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A SIMULATION MODEL

FOR A SINGLE POINT MOORED TANKER

Dr.Ir. J.E.W. Wichers

TR diss
1637

j

Publication No. 797
Maritime Research Institute Netherlands
Wageningen, The Netherlands

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR A SINGLE POINT MOORED TANKER

Proefschrift

ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor
aan de Technische Universiteit Delft,
op gezag van de Rector Magnificus,
Prof. Dr. J.M. Dirken,
in het openbaar te verdedigen
ten overstaan van een commissie
door het College van Dekanen daartoe aangewezen,
op dinsdag 7 juni 1988
te 14.00 uur
■ . ^ ' " ' ^ ^ N .

door
'-V)\
,-.,il 1

Johannes Everardus Wicher Wichers
geboren te Groningen
civiel ingenieur

ÜL-U-I

STELLINGEN
I

Het
computermodel
voor
de
simulatie
van
een
SPM-systeem
blootgesteld
aan
stroom(
wind
en
onregelmatige
golven
kan
g e c o m p l i c e e r d z i j n . De m o e i l i j k h e i d s g r a a d van h e t model i s e c h t e r
vaak omgekeerd e v e n r e d i g met de s c h a a l van B e a u f o r t .
II
Voor h e t b e p a l e n van de k r a c h t in de b o e g d r a a d van een t a n k e r
afgemeerd
in
stroom
alleen
moeten
behalve
de
gemiddelde
s t r o o m s n e l h e i d ook de r i c h t i n g s - f l u c t u a t i e s v e r o o r z a a k t door bv.
m a c r o - w e r v e l s bekend z i j n .
III
Op de huid van een afgemeerde
t a n k e r worden vele
zinkanoden
a a n g e b r a c h t . D i t maakt de s c h a l i n g van de R e y n o l d s - a f h a n k e l i j k h e i d
van de model- n a a r de p r o t o t y p e - w a a r d e n een s t u k g e m a k k e l i j k e r .
IV
Door de bodem van de v o o r s t e en a c h t e r s t e t a n k c o m p a r t i m e n t e n van
een t a n k e r afgemeerd in g o l v e n t e v e r w i j d e r e n en de c o m p a r t i m e n t e n
aan t e s l u i t e n op w i n d t u r b i n e s kan e n e r g i e opgewekt worden." Deze
energie
kan
aangewend
worden
om
de
grote
laagfrequente
s c h r i k b e w e g i n g e n t i j d e n s s t o r m t e g e n t e werken.
V
Men kan de natuur slechts overwinnen
schikken (Francis Bacon/ 1561-1626).

door

zich

naar

haar

te

VI
Het
gebruik
van de
resultaten
van
vroegere
experimentele
onderzoeken naar de neerwerking rondom een zandribbel te zamen met
de recente vortex blob theorieën kan leiden tot nieuwe inzichten in
zand transportberekeningen.
VII
Het t o e p a s s e n van h e t oude p r i n c i p e van de s p u d p a a l - a f m e r i n g voor
snijkopzuigers
buitengaats
duidt
op h e t o n d e r s c h a t t e n
van de
k r a c h t e n van de z e e .
VIII
Zolang een t e c h n i c u s 10 kN b l i j f t v o e l e n a l s een tonf i s voor hem
de overgang van h e t t e c h n i s c h m a a t s t e l s e l n a a r het p r a k t i s c h
m a a t s t e l s e l ofwel h e t S i - s t e l s e l een wel z e e r o n p r a k t i s c h e s t a p .
IX
Op de ringwegen
van de g r o t e
Amerikaanse
s t e d e n houden de
a u t o m o b i l i s t e n z i c h a l j a r e n k e u r i g aan de s n e l h e i d s l i m i e t . D i t
h o e f t n i e t het g e v o l g t e z i j n van de vermoede d i s c i p l i n e van de
Amerikanen.

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR A SINGLE POINT MOORED TANKER

Dr. Ir. J.E.W. WICHERS

Publication No. 797
Maritime Research Institute Netherlands
Wageningen, The Netherlands

FPSO Terminal.SHELL Tunirex . Tunisia (a SHELL Photograph) 1 .Tazerka Field .

Santa Barbara Channel..OS & T Terminal. USA) . California (Courtesy of IMODCO Inc. Los Angeles. California.EXXON .

) L o u i s i a n a Offshore O i l P o r t (LOOP). USA) 3 . Adriatic Sea.Rospo Mare F i e l d . Italy (Courtesy of S i n g l e Buoy Moorings Inc. Houston.ELF I t a l i a n a . . Gulf of Mexico. USA (Courtesy of SOFEC I n c .FSO Terminal.

France) 4 . FSO Terminal Baya de Campeche Gulf of MEXICO. Paris.A.Lalang Field FPSO terminal.Hudbay Oil . Malacca Strait (Courtesy of Bluewater Terminals S.CAYO ARCAS. MEXICO (Courtesy of Enterprise d'Équipement Mechanique et Hydraulique. Switzerland) PEMEX .

6.ship motions at forward speed 66 2.1. Wave drift force at low forward speed 68 2. Test set-up and measurements 37 2. Towing speed versus current speed 2. 5.2.4.. Introduction 23 2.7.4. The low frequency components of the wave drift forces and the wave drift damping coefficient 75 . tests 47 Deviation from linearity at higher forward speeds . Results of computations and model tests 71 2. Linear. Displacement and velocity dependency of the hydrodynamlo forces 33 2. Experimental verification of the velocity dependency of the mean wave drift force in regular waves 37 2.6.1.to be continued - 5 .6.6.1.5.4.1.6.2.2.3. The mean wave drift force in regular waves combined with current 55 2. 50 2.2.5. Equations of motion for a tanker in head waves 24 2.2. Computation of the low velocity dependent wave drift forces ••• 2.4. Towing tests 45 2. INTRODUCTION 11 REFERENCES (CHAPTER 1) 21 2.. Introduction 2.6.4. Regular waves traveling from an area without current 55 into an area with current 59 2.4.. Theory — 64 64 . Evaluation of results 74 2. LOW VELOCITY DEPENDENT WAVE DRIFT FORCES 23 2.5.1. 65 2.4.2.. Evaluation of results of extinction tests and towing 2.2.3. Extinction tests in still water and in waves 40 2.6.3.4.Page CONTENTS 1.

5. Hydrodynamic viscous damping forces in current 3. Equations of motion in still water 100 3. Wave drift forces at zero speed 76 2.4. 82 88 HYDRODYNAMIC VISCOUS DAMPING FORCES CAUSED BY THE LOW FREQUENCY MOTIONS OF A TANKER IN THE HORIZONTAL PLANE 91 3. Introduction 75 2.3.6.4. Total wave drift force in irregular waves combined with current 85 Evaluation of results in irregular waves 87 REFERENCES (CHAPTER 2) 3. Current force/moment coefficients 122 3.1.3.7.4.7.4.4.3. Introduction 91 3.4. Viscous damping in the surge mode of motion 103 3. Equations of the low frequency motions 95 3. Hydrodynamic viscous damping forces in still water 100 3. Test set-up and measurements 119 3.7. Relative current velocity concept for the surge mode of motion 123 3.2.6.7. Test set-up and measurements 101 3.1.4.7. Total wave drift force in irregular waves without current 2. 80 Stability of the solution and contribution of the oscillating wave drift damping coefficient 2.2. The dynamic current contribution 129 ..4. Relative current velocity concept for the sway mode of motion 128 3.4.1.2.4.. 79 2. 2.7.5..7.3. Viscous damping due to sway and yaw motions 109 3.7.3.1.2.3. 115 Equations of motion in current 115 3.to be continued - 6 .3.3. The approximation of the low frequency components ..continued - 2.

2..3.2. Evaluation of results 157 4. 161 4. Introduction 147 4.2. Theory Computed wave drift forces and mean wave drift damping coefficient 163 4.4.2.5.3.' 147 4. Frequency domain computations in irregular head waves without current 148 4. Evaluation of results 167 ' REFERENCES (CHAPTER 4) 5.2.2. Theory 148 4.7.1. Evaluation of the semi-empirical mathematical models in current 138 REFERENCES (CHAPTER 3) 145 \ 4.3. 170 173 EVALUATION OF THE LOW FREQUENCY HYDRODYNAMIC VISCOUS DAMPING FORCES AND LOW FREQUENCY MOTIONS IN THE HORIZONTAL PLANE •• 175 5.1.3.continued i 3.Time domain computations in irregular head waves with and without current 161 4.3.2.1. Tanker moored by a bow hawser exposed to regular waves 176 5. Computations '•• 177 . Introduction 175 5.4.4.2.3. Model tests 153 4.to be continued - 7 . Model tests 4.2..1.2.3. Computations 152 4. Introduction 176 5.3.1. EVALUATION OF THE LOW FREQUENCY SURGE MOTIONS IN IRREGULAR HEAD WAVES .2. Computed motions 166 4.

1.1.. 197 SIMULATION OF THE LOW FREQUENCY MOTIONS OF A TANKER MOORED BY A BOW HAWSER IN IRREGULAR WAVES. Model tests 208 6.3. Evaluation of results.4. 219 CONCLUSIONS APPENDIX REFERENCES (APPENDIX) . Computations 204 6.3. Model tests 5.4. Evaluations of results 180 5.4.3. 185 5. Determination of the stability criterion 5.4.4.3. Model tests 5.3. CURRENT 199 6. Introduction 199 6.4. 185 5.4.continued - 5.2. 232 .4. WIND AND.3.3. Computations 5. 190 192 r 193 194 REFERENCES (CHAPTER 5) 6. Tanker moored by a bow hawser exposed to current 5..5.3.4.1. 182 182 5.2. ... Tanker moored by a bow hawser exposed to current and wind Dynamic stability of a tanker moored by a bow hawser .5. Evaluation of results 209 REFERENCES (CHAPTER 6) 217 7. Computations 5.to be continued - 8 .2.4. 180 Introduction 5.3. Model tests 179 5.2. Evaluation of results 180 181 . 223 .2. Equations of motion 200 6.

NOMENCLATURE 233 SUMMARY 239 SAMENVATTING 241 9 .

1 y/^//^vy/£y//j4>y/# y / w ^ M x w x i w ^ Examples of mooring systems of single-point moored tankei 11 .CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Systems consisting of jackets with process platforms and seabed pipe­ lines to produce and transport crude are normally used for large off­ shore fields. To this end the processing equipment is placed on the deck of the tanker. For medium sized and marginal oil fields more and more tanker-shaped vessels moored to a single point are used. For this type of system the tankers are kept on station by using one mooring point. Single point mooring (SPM) systems have been installed in areas with moderate to severe weather conditions.\"<<W^V*SyA\\ ///W///W//A&//AV'//AV'///ÏX( Figure 1. This solution allows the tanker to weathervane according to the prevailing weather conditions and to stay on location with mini­ mum mooring loads. Transportation of crude is then accomplished by mostly special purpose tankers shuttling back and forth. serving as a loading terminal. 1 A. In case a tanker moored to a single point is used as a storage unit the tanker serves as loading terminal only.

= 1 4 .1. Some examples of SPM systems are shown in Figure 1. The frequencies of the second order low frequency compo­ nents are associated with the frequencies of the wave groups occurring in irregular waves as indicated in Figure 1.50 . SPM moored vessels are subjected in irregular waves to large. which are linearly proportional to the wave height and contain the same frequencies as the waves. They are also subjected to small. People's Republic of China [ll].) r A e c 2000 \\ \\ \\ o V •z. T . - 1.0s (P. =12. TEST NO. 0 s c0 THEORETICAL: »13.25 GROUP FREQUENCY in rad. so-called first order wave forces and moments.0 -1 WAVE FREQUENCY i n r a d . ft i/l \\ 0 ^L Figure 1. s 0 0. which are proportional to the square of the wave height.2 0.s" Spectra of waves and wave groups (wave registration lasted 12 hours prototype time) 12 0. 7499 DERIVED FROM LOW FREQUENCY PART OF SQUARED WAVE RECORD DERIVED THEORETICALLY BASED ON SPECTRUM OF MEASURED WAVE WAVE SPECTRUM MEASURED : 4^S"„=12. so-called second order.0m.M.6 m. mean and low frequency wave forces and moments.5 --».2. In this case the tanker has been moored by means of a bow hawser to a fixed pile. In areas with more severe weather conditions the mooring systems can vary from chain/turret systems (Rospo Mare [l-2]) to rigid articulated systems (Tazerka [l-3]) and hybrid-type structures (Jabiru [1-4]). o \\ \\ ' 20 }— a.An example of a permanently moored process and storage tanker under moderate weather conditions is Weizhou.

These motions induce mainly the mooring forces. see for instance [l-8]. The reasons for the reluctance to apply such computation methods are due to failures in describing the governing physical phenomena and a lack of reliable input data. At present the application of such programs. is limited to preliminary calculations.The first order wave forces and moments are the cause of the well-known first order motions- Due to the importance of the first order wave forces and motions they have been subject to investigation for several decades. At low frequencies the hydrodynamic damping values are small. The origin and characteristics of the second order wave drift forces and moments in irregular waves have been the subject of study for some time. In this thesis a theoretical study will be described and experimental results will be presented for the input and the methodologies involved in the computer simulations of the low frequency motion behaviour of a tanker moored to a single point- 13 . / The result is that it could be established that the motions of a vessel moored to a single point not only consists of high frequency motions (with wave frequency) but also of low frequency motions. [l~9] and [1-10]. several computer simulation programs for vessels moored to a single point have been developed. For the design of mooring systems it is still common practice to carry out physical model tests to obtain the design loads. however. Typical features of SPM moored tankers are the very low natural frequen­ cies of the modes of motion in the horizontal plane. As a result of these investigations. if at all. In the last ten years. see for instance [1-5]. [l-6] and [1-7]. prediction methods have evolved with a reasonable degree of accuracy for many different vessel shapes. Excited by the second order wave forces and moments large amplitude low frequency motions may be induced in the horizontal plane.

degrees-offreedom (DOF) case.the total drift forces in head waves with and without current. For the 3-DOF case the following re­ search has been carried out: . Such a system can. . The 1-DOF case concerning SPM tanker systems exposed to severe weather conditions.solution of the equations of the low frequency motions in the horizon­ tal plane in the time domain for a tanker exposed to waves only. perform large amplitude. the theory and the experimental results will be given in the following chapters.viscous surge damping in still water and in current. due to unstabilities of the system combined with the environmental conditions.solution of the equations of the low frequency motions in the horizon­ tal plane in the time domain for a tanker exposed to wind.formulation of the coupled equations of the low frequency tanker mo­ tions in the horizontal plane for non-current (still water) and cur­ rent condi t ions.Concerning the low frequency motions in the horizontal plane. Of the present developments.3. waves and current. wind and current are co-linear. These SPM simulations are based on studies performed in the past and are indicated in Figure 1. In Chapter 2 attention is paid to the wave drift excitation as a function of low speed of the vessel. . .and the 3. The 3-DOF case considers SPM tanker systems in moderate weather condi­ tions. is con­ sidered to be one of the most important design conditions. low frequen­ cy motions in the horizontal plane. For this kind of system a tanker moored by a bow hawser is chosen. in which the waves. distinc­ tions and restrictions will be made for the 1. . For the 1-DOF case of the moored tanker the study will deal with: .solution of the equations of the low frequency surge motion in the frequency and time domain. 14 .

One part of the quadratic transfer function is the low frequency velocity independent wave drift force (zero speed) while the other concerns the low frequency velocity dependent part of the wave drift force.WAVE DRIFT FORCES WAVE DRIFT FORCES DRI FTP 1980 [1-10] HIGH FREQUENCY FORCES HIGH FREQUENCY MOTIONS DIFFRAC 1976 [1-7] Figure 1.HIGH FREQUENCY MOTIONS . linearly proportional to the low 15 .HIGH FREQUENCY FORCES . The damping force.3 Historical review and present developments of SPM simula­ tions Experimental research showed that the introduction of the low velocity in the hydrodynamic theory is necessary in order to obtain the complete expression for the wave drift excitation.LOW FREQUENCY MOTIONS LOW FREQUENCY HYDRODYNAMIC VISCOUS FORCES LOW VELOCITY DEPENDENCY ON . As a result of the expansion of the dependency of the low frequency velocity of the vessel on the qua­ dratic transfer function of the wave drift force in non-current condi­ tion the transfer function can be split in two parts. Because of the low fre­ quency velocity dependency that part of the wave drift force will act as a damping force. As a basic principle it was experimentally found that the total wave drift excitation can be assumed to be of potential origin and can be expressed as a' linear expansion to small values of the speed of the vessel.

. is negligibly small.i) . Based on the wave drift force for small values of forward speed. see Figure 1. 2 2 y(Cll-muu ) + b n u in which: Xi (u ) = amplitude of low frequency excitation force u = low frequency c. Because the tanker is surging in a real fluid the total damping consists of both the wave drift damping and a damping contribution caused by viscosity.frequency velocity. [l-12].4. transformations to the current condition can be carried out to obtain the quadratic transfer functions of the wave drift force in the steady current speed and of the associated wave drift damping coefficient. however.2 ^ . The reason for the speed dependency of the wave drift excitation must be found in the first order hydrodynamic theory. For a sinusoidal excitation the transfer function of the low frequency surge motion of a tanker. Computations by means of 3-dimensional potential theory including linear expansion to small va­ lues of forward speed confirmed the velocity dependency of the first order hydrodynamic theory and that the low velocity dependency on the second order wave forces can be reasonably approximated [1—11 ]. In this study the experiments and theoretical calculations have been restricted to vessels moored in head waves. The latter. is called the wave drift damping force. = spring coefficient m = virtua ll b-ti 16 l mass coefficient = damping coefficient (1 . moored in a linear system can be written as: J±(u) = la l \ F 2. Considering the hydrodynamic reaction forces of potential nature besides the wave drift damping also the low frequency (first order) added mass and damping coefficients exist.

4 Origins of the important parts of the hydrodynamics of SPM systems In Chapter 4 results of computations of the low frequency motions of a tanker for the 1-DOF case are given. Therefore the tanker was moored in a linear mooring system and exposed to waves with increasing significant wave heights. The results of the computations have been verified by means of physical model tests.Since the total damping is relatively small resonance motions can take place. HYDRODYNAMICS SPM SYSTEM POTENTIAL THEORY VISCOSITY COMPUTER SIMULATION Figure 1. To elucidate the effect of 'the qua­ dratic transfer function of the wave drift damping on the low frequency surge motions for the non-current condition frequency domain computa­ tions have been carried out. Because in an irregular sea low frequency wave drift force compo­ nents at the resonance frequency will occur. Exposed to a survival sea both without and with a co-linear directed current time-domain simulations of the low frequency 17 . The forces caused by viscosity cannot be fully solved by mathematical models. In Chapter 3 the experimentally derived damping coefficients for both the non-current and current condition are presented. the magnitude of the trans­ fer function will be determined by the value of the damping coefficient. To simulate the low frequency surge motion not only the wave drift damp­ ing but also the damping from viscous origin has to be known.

see Figure 1-4. To this end a tan­ ker moored by a bow hawser is chosen. By means of the results of oscillation tests a formulation 18 . A feature of such a system is that the tanker can perform low frequency motions in the horizontal plane with relatively large amplitudes. For the non-current condition no formulation was found in literature. Using the theoretical data as input the tanker motions have been simulated and the results compared with model measurements. The system involved is a permanently moored tanker exposed to survival con­ ditions. Because it may be assumed that oscillations at low frequencies will induce different flow patterns along the vessel in still water or current a clear distinction is made between the noncurrent and the current condition for the formulation of the resistance components. As mentioned already for the viscous damping for the surge mode of motion also the damping force/moment components in the sway and yaw mode of motion can not be attributed to forces of potential nature only.motions of the moored tanker were carried out. The force/moment components caused by viscosity can be determined by means of physical model tests. In absence of wind and waves the determination of the equations of motion of the low frequency motions in the horizontal plane give rise to difficulties in the description of the low frequency • hydrodynamic reaction force/moment components. As a result of the speed dependency with of the wave drift forces the excitation in waves combined current will increase. in Chapter 3 the resistance forces and moments caused by the sway and yaw mode of motion have been determined by means of physical oscillation tests. So far the SPM simulations concern the computations of the low frequency surge motions only. In this thesis on the one hand a system under severe weather conditions is considered while on the other hand a system will be studied which will be exposed to more moderate weather conditions. The computed wave drift forces with and without current have been compared with results of measurements. In addition to the determination of the viscous damping coefficients in surge direction. they are for a dominant part determined by viscosity.

In Chapter 6 the simulations of the moored tanker under the influence of wind. several investigations have been carried out in the past force/moment hydrodynamic damping components. In Chapter 5 the low frequency hydrodynamic viscous damping force/moment components have been validated by means of the low frequency motions in the horizontal plane. long crested sea state are discussed. current and a moderate. wind and current. Large amplitude unstable low frequency motions occur in the horizontal plane. Finally. In the general case. a tanker moored by a bow hawser will be exposed to irregular waves. For the evaluation the results of the computations are compared with the results of physical model tests. For the current field case.of the resistance force/moment components has been established. The distinction in the models con­ cerns the relatively small or large low frequency motion amplitudes.5. In the equations of motion of the low frequency motions a distinction will be made between mathematical models. The differences will be found in the treatment of the wave drift forces. For the non-cur­ rent condition time domain computations for a bow hawser moored tanker exposed to long crested waves only were carried out. To evaluate the large amplitude unstable low frequency motions the condition has to be considered in a current (and wind) field only. 19 . however. By means of the theory of dynamic instability the unstable conditions have been determined and used for the evaluation. Molin [l-14] and Obokata [l-15] has been evaluated. as is shown in the flow diagram in Figure 1. By means of the formulation derived to formulate the low frequency in this thesis the description as proposed by Wichers [l-13]. Because the large amplitude model consumes considerably more preparation and computer time for the simulation than the small amplitude model the dynamic stability program facilitates the choice of the model before­ hand. The results of the computations have been compared with the results of model tests. a review of the main conclusions is given in Chapter 7. Each of the weather components can have an arbitrary direction. however.

and aerodynamic input for the SPM simulation program 20 J LARGE AMPLITUDE ./ / | LOW FREQUENCY FORCES | 1 P 1 EXCITATION FORCES | 1 MEAN CURRENT DAMPING FORCES | INERTIA FORCES | HYDRODYNAMIC | ADDED MASS | VISCOUS I DAMPING | MEAN WIND | WIND DAMPING DYNAMIC -UNSTABLESTABILITY >> LARGE LF AMPLITUDE ) TIME DOMAIN 'DEGREE OF UNSTABILITY^ | HIGH FREQUENCY FORCES* EXCITATION FORCES DAMPING FORCES FIRST ORDER WAVE POTENTIAL DAMPING INERTIA FORCES ADDED MASS VISCOUS ROLL DAMPING ) H I G H FREQUENCY | RESPONSE) LOW FREQUENCY FORCES TRANSFER FUNCTION OF THE TOTAL WAVE DRIFT FORCE SMALL AMPLITUDE Figure 1.5 J Review of the hydro.

B.: "Tazerka float­ ing production system: the first 400 days".: "Pitching and heaving motions of a ship in regular waves".A. 3627. 1-4 Mace.: "Computation of drift forces" OTC Paper No. 1500. Wageningen. G.M. Houston. Houston. and Bandement. 400. Houston.. 1976. 1-6 Hooft. 1972. Marin Publication No.M. K.G. B.J. Houston. MARIN publication No. Novem­ ber 1987. J.N. van: "The motions of a moored ship in waves". P. G.: "Hydrodynamic aspects of semi-submersible platforms". 1-3 Carter. Wageningen. P. OTC Paper No.REFERENCES (CHAPTER 1) 1-1 Mathieu. 5251.: "Weizhou SPM: a process and stor­ age tanker mooring system for China".H. 1-2 Boom. A.A. M.P. 1986. 510. Wageningen. S. 21 .R. Houston. de: "Turret moorings for tanker based FPSO's". OTC Paper No. June 1972. 1957. A. 1987. 4788.F. 3423. J. 5490. and Jacobs.C. G. 1-7 Oortmerssen. Workshop on Floating Structures and Offshore Operations.T. and Remery. New York. Trans. and Hunter. and Hermans.C.M.: "Disconnectable riser turret mooring system for Jabiru's tanker-based floating production system". 1-9 Molin.J.F. 65.V. 1-5 Korvin-Kroukovsky. 1-8 Remery. 1979. W. W. Ballard.: "The slow drift oscillations of a moored object in random seas". OTC Paper No. 1971-SPE Paper No.E. OTC Paper No. 1984.

1980. pp. August. Marintec Offshore China Conference. International Symposium on Ocean Engineering and Ship Handling. A.M. 11 Hermans. G. 1979. 12 Huijsmans. BOSS 1979. Marin Publication No.: "Mathematical approximation of the slow oscillation of a ship moored to single point moorings". October 23-26. R. J.M.: "Slowly oscillating mooring forces in single point mooring systems".E. June 1987. London. Trondheim.A.: on floating "Low frequency second order wave exciting forces structures". B. 132-148. . drift damping and Wichers. J. Band 34. 15 Obokata.J.W. Gothenburg. Prads. 600. Schiffstechnik. and Bureau. 13 Wichers.H. 1980.E.: "The effect of moderate speed on the motions of floating bodies". 14 Molin.H. J. Shanghai. R. J.W. 1983.: "A simulation model for the dynamic behaviour of tankers moored to SPM".: "Considerations on wave of a moored tanker for zero and non-zero drift angle". 1987. and Huijsmans.10 Pinkster. Wageningen. Heft 3.

The values of the component of the hydrodynamic reaction forces. This damping. see Figure 2. is assumed to be of viscous ori­ gin. have to be known. that for the low frequencies damping exists.1 Measured and computed low frequency surge damping and nondimensional added mass coefficients in still water [2-2] 23 .1. The theo­ ry behind these reaction forces has been reported by van Oortmerssen [2l].CHAPTER 2 LOW VELOCITY DEPENDENT WAVE DRIFT FORCES 21l^__Int reduction To solve the low frequency surge motions of a moored tanker exposed to irregular head waves. Figure 2. which is in phase with the surge velocity becomes zero for the low fre­ quencies. as is indicated in Figure 2. By means of extinction model tests Wichers and van Sluijs [22] showed. being the low frequency reaction and excitation forces. however. By means of linear three-dimensional diffraction potential theory making use of a source distribution along the actual hull surface the reaction forces at the low frequencies can be computed.1. the hydrodynamic input for the equation of the mo­ tion.

that the predicted motions were overestimated. see Figure 2. the direct pressure integration technique as proposed by Pinkster [2-3] delivers the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force. inducing the low frequency motion. with the Ox(l) in the still water surface and the 0x(3) axis coinciding with the vertical axis Gx3 6x^x3 at rest. Applying the mentioned results as input to the equation of motion the low frequency surge motions can be computed. [2-6] and [2-7]._Ec[uations of_m°tion_for a tanker in_head waves The motions of a moored tanker in irregular head waves consist of small amplitude high (= wave) frequency surge. heave and pitch motions and large amplitude low frequency surge motions. In the last decade research has been carried out to understand the na­ ture of the damping mechanism. the system of axes 0x(l)x(3) is fixed in space. For a similar problem we have to go back to the work of Remery and Hermans [2-5] in 1971. 2. however. In their experimental investigation and validation they had to use a surprisingly large damping coefficient for a correct prediction of the low frequency surge response.3. In the next sections first the physical explanation will be given of the features associated with the velocity dependency of the wave drift forces followed by the computation procedures. To study the motions use has been made of two different systems of axes as indicated in Figure 2.2. is supposed to be caused by the wave drift forces. Based on the output of the diffraction program and the transfer function of the first order motions. On base of the results of model tests Wichers [2-4] showed. 24 of the ship-fixed system of axes . Results of model experiments in regular waves followed by implementing low forward speed in the 3-dimensional diffraction potential theory showed that a large part of the damping could be attributed to the velocity dependency of the wave drift forces.The excitation. The frequencies of the low frequency surge motions are concentrated around the natural frequency of the system.2.

2 A registration of the motions of a moored tanker model in head waves Figure 2.(deg) TIME (s) Figure 2.3 System of co-ordinates 25 .

We shall assume that the surge.f* . And further: .2. Of the second order motions only the low frequency part will be considered and will be denoted x *• '. heave and pitch motions.: . .o + Mll^+ x3 .2) in which M.« ^ . For a simple sinusoidal excitation with wave frequency the equations of motion can be written as follows: for k = 1. .5 (2. Since the origin of the system of axes coincides with the centre of gravity of the vessel the inertia matrix can be written as follows: 26 .xi' . . heave and pitch motions can be decoupled into the following form: *i = «[^.xjif « x3lf anc * x51f stand for the large amplitude low fre­ quency second order surge. t ) 411^ 2 2 +e [x5 1)(t)+x^)(2i(t)] x 5 = e *< l ) (£.t) + e 2 [ x g ( t ) + x(2)(lL >t )] (2. is the inertia matrix of the vessel. x 3hf an( ^ x 5hf represent the second order motions of which the frequency range is twice the wave frequency range.xij. .3. viz.2.1) with e and n being small parameters.T| considers the ratio between the two time scales of the motions: the \i frequency range around the natural frequency of the system and the 10 frequency range of the wave spectrum frequencies.e is related to the wave steepness. X3' ' and xc' ' are related to the wave frequency surge. heave and pitch motions.

c ^ may also include restoring forces due to the mooring system.2. are frequency dependent.2) cannot describe the motions in irregular waves. In irregular head waves the first order wave forces/moment will present all kinds of frequencies.2) can only be used to describe steady oscil­ latory motions for a purely linear response in the frequency domain. Since the hydrodynamic reaction coefficients a^-j and b j . This me­ mory function or impulse response function is given by the Duhamel. The formulation is as follows: 27 . Besides the hydrostatic restoring forces. This function states that if for a linear system the response K(t) to an unit impulse is known then the response of the system to an arbitrary forcing function X(t) can be determined. Faltung or convolution integral.2. equation (2.M kj = M 0 0 0 M 0 0 X 0 (2.3) 5- while further: ai^j(io) = matrix of added mass coefficients b ^ ^ u ) = matrix of damping coefficients c^j X^a w e xC = matrix of force restoring coefficients ' = amplitude of the first order wave = wave frequency = P n a s e angle between the first order wave force and the wave M = mass of the vessel Ic = moment of inertia of the vessel The indices kj indicate the direction of the force in the k-th mode due to a motion in j-direction. To describe the equations of motion one has to return to the time domain description using memory functions to re­ present the frequency dependent added mass and damping terms.2. In this case equation (2. as long as this mooring system has linear load-excursion characteristics.

(00) cos(ut) du kj n Q KJ (2. According to Cummins the reaction forces due to the water velocity potential may be derived by the impulse response theory by considering the vessel's velocity as input of the system.4) O The impulse response theory has been used by Cummins [2-8] to formulate the equations of motions for floating structures.2.2.2.ƒ b.2.l'3.(t) = .-(a>) are the first order potential damping coefficients of the vessel at the frequencies 00.x(t) = ƒ K ( T ) X(t-x) dt (2.5 K + ^ ^J ) S 5 1 > V" K k J ( X ) 4 J 1 ) ( t " T ) ^ + Ck J X J 1>} = X^)(t) for k = 1.7) . ' ' = time varying first order wave exciting forces Ogilvie [2-9] showed that the function Kk. . = matrix of impulse response function x = time shift c^j = matrix of force restoring coefficients cients X. The constant inertia coefficients were de­ termined by: m k j = a k j (u) + ± r 28 ƒ ^ .5 (2..5) where: Mu-j = inertia matrix of vessel mkj = matrix of constant (frequency independent) added mass coeffi­ Kk.6) where th.2) for a tanker moored in irregular head waves the time domain equations of motion can be formulated as follows: J .3. Applied to equation (2.(t) is given by: K.2. ( t ) sinCu't) dt (2. .

The natural frequencies in heave and pitch direction for mono-hull type structures are in the wave frequency range. There­ fore we assume that the wave radiation damping is excited through the first order motions. however. 29 .5 (2.. for k = 1. The total fluid damping in surge direction is caused by the combined high and low frequency motions. The total wave exciting force as present in irregular head waves consists of the following parts: X k (t) = x£ 1 } (t) + x£ 2 ) (t) where X^ .where aj. while the viscous damping forces are generated by the first and second order motions.s small damping due to wave radiation exists (to < . Because the origin of the damping mechanisms are completely different (wave radiation versus viscosity) it is assumed that the damping forces will not mutually interfere. see Wichers and van Sluijs [2-2]).3.(w') is the frequency dependent added mass coefficient:corre-' sponding to an arbitrary chosen frequency u'. the natural frequencies of the con­ sidered systems are in the low frequency range. Since for the low frequencies in surge direction negligibly 0.2. Considering the complete equations of motion the total wave exciting force has to be taken into account.08 rad. In this range the induced mean and low frequency heave and pitch motions will be negligibly small. The result will be that in surge direction large amplitude low frequency motions combined with high frequency motions will occur. The fluid damping force is assumed to be of viscous origin.8) '(t) is the first order wave exciting force with the wave fre­ quencies and X ^ '(t) represents the mean and the slowly oscillating parts of the second order wave drift force. The damping at these low frequencies is small. The result will be that the equations of motion comprise a second order mean displacement and low and high frequency motions. For the surge direction.

h u * ^ .^ ' = second order motion in j-direction x.2. heave and pitch directions and simultaneously perform low frequency large amplitude oscillations in surge direction.11) in which: aii(|ii) = added mass coefficient in surge direction at frequency u. = total motion in j-direction Neglecting the influence of X-j' '(t) and X 5 ( '(t) the moored tanker will oscillate with high frequencies in surge.2.*[2)<t> (2.10) and for k = 3.j ' = wave frequency motion in j-direction x.2.5 0 (x)i(1)(t-u)dT + c J iJ x ( I ) } = X ( 1 ) (t) J L (2. The hydrodynamic reaction and wave forces may be ef­ fected by the slowly varying velocity. X.3. 30 . ( '(t) = first order wave forces in surge direction Xi^ '(t) = second order wave forces in surge direction X^(t) = total wave forces in the k-direction x.9) 00 r {(M +m )x ( 1 ) + ƒ K J J J J j=l.5 (2.Following the afore-mentioned assumptions the equations of motion can be written as follows: (M+a 1 1 (u 1 ))-4 2 ) +B u (u 1 )(x ( 1 2 ) +4 1 ) )+B U 2 (^ 1 )(i ( 1 2 ) +4 1 )) l i ^ M ^ . B^(u^) = linear viscous damping coefficient in surge direction at fre­ Biiod^l) = Ui = natural frequency of the system in surge direction quency u^ quadratic viscous damping coefficient in surge direction at frequency u.

a low frequency oscillating external force acting in surge direction will be applied to the tanker: x\(t) = X l a cos t^t (2.} = X k (t) for k = 3.+ck.5 (2. ^'(t X (2.5 J l1 J r.+b ((H +a J J J J (2.Q .the tanker will be exposed to a regular head wave with frequency u..2.2.12) in which: u-^ = natural surge frequency of the system.13) (t) is the first order wave exciting force and X k ^ ' is the mean wave drift force.2.<1>4.3.the linear spring constant of the mooring system will be C .^ M i K. .16) Due to the wave forces the tanker will perform high frequency motions around a mean displacement..As an introduction to the problem of the velocity dependency of the hydrodynamlc forces a simplified mathematical model of a linearly moored tanker will be considered: . . For the simplified model the equations of motion can be written as: (M+a 1 1 (u 1 ))x{ 2 ) +B 1 1 ( l i l )(xJ 2 ) ^ 1 ) )+B 1 1 2 (u 1 )(x5 2 ) -Hi5 1 ) ) | x p ) + x ^ 1 ) | + c n x p ) = x£ 2) +X L (t) S j=l. The total wave exciting forces in regular head waves consist of the following parts: Xfc(t) = x£ X ) (t) + x £ 2 ) where X k for k = 1.2. Due to the external force X (t) the result 31 .14) 1 J JV\ | == X vW. +c ( » ) ).2.5 (2.x.3.„ xi.15) J J and _ 2 {(Mkj+akj(oo))x^bkj(üOi.

will be that in surge direction large amplitude low frequency motions
combined with high frequency motions will occur.

