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INTRODUCTION

• What is occupational health and safety?

Occupational health and safety is a Discipline
with a broad scope involving many specialized
fields.
Should Aim at:
The promotion and maintenance of the highest
degree of physical, mental and social well-being of
workers in all occupations.
The Prevention among workers of adverse effects on
health caused by their working conditions.
The protection of workers
in their employment
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risks resulting from factors adverse to health.

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INTRODUCTION…
• The placing and maintenance of workers in an
occupational environment adapted to physical and
mental needs.

• The adaptation of work to humans.
• In other words, occupational health and safety

encompasses the social, mental and physical
well-being of workers

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HISTORY
• The role of occupational safety and health in
Malaysia has been in existence since 120 years ago
, in the end of the 19 century.

• Starting with the safety of the boiler and then into for
machinery safety.

• Followed by security industrial, industrial safety and
health, and finally covering safety and health
covering all sectors.

• History, role and development department can
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explained in five eras.

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blogspot. He was assigned to check the safety of the boiler When is mainly used in tin mines. Meanwhile in Perak .. The first Legal boiler enacment is Selangor Boiler Enactment http://modul2poli.. Legislation was first enacted in . In 1892 there were 83 steam boilers in Perak. where Mr. William Givan was appointed as Machinery Inspector. Finchman appointed as Inspector of boiler. Boiler Safety Era .HISTORY. 1.before 1914 http://modul2poli.blogspot. The Boiler Surveyor system was discontinued in 1900 as C.com/ • Occupational in Safety and Health duties are the first carried • • • • out in Malaysia in the year 1878 . the Perak state government has implemented inspection system by individuals. At around the 1890s . which a person qualifications in the field of steam boilers is licensed to be a boilers surveyor .com/ Page 5 of 225 1892 .

com/ • At 1st. At the same time the position of Boiler Inspector also abolished and replaced by The Inspectors of Machinery and Assistant Inspector of Machinery. but also on other machinery . enactments of the steam boiler in the • • • • Malay States was repealed and replaced with Machinery Enactment of 1913.1914 to 1952 http://modul2poli.com/ Page 6 of 225 administration of the Mines Department (Machinery branch). The inspectors of machinery is in under the http://modul2poli. January 1914.blogspot. Inspection and registration and inspection of the installation were enforced.HISTORY.blogspot. including internal combustion engines. water turbines and related auxiliary equipment installation. In 1932. Machinery Safety Era . inspectors were not only Inspection Of Steam Boilers . Machinery Enactment of 1913 was repealed and replaced with Machinery Enactment of 1932. Enactment of 1913.. 2. .

Branch Machinery (Machinery) has been separated from the Department of Mines and assumed the name of the Machinery Department. . Ordinance 1953 hashttp://modul2poli.HISTORY. In 1953. the role of the examiner is not more focused on the safety of boilers or machinery. Industrial Safety Era . but also include the safety of workers in factories where machinery was used.com/ a shortfall in the health aspects Page 7 of 225 workers even though there are regulations on safety. Separation is necessary because most of the developed examination outside of the mining industry. With the enforcement of Ordinance 1953. all machinery used in the enactment has been repealed and replaced with Machinery Ordinace 1953. 3.blogspot..blogspot.com/ • Machinery Branch is under the Department of Mines until • • • • 1952.1953 to 1967 http://modul2poli.

in terms of scope of coverage of workers. This Act is designed to overcome lacking found in the Machinery Ordinance 1953.com/ Page 8 of 225 no machinery are also covered. the Factories and Machinery Act was approved • • • • by Parliament. where workers in the workplace is http://modul2poli. Machinery Ordinance 1953 was repealed and the name of the department was changed the Factories and Machinery Department.com/ • In 1967.blogspot. In 1970. . the Factories and Machinery Act and eight regulations made under it were enforced.HISTORY… 4. Industrial Safety and Health Era .blogspot. The inspectors who enforce the Act called Inspector of Factories and Machinery.1970 to 1994 http://modul2poli.

com/ Page 9 of 225 Internal Security Act and Health Act 1994 cover 90% of . which safety and health of workers in the other industries do not covered.blogspot.com/ • The new legislation enacted Occupational Safety and • • • Health at 1994.. Occupational Safety and Health Era -after 1994 http://modul2poli. while the http://modul2poli. Workers engaged under the Factories and Machinery Act 1967 only 24% of the total workforce.HISTORY. This legislation was made in view of the Factories and Machinery 1967 only covers occupational safety and health in the sector manufacturing. mining and quarrying and construction.blogspot. 5. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514) has been approved by the Parliament in 1993 and was gazetted on February 1994.

Occupational Safety and Health Era -after 1994 http://modul2poli. • This is done through self-regulation scheme that relevant to the industry or related organizations http://modul2poli.com/ Page 10 of 225 ..com/ • Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 is aimed to foster and promote safety awareness among health workers and also create organization with effective safety and health regulations.blogspot.blogspot.HISTORY…. 5.

Most workers spend at least 8 hours a day in workplace .blogspot. Some employers assume little responsibility for the protection of worker’s health and safety. Extreme temperatures. Gases ii. As a Result of the hazards and a lack of attention given to health and Page safety.) Therefore. office. work Environments should be safe and healthy .IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY IN WORKPLACE http://modul2poli. such as: i. http://modul2poli. Every day Workers all over the world are Faced with multitude of Health Hazards . Dust iv. Vibration iii.blogspot.com/ • Works plays a central role in people’s lives. (Plantation. Noise v.com/ 11 of 225 work-related accidents and diseases are common in all • . factory etc.

SAFETY The condition of being safe from undergoing or causing hurt.com/ MAJOR SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES • i. • ii. possibly leading to an accident.blogspot. INCIDENT http://modul2poli.blogspot. • iii. injury or loss. HAZARD A hazard introduces the potential for an unsafe condition. • iv. RISK The probability or likelihood of a Hazard resulting in an accident.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 12 of 225 Undesired circumstance that produces the potential for .

. 19).W. ACCIDENT COST Accident cost includes medical Payments. training of replacements.. accident investigation cost.blogspot. Compensation.http://modul2poli. equipment damages http://modul2poli. D. Jack W. 1977.5).(James.1983.B.blogspot. ACCIDENT An accident is an unplanned event. building or complex damages.com/ MAJOR SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES • v.com/ Page 13 of 225 and business interruptions. product or material damage. which could result in injury to persons. production delays. • vi. (Boley. overtime for replacement workers. or in damage to plant and equipment or both.

activity that includes lifting. pulling. lowering. tendons and heart .wet or contaminated conditions .http://modul2poli.com/ Page 14 of 225 .blogspot. . strains to hands. Manual Handling . http://modul2poli.com/ TYPES OF ACCIDENTS The most frequent accidents in the workplace: • Fall and crushing .Warehouse depot with heavy goods vehicles and any place of work where people can come and go in motorized vehicles.result in head injuries. falling from. animal or person.struck by a moving vehicle. • • . feet. Workplace Traffic Accidents . a vehicle and the collapse or overturning of a vehicle. carrying.blogspot. arms. holding or restraining an object. broken bones and major fractures to limbs and even death where the fall is from height.musculoskeletal disorders to backs. moving. or materials falling from. pushing.

com/ TYPES OF ACCIDENTS…. buried.. http://modul2poli. enveloped in gas or airborne particles.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 15 of 225 . Other Areas: • Struck by object in motion.working with • hazardous substances. • suffer burns or breathing problems . • Drowned. • Fire • plant and heavy machinery • stabbed by sharp object.blogspot.blogspot.

Most frequent modes of injury in related fields.com/ http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 16 of 225 .blogspot. fatal and non-fatal http://modul2poli.

blogspot.com/ Page 17 of 225 .http://modul2poli.com/ THE END. http://modul2poli.blogspot.

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blogspot.com/ Page 19 of 225 .Occupational Safety & Health Legislation http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ TOPIC 2.

http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Contents • OSHA 1994 philosophies & objectives • Employers responsibility (Part IV.blogspot.Social Security Organization ( SOCSO ) Page 20 of 225 . Sec 24-27 ) • Factory and Machinery Act 1967 • OSH organizations . Sec 15-19 ) • Employees responsibility (Part IV.Department of Safety and Health ( DOSH ) .com/ .National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health ( NIOSH ) http://modul2poli.

blogspot.blogspot.com/ people at work Page 21 of 225 .OSHA 1994 philosophies & objectives http://modul2poli. and those who work with the risk • Self regulation • Consultation • Cooperation and worker participation • Ensure the safety.com/ # Responsibility to ensure safety and health at the workplace is on those who create the risk. health and welfare of the people at work • Protect others from the safety and health risks arising from the activities ofhttp://modul2poli.

health and welfare of persons at work against risks to safety or health arising out of the activities of persons at work.com/ Page 22 of 225 . •to protect persons at a place of work other than persons at work against risks to safety or health arising out of the activities of persons at work.blogspot.http://modul2poli.blogspot. http://modul2poli.com/ Objectives OSHA 1994 •To secure the safety.

•to provide the means whereby the associated occupational safety and health legislations may be progressively replaced by a system of regulations and approved industry codes of practice operating in combination with the provisions of this Act designed to maintain or improve the standards of safety and health.com/ Objectives OSHA 1994 •to promote an occupational environment for persons at work which is adapted to their physiological and psychological needs.blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 23 of 225 . http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.

com/ Use And Standards Of Exposure Of Chemical • • • • • • .blogspot. Packaging and Labeling of Hazardous Chemical Regulations 1997 Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Regulations 1996 ( CIMAH ) Employers Safety And Health General Policy Statement (Exception) Regulations 1995 Notification of Accident. Occupational Poisoning and Occupational Disease Regulations 2004 (NADOPOD) Safety and Health Committee Regulations 1996 Safety and Health Officer Regulations 1997 Page 24 of 225 http://modul2poli.com/ • Classification. Dangerous Occurrence.blogspot.REGULATION UNDER OSHA 94 http://modul2poli.

