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Mexican–American War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mexican–American War
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Mexican–American War, also known as the
Mexican War, the U.S.–Mexican War or the
Invasion of Mexico, was an armed conflict between
the United States and the Centralist Republic of
Mexico (which became the Second Federal Republic
of Mexico during the war) from 1846 to 1848. It
followed in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of
Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory,
despite the 1836 Texas Revolution. It was the fourth
of the five major wars fought on American soil
which was preceded by the Seven Years' War, the
American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812
and succeeded by the Civil War.
Combat operations lasted a year and a half, from the
spring of 1846 to the fall of 1847. American forces
quickly occupied New Mexico and California, then
invaded parts of Northeastern Mexico and Northwest
Mexico; meanwhile, the Pacific Squadron conducted
a blockade, and took control of several garrisons on
the Pacific coast farther south in Baja California.
Another American army captured Mexico City, and
the war ended in a victory for the United States.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the major
consequence of the war: the forced Mexican Cession
of the territories of Alta California and New Mexico
to the United States in exchange for $15 million. In
addition, the United States assumed $3.25 million of
debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S.
citizens. Mexico accepted the loss of Texas and
thereafter cited the Rio Grande as its national border.

Mexican–American War

Clockwise from top left U.S. soldiers engaging the
retreating Mexican force during the Battle of Resaca de la
Palma, American victory at Churubusco outside Mexico
City, U.S. marines storming Chapultepec castle under a
large American flag, Winfield Scott entering Plaza de la
Constitución after the Fall of Mexico City.

Date

April 25, 1846 – February 2, 1848
(1 year, 9 months, 1 week and
1 day)

Location

Texas, New Mexico, California;
Northern, Central, and Eastern
Mexico; Mexico City

Result

Decisive American victory
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexican recognition of
Texas (among other

American territorial expansion to the Pacific coast
had been the goal of President James K. Polk, the

territories) as independent;

leader of the Democratic Party.[6] However, the war
was highly controversial in the United States, with
the Whig Party, anti-imperialists and anti-slavery
elements strongly opposed. Heavy American
casualties and high monetary cost were also
criticized. The political aftermath of the war raised
the slavery issue in the United States, leading to
intense debates that pointed to civil war; the
Compromise of 1850 provided a brief respite.

Mexico and Texas.

Contents
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War

End of conflict between

Territorial
changes

Mexican Cession

Belligerents
 United States

Mexico

California Republic[1]

Commanders and leaders
James K. Polk
Winfield Scott
Zachary Taylor

Antonio López de
Santa Anna
Mariano Arista
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Mexican–American War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1 Etymology
2 Background
3 Designs on California
4 Republic of Texas
5 Origins of the war
5.1 Conflict over the Nueces Strip
5.2 Declarations of war
5.3 Antonio López de Santa Anna
5.4 Opposition to the war
5.5 Defense of the war
5.6 Opening hostilities
6 Conduct of the war

Stephen Watts
Kearny
John D. Sloat
William J. Worth
Robert F. Stockton
Joseph Lane
Franklin Pierce
David Conner
Matthew C. Perry
Thomas Childs
William B. Ide,
(Commander of the
California Republic in
1846)

6.1 California Campaign
6.2 Pacific Coast campaign

Strength

6.3 Northeastern Mexico
6.4 Northwestern Mexico
6.5 Tabasco
6.5.1 First Battle of Tabasco
6.5.2 Second Battle of Tabasco
6.6 U.S. press and popular war
enthusiasm
6.7 Desertion

Pedro de Ampudia
José María Flores
Mariano G.
Vallejo
Nicolás Bravo
José Joaquín de
Herrera
Andrés Pico
Manuel Armijo
Martin Perfecto de
Cos
Pedro Maria de
Anaya
Agustin Jeronimo
de Iturbide y Huarte
Joaquín Rea

1846: 8,613[2]
1848: 32,000 soldiers
and marines
59,000 militia[3]

c. 34,000–60,000
soldiers[4]

Casualties and losses
1,733 killed in battle
13,283 total dead[5]

c. 16,000 soldiers

6.8 Scott's Mexico City campaign
6.8.1 Landings and Siege of
Veracruz
6.8.2 Advance on Puebla
6.8.3 Pause at Puebla
6.8.4 Advance on Mexico City
and its capture
6.8.4.1 Battle of
Chapultepec
6.9 Santa Anna's last campaign
6.10 Anti guerrilla campaign
7 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
8 Results
8.1 Altered territories
8.2 The home front
8.3 Political repercussions
8.4 Effect on the American Civil War
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War

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Mexican–American War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

9 Combatants
9.1 United States
9.2 Mexico
10 Impact of the war in the U.S.
11 See also
12 Notes
13 Bibliography
13.1 Reference works
13.2 Surveys
13.3 Military
13.4 Political and diplomatic
13.5 Memory and historiography
13.6 Primary sources
14 External links
14.1 Guides, bibliographies and
collections
14.2 Media and primary sources
14.3 Other

Etymology
In Mexico, terminology for the war includes Primera intervención estadounidense en México (United
States' First Intervention in Mexico), Invasión estadounidense a México (United States' Invasion of
Mexico), and Guerra del 47 (The War of 1847).