The coefficients ak-(u)) and b^iC") are the coefficients of the hydrodynamic reaction forces when the vessel oscillates with wave frequency u.
Computed by means of the 3-D potential theory the coefficients are only
dependent on the wave frequency, the water depth and the geometry of the
underwater hull. Therefore the hydrodynamic reaction coefficients should
be written as:

a

kj<u«il(2)

=

b

k j ( u ' h < 2 ) " ,°>

°>
(2.2.17)

The first order wave forces can be calculated with the 3-D potential
theory.. The computed first order wave forces X, ^ ' are only dependent on
the amplitude and period of the incoming wave, water depth and the geo­
metry of the, underwater hull of the body. The second order wave forces
Xvv

' on a stationary

floating body

exposed to regular waves may be

calculated by the direct pressure integration technique. In the theory
of

the direct

floating
around

pressure

body

only

the mean

integration

performs

small

position. Following

technique it .is assumed
amplitude

high

the conditions

that the

frequency

motions

of the mentioned

computations the first order wave forces and the second order wave drift
forces should be written as follows:

X ^ ( X < 2 ? = 0 , X<2>=0,t)

x^V'M 2 ^ 0 ' ii^-0)

(2 2 18)

--

As mentioned earlier, in reality the moored vessel in irregular waves
performs
large

small amplitude high

amplitude

low frequency

frequency motions while
surge

traveling with

oscillations. In our

simplified

model with the tanker moored in regular waves it performs small ampli­
tude high frequency oscillations while traveling with large amplitude

32

low frequency surge oscillations.

These observations imply that not only the hydrodynamic reaction forces
but also the wave exciting loads may be influenced by the low frequency
displacement and velocity of the vessel. By using the simplified model
these effects on the motions in surge direction will be discussed in the
next section.

213^_Disglacement_and_velocit2 dep_endency_ of the_hydrod2namic forces

Oscillating at high frequencies and simultaneously performing the low
frequency large amplitude oscillations the hydrodynamic reaction forces
of a structure will be affected by the slowly varying speed. Further,
due to the low frequency large amplitude oscillations through the reg­
ular wave field, the wave forces will be affected by both the displace­
ment and the speed.
To study the displacement and velocity dependency we shall restrict our­
selves to the equations of motion in surge direction, which are given by
equations (2.2.14) and (2.2.15). The actual high frequency hydrodynamic
reaction coefficients and the first order and second order wave forces
should be written as follows:

*l;](».il(2))
bj^Oo.i/2))

for j = 1,3,5

X^Hx^^W.t)
X^txd)^ 2 ),^ 2 ))

(2.3.1)

By applying the Taylor expansion of the reaction coefficients and the
wave forces to the low frequency displacement and velocity up to the
first order variations we obtain for the hydrodynamic reaction coeffi­
cient:

33

»lj(«-.il(2)) = a1;]((ü,0) +

,

. C)\^

öa^co.O)
j
l i
,
xj
öx^
Öb

b ^ u ) , * ^ ' ) = b^Oo.O) +

x

(ü),0)

3

x^;

for j-1,3,5

(2.3.2)

for the first order wave forces:
X 1 (D(x 1 (2) ) i l (2) ) t )

ax,(1)(o,o,t)

. Xl(l)(0,0,t) + Z L _ ^ I 1 . X ( 2 )
bx)
(1)
ax.
(o,o,t)
"1
<■->->"'
+

- T 7öx
(2)

+

,(2)

- ^

^.3.3)

and for the second order wave drift forces:
X1(2)(x(D)x1(2),x1(2)) - X ^ H x ^ . O . O )

+

+

dX ( 2 ) fx ( 1 ) 0 O)
l
V
-{2)'
' ;.X;2> +

ox^x^.o.o)
- ^
i} 2)

(2-3.4)

öx^
in which a^co.O), bj.((ü,0) and X1(1)(0,0,t), X1(2)(x(1) ,0,0)
to the coefficients and

the wave forces as specified

correspond
in equation

(2.2.17) and equation (2.2.18).
Substitution of equation (2.3.4) into equation (2.2.14) and equations
(2.3.2) and (2.3.3) into equation (2.2.15) leads to an approximation of
the assumed general equations of motion in surge direction of the vessel
moored in regular head waves:
(M + a u (^ 1 ))x( 2 ) + B 11 (u l )(x( 2) + x( 1 )) + B u2 (, 1 )(x( 2) + x( 1 ))|x( 2) 4i( 1 )| +

(2)
(2), (1)
, °X<2)(x(1).°>°) x ( 2 )
+ cn.x(^ = x { ^ V
.0,0) +—
(Ij
l

34

+

ax^feW.o.o)

m

iJ z; +X(t)

-jj-

öx^

(2.3.5)

and
n ■*
Z
{ M x 1 ) + (a
iJ
j=i,3,5 iJ J

öa
«„.O) +

(u,0)
^
.x< 2 >)x^ +
l
J
ai^;

db
+ fb
l

Oo 0) +
l j ^ ';

(o),0)
^
.x(2)].x( ) + c x ( l ) =
-X
.-(2)
öx)
1 j - X j + c lj X j

n.

ax(1)(o,o,t)

X^;(0,0,t) + —

^

ax(1)(o,o,t)
-Xl

+

.(2)
1

*i

(2.3.6)

In equation (2.3.5) and equation (2.3.6) both the high and low frequency
surge motion components are incorporated. The displacement and/or speed
effects on the force components will be studied. Therefore the wave
force components and the hydrodynamic reaction forces will be considered
in more detail.
A regular1 wave can be described by:
C(t) = Ca.cosü)t

Relative to the slowly oscillating vessel this regular wave can be writ­
ten as:
C(t) = C a cos(wet + K Xl < 2 >)

(2.3.7)

where
u

= frequency of encounter = io + K ii' '

< = wave number = 2n/X.
X

= wave length

35

-(2) •(2) ( M + a u ( u 1 ) )s(2) x^. )V Ax(^2. equation (2.^ 2 )^) = X la ^>((ü e ) c o s ( V + < x 1 ( 2 )+e xC (o.u.8) in which: Xi ' '(u> ) = amplitude of the first order wave force e >-(io ) = phase angle between the first order wave force and the wave For small values of x^ correspond ' and x.The associated first order wave force in surge direction will yield: X^Hx/ 2 ).3.8) should actually to equation (2. Considering the hydrodynamic reaction force components in equation (2.) _ „ ..0.3. Of the second order wave drift force in a regular wave. Since the mean wave drift force is independent of the position of the tanker in the regular wave the derivative to the displacement will be zero.8) shows that the ampli­ tude of the first order wave force will be low frequency modulated by the frequency of encounter.4). as is indicated by equation (2. the first term is the mean wave drift force and will be a constant.3.3.3. the frequency of the wave force will result in a high frequency oscillation modulated by the frequency of encounter and the low frequency phase shift... After inspection of the terms of equation (2. Equation (2.5) the equation of the low frequency motion in regular waves can be reduced as follows: _ _ B „ (.9) 36 . e )) (2. Further.0) + X 1 (t) 5x^ (2.3.3).3. = B u 2 ( . 0 ) .3. x u 1 li1)^1 l + ^ 2 ) ( ^/ 0 .< 2 ) + t{ 2 )(x< 2 >. The result is that the frequency of the first order wave force will vary but within the wave frequency range.i[ 2 >-c 1 1 .6) a similar explanation and conclusion can be drawn.. Because the frequency is in the high frequency range the first order wave does not contribute to the low frequency damping.

The first two terms are assumed to be of viscous nature. The low speed towing tests were carried out in the Seakeeping Laboratory of MARIN.3.5). For the extinction tests a linear mooring system was employed. Test set-up and measurements To verify the terms in equation (2. Use was made of a model of a loaded 200 kDWT tanker (scale 1:82.4 tf/m.in regular head waves with various heights and periods 2.in regular head waves with various heights and periods 2. The test set-up for the mooring arrangement is shown in Figure 2. The particulars of the vessel for different loading con­ ditions as will be used in this work are given in Table 2. was connected to the towing carriage. having a water depth of 2. The spring constant was 16 tf/m. The spring constant amounted to 257.4.1.5. During the towing tests the model was kept in 37 . For the towing tests the mooring system. a length of 100 m and a width of 24 m. The tests were per­ formed in a water depth of 1 m. . The extinction tests were carried out in the Wave and Current Laboratory of MARIN measuring 60 * 40 m. In order to analyse and verify the separate terms of equation (2.1.4.5 m. Experimental verification of_the_velocity_ dependency of_the_mean wave drift force in regular waves 2. .in still water .9) three low frequency damping coefficients can be recognized. consisting of linear springs.9) extinction and towing tests have been carried out.4.3. The body plan and the general arrangement are given in Figure 2.in still water .3. Motion decay tests.In the right hand side of equation (2. Towing tests at low speed.9) model tests were carried out: 1. while the last term relates to the low frequency veloci­ ty of the mean wave drift force.

994 24.70 18.700 250 5.17 29.70 13.956 9.618 tfms 2 123.04 10.00 47.78 11.46 13.132 23.70 7. The mooring lines were connected to force transdu­ cers. All measurements were recorded on magnetic tape to facilitate the data reduction. heave and pitch motions and the longitudinal mooring forces were measured. The sign convention is given in Figure 2.lateral area LS A .686 310.804 234.510.594 tfs2/m ■ 25.52 82.000 755 10. Magnitude Symbol Designation Unit Inter­ mediate Ballasted 100% 602 25% 100X 70% 40% Loaded Loading condition Draft in per cent of loaded draft Length between perpendiculars Breadth Depth Draft Wetted area Displacement volume Mass Centre of buoyancy forward of section 10 Centre of gravity above keel Metacentric height transverse Metacentric height longitudinal Transverse radius of gyration in air Longitudinal radius of gyration in air Yaw radius of gyration in air L B H T S V M m m m FB~ m KG GM t m m m 403.94 15.400 -30.02 15.902 88.6 9.56 13.607. The pitch motion was measured by means of a gyroscope.940 -30.698 16.00 47.23 18.000 "2 ID' Particulars of the tanker During the tests the surge.092 t£s2/m tfs 2 -83.55 8.375 -16.30 ll k 22 k 66 Wind area of superstructure (a ft): A . 38 .77 CM.longitudinal direction by means of a light weight trim device connected at its forward and aft perpendicular.00 47.81 83.transverse area TS Added mass a) » 0 rad/s (water depth 82-5 m) Ü* 310.90 922 853 922 853 922 853 1. k Table 2.200.90 22.618 t£ s 2 -83. All data were scaled to prototype values according to Froude's law of similitude.32 13.83 m 14.15 m 79.32 5.400 59.553 a ll 22 a 26 a 62 a 66 a m 77.17 29.66 13. The surge and heave motions were measured in the centre of gravity (G) by an optical tracking device.17 29.670 159.47 77.30 83.132 -16.1 m tfs2/m 310.5.295 6.

" *1 /J-C ' AP Figure 2.31 ^ fe AP FP STATION 10 i^-16-10 Figure 2. •'•' 7F- : + x 3 J tk. 3 ~ ^ '*—l l G x 6 «—— +x.4 General arrangement and body plan -" j4 " . > 1/ _^ G - - .5 Test set-up 39 ..

The theory and the procedure of deter­ mining the linear damping coefficient will be explained below.4.4.m ) .4.3.3) the decrease of the amplitudes of the decay curve x and x N 40 N+l will be: .2.9) to the condition of extinction in still water the equation of motion reduces to: (M+a n (u 1 ))x 1 ( 2 ) = .4.3) i n which: "l .6 and 2.2. Cll \/(M+au) r L B l l -.2) The solution of equation (2.4.c 1 1 x [ 2 ) (2.2.B u 2 ( u 1 ) x 5 2 ) | x { 2 ) | .B u ( u 1 ) x J 2 ) .2 2(M+a n ). and Co are constants dependent on the initial position of the vessel. Following equation (2.2.1 = natural frequency of the system and C.2.7. .2.4.2.s.2.1) The results of the extinction tests are shown in Figure 2. Extinction tests in still water and in waves Applying equation (2.2) is: x(2) = e 2(M+au) (CiC0Stiit + ^sin^t) (2.4. It appears that for the large amplitude surge motions the viscous damping force is approximately linearly proportional to the low frequency velo­ city (6112(^1) ~ 0 tf. Equation (2.1) can be written in a linear differential equation with constant coefficients: (M+a u (u 1 ))xJ 2 ) +B 1 1 (a 1 )xJ 2 ) +c 1 1 xJ 2 ) = 0 (2.

6 and 2. V c ll ( M f a U>' 5cn B. They amount to Uj = 0.hl'* A = _!?L=e *N+1 <M+all^l = e6 (2.s"1 and B n ( u ) = 18. a detailed description reference is made to Hooft [2-10 ].2.s.In x N + 1 ^ in which: N = number of oscillations The damping coefficient becomes: B ll 6 .. R 2 c <2-4-2-5> böH^y] « (M^T the natural frequency will approximately correspond to the natural fre­ quency of the undamped system.0238 rad. 41 .4) in which 6 is named the logarithmic decrement. As is indicated in Figure 2. = — — 11 For (2.2.e.4.4.2 tf.7 the natural frequency and the damping coefficient can be determined. Because of the low damping of the considered system. The potential damping due to radiated waves is negligibly small at low frequencies.6) v itjj.i.m respectively. J From Figure 2. Because of the linearity of the damping for the large surge amplitudes the logarithmic decrement is constant and the value of the decrement can be determined from: o = in x x .1 the still water damping coefficient is caused by viscosity.

T = 11. T = 11.8 s N> *~»^' L. TROUGH VALUES 50 ^s2 ^^** .0 m . still water and in regular waves 42 .3.11 m .40 20 SURGE (m) STILL WATER "1 n 1 \l lf\\ 1 i 1 i 11 1 I \ i 1 1 i I 5°° /' if 1000 'V ^ ' / l\ ' \ 1' ' 1500 -2.8 s 10 ( s t i l l water) <u J l . 10 kc< " \ i r = 3.s ^. T 11.7 Determination of the damping coefficients in.8 s " ^ ^ * \ .11 m . 20 C = 0.20 30 N (NUMBER OF OSCILLATIONS) Figure 2. £ = 1. X T = 11.0 WAVES s a -. .8 s -40 ». Figure 2.88 m .6 TIMF f s l Registration of extinction test in s t i l l water and in regu­ lar waves o CREST VALUES .

The re­ maining damping coefficient is assumed to be caused by the waves.0) (2.4.o) + 77(2) ox| •*! <2-4-2-7) Further.7 shows that for both wave amplitudes used in the tests (con­ stant wave frequency u) the total low frequency damping force is linear­ ly proportional to the low frequency surge velocity.2.o.4. 2 ) . The separated damping coefficient Bi caused by the waves as function of the wave height squared is shown in Figure 2.6 and 2. The damping coefficient appears to be linearly proportional to the square of the wave height.2. 2 ) + X< 2 ) (x ( 1 ) .0. There­ fore extinction tests were carried out in different wave heights and va­ rious wave frequencies.8) Results of the extinction tests in still water and in regular waves are given in the Figures 2.7) reduces to: (M+a u (u))xJ 2 ) = -(B n +B 1 )x 1 ( 2 ) -c 1 1 x{ 2 ) +X 1 ( 2 ) ( X J 1 ) . For this reason B-^ is assumed to be of potential nature.8. if it is assumed that the damping coefficient in the last term on the right hand side of equation (2.Equation (2.7.c n X .4.7) is constant in the regular wave and denoted -B^» equation (2.2) applied to the condition of extinction in regular waves gives: ( M + a i l ( ^ ) ) x [ 2 ) = . The coefficient B^ is called the wave drift damping coefficient. Figure 2. This leads to the conclusion that the contribution of the quadratic viscous damping to the total damping is negligibly small (B]_]_2~0)Based on the linearity of damping coefficients the viscous damping coef­ ficient Bii can be separated from the total damping coefficient.2. Since the wave drift force is linearly pro­ portional to the square of the wave height the damping coefficient B-^ is assumed to be related to the wave drift force.0.B u ( u 1 ) i .0) + ax}2>(5Ci). The wave drift damping quadratic transfer 43 .4.2.

9) it appears that in a regular wave the wave drift damping coefficient represents the derivative with respect to the low frequency vessel velocity of the mean longitudinal wave drift force at zero speed.iJ 2 ) (2.4.-—•— (1 10 2 .s" D u = 0.- o— ^<Zz^ .s" rad. Based on the foregoing results the hypothesis can be made that for small values of the vessel's velocity the total or velocity de­ pendent mean wave drift force can be written as: X 1 ( 2 ) ( 2 ( 1 ) ) iJ 2 ) .u ) )=xWLx( 1 ).4.80 ^ x ^ rad.0 > ( l ) )-B 1 ( ( l ) ).s" 2b x^^_^.s" X u = 0.0. C Figure 2. For this purpose towing tests were carried out in a range around zero speed.s" A u = 0.38 rad.0) B 1 (w) (2. s " 1 O u = 0.2.532 rad.2.36 • u = 0.9) < *!2) 50 A u = 0. 44 .3.10) To prove this hypothesis the dependency of the mean wave drift force on the vessel speed has to be known.function as a function of the wave frequency can be written as follows: ox{ 2 ) (x { 1 ) .8 2 in m Wave drift damping related to the wave height squared Following equation (2.56 rad.628 r a d .

1) *pLTClc(U.cr) = longitudinal resistance coefficient = relative current angle P = mass density sea water L = length between perpendiculars T = draft of the vessel The measured resistance coefficients C^(U.4>cr) as a function of the vessel's velocity and towing direction are shown in Figure 2. The towing directions were both backward and forward.9. = U the mean resis­ tance force 3L.9 Resistance coefficient measured during towing tests in still water The towing tests in regular waves were carried out under the same speed conditions as the still water towing tests (except for the 5 knot 45 .(|.cr)U in which: C^c(U.4. Following equation (2.4. * =0° us © 0 O 0 -3 (> -2 -1 0 +1 <•> U in m. Figure 2. can be described as: X T-- B il ü - B 112 ü ü (2.3.(2) frequency oscillating speed the steady speed x. Towing tests Prior to the towing tests in regular waves towing tests in still water were carried out at various speeds.9) and taking for the low .3.3.s" +2 +3 0 g ns * = 180 .4.2.

It can be concluded that the mean wave drift force or added resistance seems to be a linear function of the (low) speed of the vessel.^tl^+Ki^)2] Xj = + x{ 2 >(x ( 1 ) .10 can be written as: oX^dJ.3.4. wave periods and speeds the mean wave drift force can be established as a function of the vessel's speed.2) » h[k\ ) equation can be simplified into: X. Following equation (2.3.U) actually represents the velocity dependent mean wave drift force or the added resistance force at a speed U of the ves­ sel.4..3. for . [2-ll] and Nakamura et al.4. represents the total mean resistance force for the steady state condition.1) and assuming that 5L. In Figure 2. From the experiments carried out for various wave heights.x[ 2 ) .x^ ' .3. [2-12]. Since the mean wave drift force is approximately linearly proportional to the low values of the vessel's speed U the gradient of the added re­ sistance will be constant by approximation.cr)U2 + x[ 2 ) (x ( 1 ) .\j) is independent of x-^ ' and the viscous resistance force formulation U (2.4. The results clearly indicate the dependency of the mean wave drift force on the speed of the vessel.speed). • 46 .10 the measured quadratic transfer function of the mean wave drift force as function of the ves­ sel's speed based on the earth-bound wave frequencies is shown.3.u) (2.u) Since in a regular wave X^' '(x.4.1) and equation (2. C ÖU a (2.2) (2. The gradient of the transfer function derived from Figure 2.4) Similar conclusions were derived from the results of experiments carried out by Saito et al. the total mean resistance force will be: fcLTC^U.4.3. = ^pLTClc(U.x*1)) — — .3) The force Xj^ '(x* '.

4. / /> -5" -5-" L 2 0 .s"1) »=0.4.m"') -10 / .11. 47 .10 -2 0 2 (m. 2 (m.s"1 Figure 2. -15-- -15-- (tf.765 rad.s -1 ) 0.457 rad. 0.s"1) .O 2 c • 3 2 t = 6. Evaluation of results of extinction tests and towing tests In terms of the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift damping coefficient the results as obtained from the extinction and towing tests have been plotted in Figure 2.s"1 -U The quadratic transfer function of the mean wave drift force as function of the towing speed for three earth-bound wave frequencies 2.0 il = 4.625 rad.0 m Ü -20-.s"1 -2 0 2 (m.- -20.

0 coefficient.») öx[ 2) (x (1) .U)) a*u cl *<» C 2 au a U=0 (2.4. or: Experimentally derived values of the wave drift damping quadratic transfer function B.<») SxP'tx'1'^!2'.5 u in rad.1) the transfer function of the total wave drift force in a regular wave with frequency u can be written as: x^CiJ2'.11 1.4.4.u) B1(io).U.0 m the deter­ mined transfer function is supported by the results of the experi­ 9 ments /* carried out Faltinsen et 13].4.The LOADED 200 kTDW TANKER IN HEAD WAVES trend of experimentally X TOWING TESTS 2C.») 48 x{ 2) (0. the experi­ From al. that pansions the ex­ used in equation (2.i{2) (2.0 m EXTINCTION TESTS 2c = 6. 4.2) .s Figure 2.4) for added the hold resis­ tance gradient for low v.3.1) As a consequence of equation (2.4. The gradient corresponds to the wave drift damping / 0 0. by [2- mental findings one may \ conclude A. forward speed.4.

oo) —j B (u).3) The total transfer function of the wave drift force in a regular wave acting on a tanker.12. The knowledge of the gradient of the added resistance for zero speed or the wave drift damping coefficient is of importance.12 it can be concluded that the quadratic transfer func­ tions of the wave drift force with low forward speed increase signifi­ cantly. From Figure 2. Following the gradient method the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force for various forward and backward steady speeds can be approximated. which performs low frequency oscillations superim­ posed on the steady toWing speed U can be approximated by: X<2>(lHi<2). The values of the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift damping are taken from Figure 2.4. Ca £a «Ia (2. while the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift forces for zero speed have been computed [23 ] .4.U i-.4) c a This procedure will further be referenced to as the gradient method.CoO.From the experiments it was found that the wave drift force increases approximately linearly for low forward speeds.4. Based on the gradient the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force as function of low vessel speed U in a regular wave with frequency w can be approximated by: X(2)(U.eo) i c r a a B.11. The result is given in Figure 2. From the experiments it was concluded that the wave drift force linearly increased for low forward speeds.tu+x^) i *: (2.io) -^—5 X(2)(0.4.<-) _i _è X<2><0. In the next section a study is made at what speeds the increase of the wave drift force deviates from lineari­ ty- 49 .

0 m [2-6] -WATER DEPTH = 82.4.5 m[2-3] u> in rad. 50 .5. The gradient method assumes a linear increment of the wave drift force or added resistance for low forward speed (= order of the current speed). Deviation from linearity at higher forward speeds The prediction of the wave drift force with low frequency velocity or constant speed is based on the gradient method for the wave drift force at zero speed.12 Quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force as function of the towing speed in regular head waves (earthbound wave frequency) [2-6] 2.s Figure 2.COMPUTED U=0: « WATER DEPTH =206.

00 42.13. while the wave drift damping coefficient has been derived from decay tests as described by Wlchers and van Sluijs [2-2].8 9.00 11.16 62. The results of the computations are presented in Figure 2.50 98.000 m deep water LNG carrier sailing in head waves at relatively (175 m ) .2. For the computation of the transfer function of the wave drift force the facet distribution is shown in Figure 2. For the zero speed case the transfer function of the wave drift force has been determined by means of computations. even keel Displacement volume Metacentric height Centre of gravity above keel Centre of buoyancy forward of section 10 Longitudinal radius of gyration Block coefficient Midship section coefficient Waterline coefficient Pitch period Heave period Table 2. The particulars of the LNG carrier are given in Table 2.70 2. M5336 scale 1:70 Designation Length between perpendiculars Breadth Draft.2 Symbol Unit L B T V GM KG m m FB m3 m m m m m c9" T z sec sec 125.16.00 13.8 The particulars of the LNG carrier 51 . In this study the vessel concerns a 125.750 0. while the body plan is shown in Figure 2.000 m 3 LNG carrier 273.52 0.15. The values for the added resistance for higher forward speeds have been determined by means of model tests [214].14.991 0.In order to check the afore-mentioned condition the added resistance for low and higher forward speeds has been studied. The wave drift damping coef­ ficients as derived from decay tests have been plotted in Figure 2.740 4.805 8.

13 Body plan of the LNG carrier Figure 2.Figure 2.14 Facet distribution LNG carrier (symmetrical starboard side) 52 .

0.15 The computed transfer function of the wave Figure 2.17 for 6 wave frequencies. O DERIVED FROM DECAY TESTS [2-2] + DERIVED FROM FIG. In the same basin the towing tests to determine the added re­ sistance R A W for the higher speeds (Fn = 0. In the same Figure the transfer functions of the computed added resistance for zero speed and of the estimated values of the wave damping coefficients are plotted.The extinction tests in still water and in regular waves to derive the wave damping coefficients were carried out in the Seakeeping Laboratory of MARIN. Using these data the curves of the transfer functions of the added resistance as function of the forward speed have been faired.20) were car­ ried out.4. The description of the laboratory and the test set-up is given in Section 2.17 and 0.1. The results of the measured transfer functions of the added resistance for the higher speed values are given as function of the forward speed in Figure 2.14. 2-17 r\ ■ 'f 1 \ ■k—-r / 1 / Figure 2.16 The measured quadratic transfer function of drift force for zero the wave drift coeffi- speed of the LNG cient of the LNG carrier carrier 53 . The wave fre­ quencies are defined in an earth-bound system of co-ordinates.

4.0)).s 0.) X[2)(U.xJ2) (2. s " 0. s " n=0. The results from Figure 2. s o □ COMPUTED R AW MEASURED [2-14] COMPUTED (U) X ( .400 r a d .476 r a d . however.s The quadratic transfer function of the added resistance curve as function of forward speed.1) So far the quadratic transfer functions of the wave drift forces in reg- 54 .785 r a d .17 indicate that the gradient method may be applied to predict the wave drift forces or added resistance for small values of forward speed being in the range of current speeds. s 0.ni ) U in m.u.532 r a d .5. At higher speeds.s Figure 2.o =0. To approximate the total wave drift force of a vessel. which can be expressed as: t< 2 Vx< 2) .616 r a d .17 U in m.433 rad. For the forward speeds in the order of current speeds the added resistance will be approximately linear with the speed. s " 0.U) B1(U. 2 ) (U) (tf. the added resistance becomes a strongly non-linear function of the speed. which performs low frequency oscillations superimposed on the higher forward speeds U both the wave drift force and its derivative at speed U has to be known.

1.5. The consequences for the transfer functions will be dicussed in the next sections. the tanker is stationary moored in current. In reality the tanker is moored in a current. According to the linear wave theo­ ry the wave relations are defined with regard to the system of co­ ordinates bound to the fluid. The mean wave_drift_force in_regular waves combined with_current 2. Using as the tial Figure 2. in which the wave propagates [2-15]. are the same. in Figure 2. From a theore­ tical point of view the transfer function of the wave drift force acting on a tanker towed with speed U or a stationary tanker moored in current with velocity V (=U) is the same if the frequency of encounter and the earth-bound frequency.5.ular waves were considered under towed conditions. respectively. In reali­ ty.18. for regular wave with the <|>Q the Earth-bound system of for co-ordinates be determined: the poten­ following relations wave characteristics can wave height: C Q = C&Q cos(ü)Qt + K Q X 0 ) and from the dispersion relation: 55 . 2. however. Towing speed versus current speed In the previous sections the quadratic transfer function of the mean wave drift force as function of towing speed U was dealt with.18 the system indicated of axis Z Q O Q X Q .

u 0 = K 0g tanh (K Oh) with the wave velocity: C Q = \)/ T n = * \/—2~ tann (Kr>'1) (2. always defines the relations for wave characteris­ tics relative to systems of co-ordinates bound to the fluid in which the wave propagates.1) in which: h = water depth K0 = X = wave length 2%/\Q For a towing speed U the regular wave should be related to a system ■ V of co-ordinates ZiOiXi moving with regard to system Z Q O Q X Q with velo­ city U in the direction of the po­ sitive X Q axis as is indicated in Figure 2.1. however. In case of current the wave characteristics can be des- 56 .5. Z1O1X1 moving with speed U With respect to the wave characteristics the following relationship exists between both systems of co-ordinates: = = c l h = = C al w l For a io 0 + c o *ou + U \ C a0 tanker moored stationary (2.5. In this case it is normally assumed that both for prototype and model tests the wave frequencies and wave heights are" defined relative to an earth-bound system of co-ordinates. The linear wave theory.19.2) in current the regular wave exists in combination with current.1.19 System of co-ordinates Figure 2.

«z hz \ ^ V c «? ~'\J ■ ^/^x^w/WiW!.1.o r d i n a t e s r e l a t e d to c u r r e n t Based on the fluid-bound system of c o .o r d i n a t e s moving with c u r r e n t speed V w i l l be analogous to equation ( 2 .4) 57 . Therefore the wave c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the system of c o . = C 0 cos (")2t + K X 2 2^ and io„ = K 2 S t a n h (K„h) with the wave velocity: C 2 = ^ 2 ^ T 2 = \/~T~ tanh (K2h) (2.3) With regard to the system of co-ordinates fixed to the earth Z3O3X3 the following relations can be obtained: = (02 + K 2 V c = C +V 2 c C al C a0 (2. SYSTEM OF CO-ORDINATES SYSTEM OF CO-ORDINATES ■ z 3 0 3 x 3 FIXED TO EARTH z 2 0 2 x 2 FIXED TO CURRENT Figure 2. 1 .20 System of c o . 1 ) by changing the s u b s c r i p t 0 i n t o 2: wave h e i g h t : C.5.5.1. 5 .20.o r d i n a t e s the r e l a t i o n s described by the wave p o t e n t i a l $2 w i l l be s i m i l a r to the one d e s c r i b e d by the wave p o t e n t i a l <1>Q.cribed r e l a t i v e t o a system of c o .o r d i n a t e s Z0O2X2 moving with the cur­ rent speed as i n d i c a t e d i n Figure 2.

4) analogous wave characteristics exist if the vessel will be either towed with speed U in regular waves with frequency UQ or stationary moored in a current with speed V (=U) in regular waves with frequency uio if both frequencies are related to the fluid.u3) 2 a i2)(0.U3) 2 x = C C ^a B1(Vc.4).Comparing equation (2.5.^) = B a (2.w2) 2 i(0.12 and Figure 2.1. If current is considered the values of the quadratic transfer function of the velocity dependent wave drift forces as shown in Figure 2.7.5. the results are presented in Figure 4.5 m water depth the quadratic transfer function have been approximated for 2 kn head cur­ rent.5) 2 a in which: (1)3 = 102 + K 2* V c Applied to the loaded 200 kTDW tanker moored in 82.1.1.5.5.1.«>2>-Vc 2 C a B^O.2) with equation (2.17 can be considered to be related to o^Due tó the current speed V the wave frequency Uj will be transformed into the frequency of encounter 103 according to equation (2. Based on the gradient method and using the relation for the frequency transformation. 58 . the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force and the wave drift damping coefficient as function of the current speed V X can be determined according to: l2)(Vc.

The value <^ as function of the relations for the still water case can be numerically solved. To study the wave relations use can be made of earth-bound systems of co-ordinates.21.5. Using the system of co-ordinates 2^02X2 moving with the current the wave relations can be determined. It is assumed that the current is directed in the same direction as the propagation of the wave. Z-JOJX-J and Z Q O Q X Q for current respectively and the system zft-yK-) the areas with and without moving with the current as is shown in Figure 2. Regular waves traveling from an area without current into an area with current In the previous section the quadratic transfer functions of the second order forces were considered when acting on a vessel both towed and sta­ tionary moored in a current field. To determine the relation between both regular waves the following conditions have to be fulfilled [2-15]: .2. .the relations between the wave characteristics are given with regard to the fluid.21.the wave period in an earth-bound system of co-ordinates does not change when the wave travels from the area without current into the area with current. viz. With regard to the wave frequencies Ü)Q the frequencies 002 will shift to smaller values by the term <2' V c' see Figure 2.2. In this section the transfer func­ tions of a tanker moored in an area without current and an area with current will be considered. in which the wave propagates. For deep water the values <^ can be derived from: 59 .

yS^ 3 ^ • r^ ' • ' \^/ •<\f x '•aO. ! i 0 3 S "0 = U J 3 V c WITHOUT CURRENT WITH CURRENT SYSTEM OF EARTH-BOUND CO-ORDINATES WITH CURRENT SYSTEM OF FLUID-BOUND CO-ORDINATES Figure 2.21 The system of co-ordinates the wave length relations X 2 = X 3 = c\ 2n/g and \ Q = C2Q 2n/g the celerity of the wave in current c 3 = c 2 + vc and further 60 .+z ^3.