FORESTRY AND FISHERIES • UTILITIES • TRANSPORTATION.com/ Page 25 of 225 .Industrial Sectors That Are Covered • MANUFACTURING • MINING AND QUARRYING • CONSTRUCTION • AGRICULTURE. STORAGE AND http://modul2poli. INSURANCE.blogspot.com/ COMMUNICATIONS • COMMERCIAL .Wholesale and retail • HOTEL AND RESTAURANT • FINANCIAL.blogspot. PROPERTIES AND http://modul2poli.

Employers Responsibility Part IV • Section 15. Duties of an occupier of a place of http://modul2poli.com/ self-employed persons to their employees. Duty to formulate safety and health policy • Section 17.com/ work to persons other than his employeesPage 26 of 225 . • Section 16. General duties of employers and self-employed persons to persons other than their employees • Section 18.blogspot.blogspot. General duties of employers and http://modul2poli.

blogspot.blogspot. http://modul2poli. http://modul2poli. so far as is practicable.Section 15. General duties of employers andself-employed persons to their employees. the safety. health and welfare at work of all his employees.com/ Page 27 of 225 .com/ • (1) It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to ensure.

blogspot.” .com/ Page 28 of 225 his employees. Duty to formulatesafety and health policy • “it shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to prepare and as often as may be appropriate revise a written statement of his general policy with respect to the safety and health at work of his employees and the Organization And Arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out that policy.blogspot.com/ Section 16. and to bring the statement and any revision of it to the notice of all of http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.

Not being his employees” Ensure that so far as is practicable. a person other than his employees Who might be affected is not exposed to any health and safety risk. General duties of employersand self-employed persons to personsother than their employees http://modul2poli.com/ Page 29 of 225 .blogspot. that he and other persons.com/ • “the duty of every employer and every self employed person to conduct his undertaking in such a manner as to ensure. so far as is practicable.blogspot. Provide informations about work activities carried out http://modul2poli.Section 17.

not being his employees.com/ 30 of 225 is or are safe and without risks to health.Section 18: Duties of an occupier of aplace of work to persons other than hisemployees http://modul2poli. as a place of work.com/ • (1) An occupier of non-domestic premises which has been made available to persons. or as a place where they may use a plant or substance provided for their use there. and any plant or substance in the premises or provided for usePagethere.blogspot. shall take such measures as are practicable to ensure that the premises. http://modul2poli. all means of access thereto and egress there from available for use by persons using the premises.blogspot. .

http://modul2poli.blogspot.http://modul2poli. 16. 17 or 18 • liable to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand ringgit • imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or both.com/ Page 31 of 225 .com/ Section 19: Penalty for an offence undersection 15.blogspot.

com/ • Section 24: General duties of employees at work • Section 25. Discrimination against employee.com/ Page 32 of 225 . etc.blogspot.Employees’ Responsibilities Part IV http://modul2poli. Duty not to interfere with or misuse things provided pursuant to certain provisions • Section 26. Duty not to charge employees for things done or provided • Section 27. http://modul2poli.blogspot.

• (b) To co-operate with his employer or any other person in the discharge of any duty or requirement imposed on the employer or that other person by http://modul2poli.com/ Section 24: General duties of employees at work • (1) It shall be the duty of every employee while at work • (a) To take reasonable care for the safety and health of himself and of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work.com/ this Act or any regulation made thereunder.blogspot.http://modul2poli.blogspot. Page 33 of 225 .

com/ 34 of 225 conviction.blogspot.http://modul2poli. be liable to a Fine not exceeding Page one thousand ringgit or to Imprisonment For a term . on http://modul2poli.com/ Section 24: General duties of employees at work • (c) to wear or use at all times any Protective • • equipment or clothing provided by the employer for the purpose of preventing risks to his safety and health. (d) to comply with any instruction or measure on occupational safety and health instituted by his employer or any other person by or under this Act or any regulation made thereunder (2) A person who contravenes the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall.blogspot.

be liable to a Fine not exceeding twenty thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both.com/ Page 35 of 225 . on conviction. health and welfare in pursuance of this Act shall be guilty of an offence and shall. recklessly or negligently interferes with or misuses anything provided or done in the interests of safety. Duty not to interfere with ormisuse things provided pursuant tocertain provisions http://modul2poli. http://modul2poli.Section 25.blogspot.com/ • A person who intentionally.blogspot.

com/ Page 36 of 225 helmet) and employees welfare facilities (e.com/ • “No employer shall levy or permit to be levied on any employee of his any charge in respect of anything done or provided in pursuance of this Act or any regulation made thereunder.”The employer must not charge his employees for providing personal protective equipments or other requirements of the law.Section 26.blogspot. first .g. goggles. face mask. gloves or safety http://modul2poli. Duty not to chargeemployees for things done or provided http://modul2poli. safety boots. For example the employee cannot be required to pay for personal protective equipments (e.blogspot.g.

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Section 27. Discriminationagainst
employee, etc.

• (1) No employer shall dismiss an employee, injure
him in his employment, or alter his position to his
detriment by reason only that the employee

• (2) No trade union shall take any action on any of its
members who, being an employee at a place of
work

• (3) An employer who, or a trade union which,

contravenes the provisions of this section shall be
guilty of an offencehttp://modul2poli.blogspot.com/
and shall, on conviction, be
liable
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to a fine not exceeding ten thousand ringgit or to a

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Factory and Machinery Act
1967
• Applicable to manufacturing, mining, Quarry &
construction

• To limited in scope, to dependent on
government

• Only concerns with inspection by authorities
• No provision for protection
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OSH organizations
- Department of Safety and Health ( DOSH )
- National Institute of Occupational Safety
and Health ( NIOSH )
- Social Security Organization ( SOCSO )

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Department of Safety and Health ( DOSH
)
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• Under Ministry of Human Resource
• Responsible for ensuring the safety, health and
welfare of people at work as well as protecting other
people from the safety and health hazards arising
from the activities

• Function – to study and review the policies and
legislations of OSH. To enforce the following
legislations:
i) OSHA 1994

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com/ National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health ( NIOSH ) • Vision – to be leading centre of excellence in occupational safety and health • Mission – to be the preferred partner in enhancing occupational safety & health http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 41 of 225 .blogspot.

blogspot.com/ Social Security Organization ( SOCSO ) • Mission – SOCSO is committed to ensure socioeconomic security of all working malaysian citizens including their dependants through Schemes Of Social Security and enhance occupational safety and health awareness for employees well-being • Vision – ideal and excellent social security leader http://modul2poli.com/ Page 42 of 225 .blogspot.http://modul2poli.

com/ SOCSO Protection Scheme • Employment Injury Insurance Scheme provides protection to employees who are involved in accidents arising out and in the course of his employment occupational disease and also commuting accident. The other objective is to ensure payments are made to workers and dependants when an unexpected incident occurs • http://modul2poli.blogspot. Invalidity Pension Scheme Provides twenty four (24) hours coverage for workers from invalidity or dies irrespective of the cause of death.com/ Page 43 of 225 .http://modul2poli.blogspot.

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3 UNDERSTAND THE ROLES OF THE MANAGEMENT 3.blogspot.1 UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPTS OF SAFETY & HEALTH MANAGEMENT 3.2 UNDERSTAND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE 3.com/ 3.com/ Page 45 of 225 .http://modul2poli.4 UNDERSTAND THE SAFETY TRAINING http://modul2poli.blogspot.

blogspot.com/ http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 46 of 225 .

planning activities. practices.http://modul2poli.blogspot. reviewing maintaining the organisation’s OH&S policy. processes and http://modul2poli. This includes the organisational structure.com/ Page 47 and of 225 resources for developing and achieving. . procedures.blogspot. The BSI define a OH&S management system as ‘part of the overall management system that facilities the management of the OH&S risks associated with the business of the organisation.com/ • A Safety and Health Management System can be defined as „the means by which an organisation controls risk through the management process‟. responsibilities.

com/ Page 48 of 225 .blogspot. •OH&S Objectives should be set http://modul2poli.com/ •Health and safety objectives are a major part of a management system and are defined as “the goals in terms of H&S performance that an organisation sets itself to achieve and should be quantified wherever practicable”.blogspot.http://modul2poli.

• The elimination or the reduction in frequency of particular undesired incidents (e.g. or the constancy of their application across the organisation (e. remove all hazardous Page 49 of 225 .http://modul2poli. permit to work systems for specific tasks.g. accident reporting. communication of standard procedures etc.blogspot.).) • The improvement of existing features.com/ accidents by 20%.com/ Examples of types of an OH&S objective include: • The introduction of additional features into the OH&S management system (e. reduce http://modul2poli.blogspot. strategic OH&S safety training for supervisors etc.g.

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YES !

•SAFETY & HEALTH
o A great concern to company

o A greater concern to the employees

• SO ….Employees should share in the work of
ACCIDENT PREVENTION….

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WHY SAFETY & HEALTH
COMMITTEE ESSENTIAL ?

