*Lateral-01: A simple wall subjected to an active pressure condition.

(Revision: Sept.-08)

Consider a small 10-foot tall and 3 feet thick concrete retaining wall. The backfill behind the wall
will be from local sandy gravel with a dry unit weight of 115 pcf and an angle of internal friction
of 30 degrees. The wall will not have to retain water.
Estimate, (a) the lateral force on the wall from the backfill in an active pressure condition, (b) its
stability against overturning, and (c) its stability against sliding (use a Factor of Safety ≥ 2).

Solution:

φ⎞
30° ⎞


(a) The Rankine active earth pressure coefficient is, K a = tan 2 ⎜ 45° − ⎟ = tan 2 ⎜ 45° −
⎟ = 0.33
2⎠
2 ⎠


The lateral pressure at the bottom of the wall is pa = γ hK a = ( 0.115 kcf )(10 ft )( 0.33 ) = 0.38 ksf
The force against the wall is Fa =

1
( pa ) h = ( 0.5 )( 0.38 )(10 ) = 1.9 kips per foot of wall
2

(b) The stability of the wall against overturning is found by taking moments about the point "O"
at the toe of the wall,
Factor of Safety ( FS ) =

( 3')(10 ')(1')( 0.150 kcf )(1.5 ft ) = 1.07 < 2
resisting moment
=
overturning moment
(1.9 kips )(10 / 3 ft )

(c) The stability of the wall against sliding towards the left is found by,
Factor of Safety ( FS ) =

257

resisting force ( 3' )(10 ' )(1' )( 0.150 kcf )( tan 30° )
= 1.37 < 2
=
driving force
(1.9 kips )

NG

NG

517 2 2 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ sin(35 −12)sin(35 + 20) sin(φ − δ )sin(φ + α ) 2 cos2θ cos(δ − θ ) ⎢1 − ⎥ cos 0 cos(12 − 0) ⎢1 − ⎥ cos(12 − 0)cos(20 − 0) ⎦ cos(δ − θ )cos(α − θ ) ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ When α = 0º. γ = 18.5γ h2 K p + 2ch K p = ( 0.690 versus 3.1)(10) ( 3. Kp = (b) Therefore.690) + 2( 9)(10) 3. the total passive force Fp on the wall per unit length is.*Lateral–02: Compare the Rankine and Coulomb lateral coefficients. Rankine ' s Fp = 0.517) + 2( 9)(10) 3. the Rankine coefficient is 3.690 = 3. (b) What is the passive earth force on the wall at failure if the wall is 10 m high.520 kN / m2 2 258 . φ 35° ) = 0.5)(18. Using these values.1)(10) ( 3.323 2 = = 3. (Note: δ is the angle of friction between the soil and the backside of the wall.5)(18. (Revision: Sept-2008) (a) Compare the Rankine and Coulomb lateral earth pressure coefficients for a wall that retains a granular backfill soil with φ = 35°.0) ⎡ sin(12 + 35)sin(35 − 20) ⎤ cos 0 cos(12 + 0) ⎢1 + ⎥ cos(12 + 0)cos(0 − 20) ⎦ ⎣ cos2 (35 + 0) 2 = 0.) = tan 2 (45° 2 2 35° φ ) = 3. θ = 0º and δ = 0º the Coulomb formula becomes identical to Rankine’s.271 K a = tan 2 (45° . θ = 0º and α = 20°. δ = 12°.θ) ⎡ sin(δ + φ )sin(φ − α ) ⎤ cos θ cos(δ + θ ) ⎢1 + ⎥ cos(δ + θ )cos(θ − α ) ⎦ ⎣ cos2 (φ + θ) 2 = 2 cos2 (35 .517 = 3. Ka = cos2 (φ .1 kN/m3 and c = 9 kN/m2? Solution: (a) Rankine’s active and passive earth pressure coefficients.517 for Coulomb’s.685 kN / m2 2 Coulomb ' s Fp = 0. α is the angle of the slope for the backfill behind the wall and θ is the back of the wall’s angle with respect to the vertical).5γ h2 K p + 2ch K p = ( 0.690 Note that K p = tan 2 (45° + ) = tan 2 (45° + 2 2 Ka = 1 KP Coulomb’s active and passive earth pressure coefficients.

exerted upon a temporary retaining wall by a large jacking system (which is not shown in the figure). find the magnitude and location of the passive pressure force Fp with respect to the heel of the wall (point B). (Revision: Sept-08) Using the Rankine method.*Lateral-03: Passive pressures using the Rankine theory. Solution: 259 .