For sake of completeness the theory on the change of the amplitude of waves running from still water into a current area will be shown below.22 have to be considered on base of frequency (Oo- In order to arrive at the transfer functions belonging to the wave fre­ quency Wo in the earth bound system of co-ordinates z.22. the frequen­ cies of the transfer function have to be shifted to: U 3 = U 2 + V V c ■ The appropriate values of the transfer function of the wave drift force can be determined by means of the gradient method. see Figure 2.2.0-. we find: V0 = V3 (2.5.5.C C X 3 3 \ = = -p— 0 c «f and o 2 +V c c o or C 2 =1 ^ 4V L — \ l + c o ) (2. Assuming continuity in trans­ port of wave energy through z Q 0 0 and z.2.5.1) J and the wave length 4V />♦ — V ) (2. If the regular wave travels from an area without current into an area with current not only attention must be paid to the frequency transfor­ mation but also to the wave amplitude.3) in which: 61 .0.x.2.2) In this situation the frequencies of the transfer functions of the wave drift force and the damping coefficient for zero speed as presented in Figure 2.

5.2. .4) and the celerity of the wave energy will be: c go ° n o c o C g3=n2C2+Vc (2.E o . C g 3 where the wave energy in each system of co-ordinates amounts to: E o = ** 4 E hps = 3 C a3 (2. Applied to irregular waves the following conclusion can be drawn: .since for a regular wave in the earth-bound system of co-ordinates the wave frequency wili not change.the spectral density of the waves will decrease when the waves are running from the area without current into the area with current.5) in which the transmission coefficient provided with the appropriate sub­ scripts will be: n = ^ + iïnffeh) <2-5-2'6> By means of the energy relations the wave amplitude in the current field becomes: C a3 = C aoVn2cf?Vc <2'5-2-7> From the result it can be concluded that the wave height will decrease if a regular wave will travel from an area without current into an area with current. c gO V3 = E 3 . the same will hold true for the fre­ quency range of a wave spectrum.2.5. 62 .v o .

= 8.QUADRATIC TRANSFER FUNCTIONS V =2.06 m.s -15- -10- ID i n rad.s"1 in . = 11.s PIERSON-MOSKOWITZ WAVE SPECTRUM £ . 9 m . .0 s w1/3 1 V = 0 m.s" 1 L C <w1/3 = 5 .06 m. . .06 m/s on the wave spectrum and the second order t r a n s f e r functions 63 .s Figure 2.0 m .22 Effect of an i r r e g u l a r sea running i n t o a c u r r e n t field with a current v e l o c i t y of 2. T. T .0 s V£ = 2.rad. = 11.

. Introduction The transfer function of the wave drift force at zero speed in regular waves can be computed by the direct pressure integration method [2-3]. In order to determine the gradient or the wave drift damping coefficient at zero speed computations for small values of forward speed are neces­ sary. of which the characteristics for no current amount to ? .1. where the potential function is written as a source distribution along the hull.Z_ëSEÊ2É£nt wa YË_ÉEi££_£°E£Ê5 2.00 m and T. 64 . = = 11 s. The transfer functions of the wave drift force and the second order fluid damping for the 200 kTDW tanker in zero speed condition are assumed to be known.To elucidate the theory on the transfer functions and the wave spectrum an example is given. 2i^i_2°5EHË2Ëi22_2£_ËlïS_i2ï_Y£i2£iï.6._ 8. The present computation procedure is restricted to regular waves in deep water and is based on small values of the forward speed. The water depth is considered to be deep. A direct approach is reported by Inglis [2-16]. Chang [2-17] and Bougis [2-18]. The pro­ gram is based on the solution of integral equations. The wave spectrum concerns a Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum.22. They introduced the forward speed effect by using the pulsating translating wave source function and certain line integrals. For the computation of the velocity dependent wave drift forces the diffraction program has to be adapted for the speed effects. The input of the direct pressure integration method may be based on the output of the diffraction model as reported by van Oortmerssen [2-1]. If the waves travel from the area without current into the area with 4 knot current the effects on the wave spectrum and the quadratic transfer functions of the wave drift force and the wave drift damping coefficient are presented in Figure 2. The diffraction model treats the ship motions for the zero speed case without any geometrical simplification of the underwater hull.

2. In order to determine the transfer functions for other speeds the gradient method can be ap­ plied.6.6. [2-19].2. the wave drift damping coefficient can be determined.U) + $(x(j).The low velocity dependent wave drift forces actually originate from the low speed dependency reaction of forces.t) = -Ux(l) +»(x(j). Therefore the potential function written as a source distribution along the underwater hull and water-line was expanded with respect to small values of the forward speed U. Plotting the values of the quadratic transfer function on base of zero speed and small values of forward speed (for the same wave length). Theory For the theory on the computations reference is made to [2-7].3 (2. 2.3 moving with speed U in the positive x(l) direction unperturbed velocity field obtained by consi­ dering the system of coordinates x(j) 65 ' .2.U) for j=l. Solving the fluid pressures along the hull and the fluid forces acting on the wetted surface the ship motions can be determined.1) in which: x(j) = system U = incoming of co-ordinates as indicated in Figure 2. Taking the first the order wave velocity loads and dependence hydrodynamic in mind Hermans and Huijsmans [2-7] pointed out that the original diffraction model based on zero speed [2-l] can be adapted for small values of the forward speed. By applying the direct integration method the trans­ fer function of the wave drift force for small values of forward speed U can be computed. For the introduction of the forward speed the total potential function can be split up in a steady and a unsteady part in a well-known way: »(ï(J). [2-20] and [2-2l].t.

U) is com­ pletely neglected. 2^6.t) = ^(xCj)) e e u U e g The oscillating fluid pressure as derived from the linearized Bernoulli equati'pn will be: 66 .U) = * 0 (x(j). The diffraction theory on the low speed dependent potential as derived in [2-7] is discussed in the Appendix.2.1) the effect of the free sur­ face is not taken into account and the contribution of $(x(j).1.L « 0. _Linear_ship_motions_at_forward_s£eed The flow field characterized by the low speed dependent potential can be computed with the diffraction program: $(x(j).!) (2. Because of the considered very low Froude numbers (Fn = U//g. t .t.2) in which: -iw t e * 0 (x(j).U) = steady p o t e n t i a l <t>(x( j ) .t) = 4>0(x(j)) e -iw t ♦jdUJ. By solving the potential the part linear with speed will lead to the speed effects in the ship motions and to the wave drift damping in the computations of the second order drift forces.6.u)e ID e = frequency of wave encounter The steady part does not contribute to the unsteady part directly.$(x(j). U ) = oscillating potential function function -lw t = <Kx(j). It plays a role in the free surface condition.t.t) + t^CxCJ).U) will be written as a source distribution along the hull and the waterline and will be expanded with respect to small values of U.2. The time dependent oscillatory potential <t>(x( j) .

dS p l' -n.5) For the moments analogous expressions can be derived.( j ) . t ) Pl(x(J).3) in which: P0(ï(J).6.6.ƒƒ p.t. for k=l.2.t) Integration of the pressure along the mean wetted surface results in the hydrodynamic reaction forces in the system of co-ordinates fixed to the vessel: X = .3 -k Substitution of the pressure expansion (2.._» rT y 0 ( ï ( j ).2. t ) -pi.2.p g l ^ K ^ .2.t) = p0(x(j).n..3) gives: —.t) = " PaT * 0 ( .P(2(j)..6. For the unit motion in the j-mode one is now able to write the added 67 .dS S 0 in which: n = generalized direction cosine on S (pointing outside is positive) S Q = mean wetted surface of the vessel X = X.t) = -P<t>t(x(j).dS with: X = X° + tX 1 (2.t) .IS s o f V ■ n.t) + x p ^ x C j ) ^ ) (2.ü) or P(x(j).ƒƒ s o 1 = x .

2.8) . . Assuming that a point on the hull is car­ rying out a first order wave frequency motion x.2. • kj kj X.p$ t . Wave_drift_force_at low f. . . .to a. . From the computed wave loads and added mass and damping coefficients the motion of the vessel can be determined using Newton's law of inertia. 2^6.2. (j) about a mean (0) position x.= real X. e kj kj " iw h e °ki = ima 8 X^j (2.2£W££d_sgeed For the derivation of the second order wave drift forces the fluid pres­ sure as given by the unsteady Bernoulli equation has to be considered: P(x(j).^p|V$ + P Q + C(t) (2. the following expression is found: p . In Bernoulli's equation P~ and C(t) can be taken zero without loss of generality. 0 . (j) and applying a Taylor's expansion to the pressure in the mean position.6. is the reaction force in the k-mode due to a unit oscillatory motion in the j-mode.t) = -pgx(3) .vP<°> + ep ( 1 ) + s V 68 2 ) + 0(e3) (2.2.mass and damping coefficients as: 2 0 .6. and b.7) where: Pn = atmospheric pressure x(3) = vertical distance below the mean free surface $ = velocity potential C(t) = constant independent of co-ordinates p = mass density of fluid The second order (with respect to the wave height) wave forces can be computed now.6) with similar definitions for a.6.2.

results in a ö/öt.PgxJ^O) .6.p* (2) p v ' = the second order pressure = " ^p|v*|2 .6. X = X(j) for j=l.9) The derivatives of the potential <j> are taken at the mean position of the point. we can write: X = X ( 0 ) + e X ( 1 ) + e 2 X ( 2 ) + 0(e 3 ) (2.10) where: N = the instantaneous normal vector S = the instantaneous wetted surface.9).6.2. The total force acting on the ship is: X = .3 Using a similar perturbation scheme for the wave loads as for the fluid pressure.2.ö/ox operating on the potential $ . In a order second to order has to be added to equation (2. The material derivative.2. The potential 4> is regarded as a determine the ~(2) potential $ first order second order velocity pressure potential more ($ exactly ).where: e = a measure related to wave steepness p^ ' = the hydrostatic pressure = " Pgx n 0 ) (3) p^ ' = the first order pressure = . will be neglected since this term does not contribute to the wave drift force in a regular wave.6./ƒ p N dS S (2.2. D/Dt.2. and a con- vective term -U. however.11) 69 .p(x^ 1) (j) -V* t ) (2. The influence of ~(2) the second order velocity potential <|> .

x^ X) (j)) + ƒ ƒ -^p|v$| 2 n dS . Four contri­ butions to the wave drift force can be distinguished. In equation (2.. Since the direct pressure integration method was applied to the case with small values of forward speed the final expression will be analo­ gous to the expression for zero speed.12) 0 in which: a™ . However.2.(1) r g 2 n dl + a (1) x(M. x™. 2. their method 70 . The terms in equa­ tion (2.. .V* t ) n dS S S 0 (2.2. Bernoulli pressure drop due to first order velocities. 4.12) are caused by: 1. Product of first order angular motions and inertia forces.12) the forward speed dependent potentials and deri­ vatives of these potentials have to be evaluated at the mean waterline and the mean wetted surface. see Pinkster [2-3]. 3.6. The expressions we obtain are of similar nature as those obtained by Hearn and Tong [2-22J.6.6.2.ƒ ƒ -p(x£ >(j) . The relative wave height at the mean water line. Pressure due to the product of first order motion and gradient of first order pressure. x^))1 H J O xi '(j) = first order motions of CG with regard to 0x(l)x(2)x(3) rl) Xy" (j) = first order motions of a point on the hull with regard to 0x(l)x(2)x(3) For the moments analogous expressions can be derived.in which: x(°' = the hydrostatic force obtained from integration of p' ü ' along the mean wetted surface S Q t (l) = the first order wave loads After some algebraic manipulations the final expressions for the wave drift force becomes: iw .M WL pg ..(xf>.

Figure 2.4. 71 . For the computation 302 facets and 74 waterline elements were used.is based on 2-D strip theory with adaptations for the incorporation of diffraction effects.3. the results of computations of the wave drift forces for zero speed were used.24.23. For the computations for zero speed and small values of forward speed the tanker hull was schematized by a facet distribution as is shown in Figure 2. 2. The computations concern the transfer func­ tions of the wave drift force for a water depth of 82. Results of computations and model tests The computations of the quadratic transfer function of the second order wave drift force and the wave drift damping coefficient were carried out for the loaded 200 kTDW tanker sailing at small values of forward speed in deep water and in regular head waves. For sake of completeness the results in numerical form are presented in Table 2. For the numerical scheme of the calculations of the wave drift forces at small values of forward speed reference is made to [2-20'].23 Facet distribution of the tanker hull for the computation at zero and low forward speed in deep water.4.3.6. The number of plane elements amounted to 238 and the number of waterline elements was 60. The facet schematization is shown in Figure 2. In section 2.5 m and 206 m.

1 kn and 2 kn forward speed the gradients at zero speed have been determined in order to obtain the transfer function of the wave drift damping coefficient.25 the results of the computations of the transfer function for zero speed and 2 kn forward speed are given.26.25 Quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force for a 200 kTDW tanker in head waves at zero and 2 kn forward speed (earth-bound wave frequency) 72 .s" Figure 2.23 the transfer function of the wave drift forces for zero speed and 1 kn and 2 kn forward speed have been computed.24 Facet distribution tanker hull for the computation at zero speed in 82.For the hull as shown in Figure 2. A^m Figure 2. The results of the computation and the experimental data are plotted in Figure 2. Based on the transfer function for zero.5 1-0 u in rad.5 m and 206 m water depth -20 r COMPUTED U=2 kn MEASURED O • / // / / M) °V 1 II il \ ° jfr 0 -0. In Figure 2.

444 0.82 üO\2 0.560 0.253 0.9 8.32 0.600 0.50 8.189 0.444 0.189 0.266 0.630 0.26 8.444 0.32 0.04 11.523 0.48 8.597 1.72 0.630 0.600 0.713 0.28 238 facets .56 12.560 0.7 0.24 0.630 0.713 0.7 8.947 12.1 0.40 0.64 0.80 0.80 0.48 0.978 0.34 14.96 1.7 5.354 0.600 0.8 ^ 0.24 0.713 0.523 0.912 6.60 waterline elements Frequencies in rad/s Deep water Table 2.9 0.523 0.266 0.89 8.2 8.630 0.88 0.560 0.887 0.354 0.74 waterline elements 0.64 0.354 0.79 14.35 302 facets .56 0.8 0.803 0.803 0.16 0 0.134 0.6 9.354 0.523 0.5 m [2-3] 9.08 0.88 302 facets .5 0.7 8.600 0.253 0.08 0 0.17 13.887 0.66 8.96 frequencies in rad/s 1.978 0.560 0.72 0.16 0.462 1.36 13.444 0.T( Cil^u^) w l \ 0.68 12.713 0.74 waterline elements Frequencies in rad/s Water depth 82.04 Water depth 206 m [2-6] 0.3 Computed transfer function of the wave drift force in regular 73 .40 3.

0. Viscous drag due to the orbital motions of the fluid particles in combination with the low frequency tanker motions as suggested by Lungren et al.s 2) oj=0. Evaluation of results Comparing the results of the model tests and the computations it can be concluded that a reasonable approximation of the wave drift damping can be achieved by means of the potential theory with low forward speed.s" Figure 2.m ) 0 0.s.4.26 Quadratic transfer function of the wave drift damping coefficient for the 200 kTDW tanker in head waves (earthbound wave frequencies) 2.nf') 2 0 (in kn.560 rad.s caused by the .s ( 2) X< (U)-X .600 rad.6. 74 . (0) (tf. [224] can be neglected. A peculiar results deviation occurs clearly indicate at wave that the frequency damping io = 0.0 u in rad. [2-23J and Aage et al.) DETERMINATION OF GRADIENT (COMPUTED) COMPUTED O x• EXPERIMENT 1 (tf.5 1. The waves is dominated by the velocity potential.523 rad.

2^7. however. It is assumed that both the transfer functions of the wave drift force for zero speed and the wave drift damping coefficients as obtained in 'regular waves are known.1 Introduction The foregoing sections dealt with the transfer functions of the wave drift forces and the wave drift damping coefficient for regular waves only. the re­ sults are to some extent different. In irregular waves. The procedures will be presented in this section. It is recommended that more computations be carried out to study the sensitivity of the schematization. while 60 and 74 waterline element were used respectively. In the fre­ quency range. The tanker hulls were approximated with 238 and 302 facet elements. This might explain the deviation between measured and computed wave drift damping coefficients.Comparing the results of the computations of the wave drift force for zero speed for deep water and 206 m water depth some deviations occur. where for both configurations deep water is valid. for both the wave drift forces and the wave drift damping coefficients mean and low frequency components may occur. 75 . Based on these data approximations will be made to compute the low frequency components of the wave drift forces of the total wave drift forces including low frequency tanker motions with and without current. The_low frec^uency_ com£onents_of_the wave drift forces and the wave drift_damging_coefficient 2.7. The frequencies of the low frequency components are associ­ ated with the frequencies of the wave groups. It seems that the results are sensi­ tive to the schematization. These approximations are allowed for deep water and small values of the natural frequencies of the system.

The frequency associated with the 76 .27.1) ?! £! Figure 2. sin(o).2. Wave drift forces at zero speed In order to arrive at the theory of the approximations to compute the mean and low frequency components for the total wave drift force first the derivation will be given for the wave drift forces for zero speed as treated in [2-3].t + E ) x i=l = Cl sinCoo-t + e ^ + C2 s i n ( u 2 t + e ) (2.2.7.27 Regular wave group For small differences between o>^ and u>2 a schematic representation of the wave train is shown in Figure 2. The behaviour of the drift forces in waves can be elucidated by first looking at the general expression for the drift forces in a wave train consisting of two regular sinusoidal waves with frequencies u^ and CO2 and amplitudes Ci and C 2 * The wave elevation is written as: C(t) = 2 E C. Such a wave train will be called a regular wave group. This type of wave train is characterized by a pe­ riodic variation of the wave envelope.2.7.

C.3) The square of the envelope is: A2(t) = 2 2 E E C. sinf(u -oo. and Q.2. Generally P.2.5) in which PJ.E .Q.7.-£.)t + (e -e.C. cos((ü>. are quadratic transfer functions dependent on two frequencies Bj and U)J. . ( 2 V) = + 2 2 Z E C.)) x 1=1 j=i 1 J J J (2.)t + (E.4) A quantity which is a quadratic function of the wave amplitude. .-e. in this case the wave drift force.envelope is equal to Au = u . are computed so that the following relations exist: 77 .2) in which: u = (w^ + u2)/2 E = (e]_ + e2)/2 It can be shown that the envelope becomes: 2 2 A(t) = [ E T. .C.-u.)t + (e.)) + J J J J 1=1 j=l 2 £ 2 2 1=1 J=1 C. will be: X.2. .7. ) ) i J iJ i J i J (2. and Qj. cos((w -w.7.2. C.))]* J 1 J i=li=l 1 J (2.G.7.u>„ being the difference frequency of the regular wave components. cos((io -w.P. We will write the wave elevation in amplitude modulated form: C(t) = A(t) sin(wt + ê) (2.)t + ( E .

The first two are constant parts corresponding to the mean drift force in each of the regular wave components separately. expresses the quadrature part of the drift force.2. .2. =^ij P(iüi.cos((u) 1 -u 2 )t + ( e ^ e 2 ) ) + + ^ 1 C 2 ( Q 1 2 .7. For the regular wave group the wave drift force is: xj } ( t ) = C J P U + C 2 P 2 2 + C 1 C 2 (P 12 +P 21 ).co ) (2.-=-. The third and fourth parts are low frequency varying components which arise through the com­ bined presence of the two regular wave components in the wave group.uj) + = quadratic QV^WJ))* transfer function of the amplitude of the wave drift force E. = arctan . The quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force in terms of am­ plitudes and phase angles are defined as: T = TO^.Q 2 1 ) sin((i^-co^t + ( e ^ ) ) (2..p ij - p Q i j .Qji ji P^J is that part of the quadratic transfer function which expresses the component of the drift force which is in-phase with the square of the wave envelope and Q^. Using the mentioned definition of the quadratic transfer function the wave drift force for the regular wave group can be written as: 78 .7..u) ) = (P2<u)1.7) = phase angle between the low frequency part of the second order force relative to the low frequency part of the square of the wave elevation.6) The formulation shows that the drift force contains several components.

The frequency difference of im- 79 ..C.(2) Xj J (t) = N N E E qtl 1=1 j=i J J cos((w -u> >t + (e ± -e. In [2-3] it is shown that the influence of the second order poten­ tial on the low frequency parts is negligibly small for deep water. The approximation is possi­ ble if the water is deep and the natural frequency of the system is very low. (t) = 2 2 E E C..2. Therefore for all computations the following assumption is made: xJV) . The approximation of the low frequency components The computations of the wave however.2 X< } >. for zero speed can be com­ puted by means of the direct pressure integration method.üJi. have been developed drift forces with low for regular waves. 2.3.-e.T cos((u -oo )t + (e.1) In order to estimate the unknown low frequency varying components of the drift forces an approximation will be made.wp = 0 (2. Only forward speed.3.) + e. J (2.2.7.9) The quadratic transfer function P^J and Q.) X 1=1 ï=i J J J ■*■ J J (2.ooi) can be computed.7. .7.7. the values for P(U.w "i i y 2 a and CKo^.) + e ) J J .8) In irregular waves the wave drift force is: . Neglecting the effect of the second order potential the low frequency varying part arises through the combined presence of two regular wave components with frequencies GOJ and OJ.

(O.1) .+u).2) will approximately correspond to: (o.4. 2.+(0 . = C ^ T n + C%I22 + 2C 1 C 2 T 12 cos(Aoo 12 t + Ae 1 2 ) + + C?D n i 1 + ^ D 2 2 X l + + 2C L C 2 D 12 cos(Ao) 12 t + A E 1 2 ) X 1 80 (2.) Because i J 5 the frequency - J - difference (2.(0 .7.portance will be IO^-ÜJJ = u.io ) = p (" i 2.-irJ-^ 10. T(Ul.3.O.7.2) is assumed small equation (2.7.3.3) This approximation will be used for all computations.. to. x < 2 > ( t ) + fe i = ox.-ho .)~0 (for monohull type of structures). P^.7.U) ) P(o) PO^. where u is very small. If u is small then 0.+ü) .J) = p(^rJ-.7. Neglecting the quadrature part of the transfer function the low frequen­ cy component can be estimated as proposed by Newman [2-25]: .(^.Q> ) + P((0 .4.3. Total wave drift force in irregular waves without current Following the gradient method the total wave drift force in a regular wave group can be written as: 4?M .w.J ''' J T J "^ (2.

ÖT D 11 12 =3 öx..7.X 3 J i=l j=l (e i-ej>+ e ij)+ (2. 5T D 22 = 12 22 öx.-i r J -) (2.) to the low frequency velocity no data exists.2) bi The total wave drift force in irregular waves without current will be: x ! t } . As mentioned for the derivative of 1(00^. to.4.-ko. The coefficients of the first two terms correspond to the mean wave drift damping in each of the regular wave components seperately.in which: (2) = i *1 ÖT D ll = ÖX.ix cicjTij « « « « w t + + N N Z E ZX.+w .O. The total wave drift force can be split up in a wave drift force and a wave drift damping part.7.3) 81 .4.0). The wave drift damping force contains several components.Uj) J öx x D J u).±ix . The third term stands for the low frequency varying part of the wave drift damping force. ÖT(-i r J-. To estimate the oscillating part of the damping the same procedure is proposed as applied to the oscilla­ ting part of the wave drift force: ÖTO^.

7.5. More­ over. Stability of the solution and contribution of the oscillating wave drift damping coefficient The effect of the damping will play an important role for the condition that the natural frequency of the moored vessel will correspond to the frequency of the wave group: Aw i2 " » =\JmI^) Assuming a linear viscous damping the equation of low frequency motion can be written as: (M + a u ( u ) ) x 1 + ( B u .2) .2 C 1 C 2 D 1 2 cos(ut + E 1 2 ) ) X 1 + CJJXJ^ = = CJT U + C 2 T 2 2 + 2C X C 2 T 1 2 cos(ut + e 1 2 ) (2.C2D 2 2 + . + ex.5. Due to the low frequency oscillating coefficient the value of the damping coefficient can be positive or negative.2. Since a negative damping in the equation of motion can cause an unstable solu­ tion attention has to be paid to the magnitude of the oscillating damp­ ing coefficient with regard to the linear damping coefficients.1) The damping term contains linear coefficients and a low frequency oscil­ lating coefficient.7. attention will be paid to the contribution of the damping force with the oscillating coefficient to the motions.cosjit 82 (2.5. = a. In order to judge the influence of the low frequency oscillating coeffi­ cient on the stability to the solution the equation of motion is simpli­ fied: mx^ + f(t)x.7.C * D n .

7.f(t)xj (2. = u with u « 1. we obtain: . In order to judge the stability the sign of f(t) will be studied.7..t = oscillating part of the wave drift force.J öi1 ox. The system is called instable if the term f(t) is negative.5) s2 This means that the decrease of the total energy corresponds to f(t).5...2 mx 1 x 1 + f(t)x + ex ij = 0 (2. The damping function f(t) consists of still water damping and the deri­ vatives of wave drift force components to the low frequency velocity.5. Caused by the small value of the frequency difference the magnitudes of the damping coefficients will have approximately the same value: oT(w .cosu. Starting from the equation of motion for the tanker mxj + f(t)ix + cx x = 0 (2.in which: f(t) = b.3) and multiplying this equation by x.x.7. .7.) ±—— = i-J.5.10 ) oT((o. + D2 cosut a. the frequency difference of importance will be 10 -to.5.<o ) ÖT(u> co.4) or in terms of energy: ■£ ( W j + *cxj) = .= — i .6) 83 . ÖJL (2.. Because the natural frequency of the moored vessel is usually very low.

This double fre­ quency is beyond the resonance frequency of the low frequency surge mo­ tion and so the contribution will be negligible.9) Substituting the solution in the equation of motion it can be proven that the oscillating damping coefficient hardly contributes to the mo­ tions. For the considered equation of motion mx^ + (b^ + b 2 cosut)x + ex = a cosut (2.7. the product results in a double frequency 2\x.7. of which the dominant components consists of cosut.7.5.5.5. which will affect the mean wave drift force slightly. Because the low frequency oscillating tiplied by coefficient has to be mul­ the velocity. Neglecting the term with the oscillating coefficient the total wave drift force in a regular wave group will be: 84 .7) and because the still water damping has to be added to the linear parts of the wave damping coefficients it can be concluded that the low fre­ quency oscillating damping coefficient will be smaller than the linear damping coefficient. Therefore the sign of f(t) will be positive for all values of t.Since: C i + C j > 2C iCj (2. It must be mentioned that in principle a constant part will remain.8) the following solution has been assumed: xx = p Q + E (p n cos(nut) + q n sin(nut)) n=l (2. Besides the stability of the solution also attention will be paid to the contribution of the oscillating damping to the motion.

U 22 22 22U T* = T + D .5.7.2 x 2)(t) = ^ 2 i=i A CiCjTiJ 2 2 + ""^vV +( vej> +e ij) + .11) 2.6.U 11 11 11 T* = T + D . 85 .fx ^ c iSTij « ^ v v ' + (e i.1) in which: T* = T + D . Total wave drift force in irregular waves combined with current Assuming that the vessel is sailing at a low speed U and performing low frequency oscillations x1 in a regular wave group the total wave drift force according to the gradient method is: X t2>(ul.7.lHil.7. Z CD x 1=1 (2.D x 1=1 (2.7.Ü 12 12 12 The formulation shows an increase of the constant parts and the oscilla­ ting part of the wave drift force caused by the low forward speed U.w2.10) Following the mentioned procedure the total wave drift force in irregu­ lar waves without current will be: 4? = .6.5. 2 C.e j> + e i j ) + ' N + 2 .t) = C 1TU + C 2 T 22 + + 2C 1 C 2 T* 2 cos(Au12 + A e 1 2 + e 1 2 ) + + C ^ ^ + C ^ ^ (2.

J t J ") + (0. = U-n + T V j JO X j 0 c 86 ..7.6. = u. + T el 1 A.J-. If the vessel is moored in a current with speed V into the current) the earth related wave (bow directed frequencies should be transformed into the wave frequencies io„ (= wave frequencies as measured at a fixed point in the Wave and Current Laboratory) at: <0 . N X^ z. u.-a)j)t + ( e ^ ) + e ^ ) + N + £ ^i^V00!^! (2.2) The total wave drift force in irregular waves combined with current with a velocity V is: .3) in which: 10+10.+10.. (t) = S N Z C1CjT*(co1. u -ho.(oj) cos((U. stand for the frequency transformations according to: w. oT( 1 .» + T V i 10 \ i 0 c 10. + I 2 1 V (2. V c U) .The formulations mentioned so far were based on a vessel sailing with low forward speed U in combination with low frequency oscillations.9.(0 ) = T(^ I . while the wave frequencies (o^ and (02 are considered with regard to earth.j L . = co. T*( U . 1 ■ J) -Vc — öi i while co^ and w. = (i).7.6.-hi).

87 . Evaluation of results in irregular waves Knowing the quadratic transfer functions of the wave drift force and the wave drift damping coefficient in regular waves by means of the approxi­ mation method the total wave drift force in irregular waves with or without current can be determined. In solving the equation of motion.in which o^g and W . The validation will be presented in Chapter 4.7. 2.7. Therefore in Chapter 3 the low frequency viscous reactive forces will be dealt with in general terms. Q are the frequencies in still water and \^Q and \ J Q are the corresponding wave lengths. The evaluation of the calculated wave drift force and the resulting motions in irregular waves with or without current will be done by means of model tests. however. the low frequency hydrodynamic reactive forces have to be known.

M.E. 2-5 Remery.F.F. G. October 19. OTC Paper No.J.: "On the low frequency forces acting on offshore moored vessels".62 / Schif f stechnik. 101-109. 600. OTC Paper No. Heft 3. Band 34. 2-6 Wichers. 1982. pp.: "The impulse response function and ship motions". of the Navy.W. 1979. van: "The influence of waves oh the low frequency hydrodynamic coefficients of moored vessels". September 1987. Jan. 1962. 1971. Department. 2-7 Hermans. and Hermans. and Huijsmans. 1984. 3625. A. van: "The motions of a moored ship in waves". Report 1661.M. 4437. 1500. 9. J. MARIN Publication No. Houston. 2-2 Wichers. 1976.M.A. David Taylor Model Basin. Houston. hydrodynamic and damping Huijsmans. J. Washington D .W.H. M. W.W.: "On the low frequency motions of vessels moored in high seas".E. 132-148. 2-4 Wichers. OTC Paper No. R.E.J.: "The effect of moderate speed on the motions of floating bodies". Houston. pp. and Sluijs. OTC Paper No.: on floating "Low frequency second order wave exciting forces structures". A. 4813. 2-3 Pinkster.510. Vol.H. Wageningen. C . No. 1980. J. Houston. 88 .E.REFERENCES (CHAPTER 2) 2-1 Oortmerssen. Wageningen. 2-8 Cummins. Schiffstechnik.: "The slow drift oscillations of a moored object in random seas". J. 47. G. R. MARIN Publication No.

M. T.9 Ogilvie.: "On the increased damping of a moored body during low-frequency motions in waves". 11 Saito. 50332-1-OE. K. J. Saito. 2nd International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics. 10 Hooft. 3rd Offshore Mechanics and Artie Engineering (OMAE) Conference. Proc. Proc..: "Computation of three dimensional ship motions with forward speed".. MARIN Report No.M. 3rd OMAE Conference. and Hirashima.B. Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodyna­ mics. April 1986. Tokyo. 1982. Kansai Soc. K. Engineering Societies Monographs. No.S. 1966. December 1983. M. London. 15 Ippen.A. R.. and Takagi. University College. New York. Takagi. H.: "Recent progress towards the understanding and prediction of ship motions".: "Advanced dynamics of marine structures". Berkeley. 1984 (in Japanese).: "A three dimensional analysis of the motion of a rigid ship in waves". 1980.A. 195. Editor: "Estuary and Coastline Hydrodynamics".: "Slow drift damping and response of a moored ship in irregular waves".. 1964. M. McGraw-Hill Book Company.P.T. Japan. L. 13 Faltinsen. 89 .. J. Proc. A. Okubo. Wiley- Interscience Inc. S. 16 Inglis.. Dahle. 1977. PhD Thesis. April 1986. and Sortland. Bergen. 17 Chang.: "On the lowfrequency damping forces acting on a moored body in waves".. Tokyo. 12 Nakamura. M.F. B. O.N. 14 "Added resistance in waves".

J. 5176.: "Scale effects in model testing of floating offshore structures". 2-20 Huijsmans. 2-22 Hearn. 2-19 Huijsmans. 2-21 Huijsmans.C. slowly varying forces on vessels in waves". G. 1982..M.: "Wave drift forces in current". PhD Thesis. J.N.E.: "Evaluation on low frequency wave damping". J. Berkeley.: of a moored tanker for "Considerations on wave zero and non-zero drift angle". 1980. 1974. International Symposium on the Marine Vehicles and Structures in Waves. 16th Conference on Naval Hydrodynamics.M.H. K. Université de Nantes. 1985.M.H.J. 90 Dynamics of . Jensen. Gothenburg. Prads. and Tong. 2-24 Aage. Trondheim. Houston. 0.H. OTC paper No. 2-25 Newman. P. C .: irregular "Second order. Proc 3rd OMAE Conference.: "A fast algorithm for the computation of 3-D ship motions at moderate forward speed" 4th International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics. International Symposium on Ocean Engineering and Ship Handling. J.2-18 Bougis. Sand. London. 1986. April 1986. R. 2-23 Lungren. and Hermans. S. and Kirkegaard. 1986. Lungren. Washington. June 1987. A. R.W. H. drift damping and Wichers.: "Etude de diffraction-radiation dans Ie cas d'un flotteur indeformable animé par une houle sinusoidale de faible amplitude".E.: "Drift forces and damping in natural sea states". R. and Velk.E. Tokyo. H.