•Management give their best effort to
correct unsafe condition/practices but
employees in a good position to observe
the HAZARDS

•An important source of help would be
overlooked if employee Safety &
Health committee were not included
in the organisation
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. to maintain orhttp://modul2poli. • to protect person at a place of work other than persons at work against risks out of the activities at work. • to promote an occupational environment for persons at work which is adapted to their physiological and psychological needs • to provide the means to be progressively replaced by a system of regulations and approved industry codes….blogspot.com/ • to secure the safety.Objectives of OSHA 1994 http://modul2poli.com/ improve the standards of Page 54 of 225 . health and welfare of persons at work against risks out of the activities at work.blogspot.

com/ Page 55 of 225 .blogspot.blogspot.com/ • Spirit of OSHA 1994 o “Self Regulation” o Workers Cooperation & Consultation o All economic activities except shipping and armed forces • Guiding principles o Responsibilities for OSH lies with those WHO CREATE THE RISK and those WHO WORK WITH THE RISK o Concept of so far as is REASONABLE/ PRACTICABLE http://modul2poli.OSHA 1994 http://modul2poli.

http://modul2poli.com/ Page 56 of 225 .blogspot.blogspot.com/ Every employer shall establish a Safety & Health Committee (SHC) at the place of work in accordance with this section if :- o40 or more persons employed at the place of work or oThe Director General directs the establishment of such a committee at the place of work http://modul2poli.

com/ Page 57 of 225 .blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ OBJECTIVES OF SHC •To fulfil the requirement of OSHA • • • 1994 To promote consultation and cooperation between management and workers in upgrading safety & health at work To provide a two-way communication channel or dissemination of information on safety & health issues To enhance interest and motivation http://modul2poli.blogspot.

http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 58 of 225 .com/ CHAIRMAN SECRETARY MANAGEMENT REPRESENTATIVES WORKERS REPRESENTATIVES MANAGEMENT REPRESENTATIVES WORKERS REPRESENTATIVES http://modul2poli.blogspot.

blogspot.http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 59 of 225 .com/ (con‟t) •Chairman : Employer or his authorised manager •Secretary : Safety & Health Officer •Management Representatives: Manager/Director/Supervisors •Workers Representatives: From section or process http://modul2poli.

http://modul2poli. chairman may appoint another person o or SHC may appoint by ballots ( sulit ) http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Appointment •Chairman o Employer or Authorised Manager shall be chairman.com/ from members. Page 60 of 225 . •Secretary o Person employed as Safety & Health Officer o If no SHO.blogspot.

com/ Appointment •Management Representatives : o Appointed by Employer o Min 2 persons ( < 100 employees ) o Min 4 persons ( > 100 employees ) •Workers Representatives : o Selected by workers o Appointed by employer o Min 2 persons ( < 100 employees ) o Min 4 persons ( > 100 employees ) http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 61 of 225 .blogspot.blogspot.

employer shall appoint o Shall represent various section of work place o Any vacancy shall be replaced in the same manner as the previous member.com/ Page 62 of 225 .com/ Appointment • Employees Representatives o Nominated from employees o If number exceeded the vacancies….http://modul2poli. ballot o If no representatives. o Do not penalise workers who absent due to their duties as SHC members http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.

blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 63 of 225 .com/ Removal of Committee member •Fail to attend 3 consecutive meetings •Unsound mind •Bankrupt •No longer employed (employee rep) •Convicted on a charge of:  Fraud. dishonesty or moral turpitude  offence under law relating to OSH  Other criminal offence •Incapable to carry duty as member http://modul2poli.blogspot.

com/ Part III ( OSHA 1994 ) • Assist in development of Safety & Health rules • • • and safe system of work Review the effectiveness of Safety & Health Programmes To investigate any safety & health matter brought to attention of employer.blogspot. Review Safety & Health policies and recommend to employer for revision of such policies.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 64 of 225 .blogspot. http://modul2poli.

blogspot.com/ Page 65 of 225 .com/ •Assist in development of rules and systems •Assist in development and review of safety & health programmes •Perform analysis of incident trends and statistics •Review and recommend amendments to http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.blogspot.

blogspot. occupational poisoning or occupational diseases occurred at workplace. http://modul2poli. near-miss accident. dangerous occurrence.http://modul2poli.com/ •Perform inspections at work place and recommend preventive and corrective measures •Perform immediate investigation of accidents.com/ Page 66 of 225 .blogspot.

com/ •Investigates complaints of unsafe or unhealthy practices and report to employer with recommendations for corrective actions.http://modul2poli.blogspot. •Assists in the development of promotional and education programmes •Discusses reports and matters from the safety officer. etc http://modul2poli. enforcement officer.com/ Page 67 of 225 .blogspot.

blogspot.blogspot.com/ INSPECTION OF WORKPLACE •Inspect at least once in every three months •Discuss the observation of the members during inspection •Record the details of such circumstances in a report kept for such purpose •Make recommendations to the employer on the remedial measures to be taken on any matter.com/ Page 68 of 225 . http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.

blogspot. employer or authorised manager http://modul2poli.blogspot. • Chairman shall as soon as practicable (ASAP) convene a meeting of the committee to discuss the report.com/ Regulation) • To inspect the place of work as soon as it is safe to do so.com/ Page 69 of 225 . • If no SHO. • SHO shall furnish the chairman of committee with a report of his findings.accident(According to SHC http://modul2poli.

And make recommendations to the employer to prevent the reoccurrence of such incident http://modul2poli.com/ Investigating an accident • Chairman/secretary shall ASAP after the committee has inspected the place of work convene a meeting to investigate into such incident.com/ Page 70 of 225 .blogspot.http://modul2poli. • In the meeting.blogspot. the committee shall discuss the cause of accident….

blogspot.com/ • SHO or Chairman ( if no SHO ) shall furnish • • the employer or his authorised manager on the recommendations. SHO or Chairman shall record the decision of the employer or his authorised manager http://modul2poli.Investigating an accident http://modul2poli. Employer or authorised manager shall ASAP discuss the report or recommendations with SHO or Chairman.blogspot.com/ Page 71 of 225 .

blogspot..http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Investigating an accident • Employer or authorised manager shall direct any person employed to take such action….com/ Page 72 of 225 . http://modul2poli. • Employer shall keep a copy of the report for a minimum period of SEVEN years.

http://modul2poli. • In the event of an accident or any other situations which calls for immediate attentions.com/ Page 73 of 225 . meeting should be held immediately.blogspot.http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ • Formulate own meeting procedures and terms of references • Frequency of meetings: o Depends on nature of risk at workplace o At least once a month for high risk workplace o Once in three month for other workplaces o More frequent meetings during initial period of formation.

com/ • Agenda and minutes : o Early notice in writing and circulation of agenda attached.blogspot.blogspot. o Only matters pertaining to Safety & Health to be discussed.com/ Page 74 of 225 . o Minutes circulated soon.http://modul2poli. not later than two weeks after meeting http://modul2poli.

com/ Meeting Facilities : • EMPLOYER SHOULD : o Provide suitable meeting room at the place of work.blogspot. o Permit member to attend meeting during working hours.com/ Page 75 of 225 .http://modul2poli.blogspot. http://modul2poli.

http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ • Quorum o Half of total number of members • Non member may attend o May invite any person to discuss pertaining to OSH matters or related to any accident occurred in the plant.com/ Page 76 of 225 . http://modul2poli.

•Minutes o Copy of every meeting shall be furnished to every member and the employer within TWO WEEKS after the meeting.com/ Page 77 of 225 . http://modul2poli.com/ •Safety and Health matters only o Strictly for Safety & Health matters in workplace .http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.

com/ Page 78 of 225 .http://modul2poli.blogspot. http://modul2poli. • The employer should furnished the DOSH with a copy of minutes if required.blogspot.com/ • Minutes • Shall be kept at place of work for minimum period of SEVEN years.

com/ TRAINING & INFORMATION •Employer to ensure • Committee members have basic understanding and knowledge on the function of the committee.blogspot. • Availability of an adequate document & information for SHC o Act & Legislation o Code of Practices o Technical Informations o Operational Information etc http://modul2poli. • Provide training to the committee member.com/ Page 79 of 225 .blogspot.http://modul2poli.

blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 80 of 225 . • Disclosure of information which contravene with any law • Disclose individual matters unless consented to its disclosure • Provide any information other than for Safety & Health or welfare at work.blogspot.com/ EMPLOYER SHOULD NOT : • Disclose any information which would be prejudicial to national security. http://modul2poli.

com/ Page 81 of 225 .blogspot.blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ PENALTY Any person who contravene any of the provision of these regulation shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine not exceeding FIVE THOUSAND RINGGIT or imprisonment for a term not exceeding SIX MONTHS or to BOTH http://modul2poli.

com/ between joint committee and other committee.blogspot.com/ STRUCTURE OF COMMITEE •Joint management-worker committee at workplace •Company may form other committee to supplement work of joint committee such as : o Management committee to oversee work of joint committee or subcommittee (permanent or ad-hoc) o Must have clear communication channel http://modul2poli.blogspot. Page 82 of 225 .http://modul2poli.

com/ Page 83 of 225 .blogspot.com/ COMMITEE • Basic knowledge and interest of members • On going training and education of members • Availability of relevant information to members • Regularity and frequency of meetings • Fast decision making and follow-up action • Wide publicity of committee activities • Recognition of members • Leadership of chairman • Stick to safety and health only http://modul2poli.IN SUMMARYENSURING EFFECTIVE http://modul2poli.blogspot.

com/ Page 84 of 225 .blogspot.blogspot.com/ http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.

com/ and checklist Page 85 of 225 .com/ • There are a number of strategies that can be used by organizations to • ensure a healthy and safe workplace and ensure compliance with legal requirements.blogspot.http://modul2poli. For Example : Design Safe and healthy systems of work Exhibit Strong management commitment Inspect Workplace for health and safety problems Establish Develop Procedures and controls for dealing with health and safety issues Training programs Set up Health and safety committees Monitor Safety policies Draw up Action planhttp://modul2poli.blogspot.