0624 )10 ⎤⎦ = 0.63 + 5.49 )(16.49 + 3.624 )(10 ) 2 2 2 i kip Fo = 2. 260 .67 ) + ( 3.0624 pcf )(10 ft ) = 0.122 − 0.67 ) = 173.12 = 12.624 ksf 1 1 1 ( 0. Solution: From Jaky's empirical relation.525)(10 ) + ( 0.105 )(10 ) + ( 0.5 kip z = 13.1 kip − ft 12.823 ksf σ w = γ w h = ( 0. c = 0 psf and φ = 30º.525 ksf at z = 0 feet at z = 20 feet σ 'h = ( 0.525)(10 ) + ( 0.63)( 6.67 ) + ( 5. c = 0 psf and φ = 30º.25 + 1.*Lateral-04: The “at-rest” pressure upon an unyielding wall.12 )(16. at z = 10 feet σ 'h = K oσ 'v = ( 0.8 ft from the top of the wall. Sand #2 has a unit weight of 122 pcf.302 )(10 ) + ( 0.50 σ ' = 0 ksf .105kcf )(10 ft ) = 0.5 )( 0.5 ft Fo = ∑ fi = F 1 + F 2 + F 3 + F 4 = z= ( 2. (Revision: Sept-08) Find the lateral “at-rest” force F o on the wall and its location with respect to the top of the wall. K o = 1 − sin φ ' = 1 − sin 30° = 0. Given: Sand #1 has a unit weight of 105 pcf.25 )(15) + (1.5 ) ⎡⎣( 0. because there is no surcharge loading upon the surface of Sand #1.5 kip 12.

1 Fa = γ H 2 K a − 2cH K a 2 but there is no contact on the wall where the tension crack exists. 21 ft γ zK a - 2c K a Solution: a) The coefficient of active earth pressure is. Find: (a) The Rankine active earth pressure on the wall.26 = 1. and (c) find the lateral force upon the wall whilst considering the clay separation.63ksf )( 21 ft )(1) + 2 ( 0.2 feet γ K a ( 0.113kcf )(1) c) The total (Rankine) active earth force upn the wall Fa is.113kcf )( 21 ft ) (1) − 2 ( 0. therefore Fa = ( 1 γ HK a − 2c K a 2 ) ⎛ 2c ⎞ 1 2c 2 2 ⎜H − ⎟ = γ H − 2cH K a + ⎜ γ γ K a ⎟⎠ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 0.*Lateral-05: The contribution of cohesion to reduce the force on the wall. pa = σ 3 = γ hK a − 2c K a = ( 0.11 ksf b) The crack stops where the pressure is zero.2c K a ∴ γ hK a = 2c K a ∴ hcrack = 2c K a γ Ka = 2 ( 0.113kcf ) 2 261 .113 kcf )( 21 ft )(1) − 2 ( 0. (b) Estimate the depth of separation of the clay from the wall. (Revision: Sept-08) A 21 foot high retaining wall supports a purely cohesive soil (φ = 0°) with a cohesion of 630 psf and a unit weight of 113 pcf.37 − 1.48 k / ft of wall Fa = ( 0. pa = 0. φ⎞ 0° ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ K a = tan 2 ⎜ 45° − ⎟ = tan 2 ⎜ 45° − ⎟ = tan 2 45° = 1 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ The net active earth pressure pa on the wall is.630ksf ) 1 = 2. pa = γ hK a .630ksf ) 2c = = 11.63ksf ) 1 2 = 5.