1. In the wave drift low damping frequency range the damping parts of the hydromean wind dynamic reaction forces and wind damping moments buted cannot The mean and low frequency for force components termined The forces and moments caused attri­ to forces of poten­ tial nature Figure 3. The equa­ tions of motion will be governed by the low frequency force components as is shown in Figure 3.1 be an only.CHAPTER 3 HYDRODYNAMIC VISCOUS DAMPING FORCES CAUSED BY THE LOW FREQUENCY MOTIONS OF A TANKER IN THE HORIZONTAL PLANE 3Il^_Introduction A single point moored tanker exposed to irregular waves. As a result the formulations for the horizontal motions are called semitheoretical empirical mathematical models. In EXCITATION FORCES mean current DAMPING FORCES hydrodynamic viscous damping establishing equations of difficulties arise description of the motion in the INERTIA FORCES added mass frequency the low hydrodynamic reaction forces and moment mean drift force slowly varying drift forces acting on the hull. by viscosity cannot be fully solved by mathematical models but have to be determined by means of model tests. Since the physical aspects of the low frequency motions of a moored vessel are similar to those of a vessel manoeuvring 91 . wind and cur­ rent will undergo not only low frequency surge motions. but in general will perform low frequency motions in the horizontal plane. but are important part de­ by viscosity. In the past many investigations have been carried out to describe the manoeuvring of ships.

at low speed, some of the formulations will be briefly reviewed here.
Most

of

the manoeuvring

models

are based

on the model presented

by

Abkowitz [3-l], see Section 3.2. In this model the manoeuvrability is
described by means of linear and non-linear derivatives of the hydrodynamic

forces

and

moments

by

perturbation

models. Examples of

these

models are given by:
- Inoue, Hirano and Kijima [3-2], 1981;
- Hirano and Takashina [3-3], 1980.

In general these kinds of models are used for relatively high sailing
speeds and small drift angles.

Another category of models describes the physical behaviour as a result
of the three flow fields:
- ideal incompressible flow;
- viscous flow generating lift forces;
- viscous cross flow in planes perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of
the ship.

Examples of these models are given by:
- Gerritsma, Beukelman and Glansdorp [3-4], 1974;
- Glansdorp [3-5], 1975;
- Sharma and Zimmermann [3-6J, 1981;
- Sharma [3-7], 1982.

An advantage

of

the proposed models

is the increased insight of the

contributions of the force and moment components in the physical pro­
cess. Furthermore the drift angle can vary 360 degrees. A disadvantage
as a consequence of the modeling is, however, that at zero rate of turn
the remaining resistance force and moment components do not correspond
to the actual steady current force and moment. This is of importance for
the mean position of the tanker moored to an SPM in a combined weather
condition.

92

A model describing the physics by taking into account only the ideal
incompressible flow and the viscous cross flow In the plane perpendicu­
lar to the longitudinal axis of the vessel was proposed by:
- Faltinsen, Kjaerland, Liapis and Walderhaug [3-8], 1979.

As a consequence

of the modeling

the same disadvantage

for the mean

position of the tanker can be mentioned as before.
An improvement for the mean position of the tanker was applied by:
- Ractliffe and Clarke [3-9], 1980.
In accordance with

[3-8]

they

replaced in the formulation the non-

stabilizing Munk moment, which originates from the ideal incompressible
flow (see Section 3.4.1), by the current moment formulation.

For a tanker moored in a current field the hydrodynamic forces on the
hull consist of inertia parts caused by the ideal incompressible flow
and resistance

parts induced

by viscosity. The resistance forces and

moments (including the Munk moment) on a steady tanker in a real flow
are dominated

(or modified) by viscosity

force and moment

components. For

and are called

tanker-shaped

the current

bodies a considerable

amount of data on the current force and moment components is available,
see for instance [3-10] and [3—11J. Based on this knowledge a category
of models has been developed of which the descriptions of the physics
are based on the relative current concept:

- Wichers [3-12], 1979;

,

- Molin and Bureau [3-13], 1980;
- Obokata [3-14], 1983.

These models ensure that in current and at zero rate of turn the tanker
will take up the correct mean position in a combined weather condition.
The total relative current force formulation consists of a quasi-steady
relative current part and a dynamic current contribution. The dynamic
current contribution involves the part of the hydrodynamic forces caused

93

by yaw of the tanker in the current field, see Section 3.4.

In order to determine the dynamic current force contribution model tests
may be carried out. The tanker is rotated about a vertical axis through
the centre of gravity for a number of steady low yaw velocities in a
number of steady current velocities, while measuring the force/moment
components in surge, sway and yaw direction [3-13].

The tanker moored to an SPM, how­
STEADY YAW ROTATION IN CURRENT

ever, performs slowly varying os­

(V c =l.03 m.s
OSCILLATING YAK MOTION IN CURRENT:

cillating yaw motions in the cur­

1984 _ - »
1985 — o

(V =1.03 m.s"' ; |*6a|= .003 rad.s"')

rent field. Figure 3.2 shows that

POTENTIAL PART

100

in order

to

information

"Itfyn

current

obtain
on

field

the

correct

the forces

in a

low frequency

yaw

oscillating tests have to be car­
ried

^A .
A

2dyn.

1

. „.

In t f

-x-j

out

instead

of the

steady

yaw rotation tests.

It 'may be assumed that the oscil­

^

' /

lations at low frequencies will
induce

20,000

different

flow

patterns

around the vessel in still water
and in a current field. Therefore
a clear distinction will be made
between
90

Figure 3.2

94

180
(♦ c -x 6 ) in deg

the

damping

forces

and

moment in still water and in cur­
rent. For

the

determination

of

The dynamic current force

the low frequency damping forces

and moment contribution

a series of model tests were car­

due to steady yaw and an

ried out as is indicated in Table

oscillating yaw motion

3.1.

surge mode

sway mode

yaw mode

oscillatory motions in calm water

steady linear motions / steady current forces

oscillatory motions in current

Table 3.1

Review of experiments

Based on the results of the experiments a description of the damping
forces and moments in still water and in current can be derived. Using
the experimental results the category of models based on the relative
current concept [3-12], [3-13] and [3-14] will be checked with respect
to their reliability. For the still water case no formulation was found
in literature. A formulation for the still water case will be proposed
in this chapter.

5i^ • _lSH££i°5Ë_°l the_l°w_!Ee3uËI?£v._9°£i:2!ïs.
To study the motions of the vessel in 3 degrees of freedom (in the hori­
zontal plane) use is made of two systems of co-ordinates as is indicated
in Figure 3.3:
- the system of axes 0x(l)x(2) is earth-fixed;
- the frame G x - ^ is linked to the vessel with its origin in the centre
of gravity.
Based on the earth-fixed system of co-ordinates the differential equa­
tions of motion according to Newton's second law are:
Mx(l) = X(l)
Mx(2) = X(2)
Ix(6) = X(6)

(3.2.1)

95

2) and (3.6 (3. x(1) Figure 3.2. 2(j) = T i j where: COS T = X.in which: M = mass of the tanker I = moment of inertia of the tanker.2. 0 0 0 while «(1) Figure 3. The transformation to the ship-fixed system of co-ordinates has the following consequences: +x(2) X(j) = T Xj for j = 1.2.3 System of co-ordinates of a tanker moored to a SPM and sign convention of weather direction In literature the ship's manoeuvrability is mostly described by a set of differential equations of motion relative to a ship-fixed system of co­ ordinates.4 The origin of the centrifugal effects 96 0 for 0 the 1 acceleration the following transformation is found: . 0 -sin x sin x. 6 cos x.

6) in which x^ E and x 2 E are the accelerations in the earth-fixed system of co-ordinates along x^ and x2~axis respectively.4) in equation (3.5) The acceleration components are modified by the so-called centrifugal effects as shown in Figure 3.2.2.4.the complete equa­ tions of motion for the ship-bound system of axes are: M(x+Dx) = X H +X w +X m +X D +X T (3.x 1 E = Xj_ M.2..x 2 E = X 2 l/x6 = X6 (3.7) where: 97 .2.5(J) = T 5j + T ïj - (3-2. Consequently the equations of motion expressed in the absolute ship's accelerations along the instantaneous directions of the ship-fixed axes are as follows: M. x 2 and x.2. .4) Substitution of equation (3. For the low frequency motion components x.Cx-1 ~ x 2 x 6 ) = Xx M(x 2 + i : x 6 ) = X 2 Iï 6 = X6 (3.2) through equation (3.1) yields the equations of motion for the ship-fixed system of co­ ordinates: M.2.

In unrestricted water the forces are independent of the co-ordinates x(l) and x(2).x6>x. O O -x„ O X^ = hydrodynamic reaction and current forces X = wind force -w X = mooring force —m wave drift force X = thrust of main and auxiliary propellers The hydrodynamic forces X arise from changes in the relative motions of the ship and the surrounding fluid.x) in which: u. O O O O +i.y).lJ and are usually expressed as: XJJ = f(u.x6(u.X = < M O O O M O O O I .v = components of the steady stPte drift velocity x^(u.8) .v.y) = steady state drift angle x 98 = variations about the steady state condition (3. According to classical hydrodynamic theory the hydrodynamic forces will not be dependent on higher derivatives of the displacement than the second [3.2.

X • 9+ j.x=0 ° (3.v). ox. are assumed to be constant while the magnitudes have to be determined by means of model tests or calculations. ox„ ox.x=O. . high rate of turn and relatively small drift angles) for a tanker moored to an SPM specific requirements have to be fulfilled: .relatively large transverse motions. X + T A i ox. 1 2 6 1 * f(u>v.. .x6>x)x) x =0.+ ox» x 6 -^-] 9x.360 degrees). 6 x 2 —^. • °+ xj_ •• °+ ' .x6(u. x E -j.small values of oscillating rate of turn. .2.Expansion of the Taylor series about the steady state condition results in the following expression for the hydrodynamic forces and moment: X„ = + v If 9 +_. in general.4. Specifically for these conditions the equations of motion and the hydrodynamic viscous forces have been derived for still water and current.L X A i n=0 ox.small values of the drift velocity (current speed). Contrary to normal manoeuvring applications (high speed.3 and 3.9) If the expansion is carried out for the first or higher order terms a number. 9 . 99 .for zero rate of turn the hydrodynamic forces and moment correspond to the steady current loads. see Sections 3. . The coefficients. of terms are generated.large drift angles (0 .

1 Equations of motion in still water In deriving the low frequency fluid reactive forces in calm water. 100 .1. The viscosity introduces additional damping forces.2) where a.5.2.3-1. The above equations lead to the well-known d'Alembert paradox since the right-hand sides are equal to zero for: *1 = x 2 = x = 6 ° The term ~(a 2 2 -a ii)^. viscosity is involved. The force distribution of the Munk-moment caused by the linear velocity is shown in Figure 3. however.i_ is the only term arising in an ideal and irrota­ tional fluid and is often referred to as the Munk-moment [3-16].3.a ll ) x l X 2 " a 6 2 ( x 2 + X l X 6 ) (3.3^31_H^drod^namic_viscous damping forces in still_water 3. Norrbin [3-15] derived for the forces exerted on the vessel: . Further it may be assumed that the accelera­ tion dependent terms are hardly affected by viscosity and may be deter­ mined by means of the 3-D potential diffraction theory. Assuming an and Irrotational fluid.2 X 1H ~ a ll x l + a 22 x 2 x 6 X 2H = _a 2 2 X 2 " a ll X l X 6 " a 26 X 6 X 6H = _a 66X6 " (a + a 26 X 6 22.3.7) will be considered only: M(x+Dx) = X (3. In real fluid. = added mass coefficient at low frequency.1) Because of the low frequency motions it can be assumed that the distur­ bances ideal of the free surface of the fluid are negligible. the external force X^ in equation (3. .

3.a ll> i i i 2 " a 62 i l i 6 in which X-.Xfi Figure 3.( H f a ^ x ^ + < I + a 66 ) X 6 + a X ^ 62 X 2 " _ ( a 22. The low frequency viscous fluid resistance terms are determined by means of physical experiments.3.1.3.gw> X 2SW an< * X 6SW are the X ^ '*'ow fre< + X 6SW (3. Test set-up and measurements In order to determine the low frequency viscous resistance force/moment components in still water caused by the sway and yaw modes of motion 101 .2 = (M+a 22 )x 2 x 6 + a 2 6 x 6 + (M+a u )x 1 (M+a 22 )x 2 + a 2 6 x 6 = .5 = -(a22"air)'r^2 The force distribution of the Munk-moment caused by linear velocity For the equations of motions the following formulations are assumed: .2.3) 3 u e n c v viscous fluid resis­ tance force/moment components in still water.

For the PMM tests a hydraulic oscillator was used. The test set-up of the oscillator is shown in Figure 3. frequency and phase angle with a high degree of accuracy.By means of two ship-bound two-component force transducers the vessel was connected to the oscillator allowing pitch.5. The oscillator was fixed to the carriage and was driven by means of two hydraulic pistons. The basin measures 15. The tests were done with the 200 kTDW tanker at scale of 1 to 82.planar motion mechanism (PMM) tests were performed.75 m x 210 m and is provided with a carriage. roll and heave motions. Figure 3.6 102 Test set-up with the hydraulic oscillator force and the .4. The water depth amounted to 1 m. By means of the transverse fore and forces measured with aft the force part of the vessel the transducers located at the total transverse moment can be determined. see Section 2.6. The PMM tests were carried out in the Shallow Water Laboratory of MARIN. When separately adjusted the pistons can perform a prescribed dis­ placement. For the surge mode of motion extinction tests in still water were carried out.1.

To evaluate the viscous damping forces for the surge mode of motion ex­ tinction tests were carried out. The computations were performed for two spring constants viz. but the frequency of the motions was changed for each test. while for the sway motion the amplitude was approximately 30.3. Since in the low frequency range the amplitudes of oscilla­ tion will be large.s . = 53. This means that for the low frequencies the viscosity will dominate the damping. 0.(180°) = -0. 103 . The amplitude of the yaw angle amounted to approximately 16.0179 and 0..2 degrees.032 and C ^ (0°) = 0.m ' and 251.72 tf.0111.1.IjpLTC^C^pxJ + c ^ = 0 (3. All presented results were obtained by scaling the measured model re­ sults to prototype according to Froude's law of similitude.3.15 tf.1) in which: Cif.C'lv.3. The resistance coefficients were derived from Figure 2. For the oscillator tests the stroke was kept constant. The equation of the low frequency motion for a motion decay test can be described as: (M+a u (u 1 ))x 1 .2 m.1) thé decaying surge motion of a linearly moored and loaded 200 kTDW tanker in 82. c.3.9 and amount to C1(. 3.Both sway and yaw oscillation tests were performed.5 m water depth was computed.rn" .-) = resistance coefficient in current c Yb cr Based on equation = relative current direction (3. the steady current force formulation is normally used. see Figure 2.3.038.0248 rad. Viscous damping in the surge mode of motion Computations by means of 3-D potential diffraction theory have shown that the radiated damping can be neglected for to/L/g < 0.3.5 . The frequencies applied were 0. The values given are for full scale.

15 tf. 28 30 0 2 4 Number of oscillations 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 '"* Results of decaying surge motions in still water A possible explanation for the discrepancies between the measured and calculated motion decay is a different boundary layer behaviour. ï 1 13 12 \ 11 ~2 MEASURED \ ^ B(1 = 23.7.s l■ ^ IN c.nf1. = 0.m"'.c „ V ^ 200 kTDW ..43tf.m"'. see Article 328 of reference [3-17]. ^ 8 L — 1Sb |"V< 10 1 COMPUTED B n = 13.7 0 N 5 2 — i D 0 o. ^ \\ 18 17 16 15 COMPUTED B n = 8.046 rad.The results of the computations are presented in Figure 3.72 tf.o k^ MEASURED } 9 7 t. = 0.. For the laminar boundary layer theory the general Navier-Stokes equation can be written as: 104 .„. In this steady current the boundary layer is assumed to be turbulent.c .s"1 200 kTDW .m" . t ^[ \ i -o. The longitudinal frictional resistance coefficient C l c was determined for a steady current.s N 1 ft\ . The results of the model tests are also given in Figure 3.».71 tf. = 251.5 l^v.2tf... For the oscillating ship in still water it can be assumed that the boundary layer is laminar.s" 20 19 ■*> l x.s h 6 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 N Figure 3. Test No. In order to study the laminar case the theory of an oscillating plate with a laminar boundary layer can be used.ro".V ***-s Bn ^ N ^ = 41.m"'. ■ d M ^k ^L Vv L^ 14 2J l oie \ . 8053 Test No. 8069 = 53. Comparing the measured and calculated results it can be concluded that for the determination of the surge damping in calm water the relative current concept is not ap­ plicable. For the same conditions physical extinction tests were carried out.4tf.099 rad.7.

3.3.fv.3. + pV. '1 Figure 3.4) Viscous term (stabilizing term) 105 .) = -V . velocities and forces is given in Figure 3.2) in which: T) = dynamic viscosity = v.p v = kinematic viscosity p = mass density and the equation of continuity: (3.2.p + T)V v.3) Vi = ° For a flat plate oscillating in its plane the sign convention for the displacement.3.3. +x T 3 + ii_ 3X 3 dx 3 dx3 x 3 T dx i +x. y K ot j iv i y y J in j-direction for i = 1.ö 2 P?rv.8 Sign convention For the plate the equation can be reduced as follows: öv 1 dt Local term pV i(vivl} Convective term (destabilizing term) nvV o (3.3 (3.8.3.v.

p.3. ^ - ^ 3 ö v.sin((0t-Px3) (3.3.3.3. Following equation the laminar shear tension along the plate can can be derived as follows: T = v.3.p -*— ox.5) and equation is shown (3.Vla/ï.cos(-| . x 3 = ». v l a cos(^ . Assuming that the non-linear convective term can be neglected the equation will be linear: öv 5 v.7) in which: P = /u/2v and u = 2n/T The distribution of the velocity in the laminar boundary layer alongside an oscillating surface (3.5) öv in which the laminar shear force: x = v.The viscous term can be written as: ox dx3 (3.3.3.3.9.3.3.ut) 106 (3. P-OF" V ^ = ° ÖX öv.3.7) in Figure 3.p. J .ut) = p/onv.3. v^ = v la -sin ut Vl = 0 the solution will be: / = v l a -e -px.8) .6) For: x 3 = 0 . = 0 5x 3 (3.

3.S.18831*10~6 m 2 .3. s .8) to the resistance force on a tanker oscillating in surge direction we obtain: / C ft = p/cü.s2.9 Applying Distribution of the laminar flow equation (3.cos(x .1 S = wetted surface = (3.3. O / / / / / / / / X / / / / / / / 0 Oscillating +1 .-1.515*L)V1/3 3 V = displacement in m L = length between perpendiculars 107 .9) 11 in which: p = 0.v .1045 tf.4 * V 1 / 3 + 0.m~ v = 1.ut) (3.3. 0 surface '1a Figure 3. v la .

2 23.s.2 92.1 18.m x ) 3. are lower than the measured values.2162 0. The results.. H -1\ (t.The theoretical resistance damping coefficients were determined for the loaded 200 kTDW tanker and for 4 different spring constants.0 30.s-1) (rad.4178 0.4 41. 108 . Because of the relative large differences between the calculated and the measured results.024 0.6 23. for which no correction is made for form resistance.2.5 S Calculated Measured En B.171 10.6 Results of calculated and measured surge damping coefficients in calm water In Table 3. To this end extinction tests for various vessel types and linear spring constants were performed.5531 0. The theoretical results were compared with the damping values as obtained from physical extinction tests.nf1) .099 0.9027 1. for the applications use will be made of empirical surge damping coefficients. The results show that the calculated values based on the oscillating linearized la­ minar boundary layer theory. scaled according to Froude's law of similitude. The results are presented in Table 3.97 15. are presented in Figure 3. (m2) (rad.10.2 the damping values are derived for model scale and scaled to prototype values according to Froude's law of similitude.804 82.s-1) (tH.35 Ü) 0) 0. Prototype Model Tanker kTDW S (m2) Scale \ 200 Table 3.046 0.2 22.

Ta ffkpy"* C ") 7 P ' e>' 200 kDWT (100% loaded) • 250 kDWT (100% loaded) + 55 kDWT ( 80% loaded) 3 o Symmetrical v = 213. The low frequency resistance force/moment components in sway and yaw direction due to the motion in sway and yaw direction. X 1250.. X22> X 62 and x tg> X 26 respectively. s " 1 Measured viscous damping coefficient for the surge mode of motion as function of wetted hull area and surge frequency 3.10 3/2 3 in m .4. frequency and the phase lag of the oscillator pistons and the measured oscillating force/moment components the low frequency resistance force/moment components were derived.000 nT Ref.11. Viscous damping due to sway and yaw motions By means of PMM tests in still water the loaded and ballasted 200 kTDW tanker was subjected to sinusoidal oscillations in both the sway and the yaw direction.717 m 50 LNG c a r r i e r : . [2-2] 40 ■ I/) E 30 ^4-> c o 20 • o 10 + 5*10w * S Figure 3. Based on the known displacement. 109 .3. are given in Figure 3.

v e r t i c a l scale f o r positive sway velocity o X x 62 X„ i l l a t i o n tests (19B*) ■ * X66 rotation t e s t ! (1982) .0 /yf\i -ZOO 'Jrr i i 1 1.3.2. For the sway direction the damping coefficient B 2 2 X 22 = ~^ p T B 22 an 62 = "^pTB62 B 6? w e r e obtained as follows: FP J ^l^l0* AP X ^ i = _ FP ' ^2*2* (3.000 LOADED TANKER (100ÏT) - hb^. .2) ' while in yaw direction the coefficients B 2 6 and Bg 6 can be determined from: FP X 26 = -^ TB 26 i V | V | d A AP 110 ' ' " ' £ PTB26(FP3+AP3)x6 (3. In . . ^2*2 -AP • AP (3.. • 1985) r—Z0.moment about CG ..4.VAW NODE OF MOTION .1) ^P T B 22 CFP-AP)x2 I i 2 I ' ' dA = -i.. ' i ( » . o ' . ) ' In r .4.0 . PTB62(FP „2 . .11 Hydrodynamic viscous resistance force/moment due to motions in sway and yaw direction Instead of employing the coefficients as can be derived from the Taylor expansion. • *66 -300 in t f ."! ( < j .9).3..0 3.4.«)' in m'.0 .moment about CG .2 ) ' .. v o s c i l l a t i o n tests ( * 1984.„! .3. . . see equation (3.v e r t i c a l scale f o r positive yaw v e l o c i t y SWAY MODE OF MOTIONS .000 - *—*'**> ■ Hi t Z2/ x ^ zz n tf -100 0 1.0 4.d'. m --10. an approximation has been made to ex­ press the coefficients in terms of damping resistance coefficients aver­ aged over the length of the vessel.r Figure 3.„2.s"' t-0 2. s i ■ («.C .r.3) S.

075 \S V g Low frequency viscous damping coefficients for the sway and yaw mode of motion in still water 111 .01) (2.28) (1.050 0. plied displacements in-quadrature with the ap- AP = ordinate of aft perpendicular FP = ordinate of fore perpendicular In terms of damping resistance coefficients the results of the oscillation tests for the sway and yaw modes of motion are presented in Figure 3.025 V? 9 Figure 3.4) " .025 0.025 0.0 ■ .09)' ? n 22 (1.FP X PTB 66 " "* dJl 66 AP 1 VlVl* (3. A ? > X?A> A ^22' ^62' 26' X. 66 = measured forces/moment..> " • r • • f- (1.075 0 0.050 0. — • .4.09) 4 <d.050 0.TB 66 (Fp4+Ap4 > i 6| i 6| in which: X X99.01) n 0 0.333) - - 1 1.12 0.12.28) n 0 0._# FULLY LOADED TANKER BALLASTED TANKER SWAY MODE OF MOTION KC = 4 KC = 4 (4.075 7?\ ■fê YAW MODE OF MOTION (4.0 —■m- (1.025 0.l) •——••— 66 1.3.050 0._ (2.333) 26 • 1 — — • 2 n «.l< .075 0 0.

5) = 4 in which: 2a = amplitude of oscillating velocity T = period of oscillating velocity B = breadth of tanker Faltinsen et al.4. the re- .3. Because the stroke was kept constant the results for the sway mode cor­ respond to a constant Keulegan-Carpenter number: x_ T 2a KC 2nx. the results show that the coefficients B B 22' 6 2 ' B26 and B 66 are frequency-independent.13.Although the stroke was kept constant and the frequencies of the motion were changed during the tests.13 112 plies that the force and moment resistance due to a Transverse resistance coeffi- combined sway and yaw motion cients as function of the cannot be determined direct- Keulegan-Carpenter number ly on the basis of [3-I8] sistance coefficients. 2a (3. The results of their measurements of the transverse coefficients are shown in Figure 3. This im­ Figure 3.DEEP WATER • • 1 •• • B 1 • 1 In spite of B B 22~ 66 B B 62~ 26 that but because B22~B66 ^ B 62~ B 26 non-homogenous of 22. The fluid flow along an oscillating body can be characterized by the Keulegan-Carpenter number. 1 the fact and the a distribution transverse coeffi­ cient over the length of the vessel must exist. LOADED 66 kDWT TANKER . [3-18] show that for other KC numbers in the same low range the transverse resistance coefficients for tanker-shape cross sections are approximately constant.

14. ( ^ ) for n=3.4. The resistance coefficients as function of the longitudinal position of the considered sections along the tanker centreline. .2. To this end the length of the vessel can be divided in four sec­ tions. Taking into account the body plan as is shown in Figure 2. B k j = B 2 2 for n-2.section 2.In order to determine the resistance due to a combined sway and yaw motion the distribution of the resistance coefficient along the length of the vessel has to be known. Since according to equation (3.3) four equa­ tions are available. = ^ -c0_2(^n)-c2_4(^)+<:4_18(^)+c18_20(^-^) = B k . .section 0. For the approximation a simplified strip theory approach has been used'.3.3. B k . Bk:j = B & 6 (3.1) through equation (3.4.4.section 4-18. B k j = B 2 6 for n=4. For the approximation the length of the vessel is divided in sections assuming constant local resistance coefficients for each section. .6) 113 .4 four sections with each a typical cross section were chosen: .4. four unknown local resistance coefficients can be solved.3. can be found as follows: for n=l.section 18-20. as is indicated in Figure 3.

14 coefficient (3. This is analogous to the results found for the surge mode of motion. To evaluate the proposed description of the equations of motion the results of the time domain computations have to be compared with the results of model tests.5).A)|x +x.3.o FULLY • BALLASTED By means of equation (3.A|dA 2 A 6 ^ r 2 '? " 6 ' AP FP X 6SW = "*pT ' C W ( x 2 + x 6 A ) | x 2 + x 6 * | A dSL AP From Figure 3.4.4.+x. The results are given 1 in Figure 3-14.7) J it can be seen that the mean transverse resistance (B-. 1 1 1 ! !i i ' I| Applying 1 1 1 W ^ ! "■■■— G 0 ♦* («P> the assumed distribution ' of t*= the transverse resistance viscous fluid coefficients along the (FP) Figure 3.6) the LOADED *i l four 5 14 '2 resistance coefficients can be solved. Based on the derived equations of motion. time domain simulations may be carried out for the non-current condition. This validation is presented in Chapter 5.) is much higher than found from steady current load* measurements at a current angle of 90 degrees (see Section 3.3. 114 .14 Transverse resistance length of the vessel and assuming coefficient as function a in the surge direc­ of the longitudinal po tion the sition along the tanker forces/moment can be described as: decoupling low frequency resistance centre line X 1SW ~ ~ B 11 X 1 FP -5jPT 2SW ƒ C(A)(x.

Assuming an ideal fluid. .7) will be considered: M(x + Dx) = JC (3.4.4.x . ) 2 c c b (3.1. Equations of motion in current In deriving the low frequency fluid reactive forces in current.) r 1 c 6 c b v = x.1.4.1. .V cos(<|> . Norrbin [3-15] derived for the forces exerted on a vessel: X 1H " ^ll^r + a 22V6 + "26*6 115 .V sin(<|> .2. cos(c|* -x£) r ^ cb c o (3.v x.4.3) and the relative acceleration components: u = x.4) while: V = current velocity 4>c = current direction Xf.4.1.1) The relative velocity of the vessel with respect to the fluid is: V cr = (u r + v r)% (3.x .4. . = yaw angle in global co-ordinates Because of the low frequency motions it can be assumed that the distur­ bances of the free surface of the fluid are negligible. Hy_drody_namic_yiscous damping forces in current 3. only the external force Xg in equation (3.2) in which the relative velocity components are: u = x. ) r 1 c c 6' v r = i . sin(4< -x. + V i.3.1.

4. .a U ) V c X 2H = _a 22 X 2 " a26X6 " (a X 6H = _a 66 X 6 " a 62 X 2 " (a s i n < W 22 _a ll )V c X C08 6 + a <W 22 x 2 x 6 ^ + a 26 X 6 ~ allxlx6 2 2 .a ll )u r v r " a 6 2 ( V u r i 6 ) (3. = 0. in respectively the x.„x x. = added mass coefficient at low frequency Following the equations (3.1. The viscosity leads to modifications of the velocity dependent terms and/or introduces addi­ tional damping terms.3).1.4.4.1.5) where a. Further it may be as­ sumed that the acceleration dependent terms in the relative low current speed will hardly be affected by the viscosity.15. The degree of modification to the Munk-moment as a result of the viscosity is shown in Figure 3.X 2H ^6H = _a = 2 2 \ " a ll u r X 6 " a 26 X 6 ~ a 66 x 6 " < a 22. Replacing the destabilizing Munk-moment by the steady current moment .4.1.a ll ) u r V r " a 62 X l X 6 (3.1.1. and a. In a real current.and x6-direction we rewrite equation (3.4.1.6)) leads to the well-known d'Alembert paradox since the right - a hand -a u sides v ( 22 ll^ r r * are equal s t le * on ^y term to zero for x\ = x^ = x.1.1) and equation (3.6) by the following formulation thereby combining expressions for a real and ideal fluid: 116 . The term arising in an ideal fluid and often referred to as the Munk-moment [3-16].4.5) we will ob­ tain: X 1H = "allxl " (a 22. viscosity is involved.2 •• formulation and neglecting the small contributions of a2(-x.4.4) and (3.6) Equation (3. (3. It is assumed that these terms may be determined by 3-D potential diffraction theory. however.4..

6 66 6 62 2 6stat 6dyn (3. . H t = hpv LTC. .7) in which: X.x.8) being the quasi-steady current forces/moment components 117 .1. + X.4.15 Flow stream and force distribution along a body in an ideal and (M+a 11 )x 1 = a real fluid (M+a 11 (M+a 22 )x 2 + a 2 6 x 6 )i x + X. (<|> )V2 6stat 6c cr cr (3.4.ot. _ k + X. = X.+ POTENTIAL THEORY V+X1 IDEAL FLUID Figure 3. = ^P L 2 TC. . + a.. 2 6 lstat ldyn = " ( M + a ^ x ^ + X2stat + X ^ ^ (I +a )'x. . = ip LTC„ (4.1..)V2 2stat 2c cr' cr \ . (4< )V^ lstat lc cr' cr X.

v |v J I ldA w 2D 2c v ' cr 6 ' cr 6 cr cr AP X6D 118 FP = ƒ AX2Da AP ' < I ' (3.(a 22 _a ll )V c sin cos + X 1D t+ c .X)lv -i. The integration over the length of the vessel of the relative trans­ verse current force minus the undisturbed transverse current force (1979).9) i i viscous part potential part which consists of a potential part and a viscous part.4.where: Vvcr = v(ur2 + vvr 2') ^ = relative current velocity 4>cr = arctan(-vr/-ur) = relative current angle of incidence and the dynamic current load contribution is assumed' to be: X ldyn " .( a 22 _ a ll ) V c X 2dyn = .4.1. [3-12]: X 1D = ° X„„ = ^pTC. (90°) ƒ LV [(v -x. For the viscous parts the following three formulations based on the lo­ cal cross flow principles have been used in the past.10) . The parts are assumed to be described as follows: 1. The viscous part is assumed to take into account the additional force/moment components caused by the yaw motion in the relative current velocity field.J t 6 ) i 6 < W X 6 X = 6dyn L + X 2D + X 6D (3.1.A I .

2. [3-13]: X 1D = ° FP X. Test set-up and measurements The mathematical approximations as treated in the previous section are based on relative current formulations. )v N „2 ]A dA x. the undisturbed transverse and total velocity and the constant transverse current coefficient (1980)..1.2. [3-14]: X 1D = ° X 2D = 0 (was not taken into account in [3-14]) FP -.x) . = hpr ƒ L[c..11) AP 3. c„ „ ( . To evaluate the relative current concep-ts the following model tests have been carried out: 119 .2.1.12) where: ucr = -u r v = —v cr r v -x.4. 3. v(4 xW)((v -x. The model tests are dealt with in the next section. * ) ( ( v -x.. The integration over the length of the vessel of the current forces based on the local transverse velocity and the local relative velo­ city.1 cr 6 <\> (£) = arctan r x cr ' u cr In order to judge the reliability of the assumed approximations of the low frequency hydrodynamic viscous reactive forces in a current field model tests were carried out.+u2 ) JK J 6D ' AP 2c cr ' cr 6 ' cr' 2c cr cr (3.cp.4.A) 2 +u 2 )^-v V J ]dl 2D 2c .* . The integration over the length of the vessel of the relative current force minus the undisturbed current force (1983). . (90°) ƒ L[(v .4. n = ijpTC.„ cr 6 *■ cr 6 cr' cr cr AP FP \ D = / AX 2 D a (3.

PMM tests in the yaw mode of motion to measure the dynamic current contribution.16. the .TDW tanker as dis­ cussed in Section 2. The tests were carried out with a model of the 200 k.steady current force/moment measurements. Figure 3.planar motion mechanism (PMM) tests in the sway mode of motion. . except the extinction tests.16 120 Test set-up of the oscillating rotator. . were carried out in the Shallow Water Laboratory of MARIN.1. For the PMM tests both an electrically driven oscillating rotator and an hydraulically driven oscillator were used. The tests. The water depth was 1 m. The test set-up with electrically driven oscillating rotator is shown in Figure 3.4. .75 m * 210 m and is provided with a towing carriage.. The basin measures 15.extinction tests in the surge mode of motion.