They can only be changed by the Management and are mandatory.blogspot. They contain recommended methods http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 86 of 225 and statements with the objective of achieving Policy . Procedur Describes the functional steps used to implement policies. Examples are those used by Safety & e Health to promote adherence to management policy and are mandatory.http://modul2poli.com/ This is a statement of the principles governing decision-making. Guideline Describe specific aspects of working to the requirements of procedures where extended s explanation is required and provided by Safety and Health.

accords with a Safety Management Plan detailing applicable Safety and Health Policies.g.g.http://modul2poli. Procedures http://modul2poli. appropriate Safety and Safety Managem Health policies.blogspot.com/ Page 87 of 225 and Guidelines (including Handbooks and . It provides a ent Job Safety framework within which tasks or activities can The area supervisor ensures that all task planning occur. Laboratory or Workshop This is a summary of the manuals). They are intended to describe a generic approach (e. procedures and guidelines which govern all aspects of task planning.blogspot. Contractor Safety Handbook) and may describe activities which are routinely carried out as part of the normal functioning of the area (e.com/ Safety Handboo ks and Manuals These documents can provide both procedural instructions and guidance on a specific subject.

com/ Page 88 of 225 . Audits must be • http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Enforcement the safety procedure The action plan must be implemented in a way that is compatible with professional rules and practices as well as with existing procedures.http://modul2poli. and if a new risk or hazard factor is identified there must be a response.blogspot. • Follow-up the safety management system The effectiveness of the system implemented must be checked and follow-up.

com/ http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 89 of 225 .http://modul2poli.blogspot.

blogspot.http://modul2poli..blogspot. Page 90 of 225 ** . **Companies are legally responsible for providing the safety training mandatedhttp://modul2poli.com/ for their industry by OSHA.com/ YES! OF COURSE.

blogspot. illnesses and death. o know how prevent an incident in the workplace by following workplace safety procedures. •When properly trained on safety procedures. Page 91 of 225 .blogspot.com/ quickly if presented with a dangerous situation. employees will o understand the importance of workplace safety.WHY SAFETY TRAINING http://modul2poli. o learn how to respondhttp://modul2poli.com/ IMPORTANT ? •Safety training is the key element in the prevention of work-related injuries.

com/ •Different work environments require different types and levels of safety training. o Other types of safetyhttp://modul2poli.blogspot.http://modul2poli.blogspot. o first aid training is important for all work environments.com/ training courses include Page 92 of 225 . •For example : o eye safety and heat stress training is pertinent to construction and other outdoor workers.

com/ • Recordkeeping • Workplace Violence • Respiratory Safety Page 93 of 225 .blogspot.blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ • Back Safety • Bloodborne • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pathogens Construction Safety Crane Safety DOT & Trucking Driving Safety Electrical Safety Emergency Planning EPA Ergonomics Eye Safety Fall Protection Fire Extinguisher Use Fire Prevention First Aid Food Service Safety Forklift Safety Hand & Finger • Safety Awareness • HAZWOPER • Safety Orientation • Healthcare • Hearing Protection • Scaffolding Safety • Heat Stress • School & School • Hotels / Hospitality Bus Safety • Housekeeping • Shop Safety • Industrial Safety • Solid Waste • Kitchen Safety • Specific Chemicals • Laboratory Safety & Gases • Ladder Safety • Lead Safety • Supervisor Safety • Lockout / Tagout • Trenching & • Machine Guarding Shoring • Maintenance Safety • Utilities & Public • MSDS Works • Office Safety • Off The Job Safety • Warehouse Safety • Welding Safety • PPE http://modul2poli.

.???? http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Any question….http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 94 of 225 .

http://modul2poli.com/ CHAPTER 4 http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 95 of 225 .blogspot.

blogspot. ergonomists study human capabilities in relationship to work demands http://modul2poli.com/ ERGONOMICS-What is it? • • Derived from two Greek words: • “Nomoi” meaning natural laws • “Ergon” meaning work • Hence.com/ Page 96 of 225 .http://modul2poli.blogspot.

com/ Page 97 of 225 . • Within last 20 years research has clearly established connections between certain job tasks and RSI or MSD.com/ History • As early as 18th century doctors noted that workers who required to maintain body positions for long periods of time developed musculoskeletal problems.http://modul2poli.blogspot. http://modul2poli.blogspot.

blogspot.Objects.http://modul2poli. 3.blogspot.Procedures to carry out work are being developed.Facilities which involve and affect people are being evaluated. http://modul2poli.com/ Page 98 of 225 .com/ Focus and Objectives of Ergonomics cont… • The focus is that people (their abilities and limitations) and their requirements are considered when: 1. 2. systems which people use and operate within are being designed and developed.

blogspot.Enhance and optimize the effectiveness with which work and other human activities are carried out.http://modul2poli.Stimulate work interest and satisfaction.g. e.com/ Page 99 of 225 . health.Also to maintain certain desirable human values in the process. safety. 2.blogspot. 3. http://modul2poli.com/ Focus and Objectives of Ergonomics • The objectives of Ergonomics are: 1.

blogspot.com/ Effects of poor Ergonomics • Discomfort • Accidents and injuries • Fatigue • Errors • Illness • Annoyance • Productivity down http://modul2poli.blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 100 of 225 .

com/ 1.blogspot. even a comfortable one.What two elements are at work? http://modul2poli.com/ Page 101 of 225 .blogspot.Static work: musculoskeletal effort required to hold a certain position. keeping head and torso upright requires small or great amounts of static work depending on the efficiency of the body positions we chose. Example: sit & work at computers. http://modul2poli.

http://modul2poli. vertical position quadruples the amount of force acting on your lower neck vertebrae •Increased force is due to increase in muscular tension needed to support head in a tilted position http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Elements at work (cont) •Force: amount of tension our muscles generate Example: tilting your head forward or backward from a neutral.blogspot.com/ Page 102 of 225 .

com/ Page 103 of 225 .trunk.com/ 3 Main Ergonomic Principles: 1. head.Work activities should permit worker to adopt several different healthy and safe postures.http://modul2poli.blogspot.UE) http://modul2poli. 2.blogspot.Muscle forces should be done by the largest appropriate muscle groups available 3.Work activities should be performed with joints at about mid-point of their ROM (esp.

Muscles overuse results in tiny tears in the muscles and scarring. these contribute to inflammation and muscle stiffness http://modul2poli.blogspot.000 keystrokes a day Overexertion.blogspot.com/ Page 104 of 225 .000 back injuries due to improper lifting each year.000 to 200. falls & RMI are the most common cause of workplace injury An average of 125.com/ FACTS •The average person working at a keyboard • • • can perform 50.http://modul2poli.

blogspot. musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) disturb balance of muscles.com/ A Bit of Anatomy !! • Overuse and small repetitive movements ie: cumulative trauma disorder (CTD).com/ Page 105 of 225 .blogspot. ligaments and nerves http://modul2poli. tendons. repetitive stress injury (RSI).http://modul2poli.

com/ 1.Inflammation of surrounding tissues 4.Misalignment of the nerve http://modul2poli.blogspot.What causes Nerve Compression or Entrapment? http://modul2poli.Tight muscles 3.com/ Page 106 of 225 .blogspot.Repeated motions 2.

com/ 1.blogspot.blogspot.What are 4 Common Nerve injuries? http://modul2poli. signs and symptoms (S/Sx): numbness/tingling in hand.com/ Page 107 of 225 . made worse w/overhead activities or cradling phone between ear and shoulder http://modul2poli.Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: brachial plexus compression due to muscle tightness side of neck from poor head position or slumped posture.

blogspot.com/ Nerve injuries (cont) 1.Radial tunnel syndrome: compressed radial nerve @ outside of elbow d/t repetitive wrist & finger extension or turning of forearm S/Sx: Sensations from elbow to base of thumb w/ wrist weakness a common sx http://modul2poli.com/ Page 108 of 225 .http://modul2poli.blogspot.

blogspot.com/ Nerve injuries (cont) 1.blogspot.http://modul2poli.Cubital tunnel syndrome: ulnar nerve compression inside of the elbow d/t repetitive bending of elbow or resting your elbow on a hard surface S/Sx: numbness or tingling and inside of arm w/ tingling to ring & little fingers http://modul2poli.com/ Page 109 of 225 .

http://modul2poli.blogspot. often awakened @ night by hand “falling asleep” Sx increased by driving or attempting to hold objects.blogspot. or middle finger & ½ of ring finger. index. dropping objects is a common complaint http://modul2poli.com/ Nerve injuries (cont) 1.Carpal tunnel syndrome: compression of median nerve at level of carpal tunnel Where is carpal tunnel? Formed @ wrist by ligament over the carpal bones in hand S/Sx: numbness or tingling in thumb.com/ Page 110 of 225 .

http://modul2poli.blogspot. have little stretch or rebound Tendon overuse. static or prolonged position=inflammation or tendonitis Tendons of wrist & hand very small.com/ Tendons and Tendonitis •Tendons are connective tissue that attach • • • • muscle to bone.blogspot.com/ Page 111 of 225 . @ high risk for injury w/ overuse “Tennis elbow” or lateral epicondylitis affects finger extensor tendons outside of elbow “Golfer’s elbow” or medical epicondylitis affects finger flexor tendons inside of elbow http://modul2poli.

static or prolonged 2.Respect pain. PREVENT !!! 1. & tx early http://modul2poli. PREVENT.com/ What to do ?? PREVENT.http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 112 of 225 .Take frequent breaks from ANY sustained posture every 20-30 minutes 3.Warm up & stretch before activities that are repetitive.Recognize early signs of inflammatory process. 1.positions or stop painful activity 4.