if the wall does deflect enough to develop a Rankine active earth pressure condition? 3) What is the new force on the wall.5 σ b = γ d hK a = (18.8 kN / m 2 )(1m ) = 2. 36 ° ⎞ φ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ K a = tan 2 ⎜ 45 ° − ⎟ = tan 2 ⎜ 45 ° − ⎟ = 0.3 3 ⎟ ( 4 m ) (0.3 3 ⎟ ( 4 m ) (0.31) ( 9.**Lateral-06: The effect of a rising WT upon a wall’s stability.4 kN / m 262 .81) − ( 9. and its location from its heel.26) = 38 kN per meter of wall m ⎠ ⎝ 3) The buoyant weight γ ' of the flooded sand is.sin φ = 1 .41 kN ⎞ 2 ⎛ The forc e Fo = ½ γ d h 2 K o = ½ ⎜ 18. kN m3 The stress at point "a" is σ a =0.8 kN / m 2 m3 ∴ F1 = ½(4.3 kN/m3.81) = 11. γ ' = γ sat − γ w = γ d − nγ w − γ w = 18.3 + (0. The backfill is fully drained through weep holes. 1) What is the magnitude of the backfill force on a 1 m wide slice of wall if it is not allowed to deflect? 2) What is the magnitude of the backfill force on the same 1 m wide slice.41) = 60 kN per meter of wall m ⎠ ⎝ 2) When th e wall deflects to the left sufficiently to develop an active pressure condition. (Revision: Sept-08) A 4 m wall retains a dry sand backfill with a unit weight of 18.26 2⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ kN ⎞ 2 ⎛ The force Fa = ½ γ d h 2 K a = ½ ⎜ 18.sin 36 ° = 0.3 kN )(1m )(0. an angle of internal friction of 36˚ and a porosity of 31%. if the wall’s weep holes are clogged and the water table now rises to within 1 m of the ground surface behind the wall? Solution: 1) No deflection of the wall means the soil is "at rest" and K 0 = 1 .26) = 4. and at "b" which is 1 meter below the surface.

0kN / m 2 )(3m) = 13. F1d1 + F2 d 2 + F3 d3 + F4 d 4 ( 2.4 kN / m 3 m kN σ c = γ ' hK a = (11.17 m from the bottom of the wall. y= The percent increase in load upon the wall due to flooding is.5m ) + (13.4 R y = 1.4 )( 3.8 kN / m 2 ∴ F2 = (4.26) = 9.8kN / m 2 )(3m) = 14.5 3 )(3m)(0.26) = 4.1 kN / m σ w = γ w h = (9. kN ∴ F4 = ½(29.4kN / m 2 )(3m) = 44.3 R = Therefore 4 ∑F = 74.0 kN / m 2 ∴ F3 = ½(9.5 kN / m m The water pressure and force. ΔF = 263 ( 74.kN )(1m)(0.4kN − 38kN ) = 38kN 96% increase.5 )(1m ) + ( 44.33m ) + (14.4 kN / m i =1 The location of the resultant is y. .4 )(1.4 kN / m 2 m σ bc = γ d hK a = (18.1)(1) = 74.81 3 )(3m) = 29.

307 2 2 The horizontal force FH per unit width of wall is.307) = 129. find the magnitude of the active earth force upon a length of wall equal to 3. FH 129.*Lateral-07: The effects of soil-wall friction upon the lateral pressure. Solution: The force applied to the wall first requires the coefficient of active earth pressure.2 kN/m3 and an angle of internal friction φ = 32˚.5 m assuming Rankine conditions.5 m. Ignoring the effect of the passive pressure upon the toe of the footing. φ 32° K a = tan 2 (45° − ) = tan 2 (45° − ) = 0.5 m = (138 ) (3. (Revision: Sept-08) A 7.5 kN / m The FH is related to the total force R on the wall as a function of the angle of wall friction δ .2kN / m3 )(7 m) 2 (0.0 m high retaining wall has a horizontal backfill of dry sand with a unit weight of 17. FH = ½γ h 2 K a = ½(17. The wall is cast-in-place concrete. FH = R cos δ ∴ R = Total Active Force every 3.5m) = 482kN FH FV R δ 264 .5kN / m = = 138 kN / m cos δ cos 20° We are asked what is the total force every 3. with a friction angle δ = 20˚.