121 . These tests. however. A horizontal yoke was mounted at the lower end of the shaft. were performed for a restricted number of current angles. The yaw oscillation tests were performed for sector steps of 45 degrees. The vessel was connected to the yoke by means of three rods. The sway oscillation tests were carried out with the hydraulically driven oscillator. use was made of the oscillating rotator. Current speeds. The vertical shaft of the rotator was connected to the carriage. allowing displacements in heave. roll and pitch direction. A description of the rotator set-up is given below. transducers were incorporated. Besides the dynamic contributions the steady current force and moment components were also determined. 4 yaw frequencies and 2 steady current velocities the force/moment components of the dynamic current contribution may be derived as a function of the relative current velocity/angle and the yaw velocity. corre­ sponding to 2 and 4 knots were applied. For 5 current angles. as described in Section 3. The center of the vertical axle was located above the centre of gravity. Current was simulated by running the carriage. In still water the position of the rods was located in the horizontal plane through the centre of gravity of the vessel. while the transducer in the longitudinal rod gives the force in surge direction. On each end the rods were fitted in ball joints.In order to apply the yaw mode of motion to the tanker in the PMM tests.2.3. To evaluate the relative current concept for the sway mode of motion oscillation tests were carried out. For that purpose the rotator was set in a fixed position and the tanker was towed through the basin at a con­ stant carriage speed. By means of the trans­ ducers in the transverse rods the force in sway direction and the moment in yaw direction were obtained. two in transverse direction and one in longitudinal direction of the vessel. In the three rods the force.

17 Sign convention for The current data the current forces non-dimensional resistance coeffi- presented as the ficients are shown in Figure 3. The frequencies applied to both the rotator and the 0. 0. 0. The non-dimensional coefficients are as follows: X C. The results and the evaluation are presented in the next sections.2 m.3. In Figure 3.5 m. The amplitude of the yaw angle amounted to 16. Current force/moment coefficients Since a part of the low frequency viscous damping is related to the steady current forces/moment. The data concern the loaded and ballasted condition for a water depth of 82. oscillator were 0. while for the sway motion the ampli­ tude was 30.s -1 .2 degrees. Figure 3.0248 rad.18. 3. the results of these latter quantities will be presented first. but the frequencies of the motions were changed.0179 and To evaluate the relative current concept for the surge mode of motion extinction tests were carried out in current.4.For both the rotator and oscillator tests the stroke was kept constant.17 the sign convention of the current forces and moment. ship's heading and current direction is given.0111. = X '2c 122 l c (~—W 2c(W (longitudinal direction) ■y— ( t r a n s v e r s e d i r e c t i o n ) ^pLTV .0071.

/4 \ \ -0. It is assumed that during the decay motions the following relation exists: 123 .4.05 2c 0.1) (yaw direction) in which: 4< -xft = undisturbed current angle of incidence V = undisturbed current velocity c L = length between perpendiculars of the tanker T = draft of the tanker p = specific density of sea water -1 : » 1.05 h/T = 4.18 The current force/moment coefficients 3.s" Loaded 0.03 m.37 h/T = 10. Relative current velocity concept for the surge mode of motion In order to quantify the oscillatory surge damping of a tanker in current the motion decay will be studied.9 0.4.s • 2.5 \ \ v.06 m.DC '6c C O 2 2 ^ P L TV c (3.3.s Ballasted: • 1. \ p 1.0 L 1) "6c y«^*W.03 m.s-1 o 2. 1 i i é 180 180 U c -x 6 ) in deg 90 (*C-Xg) in deg Figure 3.1 ' i i V.1 Based on CG '1c <* *k '• 0 X • -0.4.57 m.

4.1) V in which: current velocity frequency of the slowly oscillating vessel »*1 amplitude of the Nth oscillation in surge direction X 1N x.3.4.4.4.. For the degree in freedom in surge direction and following the sign convention as given in Figure 3.3) . + higher order terms x 6 =x 6 (0).4. = low frequency surge velocity during the Nth oscillation Under this condition it is plausible that the laminar boundary layer will be disturbed by the current and will be dominated by turbulence. + X ÖX v x 6 (0) ' x r° lc ( V c>' t '-V X l ) Si. In this case the relative current concept may be used. The relative current concept will be applied to the equations of the low frequency surge mo­ tion of a linearly moored tanker in steady current with velocity V and direction (|>c. Xl =0 Taking the appropriate terms the equation of motion will read: 124 (3. the equation of motion can be written as follows: ( M f a ^ ^ + c ^ - *PLTC lc «P cr )V c (3.4.2) in which: 2 v2 u cr cr 2 = u cr+ V c = V c cos <v V " = V sin < * c V c arctan cr = x -v l c v /u c cr Expanded in a Taylor series the current force becomes: " i c ' V W V " Xlc<Vc'*-Vil) .X 1Nf V IN « (3.

4.4. (<P ) lc cr oC lc (<|* -x.6) V and dV cr ax.V lc cr cr ox. (<!< ) lc cr 3* cr Scp Ö(v /u ) c c V° ox.*PLT(V Xl =o av 1 c<*c> + .) c 6 3(|> V° (3.) c 6 3u 3u c 3x.4) in which: B-Q = current damping coefficient Xg = Xg(0) = constant yaw angle of tanker The current damping coefficient can be derived as follows: ÖX lc 11 ox.7).4. -x.^PLT X 3(0. (<|» ) . .2 V cos v(<|< -x.4. x r° avcr av a(u 2cr+vc2) av 3(u v 2 2 +v ) cr c' = . x i=° ÖX.4.4. ö(v In ) c c dC.7) Using the equations (3.4. V x 6 ) (3.clc(V-6) • ox.4.6) and (3. sin(<(.4. x l=° (3. x r° (3.4.4.4.3) can be rewritten as follows: 125 .) c c 6' au au cr ax. equation (3.5) in which: ÖC.4. l=° ac 2 .(Mfa 11 (u 1 ))x 1 + B n i 1 + c u X l = X l c ( V c .4.

x 6 ) sin(<l» -x ) ^ } ix + C n .T-233 s .040 (X l c = Results of measured decay mo­ -13. NUMBER OF OSCILLATIONS It and to 2 kn head cur­ The measured tance coefficient to spring 19.= 180°) and|x I « V then the equation of motion can be represented as follows: 2X (M+a n (u 1 ))x 1 lc( ( V X 6 )=18 °°) .19. . N>L "n.1.5 m deep water. (3. In terms of lo­ tions in surge direction for garithmic head current results decrements of the the tests are presented in Figure 3.m the relative concept physical . 82.cos(*c-x6) ( M + a u ( u 1 ) ) x 1 + {2X lc (cP c . . X l = a(xlc(»c-x6) a<i< (3.1 9 .1 tf). see Sec­ ■v kk r^ tion 2. x x + c 1 1 x 1 . It must be noted that for the current damping the frequency dependency as found for the still water damping does not exist.4. The tanker was ■ ^ 'S moored >L >o with c -X by a linear rent. 6360 . 126 .8) X l c (V c .<P c -x 6 ) In case the tanker performs low frequency motions in head current (<k.9) .i model tests in current were carried >.4. To evaluate current l e s t No. 3 tf.X1(.-x.4. out with a loaded 200 kTDW ■a.c .3 tf.m 11 exposed Figure 3.19 tanker moored in Clc = resis­ amounted -0.4.4.

that the damping decreases to some extent for current angles approaching beam current but.s -1 .= 25.9) the damping coefficient can be computed and amounts to: B n = 2*X y±£.4. the current veloci­ ty 'along the hull side at the leeward-side is almost absent.2.remain clearly positive.8) reveals that for current angles approach­ ing beam current the current damping coefficient becomes negative. Comparing the computed and measured result it may be concluded that the relative current concept for the surge mode of motion is applicable for head current. The results of the measurements show.19. In [3-13] model test results of extinction tests in surge direction under different current angles are presented.19 it can be seen that the logarithmic decrement 6 for the large low frequency amplitudes may be considered as constant.4.Using the formulation of the viscous damping coefficient according to equation (3. The linear damping coefficient derived from the decay test amounts to Bii = 27 tf.in c From Figure 3. It is therefore recommended still watef damping be used as the lower bound for that the the damping in current.4 tf.4.4. 127 .s. A possible ex­ planation is that due to the cross current velocity. The results in [3-13] indicate that contrary to the theory of the rela­ tive current concept the experiment shows that the current damping coef­ ficient stays positive for the cross current condition. Evaluating equation (3.6) can be derived from Figure 3. Using the constant logarithmic decrement the linear damping coefficient according to equation (2. however. Due to these phenomena a part of the larger stiil water damping is involved and may dominate the damping force.m.4.

5. 128 have plotted.motion were obtained 3.7).03 "-S I x f c l * 30.4.s" on the yaw velocity.20 1000 Time in s the computed current are 3.20.18. 1S " -KAAA/NA/VW For some specific conditions the results of the derived (tf) measurements 100.5 m water depth mass Test No.m) X 2stat a n d X 6stat derived from the measurements using equation The dynamic 0c 2000 (s) 1000 I 0 (3. current I x j j l . «I = 0.s inertia 40 h vessel.3. 19452 the known coefficients added and the of the . The the also been coefficients computations from Figure .4.1. presented In results steady force Figure of the relative and moment components based on equation Figure 3. For the model tests use was made of the hydraulically driven oscillator. properties force and moment components v *2stat (tf) 800 X lstaf can be 20.8) lative current force and moment components for the used for sway mode of.1.m) Figure 3.000 6stat in (tf.000h X 6stat (tf.1 load contributions are assumed to be dependent Test No. measured re­ (3.025 rad. 19421 m .0111 rad.30. u c = 0.27 nï .20 Computed and. Based on the known oscil­ latory sway displacement and COMPUTED loaded 200 kDWT MEASURED 82. the relative current 0 Istat (tf) frequency. Relative current velocity concept for the sway mode of motion To evaluate the relative current concept for the sway mode of motion model tests were carried out in a current field.4.

< W >x6a = ne ° S-> 8-> (3.2.*6a = neS °S° = "X2dyn( V 3 6 0 ' . see Section 3.4.4.x 6> x 6a °S° = ^ d y n ^ c ' 3 6 0 ' " ^ " ^ ) . the components of the dynamic current contribution remain.6.7) inphase with the yaw velocity (x/-=0) represents the components of the quasi-steady current load and the dynamic current contribution.1) The yaw oscillation tests were carried out for 5 current angle sectors U*c"x6) = °*' 4 5 ° ' 90 ° '1 3 5 ° and 1 8 0 ° ) .4.X 6 d y n ( V c > 3 6 0 ° .From the results it can be concluded that the application of the steady relative current force concept for the sway mode of motion gives satis­ factory results.4.< V x 6 > >x6a = ne = P°S° = . 3. The dynamic current contribution The part of each of the equations of motion in equation (3. By means of the oscillating rotator a total of 70 yaw oscillating tests in current were carried out to determine the dynamic current contribu­ tion. This presentation corresponds to a rotation of the tanker with a quasi-steady yaw velocity in a current 129 . By means of a post-processing computer program applied to the stored digitized data of the measured oscillating forces and moment the amplitudes of the dynamic contributions in-phase with the negative and positive yaw velocities have been derived.6. By sub­ tracting the components from the steady current load.5. The force and moment components in-phase with the positive yaw velocity were transformed into negative yaw velocities taking into account the appropriate sign and current angle: X l d y n ( V W x 6a = P X 2 d y n < W x 6 > *6a = P X 6dyn< V c'V.Applying equation (3.1) to the results a presentation of the dynamic contribution is obtained for current angles covering 360 degrees.1.6.

the current velocity. Based on the results of the model tests a description has to be estab­ lished in order to formulate the components of the dynamic contribution.the frequency of the yaw oscillation. it is assumed that the tanker motions may be considered as a combined surge.field and rotation is with analogous steady to yaw the presentation velocity as is of shown the in results Figure of the 3. The difference is.22. sway and yaw motion.22 are described in the following form: Xldyn = X 2dyn - C ldyn<*cr> r .21 and Figure 3. however. >^ L T V cr ^dyn^cr-r'^P^cr *6dyn = W ^ ' ^ X r 130 (3 4 6 2) "-- . that the present method takes into account the oscillatory hydrodynamic effects In the current field such as vortex shedding etc. being .the current angle of incidence.21 and Figure 3. Following the relative current velocity concept and the quantities varied during the tests. ^?dvn and X/-j derived as function of the undisturbed current angle of incidence or the relative current angle of incidence are given in Figure 3. Therefore the proposed formulation will be expressed in terms of relative current speed and angle. For the loaded and ballasted tanker both in 2 kn and 4 kn current and based on the negative yaw velocity of the tanker the dynamic current contributions in surge. . .2. The force and moment components of the dynamic current contribution as shown in Figure 3. sway and yaw direction respectively XiJ n .

s" o — .21 Dynamic current contribution in surge.007 rad. sway and yaw direc­ tion due to motion in yaw d i r e c t i o n in 2 knot current.s" "6a1 0.s" 0.V = 1 .003 rad. based on negative yaw v e l o c i t y 131 .000 5.002 rad.000 10.000 30.000 5 20.| * 6 a | = 0.005 rad.000 - 360 Figure 3. 0 3 m.200 kTDW tanker .82.s"' Model tests Fourier approximation BALLASTED -250 40.5 m water depth .s" *6al x |* 6 | = 0.000 10.

000] 180 360 * c r i n deg Figure 3.s > = 0.005 rad.V c = 2.22 Dynamic current contribution in surge.s ' 6a' -i o — l1x 1 = 0. 6a' Fourier approximation BALLASTED -250 A\ - 25 5. based on negative yaw velocity 132 . sway and yaw direc­ tion due to motion in yaw direction in 4 knot current.002 rad.s" Model 6a tests • x — u .007 rad.5 m water depth .s-1 = 0.s .06 m.003 rad.82.-1 200 kTWD tanker . | = 0.

equation (3.6. These functions can be described by polynomial terms.6 = ift-L/V = dimensionless yaw velocity By means of Fourier theory applied to each of the appropriate curves the dynamic current coefficient can be approximated in terms of Fourier coefficients: Cjdyn = C 0 j ( r .6 (3.25 for the components in surge. As a consequence of equation (3.4.<|>cr) ) for j=l.23.4.4.6.9) and after some re-arrangement of the terms the following expressions were found for the components of the dynamic current contribution: X ldyn " "°.4.2.1. 2 )' ^ = arctan(-vr/-ur) = dynamic current coefficient for j=l. 3.3) Each of the Fourier coefficients will represent a function of r' and is shown in Figures 3.6.4.2) and equation (3.4) By . sway and yaw direction.3).2.4.6.6.substituting the Fourier coefficients in equation (3.1) for the description of the components in sway and yaw direction as function of the yaw oscillating velocity at a certain relative current angle a proper approximation of the Fourier coeffi­ cients must be applied.4 * <a22-all> * s i n < W * Vc * *6 133 . being: C nj = V j+ Vj r ' + c njr* lr* I V j " dnj + e nj|r'| +f njr'2 forj-1.in which: Vvcr *cr C. ) + N J ^ n j ^ 1 ' ) «>°("-*cr> + S nj( r ') «»i°(n.24 and 3.2.6 (3.j r' = v(ur2 + v r .

3285 .0.00683 cos2(p + 0.T .02654 cos3c|* + cr cr + v(0._ 6dyn 6D (3.03996 cos2<|* '+ 0.„ 6 er 3 .X 2dyn " .02157 + 0. )Q = (0.0. * | i .„ 6 cr r 6r /V 6 | r | /V ' where for the lateral viscous part we will have coefficients: X' .1309Q)sincP cr X' 2r 2 = (0.10804 cos3<|.5) i n which: X 2D = [ X 2Vr* V cr**6 + X + X 2V |r) * V cr* j ^ | 2r3/V^6*L2/Vcr + X + X '2/h*\ + X 2 |r| r * L * V N |r3|/v*|i6|3*L2/Vcr] 2 + ^ and X + 6D = K v r ^ c r S X 6V | r | * V cr* | ^ 6 1 + ^ / + ^ *6 | r | r * L * V | *6 | + + X' *£ 3 *L 2 /V + X' .0. | 3 * L 2 / V Jlijp. 2Vr = 0.01484cos2(J- Cr + (-0. )Q ^cr cr" X 2V|r| = (-0-2207 + 0. .L 3 .01168 + 0.06435 . 3 .1527Q)sin<J> X' 2r r | = 0.0.6.03286Q) cos3<l< C cr + the following .03886COS3I|J .06634 cos3<). = X.00838 cos2<|> X' 2r /V 134 cr .< a 2 2 .a l l > * c ° * ( W * V c * *6 + X 2D X.4.

.01706 .4U.23 The derivation of the coef­ ficients of current contribution surge motion in a the direction in yaw current higher.23 3.00982 + 0.25 it is assumed Fourier dependent through that the coefficients on the are draft of 135 .0350O2Q).03072 cos* + 0.5) in of the equation contains the ■ current 40%T parts \ velocity.sin* er X = (-0.019122 .= (-0.2 (3.0.03753 6V|r| ^2 6r 0.cos* 6r3/V (0.00656 cos* + 0.6.) The denominator viscous \ÏOOST 0.00512Q + (0.0225 cos2* + er er 6Vr + (-0.00722 + 0.007587 + 0.01847Q). >.01069Q).cos* 6r |r (-0.0.05801Q) sin* er 2 rJ|/V while for the moment component the coefficients of the viscous part will be: = -0.2 current speeds of 2 knots or Figure 3.02981 + 0.sin* 6 r /V 0.sin* er = -0.4.00391Q)'.009023Q).0.t restricted Because amount of of the data the validity will hold for -0.0664 + 0.01994 cos2* )Q er er X' = (0. -O.05659 . For this reason it is clear that the derived formulations are only valid for sufficiently -2 -1 high values of the current —r \ \ velocities. dynamic due in to direction field From Figures 3.

09288r' .2207|r'| + 0. C||( 40JST) = ♦ 0. The factor Q used for the interpolation can be formulated as follows: Q = T T-T 40 100 -T (3.08981r' | + 0.03886r' | r ' j * 0.2 ° X »s \.V ~—= — +r' -0.2 A +2 —— +r' - -0.03996r' + 0.the vessel.2 +2 \ ' \ \ -0.2 -0.044541-':.21 and 3.00646r'|r'| Cj£( 40J5T) = .03313r' * 0.2 S.2 C22(100«T) = .0.4 // ft *? ^ ^ 1 1 0.00839 | r ' | S.4 -0.01168r.06435r' * 0. CQ2 = 0.0.-(IOOXT) = .0664 | r ' | - 0.0.0.02157r' +r' |r'| ♦1 -2 \ +2 -1 0.1469 r' | r ' | + 0.6) 40 in which: l 100 r 40 loaded draft = draft at 40% of loaded draft The comparison between the Fourier approximation and the test results is given in the Figures 3.4 - «— 100%T — o — 40ÏT y 0.0.0.0.2 -1 -2 °-4 A A. -2 -1 .0.':' The derivation of the coeficients of the dynamic current distribution in sway direction due to motion in yaw direc­ tion in a current field 136 .2< 40ST) = .2 (a Figure 3.6.02654r' .22.1758r'? .4 -0. \\ V\ \\ .0.24 22 - a ll' C„(100ST) = ♦ 0.2.3285r' d .4.01484r r ' | —— +r' V *1 \ -0. 0.

05659r' + + 0.1 I s .0.00982 I r ' 0.1 -0.3 Figure 3.01 -2 -1 '26 1 2 — .1 -.01373|r ■ i3 .03753r .2 - 0.2 0.1 -0.007221r'1+ 0.02569 I r ' .25 The derivation of the coefficients of the dynamic current contribution in yaw direction due to motion in yaw direc­ tion in a current field 137 . 0 2 2 5 0 r ' + 0. 0 4 2 4 4 r ' .0.02 - 0. yi \\ 1 \2 —-+r' \ -0.0.01 "2\ '16 -1 0.2 0.02 -0.04822r .00656r' + + 0.019122r'|r'| + .08640r' + C06(100%T) = CQ6( 40%T) S 6 (100ÏT) 0.01588r'|r'| + C26( 40%T) = + 0 .02416r' C 26 (100ÏT) = + 0 .007587r .2 "06 -1 16 -0.0.0.0.01706r' I r ' S.+r' ^ -0.6( 40%T) = + 0.0.2 0.2 .0.02218r'|r'| .001436r' 3 C 16 ( 40CT) = .2 C16(100%T) = + 0.

The magnitude of the potential part. The magnitude of the potential part was in good agreement with theory.1.1.1.1.4. rad.9).4.3.7) the total low frequency hydrodynamic viscous resistance components in current consist of a relative cur­ rent load part and a dynamic current contribution. was found to be lower than predicted by theory. computations on the theoretical models according to the equations (3.9). The sway contponent shows the importance of the potential part. (3. 138 . Evaluation of the semi-empirical mathematical models in current By means of the present formulation for the dynamic current contribution according to equation (3.12) and the present formulation were carried out.4. The computations concerned the loaded and ballasted tanker in a 2 knot current and a yaw velocity x. see equation (3. The magnitudes of each part will depend on the values of the relative current speed.007 .7. however. (3.5) the semi-empirical mathematical models based on relative current velocity concepts [3-12j. In accordance with equation (3.1.11) and (3.4.4. the results were then compared.10). The experimentally derived component in surge direction shows that the component mainly consists of a potential part.s - = -0.4. To evaluate the dynamic current load contribution. the relative current angle and the oscillating yaw velocity.6.4. The component in sway direction consists of a potential and a viscous part.1. In accordance with theory the components of the dynamic current contri­ bution in surge and sway direction consist of a potential and a viscous part. while the viscous part seems to be to some extent too small by applying the theoretical models. The results show that the yaw moment of the dynamic current contribution will be underestimated by applying the theoretical models. The results are presented in Figure 3. [3-13j and [3-14] can be evaluated.4.26.

26 Comparison of the results of the dynamic current contribu­ tion components due to yaw mode motion following the existing methods and the present formulation 139 .03 m. n' ^ / / / V 50 180 270 '1 360 90 .82.5E4 * c r in deg 3.5 m water depth 200 kDWT ballasted tanker -1 1.03 m.180 270 360 2.007 rad.s 160 r\ 40 80 - -80 - \ v i ' / -40 90 180 270 360 -160 90 180 360 50 **"•<.s • 82.s ■1 -0.5 m water depth 200 kDWT loaded tanker Method Obokata [3-14] Method Mol in [3-13] Method Wichers [3-12] Present formulation Oscillation tests — i V = 1.s Xg = -0.007 rad.

140 . the differences with the present formulation increase considerably.007 rad. By means of the present formulation for the low frequency hydrodynamic viscous force/moment components time domain computations of the low fre­ quency tanker motions moored in current may be carried out. This validation is presented in Chapter 5. 3. >- The computations were carried out for the loaded and ballasted 200 kTDW tanker in 2 and 4 knot current and yaw velocities x.s = -0. however.29 and 3. For higher values.30.27.To evaluate the relative differences in the results of the theoretical models computations have been carried out on the total low frequency viscous resistance components in both the sway and yaw direction (XJ + X jdyn for =2 tat 6 J . To evaluate the proposed description of the equations of motion the re­ sults of the time domain computations have to be compared with the re­ sults of model tests. It can be concluded that for low values of the oscillating yaw veloci­ ties the results of the theoretical models of Molin [3-13] and Obokata [3-14] are close to the results of the present formulation. _i -0.28. The results are shown in the Figures 3.002 and 6 . 3.

s" Yaw velocity = -0.03 rad.s'-1 Yaw velocity = -0.6 m 200 r — 60 N \ If \\ \\ \\ \\ \\ Jl// 30 100 It 1 1 0 -30 -100 ƒ -200 /l -60 -300 -90 20. 360 * c r in deg Figure 3.000 5000 ^r.27 Comparison between r e s u l t s of t o t a l low frequency viscous r e s i s t a n c e components i n sway and yaw d i r e c t i o n due t o yaw mode of motion following the e x i s t i n g methods and the p r e ­ sent formulation 141 .002 rad.56 m Current = 1.000 360 \> 1 90 180 \ / 270 .y Ij f\ 2500 10.s FP = 148.Obokata 1983 Mol in 1980 Wieners 1979 Present formulation Draft 40% = 7.4 m AP = -161.54 m AP = -165.000 / \ V -2500 -10.9 m Current = 1.s FP = 144.002 rad.03 m.46 m Draft 100* = 18.

s" Yaw velocity = -0.4 m AP = -161.1000 300 500 150 \ -500 -150 \- \^.56 m .500 \ L -30.28 Comparison between results of total low frequency viscous resistance components in sway and yaw direction due to yaw mode of motion following the existing methods and 'the pre­ sent formulation 142 . 180 / / 270 360 ' 7 ' 5 0 0 m t 90 180 270 360 ♦ c r in deg Figure 3.000 W \ \ A.06 m. -1000 60.9.54 m AP = -165.Obokata 1983 Mol in 1980 Wieners 1979 Present formulation Draft 40% = 7.6 m .46 m Draft 100% = 18.s FP = 148.s" FP = 144.06 m.002 rad.000 / 30.002 rad.m Current = 2.000 / -300 A A \ 15.000 7.s Yaw velocity = -0. Current = 2.

56 m .03 m._y / / 10.4 m AP = -161.9 m.s" FP = 148.s" FP = 144.yaw direction due to yaw mode of motion following the existing methods and the pre­ sent formulation 143 .29 / '"N \ 180.s Vaw velocity = -0.007 rad. 270 360 * 0 in deg ..007 rad.000 \. Current = 1.54 m AP = -165.000 V^- 15.03 m.6 m 100 -100 -150 50.s Yaw velocity = -0.Obokata 1983 Hol in 1980 — Wieners 1979 Present formulation Draft 40% = 7.000 90 Figure 3..000 1 \ \ \ .000 V V\\ S' '^.\ / V \ 5. A \ 0 -25. Current = 1.46 m Draft 100% = 18. 90 180 270 360 Comparison between results of total low frequency viscous resistance components in sway and.000 / / // /' / 25.

6 m 300 1000 -1000 -1500 -450 .s Yaw velocity = -0.// \y -50.007 rad.54 m AP = -165.4 m AP = -161.9 ra.000 15.000 .56 m Current = 2.s" FP = 148.06 m.Obokata 1983 Mol in 1980 Wichers 1979 Present formulation Draft 40% = 7. Current = 2. in deg Figure 3.s Yaw velocity = -0.007 rad.000 30.000 \ \\ s -15.100.30 Comparison between r e s u l t s of t o t a l low frequency viscous r e s i s t a n c e components i n sway and yaw d i r e c t i o n due t o yaw mode of motion following the e x i s t i n g methods and the p r e ­ sent 144 formulation .000 _50.06 m.000 / ^_\ .s" FP = 144.46 m Draft 100% = 18.

: "A calculation of ship turning mo­ tion taking coupling effect due to heel into consideration". O. Schiff und Hafen/Kommandobrlicke. Vol.D. S.. Schiff und Hafen/Kommandobrlicke. 1981.REFERENCES (CHAPTER 3) 3-1 Abkowitz. London. and Zimmermann. August 1979. C. C. The Hague. 1982. 3-7 Sharma.: "The effect of beam on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ship hulls". Heft 9-34 Jahrgang.C. 3-5 Glansdorp. No.M. Symposium Proc. Hy A Report Hy S. and Takashina. International Shipbuilding Progress.: "Ship type modelling for training simulator". steering and manoeuvrability". Kijima. and Walderhaug.und Drehversuche in Vier Quadranten. 4th Ship Control Systems Symposium.Teil 1". 3-6 Sharma. March 1980. 0. Beukelman. H. Heft 10-33 Jahrgang . M.und Drehversuche in Vier QuadrantenTeil 2". M. 1964. 3-3 Hirano. 3-8 Faltinsen. of tems". 28.. October 2731. Liapis.: "Hydrodynamic analysis. Proc. 1975. S. 3-4 Gerritsma. 10th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. Kjaerland. tankers at single point-mooring on Behaviour of Offshore sys­ Structures. B.A. S. Volume 4.: "Schragschlepp. and Glansdorp.: "Lectures on ship hydrodynamics. Transaction of the West-Japan Society of Naval Architects. K. 1974. : "Hydrodynamic derivatives on ship manoeuvring". Hirano.. 145 .: "Schragschlepp. M.D. J.1981. N.. 3-2 Inoue. J.C.. 59. W. Proc. Boston.

3-9

Ractliffe, A.T. and Clarke, D. : "Development of a comprehensive
simulation model of single point mooring systems", Royal Institute
of Naval Architects, Paper 9, London, 1980.

3-10

Remery, G.F.M. and van Oortmerssen, G.: "The mean wave, wind and
current forces on offshore structures and their role in the design
of mooring systems", OTC Paper No. 1741, Houston, 1973.

3-11

OCIMF: "Prediction of wind.and current loads on VLCCs", OCIMF, 6th
floor, Portland House, Stag Place, London, 1977.

3-12

Wichers,

J.E.W.:

"Slowly

oscillating

mooring

forces

in

single

point mooring systems", Proc. Symposium on Behaviour of Offshore
Structures, London, August 1979.

3-13

Molin, B. and Bureau, G.:

"A simulation model for the dynamic

behaviour of tankers moored to SPM", International Symposium on
Ocean Engineering and Ship Handling, Gothenburg, 1980.

3-14

Obokata, J. : "Mathematical approximation of the slow oscillation
of

a ship moored

to single

point moorings", Marintec

Offshore

China Conference, Shanghai, October 1983.

3-15

Norbinn,

N.H.:

mathematical

"Theory

model

for

and
ship

observation
manoeuvring

on
in

the

deep

use
and

of

a

confined

water", Proc. 8th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, 1970.
3-16

Munk, M.:

"The aerodynamics of airship hulls", NACA Report No.

184, 1924.
3-17

Lamb, H.: "Hydrodynamics", 6th edition 1932, Cambridge University
Press, London

3-18

Faltinsen, O.M., Dahle, L.A. and Sortland, B.: "Slow drift damping
and response of a moored ship in irregular waves", Proc. OMAE,
Tokyo, 1986.

146

CHAPTER 4
EVALUATION OF THE LOW FREQUENCY SURGE MOTIONS
IN IRREGULAR HEAD WAVES

^.l^Introduction

In Chapter 2 the speed dependency of the potential theory regarding the
second order wave drift forces in head waves was discussed. In Chapter 3
the low frequency viscous damping caused by the low frequency motions in
the horizontal plane, including surge direction, have been dealt with.
In this chapter the results as derived in the previous chapters are ap­
plied to the computations of the low frequency surge motions of a moored
tanker in irregular head waves with and without current. The current is
co-linear with the waves. Computations were carried out for both the
frequency and time domain.

To illustrate the effect of the wave drift damping on the low frequency
motions, frequency domain computations were performed

for sea states

with increasing significant wave height [4-1]. The results were compared
with the results of model tests. The frequency domain computations are
based on the wave spectra as were adjusted for the model tests. As a
consequence of the frequency domain approach the results of the computa­
tions can only be presented in terms of statistical quantities. For ir­
regular waves combined with current a similar computation procedure can
be applied [4-2].

To show the deterministic procedure for simulation of the low frequency
surge motions in irregular waves with and without current time domain
computations were carried out. The time domain computations are based on
the wave train registrations as were adjusted for the model tests.
Prior to solving the equation of motion the mean wave drift damping co­
efficient and the registration of the wave drift force with and without
current were computed. The results of

the computed wave drift

force

registration with and without current in terms of spectral densities
were compared with the results of model tests. Finally the results of

147

the computed

low frequency motions were compared with the results of

model tests.

4.2. Frequency domain computations in irregular head waves without
current

4.2.1. Theory

The e q u a t i o n of the low frequency

surge motion of a l i n e a r l y moored

tan­

ker exposed t o i r r e g u l a r head waves can be w r i t t e n a s :

(Mfau(u1))x1 + Bn(u1)x1 + B ^

+ c ^

= X^t)

(4.2.1.1)

in which:
added mass coefficient at the natural frequency |j..
ll^l> =
B n ( u 1 ) = still water damping coefficient at the natural frequency n,

a

S

mean wave drift damping coefficient

l

linear spring coefficient

c

ll
X,(t)

= wave drift force registration

In the frequency domain the quantities considered are expressed in terms
of spectral densities. Since the equation of motion is in a linear form,
the spectral density of the low frequency surge motion can be written
as:

S
1

(u) = S x ( ^ . ( ^ u ) ) 2
1
la

while the variance of the low frequency surge motion will be:

a2
x

/ S Y (a) ( T T ^ U ) ) 2

=

l

0

X

l

X

da

la

where:
S
X

(n) = spectral density of the longitudinal wave drift force
l

148

(4.2.1.2)

X

la
(|i) = surge amplitude per unit longitudinal wave drift force
la
1

\/

T~2

-

TT-

^ ( c u - m u H ) +(B11+B1) u
= frequency of low frequency part of the second order forces

\i
m

= M + a 1 1 (u 1 )

u

For systems with a small damping, the response of the surge motion at
the natural frequency dominates (has a peak). Therefore the spectral
density can be kept constant over the frequency range. Following [4-3]
the variance reduces to the following form:
a

x
X
l

= S

/ hr^))2 ^
0 X la

X <M
X
l l

(4.2.1.3)

which yields:

°l

=
1

r2
2 B
< 11 + V C 11

S (Ü,)

(4.2.1.4)

l

where:

\ Fïi
\i. = \ /

1

S

= natural frequency of the system

V n
((O

=

spectral density of the wave drift force at
frequency u.-,

To solve equation (4.2.1.4) the input data have to be known. The still
water damping coefficient can be read from Figure 3.10. The mean wave
drift damping coefficient B. in an irregular sea with N wave components
can be determined as follows:

in series notation
N

B

=
1

o

Z CT.D(o) )
i=l X

or

in spectral notation
_

B = 2 ƒ S (oo).D(u)) du
l
V
0

(4.2.1.5)

149

io) = 5 It should be noted that in equation (4. the square of 150 the wave envelope for a regular wave group as given in equation .1.1.7) v 42)(W) T(io.Sr(u+u) (TCio.2.1.6) the spectral density of the wave drift forces is directly related to the theoretically derived spectral density of the wave group in a sea state.itH-|i) = amplitudes of the quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force dependent on u and uH-(i Because the natural frequency in surge direction for a moored tanker is small the S x <[i=0).in which: S-(w) = spectral density of the irregular sea B (co) The quadratic transfer function of the wave drift damping coefficient D(io) can be obtained by means of computations or model tests as is described in Chapter 2. density S„ (^) l C 0 in which: will approximately be equal to or: (u=0) = 8 ƒ S2(a>) (T(to. Because the drift force is related to the square of the wave amplitude.2.6) in which: T(w. The spectral density of the wave drift forces in an irregular sea state with spectral density S(co) can be computed following [4-3]: oo S v CM-) = 8 ƒ Sr(co). To show this relation the derivation of the wave group spectrum will be given.2.a>))2 dco S X spectral (4.uH-^))2 dio X Q C l 0 (4.

