase of the wave can be measured. i. 5. light with wavelengths in the range [400nm ≤ λ ≤ 700nm].e.e. devices which respond in some way to incident electromagnetic radiation. There is no limitation on the possible frequencies of the waves.e. VECTOR CALCULUS 6. and the magnitude of the energy E ∝ E02 .. 2. Human visual receptors cannot respond fast enough to detect the periodic oscillation of the wave amplitude. and they copropagate. it needs special receptors on the sides of its head to do this. 7. i. The temporal period of an optical wave is therefore T = ν −1 ' 10−15 S. i. The human eye is sensitive only to visible light.6 CONSEQUENCES OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 1. 3.. your ear cannot detect the variation of sound pressure due to the oscillation at frequencies above a few Hz.7 Optical Frequencies — Detector Response The general equation for a traveling electromagnetic wave is: ´i h ³z n o − νt = A0 Re ei(kz∓ωt) y [z. Energy is carried by both the electric and magnetic Þelds. they all respond to the average brightness.. 6. As shown in the plot of the electromagnetic spectrum. i. E and B are in-phase. Both E and B travel at c. In vacuum. the phases of the Þelds often are not so). Note that this limitation exists for all optical detectors. . however.

not amplitude.6. t] = Td 0 Z Td 1 A20 cos2 [kz − ωt] dt = Td 0 Z A20 Td = cos2 [kz − ωt] dt Td 0 A2 A20 Td = 0 · = Td 2 2 2 ® A2 =⇒ E ∝ y [z. t] dt Td 0 Z Td 1 = A0 cos [kz − ωt] dt Td 0 A0 d sin [kz − ωt] |t=T = − t=0 ωTd Since y [z. the average value of the wave will tend to zero unless Td is smaller than the wave’s temporal period. Optical detectors are sensitive to time-averaged intensity.7. . OPTICAL FREQUENCIES — DETECTOR RESPONSE 51 The average amplitude of a sinusoidal wave is: Z Td 1 hy [z. However. t] =⇒ 0 if Td >> ν −1 2 because the average value of cos2 [x] = 12 . t]i = y [z. the intensity (squared-magnitude) of the wave does not average to zero: Z Td ® 2 1 y2 [z. t] dt E ∝ y [z. t] is sinusoidal.

52 CHAPTER 6. VECTOR CALCULUS .

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