8 k N / m H = (9 .7 k N / m = 5 8 .9 . 1 ) + ( 2 m (1 8 9 . 5 ) Ftotal p1 h2 F2 A 265 2 1 3 .2 kN/m3 3m φ = 90° P A li 0 S o lu tio n .5 )(5 8 .1m f ro m A . 1m WT worst load case γsat = 18.5 k N / m T h e lo c a tio n y = h1 y 1 F1 + y 2 F 2 = F to ta l + F1 H (4 m ) (1 3 . 5 ) ( 8 . .8 ) ( 6 m ) F to ta l 2 p2 ŷ ) (1 7 6 .5 kN/m3 Medium dense sand 3m φ = 30° H=6m Weep holes γ = 21. 3 3 ) = 8 . K a lim e s to n e = t a n 2 ( 4 5 ° − 2 2 T h e φ = 9 0 ° is r e a lly a c o m b in a tio n o f s h e a r a n d c o h e s io n ( " c e m e n ta tio n " ) .*Lateral-08: What happens when the lower stratum is stronger? (Revision: Sept-08) Calculate the active force Fa and its location ŷ with respect to the heel of the 6 m wall (point A). 4 ) = 2 .8 ) ( 6 m ) F1 = ½ p 1 h1 = ( 0 . for the worst case (clogged weep holes).3 3 3 K a sand = ta n 2 ( 4 5 ° − 2 2 ϕ 90° ) = ta n 2 ( 4 5 ° − ) = 0 ∴ th e lim e s to n e d o e s n o t lo a d th e w a ll. T h e w o r s t a c tiv e p r e s s u r e lo a d o c c u r s w h e n th e w a te r ta b le r a is e s to th e to p o f th e w a ll. 30° ϕ ) = ta n 2 ( 4 5 ° − ) = 0 .4 k N / m = 1 8 9 . 8 ) ( 3 ) ( 0 . 7 ) ( 3 m ) = = 1 7 6 . 5 . p 1 = γ ' h1 K p2 = γ w a = (γ SAT -γ w ) h1 K a = (1 8 .1 k N / m F 2 = ½ p 2 H = ( 0 .

333 Ka 2 = tan2 (45°.*Lateral-09: Strata with different parameters.115 .217 Step 2 The stress on the wall at point a is: The stress at b (within the top stratum) is: pa = q Ka 1 = (2.115 – 0.25 ksf Step 3 266 .0.25 0.66 ksf The stress at point c is: pc’ = [q + (γ’h)1 + (γ’h)2] Ka 2 = [2.40°/2) = 0.5 ksf w.217] The pressure of the water upon the wall is: = 0.5 + (0.333) = 0. a 0.0624) (10’) + (0.0624) (10’)] [0.30°/2) = 0.79 ksf pw = γwh = (0.115 – 0.13 Solution: Step 1 Ka1 = tan2 (45°.18 + 5 4 c 1.5) (0.t.333] = 1.66 0.0624)(10’)] [0.83 ksf pb’+ = (q + γ’h) Ka 1 = [2.0624) (20’) = 1.83 c=0 γ = 115 pcf H = 20’ 10’ 1 ф = 30° b c=0 γ = 125 pcf ф = 40° 2 0.0624) (10’)] [0. (Revised Oct-09) Draw the pressure diagram on the wall in an active pressure condition.66 10’ 3 0. and find the resultant Ftotal on the wall and its location with respect to the top of the wall.5 + (0.01 ksf The stress at b (within bottom stratum) is: pb’ .= (q + γ’h) Ka 2 = [2.5 + (0.217] = 0.125 – 0. q = 2.83 0.

66 ksf ŷ = 11.83) = 8.2 feet from top of wall .13) = 0.25) (20’) = 12.5 kips/ft Ftotal = 29.66) = 6.65 + 40 ⋅ 12.30 kips/ft F2 = ½ (10’)(0.5 3 3 3 29 The stress at point c is: 267 = 0.65 kips/ft F5 = ½ (1.9 + 15 ⋅ 6.18) = 0.The forces from each area: F1 = (10’) (0.6 + 50 ⋅ 0.3 + 20 ⋅ 0.0 kips/ft Step 4 The location of forces ŷ is at: yˆ = 5 ⋅ 8.90 kips/ft F3 = (10’) (0.60 kips/ft F4 = ½ (10’)(0.