1.cosnt (4. The regular wave group consists of two regular waves with wave amplitudes C.12) represents a spectral density of the wave groups for a random process of wave components in the spectrum S-(a> ) 151 .2. and to.(2.1. .12) Actually equation (4.2.1.2.co­ in accordance with the definition of a spectrum the spectral density of the low frequency part of the square of the wave envelope will be: S (u) A<o = \{2C. C ? ) 2 A (4. respectively. and C„ and with frequencies u.7. The square of the wave envelope can be written as follows: A 2 = C^ + Q\ + 2C1C2.10) which w i l l y i e l d : S 2(u) Aw = 8SC(OJ1)AU SC(Ü)2)AU) (4.8) in which: \i = co-.1.1.2.2.11) or for all the wave groups with the frequency-difference |i in a wave spectrum: CO S 9 (t0 = 8 / S (u) S (urt-u) dw A1 0 ^ <* (4.9) while for wave component n the spectral density is: S c (u n ) Aco = JgC2 (4.2.4) will be considered.2.1.

4) represents the steady state value.11. For this alternative approach. T h e water depth corre­ sponded to 206 m full scale.1 and Figure 2.2. Because the sea state or the design storm with a prescribed wave spectrum lasts only for a short duration the wave train has to be considered as one realisation. The tanker was moored by means of a linear spring in surge direction with a spring constant of 13.for n = infinity. In terms of the variance the result represents one unique value. The result is that the slowly oscillating motion is a representation of that realisation.4 res­ pectively. For the spectral density of the wave drift forces S x (n=0) use is made of the computed transfer function of the wave drift forces as given in Figure 2. which necessi­ tates the replacement of frequency domain by time domain.3.12 and Table 2. statistical theory can be applied to the wave drift force excitation. which results in statictics of the motions. 152 .6 tf.2. To obtain this result the sea state will have to last infinitely. As a consequence the slowly oscillating wave drift force present in the wave train has to be considered as one realisation also. The consequence is that the variance in equation (4. 4. reference is made to [4-4J. The mean wave drift damping has been computed by means of the data given in Figure 2. The tanker was exposed to wave spectra as presented in Section 4.2. Restricted to the theory on the frequency domain procedure the computa­ tions can be carried out.2.1.3. If we consider a number of independent wave trains. These spectra were applied to the computa­ tions. Computations The computations were carried out for the loaded 200 kTDW tanker. The particulars and the body plan are given in Table 2.m .

2.625 48. The model tests were carried out in the seakeeping laboratory of 153 .6 18.6 13. spectrum C No.6 10. 1.75 3591 2 9.K s) • .5 25.frequency surge motion are sus significant wave height given in Table 4.741 53.835 27.= 12.m"1 3601 1 12.50 13.50 14.3.74 5.6 6.4 3621 6 6.9 92.60 Results of computation and model tests 4. 3 (f.1 132. C a l c u l a t e d d a t a a c c o r d i n g t o frequency Wave MARIN Test No. in B.0 17.2 9.5 9. The results of the computa­ tions of the spectral ja densities of the wave drift y fl i k forces and the mean wave drift damping are given in V Table 4.4 49. 6 (ƒ. 4.s. 5.0 13.1 13. Model tests To validate the results of the computations model tests were carried out.36 10.50 12.1 in terms of the root-mean- Root-mean-square values of the square values of the low low frequency surge motion ver.8 227.7 3582 5 9.40 13.6 Table 4.4 32. see Section which resulted 4.10 11.nf1.1 6. = 24.6 13.7 13.1.60 3 7.50 14.0 13.80 13.4 20.3. '-V3 m ? 11 m 0 1 s domain Measured tf..1.321 10.o A use Wave spectra Nos.1 and in squared Figure 4.For the still water damping Wave spectra Nos.0 s) / without wave d r i f t damping J with wave d r i f t damping —J— measured / is made of measured data.4 tf.5 15.6 12. .s.m"1 *1 m w i t h wave d r i f t damping without wave d r i f t damping Spectral density d r i f t forces S (u=0> *1 tf2s mean wave d r i f t damping =1 tf.2. 2.6 7.161 14.087 34.4 13.80 12. The results of 7 the computations with and without wave drift damping ''ui/31 '"m Figure 4.14 4 12.

1. 154 .1.1-0 tu i n rad. 4 2 3 0. Each sea state was adjusted for a test duration of 2. The results of the tests in terms of the root-mean-square values of the low frequency motions are given in Table 4.4. The wave spectra are presented in Figure 4. 2.1.2 (spectra No.s Figure 4.4.1 and in Figure 4. The statistical properties belonging to the measured wave spectra are given in Figure 4. The results in terms of the logarithmic decrement are shown in Figure 4.3 and 4. see Section 2.5 . 5 and 6. Prior to testing the wave spectra were adjusted with the wave probe at the projected location of the centre of gravity of the tanker model.MARIN. 2. 1.s The spectral densities of the wave spectra The tests were performed in the wave spectra No.5. Prior' to the tests in waves a surge extinction test was performed in still water.5 hours prototype time.5 u in rad. to measure the natural period and the still water damping coefficient.2 0. 5 and 6 ) . 3.

1.16m Camax.3 The theoretical and measured distribution function of the wave elevation and square of the wave envelope belonging to spectrum No.m 50 40 ^ ^ 30 ^ 4 ^ c ^^^ *---c >^^ 20 n ^— ( 10 2 3 4 5 Number of oscillations x u Figure 4.^ : \\V \ \ ' r\ . 1 (Spectrum 16346) .A -10 m h^ Ü m 10 Theoretically From time record WAVE SPECTRUM No. 1 DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF SQUARE OF THE ENVELOPE \0 — ===== V -N 50 '*v r E .s Figure 4.s. + = 14.2m it 10 .0 to in rad.5 The measured still water damping 155 . ■ N ^ v> /) 0 0.5 . 4 crests o troughs "It -1 "*■ " ' " fi D B = 24.DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF «AVE ELEVATION o =3.4 11 tf.

s — . ■ SPECTRUM 16386 4.25 Li in rad.50 0.25 0 0. 12.™ From time record 4000 3000 2000 \ \ \ V 1000 ^*^^ 0 0.s" 0.SPECTRUM 16346 T .25 u in rad.Theoretical T.50 u in rad.0 s — From time record .50 v in rad.4 156 tv The spectra of the wave groups ÏZ . 100 \ \ < \ \ \\ \\ \\ \\ so \ *^__ 0.50 0. .s SPECTRUM 16415 SPECTRUM 16368 — Theoretical .1 s 9 4 Theoretical W 3 ' From time record fl • 13.From time record 200 150 \ •'~\ \ \ 'Z.s" Figure 4. 0.25 0.7 s Theoretical .

- = 12.2.1.m tf. The theoretical properties of the wave spectra will be reviewed.e L 2m 0 (4. Given the spectral density of the wave record the random model assumes a normal distribuCion of Che wave elevations (Gaussian model).5 m and f^ = 14. The random model predicts then the spectral density of the low frequency part of the square of the wave envelope as presented in equation (4.12).5 hours full scale.s.2. . which corresponds to the data as can be derived from Figure 3. adjusted for a duration of 2.10. Evaluation of results The measured still water damping coefficient as derived in Figure 4. The theoretical distribution of the low frequency part of the square of the wave envelope for a random model is given by Davenport and Root [4- P(A 2 ) = ~ ^ .1 s) the statistical properties will be compared with those derived from theory.4 24.4.m u which approximately a . For the measured spectrum No. The theory is based on the random wave model. To be able to relate the results the statistical properties of the undisturbed wave specCra.4 tf. have to be verified with the theoretical ones. 1 (C ..4.s.4.1) 0 in which: 00 m = U ƒ S (oo) dio 0 ^ The low frequency part of the square of the wave envelope is exponen­ tially distributed.5 is B = Bll = 24. The results of the statistical quantities of the surge motion obtained by computations and model tests will be correlated. By means of low pass filtering of the square of the wave record the low 157 .2.

1. The re­ sult is that the statistical properties will be the same. be taken into account to predict the correct motion characteristics of a moored vessel exposed to irregular head waves.frequency part of the square of the wave envelope can be determined as follows: A 2 (t) = 2cJ(t) (4.3. From a point of view of statistics the present realizations of the wave train were more than unique: although the duration was restricted to 2.2) in which: 2 C„(t) 2 = low pass filtering of the square of the wave elevation C (t) The distribution function of the elevation of the wave and the square of the wave envelope as derived from the experiment and theory are given in Figure 4. It can be concluded that the mean wave drift damping coefficient has to.1 and Figure 4. A good agreement can be found between the actual and the theoretical statistical properties of the wave groups. Furthermore the wave trains of all applied wave spectra were subjected to the analysis on the spectra of the wave groups. Knowing the good correlation of the input the statistical quantities of the motions (the output) obtained from computations and model tests can be compared. The results of the computations and the model tests on the characteris­ tic data of the low frequency surge motion are given in Table 4. By increasing the stroke the energy of the spectrum increases but the sequence of the wave trains will be approximately the same.2.4.5 158 . The present wave spectra with approximately the same mean wave period were adjusted in the basin by increasing the stroke of the wave genera­ tor. The results are presented in Figure 4.4. The agreement is good.

The theory is given by Tucker [4-6]. For more the distri­ normal distri­ support of the assumed distribution reference is .1. This is demonstrated in [4-4].2.4).3) The normal distribution of the low frequency surge motion 159 .0 ' \ standard \ fv \ deviations bution shows a bution.2. 0 According o to Tucker the variance of the variance can be written as \ JV follows: V A\ Ï Figure 4. who gives the expression to determine the expected variance of the variance of a normally distributed process as function of the test duration. It is assumed LOW-FREQUENCY SURGE MOTIONS that the low fre­ NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS .6 <A 2-re ƒ S 2 (u) du (4.THEORETICAL Test No.0 made to [4-4J. motion The is normally distribution of the low frequency surge motion as r NO occur in wave spectrum No.hours full scale the statistical properties of the wave groups corre­ spond well with the theoretical ones. In terms of \ .6. 3601 quency SURGE surge distributed. As was mentioned the theoretical spectrum of the low frequency part of the square of the wave heights will be obtained by an infinite long test duration. In this wave train the variance of the low frequency mo­ tions will reach the steady state value as given in equation (4.4. If the sea state is stationary during an assumed period of time the variance of the variance of the steady state value of the low frequency motion can be determined.1 is shown in Figure 4.

4.) and applying the low damping assumption we obtain the following result for the root-mean-square value of the variance: \JTèh °l 2<B 11 « 1 )c 11 Xl in which: 6' = non-dimensional damping B 6 ll + 5 1 = 2^ = ^ — cri where in accordance (4.4.1.2.2.2.4. Dividing by the steady state variance and assuming that 6' « 1 equation (4.2.7) /TO7]^ 1 .1.2.where: T = duration of the record S (u) = spectral density of the motion record X l Making use of equation (4.2.4.6) 6 is the logarithmic decrement and i = critical damping B = 2/cu(M+aur (4.6) The part in square brackets in equation (4.2) for S x ((J.4) is recognized as the steady state value of the variance as given in equation (4.5) with equation (2.4.4).4.4) results in the following assessment for the non-dimensional root-mean-square value of the motion variance: a' 1 a x 160 = l (4.2.2.

only the test/computation duration T will influence this quantity.3.1) in which: a.) = low frequency added mass coefficient B ll^l) = stl H water or current damping coefficient B.3-1. 161 .((i. 4^3^_Time_domain comgutations_in_irregular h£aQ. for a given vessel/mooring system.1._waves_with and without current 4. = linear spring coefficient in surge direction X 1 (t) ji. For examples reference is made to [4-4]. = wave drift force in the time domain = natural frequency of the system The damping consists of the viscous and the mean wave drift damping. It is seen that given a particular re­ quirement with variance respect to the root-mean-square value of the motion a system with low damping and low natural frequency will require a longer test/simulation duration. which determines the natural frequency n-. = mean wave drift damping coefficient c. and the non-dimensional damping 6'. We see that.. The viscous damping is either the still water or the current damping.From this expression we may see which factors are of importance with respect to the root-mean-square value of the variance. . Theory For the time domain computation of the low frequency motions of a moored tanker in irregular head waves with and without current the following equation of motion has to be solved in the time domain: (M+a u (u 1 ))x 1 + B 1 1 ( n 1 ) i 1 + B ^ + c ^ = X^t) (4. The viscous damping coefficients B-^ can be determined as is indicated in Chapter 3.

Applied to the wave spectrum the mean wave drift damping coefficient can be calculated: B (V ) = 2 ƒ S (oo) D(o)*) do> 1 c c.).D(w.3.u.) .) and the wave drift damping coefficient D(U)J) are known.Further for the time domain computation the wave drift force registra­ tion and compute the mean wave drift damping coefficient are required. . 0 (4. The transfer func­ tions can be derived from either computations or model tests.VC K = wave number V = current velocity D(u)) = B^^/Cg2 The transfer function of the wave drift force in current can be approximated by the gradient method: P(OJ*.u.3.2) in which: Sr(oj) = wave spectrum as measured in situ W* = 00 + K.1. By means of the Fourier transform the quadratic impulse response can be written as: g(x 1 .3) . It is assumed that for zero speed the transfer function of the wave drift forces P(tOj.OJ*) = P(u.co2)e d ^ doo2 ~00 in which: 162 —00 (4.1.V v i' i i l i c The time history of the wave drift force can be obtained by means of the quadratic impulse response function technique applied to the record of the measured wave train as proposed by Dalzell [4-7 ].t 2 ) = l ^ ) 2 +oo +00 (id) t -iu T ) 1 1 2 2 ƒ ƒ G(2)(oJl. To the registration and the damping coefficient respectively the wave train and the spectrum have to be known.

co.3.11.)- and u>.t. Based on the gradient method the transfer functions of the wave drift force P(io* a)*) m. The quadratic transfer function of the wave drift damping coeffi­ cient D(oo.o)9) may be composed by means of the in-phase components P((D.7.5 m deep water. . .1.u^) for zero speed was computed for the loaded 200 kTDW tanker in 82.(*)«) will be neglected. the wave drift force registration can be determined..03 current velocity were determined.. After the determination of the viscous damping coefficients by means of model tests or the data given in Chapter 3 the equation of motion can be solved.2. .T 2 Because of the very low natural frequency of the system the matrix (2) G (oo1 . . The results are shown in Figure 4.s and the wave drift damping coefficient D(co*) for 1. On the base of linear interpolation of u^ Fourier to obtain the quadratic transforms have been applied (2) response functions g (t.a>2). The in-quadrature component Q(io. 4.3. in the matrix the impulse Using the record of the adjusted waves C(t) the time domain simulation of the wave drift force can be written as: X.7.(t) = ƒ ƒ g(i 0 0 T ) C(t-t ) C(t-T ) dt dx (4.) was derived from the experiments as shown in Figure 2.) and P(w2.G (2) (w. Computed wave drift forces and mean wave drift damping coefficient The quadratic transfer function for the wave drift force P(tü^. 163 .3.4) Using the theory.3).U>2) approximated on base of P(oo. see equation (2.(!)„) = complex quadratic transfer function = P(" 1 >w 2 ) + i Q( u i» u) 2 ) = time shifts t.

2 Matrices of the quadratic transfer functions of the wave drift forces with and without current 164 .^ Table 4.

u*)t ■J and with current.3. . Figure 4.<o. m " " spectra of the wave Section results wave of drift tration 4.T.) and ~P(u*.7 approach presented in The quadratic transfer functions Figure 4. the as the model basin.u*) the matrices of the quadratic transfer functions P(io. response ^(^. For the deterministic the %z x<2> J 1 ''a in t f .5 m been determined for each * t r = 180 deg. the The computed force regis­ with and without current are Figure adjusted trains reference is made to Current 0 kn. n T 2 Current 2 kn. in trains the in t f .s.With the transfer functions P(w i .s 1) 1 c = 42.8 in the form of of the wave drift force and wave spectral drift damping coefficients with the and without 2 kn current interest.m l After obtaining the input data for the viscous damping coefficient the equation of motion can be solved.(V = 1. 165 . For 'a fV'a Using was applied to the calibrated \ YCurrent \ \ 2 kn. transfer and functions applied of the wave drift densities frequency over range damping as given to the spectra with and without current of in the following results were computed: B 1 (V c = 0) = 48.m B. have i been composed and are respectively without J presented in Table The impulse function g^ Fully loaded 200 kDWT tanker 4. s . of the matrices.) has Water depth 82.8 tf.s.7 4. convolution wave JCurrent 0 kn.u^) and P(u)*.2 tf.4.2.03 m.

m -1 B u ( V c = 1.5.s~' COMPUTED MEASURED 1 \\ // /I / COMPUTED 0 / 0 > o ° \ / » \ * /% ü<2> in t f COMPUTED 1 Vc=0 Vc=1.03 m.9.3.3 tf.m was chosen.0 tf. while for the condition of waves with current the total damping amounts -1 = 19. see Section 4.s.s. main plots in Figure 4.10 u in rad. The first hour was ..3 tf.5 hours for full hour have been presented. For the still water damping and the current damping the following values were obtained: B u ( s t i l l water) = 25.s Figure 4.m .4 -166.8 The spectral densities of the measured and computed wave drift forces 4.s.3 0.V =1.05 Vc=1.0 0 \\ • 0 \ m.m -1 The total damping coefficient for the condition of waves without current is equal to 73. Computed motions The viscous damping coefficients were obtained from the model tests.5 166 to 69. only the last 1.s" 1 ) = 27.6 MEASURED V c -0 -145.03 m.s' -166.5 tf.1 0 0.03 m.03 m.s -135.3. The computed results are presented as time do­ While the test duration was 2.8 tf. scale.s~' O < 0 > \\ 1 1 / MEASURED V c =0.m • For the spring constant c-.3.s.

5 hours full scale time.10 and 4. As a consequence of the set-up the tanker was not able to perform high frequency surge mo­ tions. 4 . This approach is allowed.necessary to account for the transient phenomena in the computations. The spectra and the distribution functions of the waves and the wave groups are shown in the Figures 4. Combined with current or without current the same wave spectra were ad­ justed at the projected location of the centre of gravity of the moored tanker. Model t e s t s LOW FREQUENCY SURGE MOTION OF TANKER IN IRREGULAR «AVES WITH AND WITHOUT CURRENT Test No CALCULATED MEASURED 63444-63621 CURRENT = 0 m . For the wave drift force measurements a vertically positioned cylinder hinged with air lubricated bearings was used to keep the tanker model on sta­ tion. As is illustrated in Figure 4. Both wave drift force and motion measurements were carried out. because it can be shown that the con­ tribution of the high frequency surge motions to the wave drift forces is negligibly small. 3 .s"' tests 0 m 15 m with 3600 of the wave drift force and 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 91 were carried out the afore-mentioned tanker. Prior to the wave calibration a homogeneously distributed current field was adjusted with a velocity corresponding to 2 kn for the full scale. The bearings were earth fixed. 4 . 167 . Each sea state was prepared for a test duration of 2. s " ' 0 m -15 m In order to correlate the computed registration V^ ^ the Test No low frequency surge 63514-63592 motion a series of model CURRENT = 1.12 the test set-up allows for heave and pitch motions. Time i n s Figure 4.11 respectively.9 The computed and measured low The tests frequency surge motion of the out in the Wave and Cur­ tanker in irregular waves with rent Laboratory of MARIN and without current at a water depth were carried of 1 m.03 m.

if applicable the current load was measured.6 m wl/3 -10 0 Elevation :4.03 n.T.0 u in rad.M.M.5 1.0 m C = 11. 1 0 . n 0.):4^iJÖ= c J in m MEASURED WAVE 8751 °t ^-^ 0. extinction tests were carried out. 5 iti. 2 m ^amax WAVE SPECTRUM WAVE SPECTRUM THE0RETICAL(P. having a linear spring constant in surge direction of c. By means of low pass filtering techniques the low frequency second order wave drift forces were obtained.5 1. 3 m Jd rrK^-.):4. ƒ f = 2. = 19. wmax = 24. Elevation Smax = 23. 5 m.(P.T.1 1 .3 s - :> MEASURED ^\ö" " .5. .0 0 J 0.6 m 10 in m 1 1 .10 The adjusted wave spectra with and without current. 6 m ^amax* = 1 0 .«~. 5 niiT. see Figure 2. For the surge motion measurements the tanker was kept on station by a spring system. w1/3 = 11.L. The current force amounts to 13.(5 CYCLES) WITHOUT CURRENT WAVE ELEVATION (5 CYCLES) WITH CURRENT 1.0 m .m .1 tf.88 m F" \ amax + = 1 4 .s" Figure 4. Prior to the tests in waves with and without current. . 8 s 1 1 . 168 . The measured drift forces are presented in Figure 4.8 s " ^ r\ \\ \\ \\\\ \\ \ \ s\ // J W = amax* = 1 4 .90m 9. Since a force transducer was mounted to the lower side of the cylinder the force was measured in the horizontal direction.3 s THE0RET1£A.s" WAVE ELEVATION WAVE 8749 °t C ^3 = 2.. . The results of the extinction tests in terms of the logarithmic decrement are shown in Figure 4.3 tf.13.C^Ö"..S n i T .8 in terms of the spectral density.s u in rad. The measured hori­ zontal force consisted of the first order and the second order wave forces. ■ 10.8 m . 10.

0 100.0 \\ \\ ».50 in rad.50 0. 8749 Test No. N \ V \\ "•-^ 0.s ■ DERIVED FROM LOW FREQUENCY PART OF SQUARED WAVE RECORD ■ DERIVED THEORETICALLY BASED ON SPECTRUM OF MEASURED WAVE i Test No.■ DERIVED FROH LOU FREOUENfY PART OF SOUARED HAVE RECORD ■ DERIVED THEORETICALLY BASED Ott SPECTRUM OF MEASURED WAVE Test «0.0 0. : \5 2 \ \\ *-\ \ =E§§|EEËË \\ 1 \\\A * \ A M\ 4 50.25 0.0 fl' Figure 4.0 50. .0 A2 in „2 ' The spectra and the distribution functions of the wave groups 169 .11 i n m' 150. 8749 1500.0 100.0 / \ f \ 1000.s" u in rad.25 0.0 \ \ \\ 500. 8751 0 _.0 0.

.m"1 B ( ) » 25.s. 6360 {with current) „.s - During the tests the surge motions " 1 SS^ hr* Ics „B Tost No..3-5.6) for the still water damping and the current damping the following values were found: 170 . T=233 s .3m Figure 4. 10 20 Number of o s c i l l a t i o n s N' Figure 4. v. . The result in the aY^T 0 | ■• l tf. 6358 (without current) by means accuracy VsCS?"0 measured in of a optical high tracking device.13 Surge extinction tests with and without current 4.3 were the centre of gravity (CG) > ^ form of time traces is shown in Figure 4.4.9.2.m- .12 Test set-up for the wave drift force measurements c.3 tf.02697 rad.CYLINDER WITH AIR LUBRICATED BEARING WEIGHT OF CYLINDER INCORPORATED IN WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION TANKER TRIM-DEVICE HEAVE MEASUREMENT POTENTIOMETER HINGE AND FORCE TRANSDUCER t GYROSCOPE 19. - -1 Test No.=19. Evaluation of results According to equation (2. = .

X. m L tf. The weather conditions that were used are presented in Figure 4. u x = 0.s i . The agreepent is good for the frequency range of interest. b e i n g : B U (V C = 0.1 tf) = 25. s .s.m" = 1. // waves 171 .03 m .02697 r a d .m" 1c In Figure 4. By means of the theoretically derived hydrodynamic input data the equa­ tions of motion with and without current were solved separately.8 the spectral densities of the computed and measured wave drift forces without current and with 2 kn current are shown.5 m 10.s.03 m.4 tf.3 t f .8 s 1.03 m.s These values 25.B 11 (still water) B U (V C = 1.8 s -5m V = 0 With c u r r e n t 'wl/3 11. s Bn(V x ) = 19 tf.m-1 ) = 27 correspond approximately to the values as derived in Chapter 3 .1 m. s .s.10 and re­ viewed in the table below: Pierson-Moskowitz wave spectra Without current j-wl/3 = U T = 10. The effect of the current on the wave drift excitation is clearly demonstrated. = -13. At higher frequencies the computed spectral densities increase due to the approximations of the off-diagonal terms.

see Section 4. From the results it can be concluded agreement is achieved between theory and experiment.5 hours are presented.3. only the results of the last 1.5 hours for full scale.3. 172 that a good .9. While the test duration was 2.The computed and measured low frequency surge motions are presented as time domain plots in Figure 4.

: "The analysis of finite length records of fluctuating signals".F.: "Progress in computer simulations of SPM moored vessels".J. OTC Paper No. April 1957. 4857.E. OTC Paper No.: "An introduction to the theory of random signals and noise". 4437.: "The statistical properties of low frequency motions of non-linearly moored tankers". 4-5 Davenport. SPE Paper No.W.: "On the low frequency surge motions of vessels moored in high seas". 11th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics.W. J. 4-7 Dalzell. Mc Graw-Hill. J. M. and Root.: "Low frequency phenomena associated with vessels moored at sea".L. 173 . 1987. 4-2 Wichers. J.W. London. European Spring Meeting of SPE-AIME. 5175. 1982. 1986- 4-3 Pinkster. Houston. OTC Paper No.E.E.: "Application of the fundamental polynomial model to the ship added resistance problem". NY. 1958. A. 1974. J. 4-6 Tucker. Houston. H.REFERENCES (CHAPTER 4) 4-1 Wieners. Amsterdam. Houston. British Journal of Applied Physics. 4-4 Pinkster.B. Vol. 8. and Wichers. University College.J. A. 5457. 1976.J. W.

CHAPTER 5
EVALUATION OF THE LOW FREQUENCY HYDRODYNAMIC VISCOUS DAMPING
FORCES AND LOW FREQUENCY MOTIONS IN THE HORIZONTAL PLANE

5.1. Introduction

In Chapter 4 the large amplitude surge motions of a tanker exposed to
survival conditions were discussed. The tanker was assumed to be moored
directly by the bow by means of a mooring system as is indicated in the
lower part of Figure 1.1. For this kind of mooring system it may be as­
sumed that if the system is sufficiently stiff the tanker stays in line
with the co-linearly directed weather components.
In this chapter a tanker will be considered moored by means of a bow
hawser to a fixed pile. This system is shown in the upper part of Figure
1.1. In order to absorb sufficient kinetic energy at acceptable force
levels the hawser lines normally consist of synthetic material, so that
the load-elongation characteristic of the mooring line will be non-li­
near. Because of the limited strength of a hawser these kinds of mooring
systems are often used for areas with mild or moderate weather condi­
tions.
One of the features of hawser moored tankers is that the system can be
dynamically

unstable. The result

of a dynamically unstable system *is

that a tanker exposed to certain weather conditions can perform large
amplitude low frequency motions in the horizontal plane even in the ab­
sence of low frequency excitation. The large amplitude motions may in­
duce considerable loads in the hawser.
In weather conditions without low frequency excitation the tanker can
perform

large

amplitude

unstable motions. For

these

large

amplitude

motions the description of the equations of motion including the non­
linear hydrodynamic viscous damping forces as were derived in Chapter 3
will be evaluated by comparing the results of the low frequency motions
obtained from computations and physical model tests.

For still water the large amplitude low frequency motions for dynamical­
ly unstable conditions of a tanker exposed to long-crested regular waves
will be considered first.
For current a dynamically unstable system which performs the large am­
plitude low frequency motions will be selected. In order -to select the
conditions the stability criterion will be studied. For steady current
and wind velocities under different angles of incidence and for differ­
ent loading conditions the unstable conditions were determined as a
function of the length of the bow hawser. Derived from the stability
criterion, both the stable and unstable conditions are considered in
this validation study.

5.2. Tanker_moored_by__a_bow hawser exgos'ed_to_regular waves
5.2.1. Introduction
To

evaluate

the viscous

damping

values in still water the low fre­
quency motions of a tanker moored
by means of a bow hawser and ex­

500

regular
been

are

long

crested

computed.

compared

with

The
the

results of model tests. The tanker

1
/

250

to
have

results

ƒ

Load
in tf

posed
waves

concerns the loaded 200 kTDW tan­
ker moored in 82.5 m water depth,

"/

see Section 2.4.1.

The bow hawser was connected to a
0

10
20
Elongation in m

30

fixed pile. The length of the un­
loaded

Figure 5.1

176

Bow hawser load-elon­

The

gation characteristic

curve

hawser

non-linear
is

shown

amounted
load
in

to 75 m.
deflection

Figure 5.1.

For the regular waves the following characteristics were used:

Test No.

T in s

2C a

7219-7215

6.45

4.74-2.75

7224-7218

7.14

4.72-3.23

8.00*

5.00-3.00

9.10

4.98-3.07

7220-7217

in m

* theory only

5.2.2. Computations

Following equations (3.2.7), (3.3.1.3) and (3.3.4.7) the equations of
motion can be written as follows:

M(X r i 2 i 6 ) = x l p + x l s w + xl(d,Cr) - 5 1 i 1 + x l m
M C x ^ i g ) = X 2 p + X 2 S W . + X 2 (* C r ) - B 2 i 2 + X 2 m

Ix, = X, + X,„„ + X,(<lv
) - B.x, + X.
6
6p
6SW
6V Cr'
6 6
6m

(5.2.1.1)

in which:
X.
kp
X

= potential inertia parts of the reaction forces/moment
viscous parts of the reaction forces/moment

kSW

> = mean wave drift forces/moment in a regular wave as function

V*.Cr
"Cr

o f <\>r
Cr
<|>r - x, = relative wave angle
mean wave drift damping coefficient in a regular wave

X,

= moorir
mooring force components caused by the bow hawser
1,2,6

The wave d i r e c t i o n as defined i n Figure 3.3 was <|>j- = 180 d e g r e e s .

177

The potential inertia parts of the reaction forces/moment are given in
equation

(3.3.1.3), while the values of the coefficients are presented

in Table 2.1. The coefficients of the viscous part of the reaction for­
ces/moment in surge direction can be found in Figure 3.10, while the va­
lues of the transverse resistance coefficients are C(Jl) = 2.402, 0.49,
1.439,

0.361

along

the length

between

sections 0-2, 2-4, 4-18,

18-20

respectively as can be read from Figure 3.14.

The mean wave drift forces/moment in the regular waves as function of
the relative wave angle were computed by means of the direct

pressure

integration

transfer

method

[2-3].

The

results in terms of quadratic

functions are presented in Figure 5.2.
135 deg
150 deg
160 deg
170 deg
180 deg.

V

-30

4000

150

-20

//

1 V*

100

/
i

i

^

-10

%
' i-M*

/

/

\ /

J

1 '
1/

50

)>

0.5

1.0

0.5

\
/

2000

/

^t %W

_--^
-2000

1.0

0.5

1.0

Wave frequency in rad.s
Figure 5.2

The quadratic transfer function of the wave drift force
components as function of relative wave direction

For

the

mean

wave

drift

damping

coefficient

in the

regular

waves

a

constant coefficient Bi is taken into account only. The value is derived
from the quadratic transfer function as is given in Figure 2.11. With
regard to the value of the still water damping B

u

the value of B^ con­

tributes significantly. As is shown in [5-1] it may be assumed that for
the sway and yaw modes of motion the mean wave drift damping is small.
Moreover, due to the appropriate large viscous damping, the wave drift

178

9 4. T 10 rad.4 0.2.63 11.74 11.3.1 4.785 8. located 4.8 0. Model tests The model tests have been carried out in the Wave and Current Laboratory of MARIN at a scale of 1:82. The yaw motion and the hawser force were also re­ corded.m-1 0. Both the linear and the rotational motions were measured by means of optical tracking devices. During the model tests the horizontal mo­ tions at point A (= fairlead.45 4.5.1 2Ca in s m B ■5i ll tf.7 0.63 12.07 10.924 6.damping in the sway and yaw modes of motion is deleted.5' x A (2) = 0 m 179 .s.1 4.m -1 tf.5 m in front of the fore perpen­ dicular) were measured in an earth-fixed system of co-ordinates as indi­ cated in Figure 5.45 2.88 7.s Table 5.9 0.785 8.00 11.75 10.14 3.1 3.4 The damping coefficients for the surge mode of motion 5.0 0.0 3.7 0. Under influence of the environment the tanker was kept under the following start condition: x6 = +7.s.3.14 4.0 5.1 3.00 12.72 12.69 9.00 10.40 10.88 7.974 6.23 10.69 9.1 0.1.9 4. The values for the still water and wave drift damping coefficients for the surge direc­ tion as applied to the computations are presented in Table 5.98 11.

Evaluation of reROD .3^_Tanker moored_b2_a_bow_hawser_ex22sed_to_current 5.1.4. BOW HAWSER — A 5.and in the x A (Indirection +x (1) restrained by the bow haw­ ( ^ ^ = 180° ser force.6. Of the steady parts of the computations and mea­ surements the amplitudes of the motions xA(l)> x A (2) and Xg and the maximum bow hawser force are plotted in Figure 5. A plot of the behaviour of the tanker and the bow hawser force is given in Figure 5. Introduction To 180 evaluate the resistance force and moment components in current. UNIVERSAL JOINT sults RELEASE JOINT x 6 (0) = 7-5° +X 1 In Figure 5. low .14 s. The results of the yaw periods are presented in the same figure.2. As a result of the unstable be­ RELEASE JOINT haviour of the system the t = 0 : PULLING UP OF RODS —c5= = ^VTT-^T-CTT-TV^C^V: \*«.3 Set-up of the model test tic mean wave drift force in that particular regular wave. which would have been the result of the sta­ Figure 5.». 5.72 m and T = 7. At t=0 the tan­ ker FIXED SPM was released and the measurements were started.4 the compari­ x « 2 —" * 6 son of the results of the —1 Gl simulation \\ and the model test is presented for 2C \\ ROD UNIVERSAL JOINT . = 4.3. A good agreement is found between the computed and measured values.5.vvvvvv\vv dynamic loads in the hawser increase to 160 tf instead STAND of 49 tf.

