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Data Communications and

Network Management Overview


Need for network management is illustrated
by its importance in Telephone Networks

D. Karvelas

Telephone Network
Characteristics
Reliable does what is expected of it
Dependable - always there when you need it
Good Quality for connections anywhere in the world

Reasons
Good Planning, Design, and Implementation
Network Management (NM)
Most of NM is so automated that it becomes
part of the operations
D. Karvelas

Telephone Network Model


Regional Center
Class 1 switch

Regional Center
Class 1 switch

Sectional Center
Class 2 switch

Sectional Center
Class 2 switch

Primary Center
Class 3 switch

Primary Center
Class 3 switch

Toll Center
Class 4 switch

Toll Center
Class 4 switch

End Office
Class 5 switch

End Office
Class 5 switch

To other
Regional centers
Sectional centers
Primary centers
Toll centers
End offices
To other
Primary centers
Toll centers
End offices

To other
Class 4 toll points
End offices

Legend:
Loop
Direct Trunk
Toll-Connecting Trunk
Toll Trunk

Voice

Voice

Trunk: a logical link between two switches that


may traverse one or more physical links

Addison-Wesley, Network Management, M. Subramanian

Operations Support Systems ensure QoS


A Traffic Measurement System monitors traffic
Reports to a NM system upon congestion detection

A Trunk Maintenance System monitors S/N ratio


If S/N unacceptable  trunk is removed

A Network Operations Center (NOC) oversees


network operation for a given region
- It conducts centralized NM
- Service restoration is the primary objective
D. Karvelas

Centralized NM Requirements
NM functions need to be included in components
Network component designs must include NM functions
as part of their requirements and specifications

Standardization to support interoperability


Extremely important for computer communications
industry which is multi-vendor oriented

D. Karvelas

Evolution of Communication Networks


Initially, the term Telecommunication Network was
used for the Telephone Network
A circuit switched network accessed by any user
The advent of computers introduced the term
Data (or Computer) Communication Network
Enables terminal-to-host or host-to-host communication
Telecommunications infrastructure was and is
still used for Data Communications

D. Karvelas

Data and Telecommunication Networks


Data Communication Network
Terminal

Terminal
Host

Modem

Modem

Loop

Modem
Loop

Loop

Voice

Voice
Telecommunication network

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Enterprise Communication Environment


Data Communication Network

Terminal

Terminal

Host

Communications Front End


Controller
Processor
Loop

Loop

Voice

Voice
Public
Switch

Public
Switch
Telecommunication Network
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Distributed Computing Environment

Workstation

Host

Workstation

Ethernet

Workstation

Host

(a) Hosts and Workstations on Local LAN

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Distributed Computing Environment


Client-Server Model

Request

Client

Server
Response

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Client-Server Model

Client Z

Client A

Server

(a) Server with Multiple Clients


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Client-Server Model

Client
(joe.stone)

to sally.jones@dest.com

Bridge

Mail server

Domain
Name
Server

(b) Dual Role of Client-Server


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Distributed Computing Environment

LAN A

LAN B

Bridge /
Router

Bridge /
Router

Bridge /
Router
LAN C

WAN
communication link

(b) Remote LANs connected by a WAN

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TCP/IP-Based Networks
TCP/IP is a suite of protocols
TCP/IP protocols enable internetworking
Internet is based on TCP/IP
IP is the Internet protocol at the network layer
- Uniquely identifies a host in the Internet
- Offers a connectionless and unreliable service
TCP/UDP are the Internet Transport Layer protocols
- Identify the transmitting/receiving process within a host
- TCP: connection oriented and reliable
- UDP: connectionless and unreliable
- Net Management messages use UDP/IP
D. Karvelas

Internet Configuration
Mail Server joe@cs.gatech.edu
(Joe)

Workstation

Workstation

LAN A

Domain
Name
Server

LAN B

Bridge /
Router

Bridge /
Router
Bridge /
Router

Gateway
LAN C

WAN
LAN X

Gateway
Bridge /
Router
Bridge /
Router

Bridge /
Router

LAN Z

LAN Y

Workstation
PC (Sally)

Mail Server

sallly@ostrich.com.au

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Architecture, Protocols, and Standards


Architecture describes basic structure of a system
- Shows its functional components
- Shows the relationship among them

Communication Network Architecture


- Functional components of the network
- Interfaces among them
- Protocols specify the intra-module and inter-module
operational procedures

Standardization is fundamental for interoperability


Standardization of protocols involves agreement in the
physical characteristics and operational procedures of
communication equipment that performs similar functions.
D. Karvelas