59 .70)(0.50) 0. Assume Rankine conditions.59 ksf σc. Solution: Notice that the vertical pressure diagram will always increase in magnitude.75’ c = 500 psf φ 10’ 1 2 = 10 ° b+ Dense sand +0.84 c+ 3. but the horizontal pressures are governed by the Ka coefficient.7) (0.70 = -0.84 ksf -0.84 ksf ∴ ∑ σc = 0.11) (20’) – (2) (0.29 3 c=0 A 0 φ = 40° 4 a γ = 130 pcf +0 48 +0 77 Lateral load from the surcharge σc+ = Ka1 q = (0.25 ksf σb+ = Ka 1 γ h – 2c K a 1 + q Ka = (0.*Lateral-10: The effects of a clay stratum at the surface.25 Sandy clay 16.0. Surcharge q = 0.25’ no water present 20’ -0.84 kcf) = 0. which may increase or decrease the pressures on the wall. The sheet pile wall shown below is flexible enough to permit the retained soil to develop an active earth pressure condition.84 = -0. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant Ftotal of the active force above the point “A” upon the wall.70 = 1.48 b- +1.5) 0.29 ksf 268 .= -2c K a1 = -2(0.

29)(10’) = + 1.22 F2 = ½ (1.48 ksf σa = 0.48 + Ka 2 γ h = 0.29 = 0.22)(0.70 F1 = ½ (-0.13)(10’) = 0.48)(10’) = + 4.25)(3.0.77 ksf Ka 1 = tan2 (45° .45 k/ft Ftotal 269 = +16.41 k/ft (tension).48 + (0.75’) = +10.σb.25’) = .40° / 2) = tan2 25° = 0.48 + 0.6 kip/ft .11) (20’) = 0. Ka 2 = tan2 (45° .φ /2) = tan2 40° = 0.29)(16.= Ka 2 γ h – 0 = (0.80 k/ft F3 = (0.22) (0.80 k/ft F4 = ½ (0.

(1) What is the minimum distance x from the anchor to behind the wall? (2) What is your recommended factor of safety for the anchor? What is an economical load for the anchor? x 5’ Grouted anchor A 24’ φ = 30° c = 150 psf O Solution: (1) The anchor must be beyond the passive slip plane.2(0.33 and Kp = tan2(45º + φ/2) = 3.33 = 5.33) .105)(24’)2(0.105)(24)2(3) + 2(0.-08) The wall shown below will be used to retain the sides of an excavation for the foundations of a large building. (Revision: Sept.0 The active force upon the wall per unit width Fa is: Fa = ½γH2Ka -2cH K a = ½(0. The potential passive failure force (from the anchor) on the wall Fp is: Fp = ½γH2Kp + 2cH K p = ½ (0.**Lateral-11: Anchoring to help support a wall. (2) Ka = tan2(45º .φ/2) = 0.15)(24) 3 = 103 kip/ft 270 .33’ above point O (note that the tensile portion does not load the wall).84 kip/ft with the force located at ŷ = ⅓(19’) = 6. The engineer has decided to use earth anchors in lieu of braces or rakers to stabilize the wall.15)(24) 0. or (x) tan 30º = 19’ or x = 33 feet.

The factor of safety should be the same for an active failure as a passive failure.2) = 24.6 ∴ FS = 4. Fa ( FS ) = =17.2) = 24. a simple Fp F 103 kips equation could be written as. The horizontal spacing of the anchors is not influenced by this analysis. Therefore. and depends on cost factors.5 kips/ft).84)(4. A common spacing would be 10 feet. which means A = 245 kips.5 kips/ft (which is the same as using the passive force = (103)/(4. 271 .2 or (FS)2 = p = Fa 5.84 kips ( FS ) Note that this corresponds to a load in the anchor of (5.