Keep upper arms close to the body.blogspot.Position equipment & work directly in front of and close to your major tasks 3.blogspot.com/ Page 113 of 225 .http://modul2poli.Wrists as neutral as possible.Keep feet flat on floor. safe zone for wrist movement is 15 degrees in all directions http://modul2poli. elbows 90-100 degrees 4.Maintain erect position of back & neck w/ shoulders relaxed 2. upper body weight resting on “sits bones” 5.com/ Maintain Neutral Posture 1.

Avoid bending neck forward for prolonged periods of time (*remember quadruple the force).com/ Page 114 of 225 . muscles fatigue---MOVE to circulation! http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ You talking to me? 1.http://modul2poli.Avoid static positions for prolonged time. use a copy holder 2.blogspot.

blogspot.Avoid pinching w/ wrist in flexion or wrist deviation (bending to side) 5.com/ Modify Tasks: 1.Avoid repetitive or prolonged grip activities 4.Alternate activities frequently. 2.blogspot.http://modul2poli. rotate heavy &/or repetitive tasks w/ lighter less repetitive ones.Take frequent breaks to stretch & rest hands http://modul2poli.com/ Page 115 of 225 .If sx become worse REASSESS task setup & look for alternative methods 3.

blogspot. •Avoid lifting w/ the forearm in full pronation (palm down) or supination (palm up) •Slide or push & pull objects instead of lifting •Keep reaching to a minimum •Carry objects close to body at waist level http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Body Mechanics •Use the largest joints & muscles to do the job •Use 2 hands to lift rather than one. even with light objects and tasks.com/ Page 116 of 225 .

com/ http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 117 of 225 .blogspot.Correct & Incorrect Techniques http://modul2poli.

http://modul2poli.com/ Good and Bad of “ TILT” http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 118 of 225 .

com/ Page 119 of 225 .blogspot.blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Recommended Position FOR Computer user http://modul2poli.

blogspot.com/ Page 120 of 225 .blogspot.com/ ERGO REMINDERS from Stretchbreak.http://modul2poli.com http://modul2poli.

com/ Practice Wellness at Work and Home ! Exercise Relaxation Nutrition Spirit Mind Body http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 121 of 225 .

com/ Page 122 of 225 .com/ STRETCH http://modul2poli.MOVE http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.

com/ Page 123 of 225 .An ounce of Prevention is worth a pound of cure ! http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ http://modul2poli.

blogspot.com/ Ergonomics in occupational health and safety 1.blogspot.com/ Page 124 of 225 . User http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.

blogspot.com/ http://modul2poli.com/ Page 125 of 225 .blogspot.2. Machine http://modul2poli.

blogspot.blogspot. Workplace http://modul2poli.com/ 3.com/ Page 126 of 225 .http://modul2poli.

blogspot.blogspot. Environment http://modul2poli.com/ Page 127 of 225 .3.com/ http://modul2poli.

blogspot. Special questions http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 128 of 225 .com/ 4.http://modul2poli.

com/ Page 129 of 225 .http://modul2poli.com/ Indoor Air Quality • Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term referring to the air quality within and around buildings and structures. especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.

shopping centre.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 130 of 225 and well being.blogspot.Australia) defines indoor air as air within a building occupied for at least one hour by people of varying states of health.com/ Indoor Air Pollution • The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC.blogspot. • Indoor air quality can be defined as the totality of attributes of indoor air that affect a person's health http://modul2poli. hospital and home. This can include the office. . transport facility. classroom.

com/ Condition associated with complaints of discomfort including headache. nausea. difficulty concentrating. coughing. http://modul2poli. muscle pain. nose. and respiratory irritation.Sick building syndrome http://modul2poli. dermatitis. eye. dizziness. throat. and fatigue.com/ Page 131 of 225 .blogspot. sensitivity to odors.blogspot.

blogspot.com/ Page 132 of 225 . • The symptoms are associated with periods of occupancy and often disappear after the worker leaves the worksite.http://modul2poli. http://modul2poli.com/ Sick building syndrome • The specific causes of the symptoms are often not known but sometimes are attributed to the effects of a combination of substances or individual susceptibility to low concentrations of contaminants.blogspot.

blogspot.Cause of SBS http://modul2poli.com/ Page 133 of 225 .blogspot.com/ • Inadequate ventilation 52% • Contamination from inside building 16% • Contamination from outside building 10% • Microbial contamination 5% • Contamination from building fabric 4% • Unknown sources 13% http://modul2poli.

blogspot. psychology.com/ Page 134 of 225 . sociology & situational factors) • Air temperature • Mean radiant temperature • Air movement / velocity (see wind chill factor) • Relative humidity (see also perspiration) • Insulative clothing • Activity levels.com/ • Personal factors (health.blogspot. http://modul2poli.Thermal Comfort http://modul2poli.

com/ http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 135 of 225 .

com/ Sources of Indoor Pollutants Base on Specific Building Combustion activity Furniture Chemical Building materials Food Water Smoking activity Outdoor air pollution • • • • • • • • http://modul2poli.blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 136 of 225 .blogspot.

blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Walkaround Inspection • Potential Problem Areas • Sample Collection http://modul2poli.com/ Page 137 of 225 .blogspot.

blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 138 of 225 .

000 ppm DT.http://modul2poli. meter Formaldehyde 0.com/ Contaminant Range Screening Method Validation Method Bioaerosols 0-1.000 particles/cc Light scattering meter Pesticides (See OSHA Chemical Information Manual) Ozone 0-0. GC/NPD OSHA-52 Nitric oxide 0-25 ppm DT TEA tube with oxidizer.blogspot. IC OSHA ID 182 Particulates 0-40. meter Sampling bag.000 cfu/m3 Viable biological sampler Carbon dioxide 0-2.04-1 ppm DT Coated XAD-2. IR Sampling bag. DPP OSHA ID190 Nitrogen dioxide 0-5 ppm DT TEA-Molecular Sieve Tube. Chemiluminescent meter Radon 4-200 pCi/L Radon Cartridge.blogspot.1 ppm DT. Electrect VOC's (See OSHA Chemical Information Manual) http://modul2poli.com/ Page 139 of 225 . GC/TCD OSHA ID172 Carbon monoxide 2-50 ppm DT.

blogspot.blogspot.com/ 5.com/ Page 140 of 225 .0 : INCIDENTS PREVENTION http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.

Standard UNE 81900 explains an incident as undesired or unwanted that given rise to losses in the health of injuries of the worker. not wanted. An incident could have resulted in a serious accident or injury (Senecal & Burke).blogspot. unexpected and accidental form that interrupts the normal continuity of the work (Baselga 1984).blogspot.com/ Page 141 of 225 .Incident ? http://modul2poli. that result from • • • an abrupt. An incident could result in damage to property or equipment and it could result in an employee http://modul2poli.com/ •An abnormal event.

blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 142 of 225 .com/ INCIDENTS ACCIDENT S http://modul2poli.blogspot.

• http://modul2poli.• Krause & Hidley (1992) found that the difference http://modul2poli.blogspot. to the factor of luck ‘near miss’. will occasionally result in damages to property. Conclusion : Incident is a fact or event not planned nor wanted that will occasionally result in an unintentional injury or health related problems. needing only first aid verses a major medical intervention.com/ between inccident and accident: 1.com/ Page 143 of 225 . loss of production and/or an increase in legal responsibilities. owed in a certain way.blogspot. 2. products or to the enviroment.

blogspot.blogspot.Types Of Incident http://modul2poli. an injured http://modul2poli. Page 144 of 225 . •No written Incident Action Plan (IAP) is required. or a police traffic stop.com/ person.com/ Type 5 •The incident can be handled with one or two single resources with up to six personnel. •The incident is contained within the first operational period and often within an hour to a few hours after resources arrive on scene. •Command and General Staff positions (other than the Incident Commander) are not activated. •Examples include a vehicle fire.

No written Incident Action Plan (IAP) is required but a documented operational briefing will be completed for all incoming resources. http://modul2poli.com/ Type 4 Command staff and general staff functions are activated only if needed. The agency administrator may have briefings. and ensure the complexity analysis and delegation of authority are updated. Several resources are required to mitigate the incident.com/ Page 145 of 225 The role of the agency administrator includes • • • • • • • .http://modul2poli. The incident is usually limited to one operational period in the control phase.blogspot.blogspot.

com/ Type 3 When capabilities exceed initial attack.blogspot. • • • • . the appropriate ICS positions should be added to match the complexity of the incident.blogspot. A Type 3 Incident Management Team (IMT) or incident command organization manages initial action incidents with a significant number of resources. as well as Division/Group Supervisor and/or Unit Leader level positions. Some or all of the Command and General Staff positions may be activated. an extended attack incident until containment/control is achieved.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 146 of 225 periods. The incident may extend into multiple operational http://modul2poli. or an expanding incident until transition to a Type 1 or 2 team.