6.. + X.)i.4. = -(Mfa.7) and (3. .. 22 2 26 6 11 1 6 2stat 2dyn 2m (l.7). + a. + X.14 s MEASURED of a tanker moored by means of a bow hawser -10S decay simulations COMPUTED -'V motion u <] V A \f. 6 66 6 62 2 6stat 6dyn 6m (5.2.5) the equations of motion can be written as follows: (M+a.x.x.3. + X. = 4. The simulations are com­ pared with the results of model tests. Computations Following the equations (3. The tanker was exposed to current with speeds of 2 and 3 knots.frequency 2.+a. D- ^^niDIET ^S\/IW Ji\J V* IFVrYl \JV\1 4000 *MmM 0 2000 4000 Time in s Figure 5. + X. + X..4 Time domain results from simu­ lation and model test (bow haw­ load The non-linear deflection curve as used for both hawsers is presented in Figure 5. „ . (3.1. = (M+a„)x„x. The bow haw­ ser A i i\ was connected to a f ^Kj irfVT^ wnöiü iör/zi fixed pile. + X + X.T ■ 7.5 m water depth. The tanker 100 concerns the fully and in­ AfnVA fnV ^-vv /-\A ^-A" termediately ^M^^\ loaded 200 kTDW tanker moored in 82.2. For both the computations and the model tests an unloaded hawser lengths of 45 and 75 m were applied.4. M f 1/ V 1 were carried out. + X.)'i..1. 11 1 22 2 6 lstat ldyn lm (M+a0. .1) 181 .„x„ = X.-Vx. ser length 75 m) 5.3.72 m .)x + a„.2..

3.The current defined direction as in Figure 3. Model tests Figure 5.4. 5. During the tests only the yaw angle was measured.6.1.3 was 4>c = 180 degrees. The coefficients for the steady current relative forces/moment components are shown in Figure 3.2. FF(I80°)=49 t: 5. Evaluation of results For the initial conditions for both the computations and the model tests a similar procedure is followed as for the still water case with regular waves. Sensitivity computations using the present formulation and the formula­ tions given by Molin [3-13] and Obokata [3-14] showed that the value of 182 . The description of the basin is given in Section 3.3. In Figure 5.5 Relation between the tanker motion and the bow hawser force The SPM model tests carried out in the were Shallow Water Laboratory of MARIN. through the basin. as is shown in Figure 5.3.3. Current speeds of 2 and 3 knots were simulated by towing the set-up.3.18. The va­ lues used x(l) of the for coefficients the potential inertia parts are given in Table 2.4.7 the results of the motion decay tests as obtained from the simulations and the model tests are presented. For the vis­ cous part current of the dynamic contribution coefficients are the used as derived in Section 3.

■ £ o 2. This factor was applied to all time domain computations for the 3-DOF model. 183 . The simulation model was modified by multiplying the longitudinal steady current force component by a factor 2. The dynamic component in surge direction due to the coupling of the low frequency surge and the low frequency yaw motion was not investigated. .6 Results of computations and model tests the steady relative current force in longitudinal direction will influ­ ence the decay of the motion in the horizontal plane. To fit the results of the model tests the longitudinal steady current force has to be increased to some extent. In the mentioned cases the tanker performs stable decaying motions after the release from the initial start position.0 m ■ 11 WAVE PERIOD in s Figure 5. In spite of the very small value in relation to the other force/moment components the influence on the yaw motion was considerable.& "S"'^ -^ tt A \ X 0 ■ " 1 \ o . Tne reason may be found in some scatter in the experimen­ tally determined resistance coefficient in head current C. (180°) but also may be force caused by the dynamic behaviour of the tanker.0 ID WAVE HEIGHT 5.^ —"' o ' 400 ■. 5 ü o ^-1 5 \ 5 7 a 9 7 9 II WAVE PERIOD in s 11 «AVE PERIOD in s >V 7 COMPUTED 9 MEASURED BOW HAWSER LENGTH 75 m WAVE HEIGHT 3.

Xg Figure 5.54 m. 9 9 m = +6.6° LOADING CONDITION: 70* T awser l e n g t h = 45 m 1.11 m x(1) = -231. 13231 Measured: Test No. t c = 180° xA(1) 25r i n 11 0 Vc = 1.5° Results of the motion decay in current .s" 1 .12 m . 2 m . if = 180° x A (1) 25r in m 0 u Hawser length = 75 = 1 ""■ m c ' * = Computed Computed x A (2) 25 in m 0 x6 iu i n deg FF \ 50 [A _ A.7 184 conditions: x(1) = . x ( 2 ) = . jt(2) = .33° = +5. 5 m .2 2 7 . 13241 Measured: Test No. 13211 n Initial conditions: x ( l ) = -205.54 m.s" 1 .31 m xc xc = +6.2 9 .33° = +7. — in tf „ 7 V v^^— 1800 10 1800 3600 Time i n s Time i n s Measured: Test No.s" 1 .97 m .2 1 . 13221 3600 in deg Initail x(1) = .LOADING CONDITION: 100% T Hawser l e n g t h = 45 m Hawser length = 75 m Vc = 1. x(2) = -30. 9 5 m x. * Computed 25r = 18 Computed 0 _ = = _ _ = = = = = x A (2) 2 5 r in m 0 3600 H 10 in deg 3600 Measured: Test No.1 9 8 . x(2) = -27.03 m.

Linear equations of motion were obtained by means of a Taylor expansion to the first order yielding the following equations: 185 .8.3. The solution of the characteristic equations characteristics due to small deviations around position establish of the tanker in the steady gives to be sol­ the motion the static equilibrium current and wind field.4.1. conditions have to be found in which the tanker performs large amplitude unstable motions in the horizontal plane. To the equations of motion equation (3. Dynamic stability of a tanker moored by a bow hawser The procedure of determining the DYNAMICALLY STABLE dynamic Monotonically Oscillatory moored xA(1) stability of a tanker by a bow hawser has been extensively presented and evalu­ xA(2) ated by Wichers in [5-2 ].7) has to linearized.2. Definitions of the dynamic stability in general are graphically shown in Figure 5. 5.To evaluate the low frequency viscous terms in the equations of motion. For the Monotonically Oscillatory sign convention reference is made xA(1) xA(2) to Figure 3.4^_Tanker moored by a bow hawser exposed to wind and current 5. Figure 5. For unstable behaviour will be stable or of the moored tanker a steady current and wind DYNAMICALLY UNSTABLE field will be considered. By means of the Routh crite­ rion the dynamic instability can be established.8 Graphical representation For the of dynamic stability bility of the system the characte­ determination of the sta- ristic equations have ved. In the following the method briefly described.

4.(0)) = mean bow hawser force component in k direction x (0) = tanker heading in the equilibrium position o x^ = tanker yaw with regard to the equilibrium heading x.(0) Considering the linearized equations of motion about the equilibrium position and taking into account the appropriate coefficients we obtain: 6 E m J_I x. .(0)) = mean external force component in k direction due to wind and current X. J J ax (x (o)) ax (x.4) in which: Xj - A- = constant. ke(V0)) ÖX J ox.6 (5. . + B x.1. + X.6 (5.2. = 0 K KJ J fcJ J J J for k = 1. + b.2. = potential damping coefficients at low frequencies and ÖX .x.1.£ ((M. dependent on the initial disturbance a = complex coefficient m kj " 186 V M e - kj+akj . öx. x . J ke^6 ( 0 ) 1 x. . . (x.4.1.4.(0)) X + X \m = *|JV » ^ ^ i ^ ^ i 0 km km o + öx_ J j ^ C5. (x.+a.6 and j = 1.2.1) i n which: a.2. . ) x . ) = X. = added mass coefficients at low frequencies in k direction due to j mode of motion b k .3) j J in which: X.j=1 kj kj 3 kj y ke Tem for j = 1. + c .6 and k = 1.

ox.6 are symbolically expressed as determinants: lj D 2j D 3j m m 2j B "lj lj 3j + B 2i m 3j + V m 2j m 3i 187 .4.6) Since it is assumed that {A} é 0. the following determinant results 2 ma + Ba + c I = 0 (5. Equation (5.1.4) can be written as: A. a + S. = 0 1 0 (5. a + Sca 6 5 + S.2.A.2.6 (5.1.7) On expansion this determinant may be arranged as S. Therefore.4.8) in which the coefficients for j = 1. the condition of the motion can be deter­ mined by the sign of the real part of a.1.a + S.6 and j =1. . = 0 AM kj J kj j for k = 1.5) or in matrix form: [ma + Ba + C]{A} = 0 (5.ö + c. the motion converges.1.2. 3 kj kj ai.a 4 3 2 + S.4. . The motion diverges in the plus case.ÖXke (x 6 (0)) + b. When the real part of a is minus.A. j ÖX JX6(0)) 'kj Ö \e^6(0)) öx.1.4.a + B. .4. The complex coefficient defines the characteristics of the motion. a + S.

x . can be written as follows (neglecting the damping due to the wind): cosU-x (0)) B 2X X ll = lc^c. + a^ 8 X B16 = 0 .x ^ O ) ) + b B 21 = 188 2X x (0 2c<V 6 >> U . = m lj 2j C B C B 3j m s„ = 'ij B 2j + + C 3j B o= + 2j 3j C 3j U C 2j C B C 2j C 3j c lj C 2j C 3j + 2j m 3j + C 2j C 3j + + B C + m + m 3j m 3j C lj + 2j C 2j C + 2j + l. 4 ( a 2 2 .4.1.a u ) V c s i n ^ .n s.i 2j C m 3j U C 2j B 3j (5. VM (* .V ° » ^ sinU-x (0)) ^ + b cos(Vx6(0)) ^ + b 12 16 OX.x 6 ( 0 ) ) V l n ( V X ax •- 6 ( 0 ) ) .x (0)) cosU -x.i 23 3J m 3j C U 2j B + U 2j C 3j B m m U B 3j C U B B U 2j B 3J C + 2j 3j B U 2j m B U B B U B + 3j B lj B C C C 3j B l. ( 0 ) ) s i n ( 6 . v f. the linearized damping and spring coefficients respectively Bj.3.i B m 3j 2j 3j l.9) Following the definition In Figure 3. and Cj.(0)) ' c "6 i A . „^S 12 " 2 X l c ( ( P c .x .i "ij m 2j + 2j B "ij s 3j "IJ lj 2j m + C + l.6(°)) R B . ( 0 ) ) 2c c 6V + b 21 a<i> cr li .

x ( 0 ) . ( 0 ) ) V 5 61 6c v c 6 -1 V_ c ÖX. " —^r— "626 er e + D 66 2 ^ FF . c -x 6 (0). + b v ö<|> V '" 6 1 Z><\> V_ er c sln(c(. DC + b 'V.x ( 0 ) ) + S7— 22-aU)Vc " . ( 0 ) ) B.x . 2 c x l = CE cos y + j-g.2XA (* .£ = T) "26 " "22"" C 61 = " F F " r ax 2e (x 6 ( 0) : C 0 S " " ^' " öx £ 189 .. .( V X 6 ( 0 ) ) + b £ V 7 — + b22 26 cos((l> .x .. 6C 6 ° 6 .x ( 0 ) ) sln(cb .cy '+ _ _ (L/2-FB) 3 + (L/2+FB) 3 B B 66 ~ 3L 22 *C ÖX 6c (<|. O . c -x 6 (0)) «62-2x6c(Vx6(o)) .sin(cp -x ( 0 ) ) 2X X *22 = 2c^c.6<°^ B 26 = (a ÖX U -x ( 0 ) ) cos(<P . c -x 6 (0)) cos(<|.s i n Y C 12 = FF ~ LË^ (CE C0SY SlnY ÖX c = e12AG + FF slny leK ( °ll O C 21 °21 2 c 2 2 = CE s i n Y FF + ^Ë 2 cos _ C C A G C 21AG -.

10) öx.1.vo) Y LE = length of hawser with mean load in the equilibrium position FF = mean hawser load in equilibrium position CE = derivative of the static load deflection curve at position LE and FF AG =longitudinal distance between centre of gravity and position of fairlead By varying the parameters of the system and solving equation (5.5 ^ ^ ~'^ the loaded stability 2» draft) the criterion been determined. Of the 6 complex solutions. of Based on Station 10 >S / y/ has Therefore the tanker was exposed to 2 kn current and 60 knot wind speed.4. 5.2. y . The stability crite­ ( V*6* in deg 'V K 6' in de9 rion was determined function Figure 5. 70% and 40% ■'—■"*■». intermediate ballasted condition and (res­ pectively 100%. Determination of the stability criterion For the 200 kTDW tanker in loaded. all real parts have to be negative for the motions to be convergent (stable).C 62 " c = fifi "66 C 22AG ( c"22 o9AG ~ Vl FF cosy)AG (5.4.1.A.9 190 The wind forces/moment coeffi­ length cients [5-3] current of and and as the hawser angle between wind.8) the convergence or divergence of the motion can be determined by the sign of the real part of a. The . in which: . 0.

For the computation of the coefficients use has been made of the mass coefficients as given in Table 2. who indicate that Figure 5. it is shown in Figure 5. Finally time domain simulations were carried out to check the stability of the system for the 70%T 191 . Time domain simulations were carried out of which the results were com­ pared with the results of model test.10 it can be read that the 70%T and 40%T loaded tanker exposed to the specified parallel directed wind and current will be in the unstable region. plane with increasing tween wind and current In order to evaluate the equations of motion for the unstable behaviour of the tanker in 2kn current. From Figure 5.s = 60 kn lity criterion are given in Figure computed 5. The wind coefficients are presented in Figure 5. The results of the computed stabi­ = 1. [5-4J. This agrees with the conclusion of Strandhagen et al.9.10 a towed Stability criterion vessel will become unstable in the based on the bow hawser horizontal length and angle be­ length of the towing line. 60 kn wind an unloaded hawser length of 90 m has been chosen.static load-deflection curve of the hawser was assumed to be independent of the hawser length.18 were applied. From the result it can be lengthening result in of concluded the unstable that hawser may behaviour of the tanker.10. For the wind loads on the tanker the data were used as presented by Remery and van Oortmerssen [5-3].03 m. For the fully loaded tanker unstability will occur for a bow hawser longer than 120 m. while for the current loads and their deriva­ tives the results as presented in Figure 3.1 (the potential damping coefficients are assumed to be zero).1.

3.4.4.x. see Figure 3.„)x.-)*. .4. C 0 ((|/ )(A TO + (H-T)L)V 2w A 2w wr v LS ' wr 192 contribution the coef­ . while the potential damping coefficient b. = (M+a.3..-. 2 26 6 11 1 6 2stat 2dyn 2w 2m C^+a. „ + X. .2.(Mfa.x. „ + X. X. ..18.1.. + X. Computations The tanker with the specified loading conditions was moored in 82. 11 1 22 2 6 lstat ldyn lw lm i') * (M+a 22 )x. = .x.6. + X.2 "T)B\ 2 X„ = V .6. The wind forces are defined as: X lw = ^ A W ^ T S + (H .)x.5 m water depth and connected by means of the hawser to a fixed pile. + a. The load-deflection curve of the 90 m long hawser is presented in Figure 5.Jx. X.4. + X. . (3. + X 0 + X.3.5) the equations of motion can be written as: (M+a. Following the equations (3.1) ' in which: X. 5. + X.10.= X. + X.1.1. The values of the coefficients used for the potential inertia parts of the reaction forces/moment are given in Table 2. = 0. .4. For the viscous part of the dynamic current ficients are used as derived in Section 3.loading condition with an angle a of 45 and 90 degrees between the wind and the current. = the steady wind force/moment components lw 2w 6w For the definition of the system of co-ordinates and the definition of the weather directions. see Figure 5. The coefficients for the steady relative current are shown in Figure 3.7). _ _ + X.7) and (3. 62 2 6stat 6dyn 6w 6m (5. + X.. + 6 66 6 a £o X .

At the projected location of the tanker the wind field was adjusted by means of an anemometer. The wind field in the basin was generated by means of a battery of portable electrically driven wind fans. see Table 2. 193 .X 6w " ^A C 6w^„r^ A LS + ( H " T ) L ) L V wr " X 2 w F B (5 '4-3-2> in which: p.5.4. For the further nomenclature.00013 tfs2m . The fans were placed some distance from the testing area.4. The wind coefficients are shown in Figure 5.11 Test set-up with the tanker in the wind and current field. Figure 5.1. Following [5-3] the wind force coefficients are defined on base of linear interpolation of the loading condition. 5. The test set-up is shown in Figure 5.11. The width of the battery was as large as was necesssary for the adjustment of a homoge­ neous wind flow over the testing area. Model tests The SPM model tests were carried out in the Wave and Current Laboratory at a model scale of 1:82.10. = specific density of air = 0.

As v4.3.03 m. x g = +7. Both the linear and the rotational motions were measured by means of optical tracking devices.5° Figure 5. It can be concluded that the results of the computations are in good agreement with the results of the model tests.12 and Figure 5.20 m . The yaw motion and the hawser force were also recorded.s~] .4 0 r T e s t No.13 the comparison of the results of the si­ mulation and the model test for the unstable tanker conditions are pre­ sented.During the model tests the horizontal motions at point A (= fairlead) were measured in an earth-fixed system of co-ordinates as indicated in Figure 3. 5.9 m. Evaluation of results In Figure 5. 23883 in m xA(2) unstable behaviour of the Computed -90 50 in m 50r i n deg FF g 100 in t f n 0 1800 1800 3600 Time in s Initial conditions: x(1) = -253. ^ c = 180° Measured: (1) .s" .64 m .12 Computed and measured behaviour of the unstable tanker in wind and current (60% loaded) 194 .5. Contrary to the 60% loaded condition the tanker in ballast condition performs considerably large motion amplitudes. i|> = 180° 30.4.= x a result of the 1. x(2) = -19.

03 m.s"1 . x(2) = -19.64 m .5° Figure 5.^^AA/VVVA/WWV 50 0 50 x 6 in deg FF 0 100 in tf 0 3600 1800 Time in s Initial conditions: x(1) = -250. * c = 180° V = 30.493 m . x g = +7.9 m.14. For the integration procedures of the computations of the low frequency oscillations reference is made to Section 6.5. In these conditions the model tests showed a stable behaviour of the system also. V -1 =1.13 Computed and measured behaviour of the unstable tanker in wind and current (25% loaded) The computed results of the stable conditions with the 70%T loaded tan­ ker are shown in Figure 5. The measured and computed equili­ brium positions are shown in Figure 5.15. A good agreement exists be­ tween the computed and measured results.s"' . 2393 -40 rComputed -90 -90 x A (D in m xft(2) . = 180° w w Measured: -40 r Test No.ballasted tanker the dynamic loads in the hawser increase to values of up to 255 tf instead of 87 tf as results from the static calculation. * . 195 .

03 m.9 m.49° = +66.03 m. 2390 Computed Measured Figure. m Test No..97 m x(1) = -120.s" 1 100. 2389 Tesc No. $ 180° V r = 1.c = 30.9 m.14 3600 = +36. = 30.513 m x.s" xA(1) in m 0 xA(2) -200 50 in m 0 x 6 i n deg FF in t f if = 180° * c = 270° w 200L 50" 50 50 n 0 x A (2) 100 lOOfv/W^^- 0 0 1800 Initial 3500 ' Time i n s 1800 conditions: x(1) = -218.5. x.s" 1 . .15 Computed and measured stable equilibrium position of the stable SPM system 196 . * c = 225° V„w = 30.LOADING CONDITION: 70% T Hawser length = 90 m V = 1 . F i g u r e 5.s V.88 m x(2) = -127.s . 0 3 m.42 m x(2) = -22-1.9 m.s" V.9° Computed behaviour of a s t a b l e SPM system X(2) 100 m 1— Loading condition: 70% T Hawser length = 90 m V r = 1.

F. OTC Paper No.E. K. 5-3 Remery.E. G. J. A. 1741.M. Schoenherr.F. drift damping and Wichers. 2548. G. 1978. Houston.. 1976/Journal of Petroleum Technology of SPE-AIME. 947-958. 6242. Houston. 197 .M.: "On the slow motions of tankers moored to single point mooring systems". and van Oortmerssen. and Kobayashi. Cleveland. Prads. SNAME Spring Meeting. SPE Paper No. J.: "The mean wave. OTC Paper No. pp.: of a moored tanker for "Considerations zero and on wave non-zero drift angle". R. Trondheim. Ohio. 1973.H.E.W.W. 5-4 Strandhagen. June. wind and current forces on offshore structures and their role in the design of mooring systems".: "The dynamic stability on course of towed ships".M.REFERENCES (CHAPTER 5) 5-1 Huijsmans. 5-2 Wichers.G. June 1987. 1950.

4 it was found that under the influence of A 2 kn current and 60 kn wind a <> hawser causes for Figure 6. The weather components consist of a 2 kn cur­ rent. Because the significant wave height for the operational condition is relatively small ■ current: Vc : Vw the = 2. © In Section 5.. wind and irregular waves. Introduction In Chapter 5 the theory of the equations of motion in a current field and also of the stability criterion in wind and current including time domain simulations was evaluated. The weather components were kept con­ stant. three different combinations of directions will be applied for the computations.9 m effect of the wave drift damping coefficients on ' the tanker motions will be = 60. a 60 kn wind and a wave spectrum with a significant height of 3. A review of the environmental conditions is presented in Figure 6-1.0 kn T. The tanker will be the 60% loaded 200 kTDW tanker. for To 199 . For the simulations in wind. 3. waves and current the same mooring system will be used as described in Chapter 5. WIND AND CURRENT 6. In this chapter simulations will be discussed when the tanker is exposed to current.CHAPTER 6 SIMULATION OF THE LOW FREQUENCY MOTIONS OF A TANKER MOORED BY A BOW HAWSER IN IRREGULAR WAVES.1 length dynamic environment Review of the environmental stability conditions on the SPM system environment of 90 1.j w l / 3 .o kn » Wind ^\^~ «ave . The weather conditions are assumed to correspond to operational conditions.1. = io.2 s neglected. while was obtained 2 m unstability and 3.2 s.9 m and a mean period of 10.

2. The results of the computations are compared with the results of the model tests. This scheme tdkes into account the computation procedure for the high frequency motions (six degrees of freedom) and for the low frequency motions (three degrees of freedom in the horizontal plane).simulate the behaviour of the tanker in the mentioned environments a hawser with a length of 90 m was used. the computations. the model tests and the evaluation of the results will be dealt with. TRANS­ FORM­ ATION — CURRE n CUMMINS HIGH FREQUENCY DESCRIP­ FLUID REACTION TION FORCES INERTIA MODEL RELATIVE CURRENT -| LOW FREQUENCY FLUID REACTIVE FORCES (EARTHBOUND) POSITION CONCEPT SOLUTION IN LOCAL SYSTEM ENVIRON­ RELATIVE MENTAL FLOW WIND FORM­ ATION MODEL FIELDS IMPULSE FIRST AND SECOND WAVE RESPONSE WAVE FORCES FIELD FUNCTION CURRENT UINO WIND TRANS­ WAVES MOORING CHARAC­ TERISTICS Figure 6. In the following sections the equations of motions.2 200 MOORING LOADS TRANS­ FORM­ ATION Computation scheme for SPM simulations TIME STEP INTEGRA­ TION IN GLOBAL SYSTEM ORIENTATION VELOCITIES . 6^2^_Equations_of_motion For the simulation a computation scheme was followed as is given in Figure 6.

To solve the motions of the tanker moored by a bow hawser. see equation (2.4.7) X (2) -stat (2) X: = relative current loads.4.2. the equations of motion can be split up into a high frequency and a low frequency part.1. see equation (3. viz. The high frequency part is expressed in linear hydrodynamic terms.t) for k=l(l)6 (6.7). The impulse response technique according to Cummins has been applied.> see equation T \(3.2. see equation (3.6 Xl (2) = hydrodynamic loads caused by the added masses and induced by accelerations and centrifugal effects.2.1.8) / = dynamic current load contributions.9) X(2) -w (2) X = loads induced by the mooring system (2) XJ = time varying second order wave drift force components in the = wind loads horizontal plane as function of the low frequency position of the tanker in the wave field The matrices M and D are defined according to equation (3.2. x ( 1 ) .4.t) = x£ 1 } (x ( 2 ) .1.5): 6 + c °° -x^1? + X ^ (x ( 2 ) .: The low frequency part as a function of the low frequency motion in the horizontal plane can be written as follows: in which: (2) (2) x = X J V ' = low frequency motion components for j = 1.2) 201 .

2.6 (6. the wave load on the floating structure moving near this position can be computed as has been shown by Wichers and van den Boom [6-1 ]. For a long-crested irregular wave train CgCt) defined in a fixed position.di2 for k=l. .^ ) C(s.where: Xj^ ' X k = high frequency motion in j-direction ( x c = hl > ) S h frequency time varying wave forces in the In­ direction as function of the low frequency position of tanker in the wave field Mj.2.t-i2)dT1.3) x[ 2) (x (2) . The distance s is defined as the length between the space-fixed point 0 and the instantaneous low frequency position of the CG of the vessel projected in the direction of the wave propagation.t) = ƒ / g k 2 ) ( x 6 2 > ' V V £ ( s > t _ V C(8. being C Q (t).4) in which C(s. The transformation 202 .x^ ') = mooring force in k-direction due to high frequency motion in j-direction as function of the low fre­ quency position of the tanker The wave exciting loads are functions of the vessel's position and of time. The computation of the wave loads using convolution integrals based on the wave height at the actual (instantaneous) position of the vessel in the wave field can be formulated as follows: CD X^Cx^.'. = matrix of inertia of the vessel m^j = matrix of added inertia KJ^J .t-T)dT for k=l(l)6 (6.t) stands for the wave elevation at the actual location of of the vessel (CG) and can be obtained from the wave elevation at the space fixed point 0.2.•'(x*. = matrix of retardation function c^j = matrix of hydrostatic restoring forces XJJJ^J*.t) = ƒ g ^ C x ^ .

3) and equation (6.t) in which: F { 1 ^ (6.2it and W(s.w) = — C(s.5) -H» / W(s.Uj) By applying this computation procedure the instantenèous phase relation between the motions and the waves will be taken into account properly.4) are found from the Fourier transform of the correspon­ ding frequency domain transfer functions: i1^'^ (2).t) e C(0.u)lfu2) + iQ(x6(2> . A d u 1 2 V : -<= -°° (6.2.t 0 ttie of the reference wave CnCt) required position will be: GO C(s. (2) (x 4 6W -2Ï / ^ ( « f U e ^ . The linear and quadratic kernels g ^ ' and g^ ' in equation (6.2.8) in which: a ( ^ ^ ( x ^ 2 ^ .d » .T) = — ^ 2% iWt du .6) } denotes the Fourier transform.2. ^ ) = P(x6(2>.t) C (t-x)dT u 0 (6. (2) G (x 7TT2 ' / k 6 ' W (2it) (6-2.t) = ƒ w(s.2.^. It should be noted that this transformation of the wave elevations is only valid for neighbouring locations. e i(ü) lTr W 2 V . = 1 f" f~„(2).u) e where W(S.7) .2. 203 .

For the computations use will be made of the formulation given in equa­ tion (6. the transfer functions of the first order wave forces G^ ' and the quadratic transfer functions G ^ ' can be computed with potential theory. . the description of the equations for both the high and low frequency motions were pre­ sented. Due to the dynamic stability. except for the wave drift force components. 6. For the small amplitude. while in accordance with Figure 5.3. The mean position can be computed by applying the wind. Computations In the previous section.3.12 dynami­ cally stable motions were obtained for environments 2 and 3.11 shows that the motions are dynamically unstable for environment 1. the low frequency added mass coefficients.1). being x(l).The high frequency hydrodynamic reaction coefficients. In order to account properly for the relatively large amplitude motions for environment 1 the computations of the wave drift force components have to be carried out in accordance with equation (6. x 2 ' '(t) and x 6 ^ 2 ^(t).4. mean wave drift. and current load components to the tanker. The equations of the low frequency motions.1). for sake of completeness. In current and wind Figure 5. model the wave loads are a function of the mean position of the tanker in the wind.2. x(2) and x. For the large amplitude model the wave loads are supposed to be a function of X]^ 2 '(t). Since the present computations concern the low frequency motions only the high frequency part will be deleted from now on. the small amplitude model is applied to environments 2 and 3. being the large amplitude model.3.4. current and wave field.4).2. correspond to equation (5. 204 . For the present computation the same input data will be used as presented in Section 5.

W « ^ .3..V ■C(ï. 200° for 205 .2. see equation (2. By means of the cubic spline interpolation method the main diagonals for different angles of wave attack were determined from. . For the computations the tanker hull was schematized. The matrices G^ with frequency differences 0.3.1.t-t2)dT1dx.3). 180°.3.For the large amplitude model.7.02 rad.2. 170°. were composed by approximating the in-phase components P^-M by taking P. The results of the quadratic transfer function P u ^ a s func­ tion of the wave direction are given in Table 6. the correction of the wave drift force components to the low frequency surge motion with regard to the length of the appropriate wave group components will be small.II were neglected. being the distance between the position of the reference wave height and the mean position of the tanker.the results given (2) -1 in Table.6.2 O O for k=l. For the computations the wave drift force components can be simplified as: CO 2) 00 (2) x[ (x . Therefore in equation (6. Because of the very low natural frequencies of the system the matrices Gi.s for the relative wave directions <p = 160°..6 (6. however.t) = / ƒ 4 2 ) ( x 6 2 ) . see Figure 6.1) in which: (2) xfiv ' = instantaneous yaw angle in environment 1 Xgv(2) ' = mean heading of the tanker for environments 2 and 3 s = projected distance (CG tanker-wave) for the wave transformation The low frequency added masses a k 1 and the quadratic transfer functions of the drift forces P ^ ^ in regular waves were computed for the tanker considered.1. The quadrature components QT.4) the correction can be reduced to a constant value. 190°.

0 -6.0 -229.4 0.9 0.7 -13.4 0.3 0.3 272.0 0.0 18.3 4.0 0.7 0.0 562.6 1.0 0.9 -12.7 1070.0 0. 1 -13.0 -260.3 0.3 1.6 -5.4 55.9 -18.0 0.8 100.0 0.6 6.5 -12.2 0.9 0.70 U.9 120.0 -1662.3 1414.4 96.8 0.i . 0.0 -0.5 -15.1 0.6 -35.4 0.1 1 .6 -773.80 9.9 .3 0.0 -9.2 0.1 97.9 2869.2 396.6 601.7 42.9 25.5 148.3 1662.4 -12.0 200 knw .0 -0.3 4.2 98.2 0.4 158.0 1780.6 0.0 -0.0 0.0 -907.0 -1723.0 -135.7 -276.3 4.0 .0 0.0 -1107.1 167. .6 4.5 0.9 -11.5 464.5 -0.0 237.9 1785.0 0.0 319.7 0.4 .7 0.1 -10.85 3.1 0.9 152.8 68.8 -793.3 745.1 695.1 13-2 668.1 -0.0 0.5 -15.8 122.3 -11.2 11.1 0.2 -3.5 11.8 0.5 -3085.2 28.6 7.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 146.9 -142.0 1.5 -1212.3 2.7 95.6 -352.5 0.6 14.9 -9.3 -2.2 7.4 45.0 57.0 45.8 29.0 -932.1 14.0 -68.0 4.7 .7 2.4 122.0 23.8 0.0 0.3 -1581.0 -191.6 -2024.4 0.8 0.4 .3 .0 -2750.5 104.40 0.0 2493.4 0.1 8.4 0.0 24.65 15.4 0.7 -10.5 95.4 0.0 0.00 6.7 -4.8 -6.3 66.6 -11.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 -290.4 -9.7 85.8 12.0 24.9 87.0 -1581.2 126.1 0.0 -512.0 -17.5 741.30 0.82.6 12.5 1230.0 31.9 0.3 0.7 -913.4 24.1 0.0 0.7 0.3 62.3 158.3 -1.75 5.3 8.9 0. 2 -2384.2 -1025.8 -546.1 0.4 -10.8 -5.9 0.1 91. 3 -0.2 914.7 -14.2 9.up* or tf .4 0.5 8.8 1149.0 -1.05 2. *<2> /Ca frequency in rad.1 -12.9 -626.1 928.4 0.3 168.5 0.2 -12.5 -0. 3 -0.8 In tf .3 0.9 23.0 27.6 -10.4 0.7 -9.0 27.4 0.5 m t a t e r depth -9.0 0.95 2.4 6.5 0.3 952.10 6.0 -571.0 0.1 10.1 0.5 144.8 86.ON direction/ frequency 0' 20" 45" 70" 110" 135" 160" 180" 0' 20" 45' 2 70" 90' 110" 135" 160" 180" 0" 20' 45" 70" ■ xfW xf'fc.0 0.0 -659.2 0.7 -4.9 -2.5 118.4 -10.7 -256.1 3.3 135.6 51.0 -493.0 1040.1 340.1 0.1 145.4 10.3 83.0 9.6 1390.4 -18.5 9.5 -401.7 -943.1 0.5 0.9 -10.2 135.1 .0 0.0 90.9 97.3 -10.9 1602.4 0.0 0.0 -1241.0 9.0 -1451.0 5.9 0.0 -178.0 33.8 -2224.7 522.2 145.5 0.90 7.7 235.9 -11.7 0.9 -2.2 128.0 0.7 8.9 -1219.2 102.7 131.9 5.5 0.0 -3.4 20.0 0.0 89.0 0.8 -3242.9 35.7 97.0 0.0 0.4 103.0 0.7 12.2 9.0 -203.2 0.0 .2 0.3 133.8 60.5 0.0 0.7 136.2 83.0 -0.5 0.1 983.0 -9.1 160.9 8. 1 -7.2 0.50 7.2 770.1 73.4 -10.3 25.6 -1019.5 845.0 0.1 9.2 8.7 -7.3 0.1 129.4 271.7 2.0 0.0 0.5 18.1 .9 -9.8 -2043.5 138.2 0.0 15.3 1. ui a» 90" 90" 110" 135" 160" 180" *>2 0.1 2025.5 -640.0 69-6 1767.5 ■7.5 53.5 0.0 21.0 .0 0.35 0.8 127.0 0.0 0.H 2 .5 -11.0 -24.4 -16.4 9.4 31.1 419.4 26.3 -3527.0 -11.0 0.5 2.55 7.9 -6.6 153.1 6.0 0.1 0 .9 84.7 19.0 27.9 -625.7 8.m"1 -110.1 -1206.6 81.3 18.7 13.8 147.7 -7.2 136.0 -2828.4 265.8 0.4 0. 6 -9.60% loaded .0 -264.6 -1273.0 -548.7 0.0 0.0 7.9 .9 -0.2 .2 -14.3 7.1 120.0 0.1 -1486.60 10.2 0.1 7.0 200.0 35.1 89.7 -879.4 100.9 -100.9 -9.0 -1.1 119.2 -2300.6 -1009-5 1595.0 0.5 13. 1 .0 -3598.7 1977.2 0.3 0.0 1.4 -16.6 U5.0 -167.4 0.5 6.5 -195.0 14.0 0.0 38.0 -0.3 114.0 1.45 5.0 0.9 -998.5 -16.4 .0 24.5 0.5 -1849.0 . 3 .4 3.3 -14.2 131.0 3.0 0.0 0.1 37.9 120.3 0.s" 99.0 8.0 0.