Basic Communication Architecture


Consists of two broad set of layers
Application Layers
Transport Layers
User A

User Z
Peer-Protocol Interface

Application Layers

Application Layers

Transport Layers

Transport Layers

Physical Medium

(a) Direct Communication between End Systems


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Basic Communication Architecture


System A

Intermediate system

System Z

User A

User Z
Peer-Protocol Interface

Application Layers

Application Layers

Transport Layer
Transport Layers

Transport Layers
Conversion

Physical Medium

Physical Medium

(b) Communication between End Systems via an Intermediate System


Addison-Wesley, Network Management, M. Subramanian

OSI Reference Model


User / Application program

Layer 7

Application

Layer 6

Presentation

Layer 5

Session

Layer 4

Transport

Layer 3

Network

Layer 2

Data link

Layer 1

Physical

Physical medium

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Domain of Responsibility for each Layer


Host 6

Host 1
process A Application

Application process B
Presentation
Presentation
Session
Session
Transport
Transport
Router
Network
Network
Network
Data link
Data link
Data link
host4 host5

host2 host3

net1

net2

D. Karvelas

OSI Layers and Services


Layer
No.

Layer Name

Salient services provided by the layer

Physical

-Transfers to and gathers from the physical medium raw


bit data

Data link

-Handles physical and electrical interfaces to the


transmission medium
-Consists of two sublayers: Logical link control (LLC) and
Media access control (MAC)
-LLC: Formats the data to go on the medium; performs
error control and flow control
-MAC: Controls data transfer to and from LAN; resolves
conflicts with other data on LAN
3

Network

Forms the switching / routing layer of the network

Transport

-Multiplexing and de-multiplexing of messages from


applications
-Acts as a transparent layer to applications and thus
isolates them from the transport system layers
-Makes and breaks connections for connection-oriented
communications
-Flow control of data in both directions

Session

Presentation -Provides a set of standard protocols so that the display


would be transparent to syntax of the application

-Establishes and clears sessions for applications, and


thus minimizes loss of data during large data exchange

Application

-Data encryption and decryption


-Provides application specific protocols for each specific
application and each specific transport protocol system

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PDU Communication Model between End Systems


End System A

End System Z
User Z

UD

User A

Application

Application

(A) PCI UD
(P) PCI

Presentation
Session

(S) PCI

Transport

(T) PCI

Network

(N) PCI

Data link

(D) PCI

(A) PDU

Presentation
Session

(P) PDU

Transport

(S) PDU

Network

(T) PDU

Data link

(N) PDU

Physical

Physical

(D)PDU Data stream


Physical Medium

PCI: Protocol Control Information


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Sublayer Structure of Data Link Layer


Logical Link Control

Network

Flow Control
Error Control

Logical Link Control


(LLC)
Medium Access Control
(MAC)

Medium Access Control


How to access a shared medium
CSMA/CD, Token Ring, FDDI, etc.

D. Karvelas

Physical

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Sublayer Structure of Network Layer


Transport
SNICP
SNDCP
SNDAP
Data Link

SNICP: Sub-Network Independent Convergence Protocol


SNDCP: Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol
SNDAP: Sub-Network Dependent Adapter Protocol
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DTE-A

Gateway Communication
to Proprietary Subnetwork

DTE-N1

N1

N2

A-N-Z Standard Network


N-N1-N2-N3 Subnetwork under Node N
N3

(a) Network configuration


System A

Gateway System N

Transport

Transport

SNICP

SNICP

SNDCP

SNDCP

SNDAP

Subnet system N1
Transport

SNICP

SNDCP-SN

SNDCP-SN

SNDAP

SNDAP-SN

SNDAP-SN

Data link

Data link

Data link-SN

Data link-SN

Physical

Physical

Physical-SN

Physical-SN

Subnetwork Medium

Network Medium

(b) Protocol Communication


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Comparison of OSI, Internet, and SNA Models


SNA

OSI

INTERNET

End User Application

Application

Presentation Services

Presentation

Data Flow Control

Session

Transmission Control

Application Specific
Protocols

Transport
Connection- Connectionless: UDP oriented: TCP

Transport
SNICP
Network

Path Control

Network
IP

SNDCP
SNDAP

Data Link

Data Link

Physical

Physical

Not Specified

Addison-Wesley, Network Management, M. Subramanian

Application Protocols in OSI and Internet Models


OSI User

Internet User

VT

TELNET
FTAM

FTP
MOTIS

SMTP
CMIP

VT: Virtual Terminal


FTAM: File Transfer Access and Management
MOTIS: Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard
CMIP: Common Management Information Protocol

Mail / Message
Transfer
Management
Application

SNMP

Presentation Layer

Terminal
Application
File Transfer

Transport Layer

TELNET: TErminaL NETwork


FTP: File Transfer Protocol
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol

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