Many of the functional units are needed and staffed. A Type 2 incident may require the response of resources out of area.http://modul2poli.blogspot. Operations personnel normally do not exceed 200 per operational period and total incident personnel do not exceed 500 (guidelines only).com/ Type 2 This type of incident extends beyond the capabilities for local control and is expected to go into multiple operational periods. to effectively manage the operations. and general staffing. including regional and/or national resources.com/ Page 147 of 225 The agency administrator is responsible for the incident • • • • • • • . http://modul2poli. A written IAP is required for each operational period. Most or all of the Command and General Staff positions are filled. command.blogspot.

All Command and General Staff positions are activated.blogspot. Branches need to be established.000. Operations personnel often exceed 500 per operational period and total personnel will usually exceed 1.com/ Page 148 of 225 additional staff for office administrative and support • • • • • • • . There is a high impact on the local jurisdiction.blogspot. requiring national resources to safely and effectively manage and operate. The agency administrator will have briefings. Use of resource advisors at the incident base is recommended.http://modul2poli. requiring http://modul2poli.com/ Type 1 This type of incident is the most complex. and ensure that the complexity analysis and delegation of authority are updated.

blogspot. •Using defective equipment •Working in hazardous locations without adequate protection or warning. http://modul2poli. •Operating equipment at unsafe .com/ Page 149 of 225 . •Failure to warn. •Wearing unsafe clothing.Unsafe Act http://modul2poli. Examples are : •Operating without qualification or authorization.blogspot.com/ Performance of a task or other activity that is conducted in a manner that may threaten the health and/or safety of workers.

Examples are : Defective tools. Fire and explosion hazards. equipment. Poor housekeeping.blogspot. Excessive noise.blogspot.com/ Page 150 of 225 . or supplies. • • • • • • • http://modul2poli. Hazardous atmospheric condition.com/ A condition in the work place that is likely to cause property damage or injury.Unsafe Conditions http://modul2poli. Inadequate supports or guards. Poor ventilation.

Hazard ? http://modul2poli. • • http://modul2poli. property and damage of environment or a combination of these. Risk A combination of likelihood of occurrence and severity of injury or damage. Danger Relative exposure to hazard.com/ Page 151 of 225 .com/ • Hazard A source or a situation with a potential for harm to humans.blogspot.blogspot.

airborne/blood borne microorganism. • • • • • • • http://modul2poli.Expose to carcinogens chemical Ergonomics .com/ Page 152 of 225 . overload.Sharp points & edges.blogspot.Classification & Potential Sources of Hazards http://modul2poli.Stress or violent at workplace. Electrical .Exposed. Chemical .Insulation damaged or cover broken Biological .Expose to unnatural postures Psychological.com/ Classification Example of Hazards Mechanical .blogspot.

Employers should look for hazards in advance as part of their risk management plan to prevent potential hazards.blogspot.Hazard Identification http://modul2poli. • http://modul2poli.com/ • To keep workplace safe and healthy. -employers should make sure there are no hazards to which employees could be exposed.com/ Page 153 of 225 .blogspot.

blogspot.blogspot.com/ Classify Activities (Work. Product.The Process of Risk Management http://modul2poli. Services) Identify Hazard Assess The Risk Risk Control Review Risk Control http://modul2poli.com/ Page 154 of 225 .

blogspot.Walk around your workplace and look at what could reasonably be expected to cause harm. 4.Remember to thinkhttp://modul2poli.com/ about long-term hazardsPage to155 of 225 .Check manufacturers’ instructions or data sheets for chemicals and equipment as they can be very helpful in spelling out the hazards and putting them in their true perspective. They may have noticed things that are not immediately obvious to you. 3.blogspot. 2.com/ 1.Have a look back at your accident and ill-health records – these often help to identify the less obvious hazards.Identify Hazards http://modul2poli.Ask your employees or their representatives what they think. 5.

http://modul2poli.com/ Risk Assessment • Is the process of evaluating the risk to safety & health from hazards at work Types • Qualitative • Semi-quantitative • Quantitative http://modul2poli.com/ Page 156 of 225 .blogspot.blogspot.

blogspot.com/ Page 157 of 225 .http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ How To Assess Risk 1) Look for the Hazards 2) Decide who might be harmed & how 3) Evaluate the risk and check what is done to prevent it from happening • 4) Record finding • 5) Review assessment and revise it if necessary http://modul2poli.

blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Types of Risk Assessment • Qualitative .(Use Risk Matrix) -table scales for likelihood and severity • Fatality • Major injuries • Minor injuries • First aid or near misses http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 158 of 225 .

http://modul2poli.com/ Types of Risk Assessment • Based on statistic Likelihood • Very likely • Likely • Unlikely • Highly Unlikely http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 159 of 225 .

blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 160 of 225 .blogspot.com/ Qualitative Risk Table Likelihood Severity V/Likely Likely Unlikely H/Unlikely Fatality High High High Medium Major Injuries Minor Injuries High High Medium Medium High Medium Medium Low Medium Medium Low Low First Aid/ N/misses http://modul2poli.

Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 161 of 225 .blogspot.com/ • Severity Categories 1. More than 4 days M/C 4. Fatality & Permanent Disability http://modul2poli. First Aid 2. Less than 4 days M/C 3.

Yearly 2.Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment • Likelihood Occurrence http://modul2poli.com/ Page 162 of 225 . Weekly 4.com/ 1.blogspot. Daily http://modul2poli.blogspot. Monthly 3.

com/ Page 163 of 225 .blogspot.com/ Semi-Quantitative Risk Table LIKELIHOOD S Yearly Monthly Weekly Daily E 1 2 3 4 First Aid 1 1 2 3 4 E < 4 Days MC 2 2 4 6 8 R > 4 Days MC 3 3 6 9 12 I Fatality & Permanent Disability 4 4 8 12 16 V T y http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.blogspot.

Quantitative Risk Assessment http://modul2poli.com/ Page 164 of 225 .com/ • In cases where hazards are numerous and complex eg.blogspot.blogspot. Chemical process plant Should have Job Safety Analysis (JSA) • describe job in less than 10 steps • List things that can go wrong o eg. Changing a Car Wheel http://modul2poli.

blogspot.com/ Actions & Recommendations • EL.com/ Page 165 of 225 .Substitute • IS.Isolation • EC.Engineering Control • AC .Personal Protection Equipment http://modul2poli.blogspot.Administration Control • PPE.Eliminate • SL.http://modul2poli.

. respirator..blogspot.use other route.gloves.…… http://modul2poli. AC . cover hazard… SL .com/ Page 166 of 225 .put up temporary barrier.… EC . EL .com/ Actions & Recommendations Eg. IS ..blogspot. job rotation.put up notice.construct permanent wall. other material.http://modul2poli.… PPE .stop work.

blogspot.com/ Page 167 of 225 .blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ http://modul2poli.

http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/

OBJECTIVE
• To identify types of Hazard in work area
• To make Risk Assessments
• To suggest Risk Controls to Organization
• To implementing Risk Controls
• To review Risk Controls

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HIRARC -Planning & Implementation
LEGAL

ACCIDENT &
NEAR
MISSES

FEEDBACK
&
COMPLAIN

INSPECTION
& AUDIT

HIRARC
SO
P INTERNAL
POLIC
AUDIT
Y

SAFETY
COMMITTEE

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MANAGEMENT

TRANING

ER
P

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Why Carry Out Risk
Assessment
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• Gives organizations a more effective way of
managing hazards

• Requirement of the law e.g;
- OSHA 1994, CIMAH Regulations 1996 &
USECHH Regulation 2000

• Requirement of OSH management system
standards

- MS 1722:2003
- OHSAS 18001
- ISO 14001

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Why We Need OSH
management system standard
• Our Organization to be No. 1
• Increase “Return of Investment”
- employees, money , time…..
Safe work place

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http://modul2poli.right people .blogspot.com/ How To Start • Organization should have vision • Commitment from management .blogspot.com/ Page 172 of 225 .time http://modul2poli.resource .

hazard specific •Employee’s participation . training •Safety as basic training http://modul2poli.blogspot.meeting.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 173 of 225 .com/ How To Start •Should have internal audit •Management committee to review reports •External audit •Specific organization policy.blogspot.

OHS&W and WorkCover. • Financial factors–decrease the risk of prosecution and fines incurred. reduce absenteeism. increase potential for gaining shareholders and increase productivity. http://modul2poli.com/ • Human factors–save life.blogspot. • Legal factors–meet legislative requirements. stop workplace injures.blogspot.com/ Page 174 of 225 . lower WorkCoverlevies.Why conduct a risk assessment http://modul2poli. illnesses and increase staff morale.

Hazard Management Process • http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 175 of 225 .com/ • Identify the hazards • Assess the risks • Evaluate risks • Control the risks • Monitor and review http://modul2poli.

safe and without risks to health” http://modul2poli.so far as is practicable.blogspot.Introduction to HIRARC http://modul2poli.com/ • Principles used in workplace to manage safety and health. • Section 15 (2)(a) of OSHA 1994: which reads “ the provision and maintenance of plants and systems of work that are.com/ Page 176 of 225 .blogspot.

http://modul2poli. • Danger Relative exposure to hazard.Definition http://modul2poli.com/ Page 177 of 225 .blogspot. • Risk A combination of likelihood of occurrence and severity of injury or damage.com/ • Hazard A source or a situation with a potential for harm to humans. property and damage of environment or a combination of these.blogspot.

blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 178 of 225 .Overview Of HIRARC http://modul2poli.com/ • Definition of Hazards • Classification of Hazards • Potential sources of Hazards • Basic components of Risk Management http://modul2poli.

http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/

The Process of Risk Management
Classify Activities
(Work, Product, Services)
Identify Hazard
Determine Risk Risk = Severity X Likelihood
Decide if Risk is Tolerable
Risk Control Action Plan
Review Risk Control
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Source of Hazards (5M)
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• Man – Unsafe act
• Machinery – Installation, layout and design of
equipment

• Material – Substance such as chemicals and gases

use in the workplace

• Method – The way people carry out their work
• Media – Workplace condition i.e; air quality,

ventilation, lighting, noise, vibration etc.
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Classification & Potential Sources of
Hazards
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Classification Example of Hazards
Physical - Noise, temperature to cool/hot,
overload.
Biological - Exposed, airborne/blood borne
microorganism, virus.
Chemical - Expose to carcinogens chemical
Ergonomics - Expose to unnatural postures
Psychological- Stress or violent at workplace.