49) – 2(0.**Lateral-12: The effect of five strata have upon a wall. (Revision Oct-09) Plot the pressure diagram and find the resultant force F and its location under an active pressure condition.76 ksf = [2 + 0.120 – 0.66 + 0.γw) 2’] K3a – 2c √(K3a at h = -(8+dh)’ from p = γh Ka .35 ksf at h = -(17 + dh)’ at h = -25’ Δp5 = (γ4 .0624)(2)(0.0624)2’](0.125 + (0.γw)h K4a = (0.614 ksf at h = -6’ Δp2 = γ1h K1a = (0.141 ksf ∴1.0.0624)](0.22 ksf at h = -(25 + dh)’ at h = -30’ = [2 + 0.0624)(8)(1) = 0.333) = 0.4)(0.46 ksf ∴ 1. At h=0’ p1 = q K1a = (2) (0.203 ksf at h = -8’ Δp3 = (γ2 .6)(0.0624)(9)(0.13 ksf Δp6 = (γ5-γw)h K5a = (0.307) = 0.417 ksf = [q + (γ1) 6’ + (γ2 .572 + 8(0.2c√Ka = [2 + (0.γw)h K2a = (0.45 ksf 272 .46 = 2.0.31+0.8)(1) = 1.0624)(5) (0.125 + 0.66 + 0.11)6’ + (0.95 ksf at h= -17’ Δp4 = (γ3 .14 = 1.110)(6) (0.704) = 0.704) – 2(0.95+0.125 – 0.120-0.49) = 0.120 .76 + 0.0626) (9)](1) –2(0.307) = 0.γw)h K3a = (0.84) = 0.126-0.403 ksf ∴0.7) = 1.403 = 1.125 .

042)(2) = 0.1 kips 273 ∴ y = 611 / 57.5(0.55 kips 57.35 kips F11 = 0. R = ∑ Fi = 57.51(1.614)(6) = 3.31)(5) = 6.63 kips F4 = 0.68 kips The resultant R is.50)(24) = 18.63)(23) F6 = 0.461)(8) = 1.817)(2) = 1.61 kips F3 = (0.5(0.1 kips F2 = 0.5(0.1 kips F8 = 0.40(9) = 1.7 feet above “0” .5(0.∑M0 = 0 (about 0) F5 = (0.55 kips F10 = 0.5(0.0 kips 57.61)(26) = (1.84 kips F9 = (1.80 kip F7 = (1.04 The location of R is…….203)(6) = 0.758)(8) = 14.1 = 10.95)(9) = 8.141)(5) = 0.F1 = (0.09(y) = (3.68)(27) + (0.

5 m 0. (Revised Oct-09) Calculate the Factor of Safety against. and (c) bearing capacity failures.58m 2 1.6 m 3 3.96m 0 γ1 = 16.5 m 0. 0.4 α = 10ο 0.6 kN m 3 φ1 = 32 φ2 = 28 o o c1 = 0 c2 = 30 kN m 2 274 . (b) sliding.8 yφc kN m γ conc = 3 γ2 = 17.62m 4 H = 8 m 1 H = 9.**Lateral-13: The stability of a reinforced concrete wall. (a) overturning.6 kN m 3 23.75 m 0.

46 c) the factor of safety (FSBC) against a bearing capacity failure.617m)(3.75 m) = 249 kN/m the driving force = Fh = 244 kN/m the resisting force = FR = ΣV tan(2/3)(28) + (5.58 m)2(16.Ka = cos α cos β − cos 2 β − cos 2 φ ' cos β + cos 2 β − cos 2 φ ' = cos10o cos10o − cos 2 10o − cos 2 32o cos10o + cos 2 10o − cos 2 32o = 0.8 kN/m3)(0.1 kN/m (5.75 m)2 + (2)(30kN/m2) 2.4m)(8m)(1. The resisting moment against overturning is MR.985) = 244 kN/m a) The factor of safety against overturning is found by taking moments about point “O”.6 kN/m3[(0.8m)] (1m) + 16.174) = 43.58m)(1/3) = 777 kN-m FSO = MR / MO = 3 .5m)(4.322) = 248 kN/m Fv = Fa sin10° = (248 kN/m)(0.63m) + (0.96m)(5.5m)(8m)(3.6m)(2.5)(2.6)(2/3)(30) = 355 kN/m FSS = Fh / FR = 1.43m)] (1m) + 43. MR = 23.77 Fp = (1/2) γ2 H2 Kp + 2 c2 H Kp = (0. K1 = K2 = 2/3 Kp = tan2( 45° + 28°/2 ) = 2.322 Fa = (1/2) H2 γ1 Ka = (1/2)(9.90m) + (1/2)(0.2m)(8m)(1. 275 .6m)(1m) = 2661 kN-m and the overturning moment is MO = Fh (1/3) H’ = 244 kN/m (9.77)(17.85m) + (1/2)(0.77 (1.42 b) The factor of safety (FSS) against sliding failure.1 kN/m Fh = Fa cos10° = (248 kN/m)(0.8 kN/m3 [(3.6 kN/m3)(1.