Figure 6.7 and.6.6. For the computation of the mean heading of tanker the spectra of the adjusted waves were applied. The results of the time domain computations of the low frequency motions and the hawser force are presented in Figures 6.8. (60% loaded) (symmetrical starboard side) On base of linear interpolation of w.55° and 205. Although 207 . of the mentioned pre-processed regi­ strations on base of the instantaneous value of the relative wave angle. and u. The last mentioned wave angles were results of the computed mean headings of the tanker for the appropriate weather conditions.7 and 6.8.8° for the environments 2 and 3 respectively were composed. The wave registrations are presented in the Figures 6. During the simulation for environment 1 the drift force components were obtained by linear interpolation. 6. For the mentioned drift relative wave angles the registrations of the wave force components were computed and stored for the simulations.6. ) = 218.3 Facet distribution of the tanker hull. 6. in the matrices the Fourier transforms have been applied to obtain the quadratic impulse response (2) functions g^ ' • For the computation of the registration of the wave drift force compo­ nents use was made of the wave registration as simulated in the model basin. The spectra are shown in Figure 6.4.environment 1 and C|J ( X .

Test No.4. waves 3 =3.Tt=10. the basin and the measuring set-up. 2371) and current out to were carried the mooring shift pile in order to adjust the mean position of the CG of I the 7\. Each sea state was prepared for a test duration of 2 hours.0 •1.4 208 Measured wave spectra tanker were .1 s.4. Due to zero speed in the start condition the first hour is required to account for the transient phenomena. only the com­ puted registration of the last 1 hour is shown.3. =10. \ / and the horizontal motions 1.3. 6^4^_Model tests For the description of the tests.0 kn. wave / / current (? w wave 1 current ( trial tests in wind.3.A tanker location above were the the waves were calibrated.97 m.5 at the location of the fairlead and the yaw angle of the measured. reference is made to Section 4.3 s. During the tests the bow hawser force . After the adjustment of the homogeneously distributed current speed of 2 kn the waves were calibrated.91 n. Prior to the actual tests.the wave train duration was 2 hours for the full scale. The waves were adjusted at one location in the basin. Figure 6. The spectra are shown in Figure 6. Current velocity 2. and Section 5. For the waves running parallel with and perpendicular to the current approximately the same spectrum type was adjusted. 2369) =3.

0 degrees smaller for environment 2 and 3 respectively. waves and cur­ rent an explanation is hard to give. As mentioned earlier the measured signals were not filtered. see Figure 6.8. ' 2\i^ 5Y2i"a£i2ÏL2Ë results In Figure 6-5 the mean positions of the tanker exposed to environments 2 and 3 are presented.The measured results presented as the mean positions of the tanker are shown in Figure Figures 6. The effect of doubling the longitu­ dinal current component as used for all time domain computations will result in a surge and sway displacement only. In Figures 6.5.6.6. With regard to the model test results the computed headings were found to be 9. As discussed before the mean positions as derived from computations and model tests did not completely correspond to each other. The system is dominated by the low fre­ quency motions of the tanker.5.good agreement with the measured results. Due to the combined action of wind. For the considered conditions it can be concluded that the high frequency. while the time domain plots are presented in and 6.8 the results of the model tests are presented as time domain plots.7 6.5. which is directed per­ pendicular to the direction of the wave propagation.4 and 4. The wave potential will not be affected by current. components hardly contribute to the motions or the hawser force.7 and 6. The results are given relative to the initial start condition as indicated in Figure 6.8 it can be concluded that the computed low frequency components are in rea­ sonably.7 and 6. 6. The presented time domain results were not filtered.6. In order to compare the low frequency results the mean values of the computed results were shifted to coincide with the means of the measured signals. The results are given relative to the starting position. 6. 6. All signals were recorded with 25 samples per second. 209 . Furthermore the deviation can not be explained by the increase of the drift force in current. From the results in Figures 6.

waves and current 210 .MEAN POSITION TANKER START POSITION x(1) Environment 3 100 m x(Z) START POSITION 100 m Figure 6.5 The measured and computed mean position of the bow hawser moored tanker in wind.

2369) Environment 1 I|I =180° .50 50.6 4000 5000 6000 Time in s 7000 The measured and computed results of the tanker exposed to weather environment 1. ii =180° . I|I =180° 2.00- *A<2> J A 3600 Figure 6. 23884 (wave test No.00 FF tf MEASURED COMPUTED + 10.Test No. 211 .

2389 (wave test No.50 MEASURED COMPUTED +10.00 x A (2) i 3600 ■ ■ i ■ 4000 ■ ■ 5000 6000 7000 Time in s Figure 6.tanker 60X loaded * =270° . if =180° 2.Test No.7 The measured and computed results of the tanker exposed to weather environment 2. 2371) Environment 2 . 212 .00 ♦10. + =225° .

00 A 6 deg.t a n k e r 60% loaded 2. 213 .00 xA(1) +10. 2371) Environment 3 .Test No.00 FF tf MEASURED COMPUTED +10.8 The measured and computed results of the tanker exposed to weather environment 3.50 M^MJifrnA^A 50.00 xA(2) I 3600 ■■ I 4000 5000 6000 7000 Time i n s Figure 6. -10. 2390 (wave t e s t No.

For the time domain simulation of the low frequency motions the computa­ tional scheme was followed as presented in Figure 6-2. It is assumed that the position and the velocities of the ship in the global system of co-ordinates x(j) and x(j) for j=l.6) the absolute ship's accelerations along system of co-ordinates are: 214 the instantaneous directions of the local . For the computation of the input data for the simulation program pre-proces­ sing programs were used.2.6 are known. To compute the values of the separate terms in the model the position of the vessel in the global system of co-ordinates x(j) and the velocities in the vessel-bound or local system of co-ordinates x. in the local system of co-ordinates computation of the large amplitude motions can be solved. For the following the integration procedure has been applied. According to equation (3.Finally some remarks will be given on the computational procedure with respect to the integration procedure and the integration technique. For the simulation the Advanced Continuous Si­ mulation Language packet (ACSL) was used [6-2]. The transformation of the velocities from the global to the local system of co-ordinates can be computed with: x = T x (j) in which: cosx 6 -sinx 6 0 sinxg cosxg 0 Knowing the values of the terms in the equations of motion the accelera­ tions x. have to be known. All programs were run on a Cyber 175 or 170-855.2.

Although the natural periods of the system are large. Examples of results of different integration methods are shown in Figure 6.s" 1 x(2) = . The initial conditions in the global system of co-ordinates were: x(l) = -254.9 m. The current velocity was amounted to 30. By means of these data the computations of the new acceleration can be carried out.12).6 (6.5. while the wind velocity .2.1 7. Some attention has to be paid to the integration technique.s .5° 215 .87 m i(l) = 0 m.s 1.X 1E x l X 2E x 2 X 6E = X X + x 2X6 lx6 ( 6 6 -5a) The components of the acceleration along the earth-fixed system of co­ ordinates can be written as follows: x (j) = T x -Jfc which is in accordance with equation (3.03 m. difficulties can occur with the applied integration method.2.4) or: x(j) = Tx + T x for j = 1. The examples concern the 60% loaded tanker exposed to the co-linear directed wind and current (see Figure 5.19.64 m x(2) = 0 m.s" 1 x(6) = + x(6) = 0 rad.9.s .2) By means of numerical integration the global velocities and displace­ ments x(j) and x(j) respectively can be determined for the prediction of the next time step.

P> A " \ / \ / \ / \ / \ ' vy v \A/\/\A/\/\A/ Figure 6. the integration method of Gear has been used for all the computations.9 I f \ J \J \J A AA A A \M\\pJ\\i vj v v \ Euler and Gear integration method Because of the occurrence of peak loads in the hawser. as can be seen in Figure 5.u \ A A . Both higher order Runga-Kutta methods and methods with variable step and variable order. for instance according to Gear[6-3]. A higher order integration method was used in the second example.12. The efficiency is caused by the variable time steps for a relative smooth signal. Besides the reliability of the method. gave consistent results. The time step was chosen to be 1/50 of the smallest natural period being in the order of 5-10 seconds. also the execution time may not be more than for the Euler method with small time steps. 216 . The computation was carried out with a time step of 10 seconds. EULER OR RUNGA-KUTTA F I R S T ORDER GEAR A r ?r A A A A A A A A i '\/\/\/\/"W nWW / 111/ v 1/ \ V v V M M 1 0 .In the first example the first order Runga-Kutta or Euler method was applied. This integration method has proven to be reliable [6-4J.

April 1983. Singapore.E. J. and Drimmelen. Simulation. J.REFERENCES (CHAPTER 6) 6-1 Wichers.W.: in "Simulation irregular Conference of the waves. 1983.: "Numerical initial value problems in ordinary differential equations". 2nd den Boom. N. Englewood Cliffs. March 1979.: "On the forces on the cutter head and spud of a cutter suction dredger operating in waves". New Yersey. wind and and Exhibition on Deep Offshore Technology. 6-3 Gear. behaviuor of and van SPM-moored current".L. pp. C..E. 1971. 217 .W. 6-4 Wichers. 10th World Dredging Congress.S.J.J.J.: "Advanced continuous simulation language (ACSL)". vessels International H. and Gauthier. Proc.E. 6-2 Mitchell.W. E. J. Prentice-Hall Inc. 72-76. Valletta/Malta.

3. For a moored tanker with a low natural frequency and exposed to ir­ regular head waves combined with or without co-linearly directed current the complete matrix of the quadratic transfer function can be composed on base of the main diagonal. The computed re­ sults show a satisfactory agreement with values obtained from measurements on small scale models. By means of the quadratic transfer function of the velocity depen­ dent wave drift force in regular head waves the transfer function of the total wave drift force is obtained. For regular head waves and relatively deep water the quadratic transfer function of the velocity dependent wave drift forces for storm wave frequencies can be computed by means of 3-dimensional potential theory at small values of forward speed. The determination of the main diagonal of the transfer function of the wave drift damping coefficient will be sufficient. 219 . The contribution of the low fre­ quency oscillating wave drift damping force to the motions is negligibly small. 4. In combination with co-linearly directed current and by means of the gradient method the total transfer function of the wave drift force can be split up in the transfer function of the current speed dependent wave drift force and the transfer function of the wave drift damping coefficient. 2. In case of still water and by means of the gradient method the to­ tal transfer function of the wave drift force can be split up in the transfer function of wave drift force for zero speed and the transfer function of the wave drift damping coefficient. For a tanker moored in waves the velocity dependent second order wave drift forces have to be taken into account.CONCLUSIONS As a result of the investigations the following conclusions may be drawn up: 1.

The recently formu­ lated semi-theoretical models based on the relative current con­ cept. Distinction has to be made between the still water and the current condition. Computed results of the surge motions show a good agreement with the results of model importance of tests. while for still water the viscous resistance coefficient and for current the current resistance coefficient must be derived from experimen­ tal data.5. can only be applied to the very low frequencies of the yaw velocities. 8. 6. The experimentally determined results have been compared with re­ sults based on the relative current concept. The low frequency viscous resistance coefficients for the 3 modes of motion in the horizontal plane can be determined by means of PMM tests. The computed results show a good agreement with values obtained from model tests. To describe the low frequency behaviour of an SPM moored tanker in the horizontal plane sets of equations of motion can be drawn up. The results clearly demonstrate the the application of the velocity dependency of the wave drift forces. 9. For the current condition the viscous resistance force and moment components can be formulated as a steady relative current force/mo­ ment contribution and a dynamic current force/moment contribution. The added mass coefficient may be computed by means of 3-dimensional potential theory. Time domain simulations on the 3 degrees of motion with the bow hawser moored tanker exposed to regular waves were performed. 7. 220 . For the simulation of the low frequency surge motion of the tanker besides the total wave drift forces. also the hydrodynamic low fre­ quency reactive forces have to be known. Based on the results of the PMM tests in still water the distribu­ tion of the transverse resistance coefficient along the length of the tanker can be approximated.

To compute the wave drift force registration a large and a small amplitude motion model was used. The predictions were in good agreement with the model test results. 221 . The large amplitude model was used for the unstable condi­ tions.ow hawser moored tanker exposed to various operational conditions were carried out. 12. The result from the motion simulations show a reasongreement with the results of the model tests. Using the linearized criterium of Routh the stability of a bow hawser moored tanker exposed to current and wind was judged.10. 11. Computations for the b. Time domain computations of the motions for 3 degrees of freedom of a bow hawser moored tanker in a current field were carried out. The results show that a satisfactory agreement is obtained with the results of model tests when the relative current force in surge di­ rection is doubled. while the small amplitude model was used for the stable conditions.

The time dependent part of the potential consists of an incoming wave at frequency co. a diffracted and/or a radiated wave contribution. The frequency used must be read as the frequency of wave encounter.l) In this formulation U is the incoming unperturbed velocity field.l.t.U) (A. In keeping with fi­ ll] the nomenclature x(l). long-crested waves and in deep water as given by Hermans and Huijsmans [l-ll]. y and z.APPENDIX THREE-DIMENSIONAL DIFFRACTION THEORY WITH LOW FORWARD SPEED Introduction This appendix gives a short account of the underlying theory and method of computation of the velocity potential for an arbitrary tanker-shaped body sailing at low forward speed in regular. see Figure A.t) = -Ux + 5(x. In the computations all these components will be taken into account. In this approach the angle does not need to be small. 223 . defined as p. ob­ tained by considering a coordinate system fixed to a ship moving under a drift angle p. x(2) and x(3) as used until now will become x. A restric­ tion is made to a general theory concerning the wave components. Descri2tion_of_theory Boundary condition and expansion of the source strength and potential function to small values of forward speed The total potential function will be split up in a steady and a nonsteady part in a well-known way: $(x.U) + Kx. Furthermore the underlying theory is general for drift angles.

3) t When it is assumed that the waves are high compared with the Kelvin wave pattern and that they both are small.2) At the free surface we have the dynamic and kinematic boundary condi­ tion: gC + $ t + h VS.l System of axes The equations for the total potential <3? can be written as: A$ = 0 in the fluid domain D (A. because " the wave height is of asymptotically smaller order. the free surface condition can be" expanded at z = 0.t) z x^x y y (A.V4 = const. Baba [ A .v®^ az at at + % 'JT+ ■£ (V$. 224 . a .V*) +-^.4) = 0 at z To compute the wave resistance at low speed thé free surface must be treated more carefully.v®. The velocity field is well described by the double body potential with a small wave pattern.3 ] and Brandsma [ A .Figure A. Elimination of C leads to the following non-linear condition: a2* a$ . at z = C(x.y. Ttiis problem has been studied extensively by Eggers [Al].V[~^) (A.2 ] . Hermans [ A .4 ] .

V$ + (U2 + 2UÏ + ï 2 )T^ + v2(U + 5 )ï Ï y tt z xt t x x' xx x' y xy + + $2<)) + (3U$ + 5 Ï + $ * )5 + + (2U$ + $ <£> + $ $ ) $ + y yy xx x xx y xy x xy x xy y yy y + L(2){*} = 0 at z = 0 (A.U) the free surface condition now becomes: 4> + eg4> + 2U* + 2VÏ. with 8 the drift angle of the ship with respect to the velocity field as defined in Figure A.l. The speed components will be: u = W cos8 v = W sinB.6) at the mean position of the hull.7) 225 .5) The boundary condition on the hull can be written in a similar way for all radiating and diffracted modes. Generally the condition exists: (n.?*) = (a + Vx (axW)).n (A. in which a is the oscillation motion _ T and W = (u.o) . For the six modes of motion the body boundary condition now reads: T~ <>| = i i o a + Wmfc k = 1(1)6 (A.Therefore the double body potential is taken into account and the sta­ tionary wave pattern is neglected.. For the wave potential $(_x.v.t.

in which: Wm k = -(n.3 Wm k = -(n.U)e (A.V)w = 0 k = 1.i){<(>} at z = 0 (A.8) The free surface condition i s w r i t t e n a s : o2<(> . .6 which leads to: m^ = -sinfi n6 = ^ sinp n.2. The first line in equation (A.5.cosp n~ where n^ is the direction cosinus.t. It is assumed that <t>(x.2iwU<t> + U2<(> 226 + g* = D(U. but first the construction of the regular part of the perturbation problem with the complete linear free surface condition will be discussed. The Ansatz is that in or­ der to obtain the first order appoximation with respect to U the second t order terms with respect to U may be neglected in the free surface.9) .t.5) contains linear terms in U.V)(r x w) k = 4. In the next section it is shown that in general this is true. The non-linear operator on $ will be neglected as well.U) is an oscillatory function: ~ -iwt <t>(x.U) = <|>(x.

T) a = cos(0x.t) a T = cos(Ox.where D(U. Combining the formulation inside and outside the ship we obtain a des­ cription of the potential function defined outside S by means of a source and vortex distribution of the following form: " J/Y(5) |n^(5»S)dS 5 .$) is a linear differential operator acting on <)> as defined in equation (A.llSS.U) (A.8) with D = 0.5> " {\yt(D + aTYT(§)}G(x.n) n where n is the normal and t the tangent to the waterline and T = txn the bi-normal.ƒ a a(5)G(x..5.5'| 5' = the image of £ with respect to the free surface.5)..§)dTi S S WL + J- I l>(§)§gG<2.(Kx. while the Green's function fulfills the homogeneous adjoint free surface condition: -u>2G + 2iu>UGr + U2Grr + gG.£)dS£ .5.i + i . 227 .5)D{(|>}dS = 4n<|)(x) 8 g WL FS ^ a (A.12) = cos(Ox. = 0 at z = 0 (A. 10) This Green's function has the form: G(x.U) = .5)dTi + .11) 1 where r -|S-£| r x = I x . We apply Green's theorem to a problem in D i inside S and to the problem in D g outside S where S is the ship's hull.5)]dTi 2 + j . The potential function inside S obeys equation (A.^ ƒƒ G(x. ƒ Y(£)G(x.//a(5)G(x.

U) = aQ(x) + ta^x) + a(x.§)dT.JS o(£) -X. x S D g FS c.i3) ** and 4n<t>(x) = .» 1.ƒ a a(g)|-G(x. this formulation is linear in U and moreover the integrand tends to zero rapidly for increasing distance R.?) dS + ~. However.U) <>(x.It is clear that with the choice y(5) = 0 the integral along the waterline gives no contribution up to order U.§)D{<t>} dS . S x ^ s WL + T^ // izr g FS G( ï>^) °{*}dsF = ^v(x). e (A.15) where a and $ are 0(t2) as T+0. because it ex­ presses the function <t> in a source distribution along the free surface with strength proportional to the derivatives of the same function $. It is consi­ dered that 1 = — « 1 and v = 772.It turns out that the source u 8 strength and the potential function can be expanded as follows: o(x. x e s x (A.U) (A.2*0(5) . while the expansion of the Green's function is less trivial./ a 0(g)G(x. The Green's function In this section an asymptotic expansion of the Green's function will be provided. The source distribution we obtain this way is not a proper source distribution. The Green's function follows from the source function pre- 228 .§)dn S ^ g WL + ^ J 7 G(x.G(x. So finally we arrive at the formulation: . keeping in mind that there are two dimensionless parameters that play a role in the limit. + 7.£)dS.H) Now small values of U will be considered.ƒƒ o(|)G(x.U) = $0(x) + t()i1(x) + $(x.

U) for small values of U leads to a regular part and an irregular part: <Kx.U) is written as: n ■n/2 <Kx.) +. .k) + -^ ƒ d0 ƒ dk F(0. The values k are the poles of F(0. (A.|.U) = I2" / d0 ƒ dk F(0./ i S ~ ^ i 0 + °(1) A careful analysis of aS T (A. and hn are given as follows: k k 1 V_V o k 2 ^ k 3 \y — 4 o* l ' ~L* Figure A.(ui + kUcos0) 2 CA.£) + -t(PL(x.^.1/.sented in Wehausen and Laitone [ A .16) L2 where: v.k) 0 LL n/2 (A. . . g ) +.+ ï Q (x.5 ] . The radiated waves are outgoing and the Kelvin pattern is be­ hind the ship.U) = <l>0(x.£. For small values of t these poles behave as: /gk^. In the case T < 1 / 4 the function (Kx. / /gk^" ~ id + 0(T) as T+0 ^2* .a M .<i.5) + v ' ^ x .kexp(k[z + C + i(x-5)cos0])cos[k(y-n)sin0] ^ö'^ " gk . The contours L. 18) (A-19) *° the asymptotic behaviour of <Kx.20) 229 . These contours are chosen such that the 'radiation' conditions are sa­ tisfied..2.k).5.

24) .§) = -4v ƒ exp[v(z+Qsec26]sin[v(x-£)sec Q] * * cos[v(y-T))sin0sec2e]sec20 d0 ' (A.22) in equation (A. due to the highly oscilla­ tory nature. Inserting the equations (A. the influence of (A. x €S (A.23) Hermans and Huijsmans [A-6] have shown that.where .^dS^ = 4nV0(x).16) and (A.M ^ 2 J^lcRjdk L 2 (A.^ V (A 21 .5) = 4ig2cos0' / (g k .12) one obtains for like powers of x the following set of equations: 2u aQ(x) .22) where R2 = (x-5)2 + (y-n)2 0' = arctg (^Ejr) and ■a/2 <|J0(X. Expansion of the source strength In this section an approximation solution of equation (A.23) may be neglected In the first order correction for small values of t.14) will ba derived.> 2 2 k(z+C) +!<ï.ƒ ƒ aQ(|) ^ and 230 (x. V * > P "2§ / k(z+C) kR)dk gk .

2 ^ ( 5 ) -Ha^l) ü + o T~ H Ö^T ( ^ X } VÏ V< - o "o d s F + 47tV X i(5> (A.(x.25) where G„(x.h IJ ffo<§> e 0 <*»£> ds £ and ♦i(ï) = ^r // v ^ v ^ s ) ^ .|)dS5 = -//ö0(5)aip ^ ( x .Cx.£) = .g) is the zero speed pulsating wave source.— + - 'Iv.8G ^ .h a o1(g)G0(x.5)dsc + b + 2^g~ M G 0 (x. ^ d S ^ + . The potential functions (equation (A.7 ] .and V(x) = V Q (x) + T V ^ X ) This perturbation + 0(-c2) leads to a fast algorithm that takes into account speed effects once a fast method is available for the zero speed dif­ fraction problem.15)) now become: V*> ■ .V$ 0 dS & FS b (A. Therefore the diffraction program has been extended with the Newgreen subroutines of Newman [ A .26) 231 . .5)VÏ.

Band 34. F. 8. A-5 Wehausen. Heft 3. 1983. and Hermans.H. J. 1987. A-4 Brandsma.M. 1980.: "Surface waves". : "The wave pattern of a ship sailing at low speed". R. Report 84A.: "A quasi-linear free surface condition in slow ship theory".N. 1976.J. A. A.V. Schiffstechnik. International Workshop on Ship and Platform Motions.: "Wave resistance of ships in low speed". 1981. A-2 Baba. A.: "Three dimensional wave interactions with ships and platforms". 109. K.: "Non-Kelvin dispersive waves around non-slender ships". J.: "The effect of moderate speed on the motion of floating bodies". sept. Mitsubishi Technical Bulletin. Band. A-6 Hermans. Schiffstechnik. 9. A-7 Newman. E. 232 . Schiffstechnik.J. University of Delaware. Handbook of Physics.REFERENCES (APPENDIX) A-l Eggers.V.J. I960.J. April. and Huijsmans. E. Berkeley. and Laitone. 1985. Vol. A-3 Hermans. No.

and u. A envelope of the wave train ALg Arpg lateral wind area of superstructure transverse wind area of superstructure AP ordinate from CG to section 0 (negative) B breadth of the ship B. Bi. i J wave energy FF force in bow hawser FB centre of buoyancy forward of section 10 FP ordinate from CG to section 20 (positive) G Green's function G^ ' G v(2) linear transfer function complex quadratic transfer function GM t metacentre height transverse GMi metacentre height longitudinal 233 .mode due to a motion in the j-mode C wave velocity C. second. n-th Fourier cosine coefficient in k-direction D. wave drift damping coefficient in regular wave in k-direction B mean wave drift damping coefficient in k- direction . • damping coefficient in the k. third order. components of the quadratic transfer function of E the wave drift damping coefficient dependent on (o. first. . etc. coefficient in k-direction C .NOMENCLATURE Symbols not included in the list below are only used at a specific place and are explained where they occur affix ( '•■' )>' ) ' ' ' denotes whether a quantity is of zero.

added resistance spectrum of quantity u total wetted surface of the hull mean wetted surface of the hull surface element of S or S n-th Fourier sinus component in k.body axes with origin in CG depth of the vessel moment of inertia in the k-th mode Bessel function retardation function in the k-th mode due to motion in the j-th mode centre of gravity above keel length of the ship mass of the vessel inertia matrix number of oscillations number of wave components earth-bound system of co-ordinates atmospheric pressure components of the quadratic transfer function dependent on u.waterline on the hull of the body force or moment component in the k-th mode . and to.direction wave period draft of the vessel test or computation duration transformation matrix amplitude of the quadratic transfer function mean wave period towing speed transport of wave energy velocity static or mean.

718 (constant of natural logarithm) acceleration of gravity first order impulse response function second order impulse response function water depth imaginary unit frequency-independent added mass coefficient in the k-th mode due to motion in the j-th mode area of spectrum first moment of spectrum ordinate along base line with origin underneath CG (forward positive) normal vector. pointing outside the body generalized direction cosine hydrodynamic pressure dimensionless yaw velocity projected length between location reference and CG time velocity component in x^-direction amplitude of an oscillatory quantity velocity component in X2-direction laminar flow velocity displacement in the j-th direction of wave .added mass coefficient in the k-th mode due to motion in the j-th mode damping coefficient in the k-th mode due to motion in the j-th mode spring coefficient in the k-th mode due to motion in the j-th mode line element of the waterline 2.

first order angular motion vector angle between wind and current direction of bow hawser drift angle logarithmic decrement phase angle between wave and some oscillatory quantity u random phase angle of i-th frequency component free surface elevation significant wave height dynamic viscosity ratio between two time scales wave number wave length low frequency natural frequency in surge direction kinematic viscosity specific density sea water complex coefficient source strength root-mean-square value laminar shear force time shift total velocity potential steady velocity potential oscillatory velocity potential angle of direction wave frequency vector operator volume of the mean submerged part of the body Laplace operator .

subscripts a amplitude c current D wave drift force viscous part dyn e dynamic current load contribution encounter external force components due to wind and current G centre of gravity h point on the hull H hydrodynamic reaction i integer number k.j direction or degree of freedom m restoring due to mooring system n integer N number of oscillations p potential origin stat steady current load contribution SW still water normal directed t tangential directed T thrusters r relative w wind C wave 237 .

In the low frequency range the wave drift damping and the wave radiated damping can be derived from potential theory. assumed relatively deep. The water is. wind and long crested irregular waves. For most of the mooring systems this condition will determine the design. The velocity dependency is caused by the Doppler effect on the vessel in a wave field. Experiments on model scale showed that the magnitude of the amplitudes of the low frequency surge motions will be influenced by the low frequency velocity dependency of the wave drift force excitation. For small values of forward speed the first order motions were solved. difficulties arise in the description of the mean and second order wave drift forces and the low frequency hydrodynamic reactive forces.SUMMARY It is the intention of this thesis to formulate a simulation model. When computing the low frequency motions. The wave radiated damping 239 . For the linearly survival condition the computer model is restricted to co- directed current. wind and long crested irregular waves the motions of the tanker and the forces in the mooring sytem consist of both high (= wave) frequency and low frequency components. By means of the direct integration method the low velocity de­ pendent second order wave drift forces in regular waves were computed. The complete matrix of the wave drift force is ap­ proximated employing the main diagonal only. which can be used to compute the behaviour of a tanker moored to a single point. For the simulation the velocity dependent wave drift force is split up into a current velocity dependent wave drift force and a wave drift damping coefficient. For survival and operational weather conditions the wave drift excitation and the hydrodynamic reac­ tive forces are discussed in this thesis. Exposed to current. To account for this effect use is made of the velocity potential for small values of forward speed of the tanker.

In order to formulate the simulation model for the low frequency motions of the tanker in the horizontal plane two problems must be solved. will be different in still water or in a current field. It is shown that the model tests confirm the results of the computations. In operational conditions the combination of current. The derived results were com­ pared with existing formulations of the viscous resistance. a set of equations of motion must be drawn up. which performs low frequency oscil­ lations.5 m. which des­ cribe the large amplitude low frequency motions. the compo­ nents in the equations of motion. The flow pattern around the tanker. In order to demonstrate the validity of the derived formulations with respect to arbitrary weather direclons in operational conditions com­ puter simulations were carried out. First. 240 . By means of computations and verified by model tests the importance of the velocity dependency of the wave drift excitation has been confirmed. which adequately describe the low fre­ quency hydrodynamic resistance forces. The equations of motion are evaluated by means of results of physical model tests for a 200 kTDW tanker moored by means of a bow hawser to a fixed mooring point. The viscous damping terms cannot be computed and have to be derived from physical experi­ ments. must be derived while the low frequency viscous resistance coefficients must be known.is negligibly small. wind and irregular long crested waves can be arbitrary in terms of occurrence and direc­ tions. For both conditions semi-theoretical mathematical models were derived. To determine the stability of this kind of mooring system the stability criterium of Routh has been applied to the tanker exposed to wind and current. Except for the damping forces of potential origin also damping forces of viscous nature are present. Secondly. The viscous resistance coefficients were experimentally determined for a 200 kTDW tanker in a water depth of 82.

De waterdiepte is relatief groot. Blootgesteld aan stroom. De golfdrift- waarden van de complete matrix van de golfdriftkrachten worden benaderd met behulp van de waarden. De wordt veroorzaakt door het Doppler-effeet van het schip in het golfveld. wind en onregelmatige langkammige golven samenvallen. De grootte van de laag- frequente bewegingen zijn in vele gevallen bepalend voor het ontwerp van het afmeersysteem. 241 . Voor de overlevingsconditie beperkt het model zich tot storm omstandig­ heden. die berekend zijn voor de hoofddiagonaal. Door toepassing van de direkte-druk integratiemethode over het natte oppervlak kunnen de snelheidsafhankelijke tweede orde golfdrift- krachten worden bepaald. Voor de meeste afmeersystemen bepaalt deze weersconditie het ontwerp. wind en onregelmatige golven bestaan de bewegingen van de tanker en de krach­ ten in het afmeersysteem zowel uit hoog-frequente (in de frequenties van de golven) als laag-frequente componenten. Voor het simulatiemodel wordt de snelheidsaf­ hankelijkheid kracht en in verdeeld een in een stroomsnelheids-afhankelijke golfdriftdempingscoefficient. Experimen­ ten op modelschaal toonden aan dat de grootte van de amplitudes van de laag-frequente schrikbeweglngen van het afgemeerde schip in belangrijke mate beïnvloed wordt door snelheidsafhankelijke snelheidsafhankelijkheid golfdriftkrachten.SAMENVATTING De bedoeling van dit proefschrift is een simulatiemodel te formuleren dat gebruikt kan worden voor het berekenen van het gedrag van een tanker afgemeerd aan een een-punts afmeersysteem.en reaktiekrachten worden behandeld voor de tanker in weerscondities tijdens het overleven en het operationeel zijn. De hydrodynamische excitatie. Om dit effect mee te nemen is gebruik gemaakt van de snelheidspotentiaal voor lage voorwaartse snelheden. Bij het berekenen van de laag-frequente bij het beschrijven van de gemiddelde bewegingen ontstaan problemen en laag-frequente tweede-orde golfdriftkrachten en de hydrodynamische reaktiekrachten. Voor kleine waarden van voorwaartse snelheid zijn de eerste orde scheepsbewegingen opgelost. waarbij de richtingen van stroom.

Voor de componenten van de viskeuze weerstandskrachten in de bewegingsvergelijkingen zijn voor beide omstan­ digheden formuleringen afgeleid. die onstaat door de uitgestraalde golven als gevolg van het laag-frequente bewegen van het schip. De formuleringen zijn gebaseerd op theorie en empirie.5 m diep water zijn de visceuze weerstandscoefficienten experimenteel bepaald. Allereerst moet een stelsel bewegingsvergelijkingen opge­ steld worden voor de grote bewegingen in het horizontale vlak. die bevestigd is aan een in de zeebodem geplaatse paal. Bij het formuleren van de berekeningswijze van de laag-frequente bewegingen in het horizontale vlak van een afgemeerde tanker treden twee problemen op. Onder invloed van de weerscondities kunnen dergelijke systemen instabiel zijn. Behalve dempingskrach­ ten van potentiaaloorsprong zijn ook weerstandskrachten van visceuze oorsprong aanwezig. De validatie betrof een 200 kTDW tanker afgemeerd met een meerlijn. Voor een 200 kTDW tanker afgemeerd in 82. Ten twee­ de moeten de componenten van de visceuze weerstandskrachten in de bewe­ gingsvergelijkingen voldoende beschreven worden en moeten de waarden van de viskeuze weerstandscoefficienten bekend zijn. Met behulp van 242 . De visceuze krachten kunnen niet berekend worden en zijn experimenteel bepaald. Met behulp van berekeningen. Het stromingsbeeld rond een laag-frequent bewegende tanker zal verschil­ lend zijn in stil water of stroom. De bewegingsvergelijkingen zijn geëvalueerd met behulp van modelproeven. wordt de belangrijkheid van de snelheidsafhankelijkheid van de golf­ drif tkrachten in hoge golven bevestigd. Tijdens operationele weeromstandigheden kunnen stroom. Instabiele systemen kunnen grote krachten in de meerlijn induceren.In het laag-frequente gebied kunnen golfdriftdemping en golfdemplng uit de potentiaaltheorie afgeleid worden. wind en onregel­ matige langkanunige golven zowel in voorkomen als in richting willekeurig zijn. De resultaten zijn vergeleken met bestaande formuleringen. die geverifieerd worden met modelproeven. De golfdemplng. blijkt verwaarloosbaar klein te zijn.

Voor de operationele weerscondities zijn verschillende combinaties van stroom. wind en onregelmatige golven toegepast. Er is aangetoond dat de resultaten van de modelproeven in overeenstemming zijn met de theoreti­ sche berekeningen. 243 .het criterium van Routh is de stabiliteit van het systeem bepaald onder invloed van wind en stroom. Met het doel de geldigheid aan te tonen van de afgeleide formuleringen zijn tenslotte computersimulaties uitgevoerd met de afgemeerde tanker.