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KERJA DAN
PERSEKITARAN

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PENYAKIT

MENJADI LEBIH TERUK

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fire (Not explosions) • b) Cold This includes contact with cold objects and hypothermia Lighting • Refers to adequate illumination for the particular work being done Mental Stress • Includes bullying.com/ Page 183 of 225 .blogspot. shift work.com/ WORK ENVIRONMENT Adequate Access • Refers to adequate access to. workplace violence. from and within the workplace Air Conditioning • Refers to uncontaminated air in the work space Confined Spaces • Means enclosed work space where people do not normally • work (defined in standards) Temperature Extremes: • a) Heat This includes contact with hot objects. excessive work loads Dehydration • Adequate water supply for the individuals while working http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli. hyperthermia.blogspot.

blogspot. trips and slips of persons as well as objects falling. working at heights Kinetic Energy: a) The body hitting objects Hitting objects with part of the body b) Hit by moving objects Being hit by moving objects but excluding falling objects c) Explosion An explosion may also include heat as a hazard d) Penetrating objects This includes all objects that can penetrate including needles Vibration Includes vibration to parts or to the whole body Acoustic/Noise Includes exposure to single.com/ ENERGY Electrical Includes contact with exposed wires and contact with high voltage Gravity Includes falls.com/ Page 184 of 225 . sudden sound or long term exposure Pressure Pressure in hydraulic and pneumatic systems • • • • • • • • • http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.blogspot.

com/ HAZARD PHYSICAL NOISE TEMPERATURE COOL/HOT VIBRATION RADIATION EFFECT FROM ENVIRONMENT http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 185 of 225 .http://modul2poli.

blogspot.com/ Page 186 of 225 .http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ HAZARD CHEMICAL CHEMICAL HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH http://modul2poli.

blogspot.com/ Page 187 of 225 .com/ HAZARD BIOLOGICAL BACTERIA VIRUS FUNGUS ETC.blogspot.http://modul2poli. http://modul2poli.

blogspot.blogspot. tools and task http://modul2poli.com/ HAZARD ERGONOMIK • Repeated exposure to unnatural posture • Wrong design workstation .com/ Page 188 of 225 .http://modul2poli.

com/ • STRESS • SHIFT WORK • SEXUAL HARASSMENT • VIOLENT AT WORK • ANAK BUAH TAK DENGAR KATA http://modul2poli.HAZARD PSYCHOSOCIAL http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 189 of 225 .blogspot.

Employers should look for hazards in advance as part of their risk management plan to prevent potential hazards.blogspot.Hazard Identification http://modul2poli. -employers should make sure there are no hazards to which employees could be exposed.com/ Page 190 of 225 .com/ • To keep workplace safe and healthy.blogspot. • http://modul2poli.

com/ • Review of documents and publications • Inspection and observation at the workplace • Measurement of the atmosphere. monitoring the environment or medical surveillance of workers • Hazard Analysis job safety analysis (JSA) http://modul2poli.Methods of Identifying Hazards http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 191 of 225 .

com/ Page 192 of 225 .com/ • All related statements should be made • With no cost restrains • Should be reviewed every 4 months • Need management support http://modul2poli.Actions & Recommendations http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.

blogspot.Risk Assessment http://modul2poli.com/ • Is the process of evaluating the risk to safety & health from hazards at work Types • Qualitative • Semi-quantitative • Quantitative http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 193 of 225 .

How To Assess Risk http://modul2poli.com/ 1) Look for the Hazards 2) Decide who might be harmed & how 3) Evaluate the risk and check what is done to prevent it from happening • 4) Record finding • 5) Review assessment and revise it if necessary http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot.com/ Page 194 of 225 .

com/ Page 195 of 225 .com/ • Qualitative .blogspot.Types of Risk Assessment http://modul2poli.blogspot.(Use Risk Matrix) -table scales for likelihood and severity • Fatality • Major injuries • Minor injuries • First aid or near misses http://modul2poli.

blogspot.Types of Risk Assessment http://modul2poli.com/ • Based on statistic Likelihood • Very likely • Likely • Unlikely • Highly Unlikely http://modul2poli.com/ Page 196 of 225 .blogspot.

com/ Likelihood Severity V/Likely Likely Unlikely H/Unlikely Fatality High High High Medium Major Injuries Minor Injuries High High Medium Medium High Medium Medium Low Medium Medium Low Low First Aid/ N/misses http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 197 of 225 .Qualitative Risk Table http://modul2poli.blogspot.

blogspot. Less than 4 days M/C 3.blogspot. First Aid 2.com/ Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment • Severity Categories 1. Fatality & Permanent Disability http://modul2poli. More than 4 days M/C 4.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 198 of 225 .

Yearly 2.com/ Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment • Likelihood Occurrence 1. Monthly 3. Weekly 4.http://modul2poli.blogspot.blogspot. Daily http://modul2poli.com/ Page 199 of 225 .

Semi-Quantitative Risk Table http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ Page 200 of 225 .blogspot.com/ LIKELIHOOD S Yearly Monthly Weekly Daily E 1 2 3 4 First Aid 1 1 2 3 4 E < 4 Days MC 2 2 4 6 8 R > 4 Days MC 3 3 6 9 12 I Fatality & Permanent Disability 4 4 8 12 16 V T y http://modul2poli.

blogspot.com/ Page 201 of 225 . Chemical process plant Should have Job Safety Analysis (JSA) • describe job in less than 10 steps • List things that can go wrong o eg.blogspot. Changing a Car Wheel http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.com/ Quantitative Risk Assessment • In cases where hazards are numerous and complex eg.

Actions & Recommendations http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ • EL.Eliminate • SL.Engineering Control • AC .blogspot.Substitute • IS.Isolation • EC.com/ Page 202 of 225 .Administration Control • PPE.Personal Protection Equipment http://modul2poli.

. job rotation.… PPE . IS . EL .… EC .http://modul2poli. cover hazard… SL .blogspot.stop work.construct permanent wall..gloves.blogspot. AC .use other route.com/ Actions & Recommendations Eg. respirator.com/ Page 203 of 225 .put up temporary barrier. other material.…… http://modul2poli.put up notice..

blogspot.com/ Page 204 of 225 .http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/ http://modul2poli.

blogspot.6 Practice of Conducting CPR http://modul2poli.com/ Page 205 of 225 .3 Basic Rules Of First Aid 7.1 Defihe First Aid 7.com/ AW101 (TOPIC 7) OCCUPATIONAL FIRST AID CONTENT : 7.http://modul2poli.blogspot.4 First Aid & Treatment 7.5 Practice of First Aid Equipment 7.2 First Aid Equipment 7.

http://modul2poli.com/ 7. It is usually performed by a non-expert person to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. • In the United States. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires all job sites and workplaces to make available first aid equipment for use by injured employees • different jobs have different types of injuries and different first-aid requirements.blogspot.1 FIRST AID • It is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 206 of 225 .blogspot.

Preserve life . and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition.the overriding aim of all medical care. this covers both external factors.blogspot. and in some cases might involve completing a treatment.Promote recovery .http://modul2poli.blogspot.Prevent further harm .also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening. 1. is to save lives 1.com/ Page 207 of 225 .first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury. such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous.com/ The Aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points: 1. including first aid. such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound http://modul2poli. 1.or danger of further injury. such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm.

blogspot.com/ 7.http://modul2poli. • It may also vary by region due to varying advice or legislation between governments or organisations • Standard kits often come in durable plastic boxes.2 FIRST AID EQUIPMENT @ KITS • first aid kit is a collection of supplies and equipment may be made up of different contents depending on who has assembled the kit and for what purpose.blogspot.com/ Page 208 of 225 . fabric pouches or in wall mounted cabinets http://modul2poli.

com/ 7.2.blogspot.com/ Thermometer Page 209 of 225 Antibiotic Ointment packets (approx.http://modul2poli.blogspot.2 FIRST AID EQUIPMENT Glove Tweezer s Scissor s Anticeptic wipes @ gauze Alcohol Roller Bandage http://modul2poli. 1g) .

com/ Cont….http://modul2poli.com/ Bandage Aspiri n Aspirin(chewable) Page 210 of 225 81mg .7.blogspot.blogspot.2.2 FIRST AID EQUIPMENT Triangular Bandage Adhesive Tape Jodin e Adhesive tape Adhesive (cloth) 1” http://modul2poli.

blogspot.blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Triangular Bandage Application ~ to hold Broken arm bone ~ to avoid broken @ injured movement Anticeptic wipes @ gauze ~ to clean up injured area Page 211 of 225 .2.3 APPLICATION OF FIRST AID EQUIPMENT Glove Application ~ wear it during works with body liquid or any chemicals First aid equipments as earlier action to safe the life Bandage application ~ to stop bleeding http://modul2poli.com/ 7.

blogspot.ambulance). waterproof container to keep the contents iii.com/ 7. safe and aseptic • Kits should also be checked regularly and restocked if any items are damaged or expired out of date. i.http://modul2poli. industries such as mining may have specific industry regulations detailing specialised instructions the laws and regulation of the state or territory in which it is located the type of hazards present in the workplace the number of employees in the workplace the proximity to local services (doctors. clean ii.blogspot.com/ Page 212 of 225 .3 BASIC RULES OF FIRST AID • It is recommended that all kits are in a. • In general. such as: the type of industry concerned. for example. hospital. the number of different locations that the workplace is spread over http://modul2poli. the type of first aid facilities required in a workplace are determined by many factors.

which focus on critical life-saving intervention. Breathing.com/ ISO FIRST AID SYMBOL STAR OF LIFE Page 213 of 225 .blogspot. RED CROSS SYMBOL http://modul2poli. and Bones). and Circulation.4 BASIC FIRST AID AND TREATMENT • Particularly the "ABC"s of first aid. and Bones (or "4Bs": Breathing. ABC stands for Airway. first aiders can begin additional treatments. Once the techniques are secured. • Some organizations teach the same order of priority using the "3Bs": Breathing. Bleeding. Bleeding.http://modul2poli. Brain. • Variations on techniques to evaluate and maintain the life depend on the skill level of the first aider.blogspot. • There are a symbol of . • Some organizations add a fourth step of "D" for Deadly bleeding or Defibrillation.com/ 7. while others consider this as part of the Circulation step. as required. must be rendered before treatment of less serious injuries.

4.http://modul2poli. • SECOND DEGREE: Apply dry dressings and bandage loosely Do not use water as it may increase risk of shock. Apply moist dressings and bandage loosely.4 BASIC FIRST AID AND TREATMENT 7.1 Burns and Scadals • Burns. • FIRST DEGREE: Flush with cool running water. which can result in damage to tissues and loss of body fluids through the burn site.com/ 7.blogspot.blogspot. http://modul2poli.com/ Page 214 of 225 . • THIRD DEGREE: Same treatment as second degree.

blogspot. Api hanya perlu 16% oksigen untuk membakar. REBAH .Sekitar lantai Meniarap dan merangkak untuk mengelakkan asap dan gas toksik Tutup mulut dan hidung anda dengan kain lembap Gunakan laluan kecemasan untuk bangunan bertingkat dan turun ke http://modul2poli.com/ Pagetingkat 215 of 225 bawah • • • • • • .Ditempat anda disambar api . Haba adalah tenaga yang diperlukan untuk meningkatkan suhu bahanapi ketahap pengewapan bagi membolehkan penyalaan.1 Burns and Scadals Bagaimana Api bermula Bahanapi adalah semua bahan boleh terbakar samada pepejal.http://modul2poli.4. • • • APA YANG PERLU DIBUAT SEKIRANYA SESEORANG DISAMBAR API Sekiranya rakan sekerja/orang lain disambar api.com/ Continue… 7.blogspot.Ke lantai & BERGULING . cecair atau gas. Udara untuk bernafas adalah 21% oksigen. padamkan api dengan menyelimuti mangsa dengan blanket/guni. Ini mungkin dapat menyelamatkan mereka dari melecur atau maut Jika anda disambar api: BERHENTI .

• Apply DIRECT PRESSURE on the wound.blogspot. the next step is to apply PRESSURE AT A PRESSURE POINT.7. THE LESS A BLEEDING WOUND IS DISTURBED. and you do not suspect a fracture. . if available. piece of clothing or your hand alone. towel.com/ TREATMENT 7. THE EASIER IT WILL BE TO STOP THE BLEEDING! If bleeding continues.2 Bleedings • Heavy bleeding.blogspot. KEEP IT IN PLACE. ELEVATE the wound above the level of the heart and continue to apply direct pressure.4 BASIC FIRST AID ANDhttp://modul2poli. use a rag.com/ Page 216 of 225 If the bleeding still cannot be controlled. • IMPORTANT: ONCE PRESSURE IS APPLIED. http://modul2poli. IF DRESSINGS BECOME SOAKED WITH BLOOD. use a dressing. treated by applying pressure (manually and later with a pressure bandage) to the wound site and elevating the limb if possible. APPLY NEW DRESSINGS OVER THE OLD DRESSINGS.4. if a dressing is not available.

blogspot. After the bandage is in place.blogspot. Note the distinction between a dressing and a bandage. the pressure point is at the crease in the groin (femoral artery).4. The final step to control bleeding is to apply a PRESSURE BANDAGE over the wound.4 BASIC FIRST AID AND TREATMENT . is used to hold a dressing in place.7. 7. such as roll gauze.com/ Page 217 of 225 . while a bandage. For wounds of the legs.com/ Pressure should be used in applying the bandage. http://modul2poli. it is important to check the pulse to make sure circulation is not interrupted.2 bleedings http://modul2poli. A dressing may be a gauze square applied directly to a wound. For wounds of the arms or hands. pressure points are located on the inside of the wrist ( radial artery-where a pulse is checked) or on the inside of the upper arm (brachial artery).

4 BASIC FIRST AID AND TREATMENT 7.4.http://modul2poli. It's best to simply turn off the main power supply or pull out the fuse.com/ Page 218 of 225 . or the electric current will pass through you as well. and it is important that you first separate him from the electrical source. • In certain circumstances it may be quicker to simply pull the victim away from the electrical source. simply turning off the switch may not stop the flow of electricity.3 Shock electrical shock • The victim usually gets stuck to the source of the electricity. http://modul2poli. Often. • Turn off the power supply switch and disconnect the plug.com/ 7.blogspot. • Do NOT touch the victim with your bare hands.blogspot.

blogspot. Jangkamasa sentuhan . pengecutan otot 0. 3.Kecederaan renjatan adalah dalaman. Nilai arus atau tenaga mengalir ke badan iaitu: Lebih dari 1.Tahap kecederaanbergantung pada masa dan frekuensi arus. 3 – 10 mA mengalami kesakitan.com/ 3 keadaan yang perlu dipertimbangkan: 1. Laluan – masuk ke badan dan keluar 2.5 A Kebakaran tisu dan organ dalaman 200 – 500 mA Penyepitan Jantung 100 – 200 mA Pengepaman jantung terhenti 30 – 75 mA Penyerabutan sistem respitori 10 – 40 mA Paralisis sistem saraf.blogspot.http://modul2poli.com/ Page 219 of 225 . kesan luka yang boleh dilihat adalah pada bahagian masuk dan keluar arus.5 – 3 mA Terasa menggelenyar http://modul2poli.

a break in a bone initially treated by stabilizing the fracture with a splint. • Your first step in identifying a broken bone would be to check for deformity by comparing the injured counterpart on the opposite side of the victim's body. Swelling .blogspot.4 Bone Fractures • Bone fracture.4 BASIC FIRST AID AND TREATMENT 7. which usually accompanies a fracture. The injured person will most likely be able to point to the area of pain.4. check for pain.com/ Page 220 of 225 • Fourth. look for an open wound. gently feel along the bone. • Third. which may indicate an underlying fracture.http://modul2poli.com/ 7. • Second.blogspot. The victim will most certainly complain of tenderness or pain at the exact point of the fracture. http://modul2poli. notice if the injured area is swollen. To assist in diagnosing a broken bone.

wash it thoroughly • Position the victim on the left till medical help arrives http://modul2poli. which can occur by injection. inhalation. absorption.http://modul2poli. breathing difficulty or vomiting • Induce vomiting if poison swallowed • In case of convulsions.4. protect the person from self injury • If the vomit falls on the skin.com/ Page 221 of 225 .5 Poisoning • Poisoning.com/ 7.blogspot.blogspot. • Try and identify the poison if possible • Check for signs like burns around mouth.4 BASIC FIRST AID AND TREATMENT 7. or ingestion.

6 Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) The steps of Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation(CPR) • Investigate incidents.http://modul2poli. seek assistance • lay the victim and do the ABC audit and check the whole body • If not breathing. the pressure of 15 times. do the following. give two breath support • Check the carotid artery. move the body.com/ 7. if there is a pulse continue CPR at a rate of 12 breath per minute. If no pulse immediately start pressure.blogspot.com/ Page 222 of 225 5) after four rounds check the carotid pulse 6) continue with CPR (15 2 blast pressure) if no pulse .blogspot. the second blast (1 lap) 4) gave 15 times more pressure and then the second blast (2 rounds) http://modul2poli.5 to 2 inches for adults 3) after given the pressure to give 15. 1) put your hand on the victims bodies 2) gave 15 times the pressure depth of 1. check the level of awareness.4 BASIC FIRST AID AND TREATMENT 7. introduce yourself.4.

4 BASIC FIRST AID AND TREATMENT 7. continue with CPR.com/ 7.blogspot.com/ Page 223 of 225 .4. ready to perform chest compressions if no pulse • If the victim starts to breathe without help.blogspot.6 Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) • should have no heart beat (pulse).http://modul2poli. check pulse 10 times after the blast. put him in the recovery position • Check the breathing and pulse every 3 minutes http://modul2poli.

blogspot.4 BASIC FIRST AID AND TREATMENT http://modul2poli.6 Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) How to practice proper safe and methods in conducting CPR http://modul2poli.com/ Page 224 of 225 .7.com/ 7.blogspot.4.

com/ Page 225 of 225 .blogspot.blogspot.com/ http://modul2poli.http://modul2poli.