Background
Having recently attained independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico was fraught with internal struggles
that verged on civil war. However, in 1836 it was relatively united in refusing to recognize the
independence of Texas. Mexico threatened war with the United States if it annexed Texas.[7]
Meanwhile, President Polk's spirit of Manifest Destiny was focusing United States interest on westward
expansion.
The military and diplomatic capabilities of Mexico declined after it attained independence and left the
northern one-half of the country vulnerable to the Comanche, Apache, and Navajo Indians. The Indians,
especially the Comanche, took advantage of Mexico's weakness to undertake large-scale raids hundreds
of miles deep into the country to steal livestock for their own use and to supply an expanding market in
Texas and the United States.[8]
The Indian raids left thousands of people dead and devastated northern Mexico. When American troops
entered northern Mexico in 1846 they found a demoralized people. There was little resistance to the
Americans from the civilian population.[9] (See: Comanche–Mexico Wars and Apache–Mexico Wars)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War

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Moses Austin. which started the steady trend of migration from the United States into the Texas frontier. In 1834. Finally. daring and adventurous speculators in the United States have already turned their thoughts in this direction. the richest. The settlers and many Mexican businessmen in 1836–1845. was granted a large tract of land in Texas. abandoning the federal system. states are property tax.S." But by the time the letter reached London. The Mexican government decided to reinstate the day outlines of the U.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War .. Austin. His son. Mexico had merged Texas and Coahuila into the massive state of Coahuila y Tejas).. the most beautiful... increase tariffs on American shipped goods. a banker from Missouri.wikipedia. Jr. saying that "no part of the World offering greater natural advantages for the establishment of an English colony . once ceasing to belong to Mexico. territorial acquisition there.. saying: "As to Texas. by all means desirable . the Anglos outnumbered native Spanish speakers in the Texas The Republic of Texas. wrote in 1841 to Lord Palmerston urging "to establish an English population in the magnificent Territory of Upper California". However. the region rejected the demands. Austin called Texians to arms. as a result of the large influx of American immigrants. immigration into the Texas territory continued illegally from the United States. suggested Mexico might be willing to cede California to settle debts. the free encyclopedia Designs on California In 1842 the American minister in Mexico. succeeded and brought over 300 families into Texas. France and England both have had their eyes upon it. and superimposed on the boundaries of prohibit slavery..." President John Tyler's administration suggested a tripartite pact that would settle the Oregon boundary dispute and provide for the cession of the port of San Francisco. I regard it as of very little value compared with California. with the acquisition of Upper California we should have the same ascendency on the Pacific . should not fall into the hands of any power but England . but the Anglo colonists tended to settle where there was decent farmland and trade connections with American Louisiana. General Antonio López de Santa Anna became the centralist dictator of Mexico...S. The presentterritory. they declared independence from Mexico in http://en. that California.. Stephen F.[11][12] Republic of Texas In 1820. He decided to quash the semi-independence of Texas.[10] The British minister in Mexico. and the healthiest country in the world . The Mexican government intended the anglophone settlers to act as a buffer between the Tejano residents and the marauding Comanches. rather than westward where they would have been an effective buffer. Richard Pakenham. having succeeded in doing so in Coahuila (in 1824.Wikipedia. In 1829.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 4/34 . but died before he could bring his plan of recruiting American settlers for the land to fruition. Lord Aberdeen declined to participate but said Britain had no objection to U. Stephen F. Austin's colony was the most successful of several colonies authorized by the Mexican government. which led to Mexico closing Texas to additional immigration. Sir Robert Peel's Tory government with a Little England policy had come to power and rejected the proposal as expensive and a potential source of conflict.. Waddy Thompson.

where Whigs were largely opposed. and by October 3. to Mexico City with an offer of $25 million ($681. a secret representative.wikipedia. expansionists wanted California to thwart British ambitions in the area and to gain a port on the Pacific Ocean.. Reference to the Rio Grande boundary of Texas was omitted from the U.442. Congress. and warning that a British or French takeover would be opposed.[13] Texas consolidated its status as an independent republic and received official recognition from Britain. In the Winter of 1845–46.S. citizens for damages caused by the Mexican War of Independence[17] and pay another $25 to $30 million ($681 million to $818 million today) in exchange for the two territories.[15] The Mexican authorities became alarmed and ordered him to leave. and the United States. At the same time Polk wrote to Thomas Larkin. 1845. Frémont and a group of armed men appeared in California. Polk wanted to protect the border and also coveted the continent clear to the Pacific Ocean.[16] Polk sent John Slidell. 1845. After telling the Mexican governor and Larkin he was merely buying supplies on the way to Oregon. but Mexico refused to accept these as valid.500 Americans were on the Nueces River. France.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . On November 10. he was defeated by the Texian Army commanded by General Sam Houston and captured at the Battle of San Jacinto and signed a treaty recognizing Texas' independence. Congress. and this provoked a dispute with Mexico.[14] To end another war scare with Great Britain over the Oregon Country. explaining he had been looking for a seaside home for his mother. the American consul in Alta California.S. Polk signed the Oregon Treaty dividing the territory. which all advised Mexico not to try to reconquer the new nation.S. Texas became the 28th state on December 29. disclaiming American ambitions in California but offering to support independence from Mexico or voluntary accession to the U. and after Santa Anna defeated the Texians at the Alamo.S. Frémont left California in March but returned to California and assisted the Bear Flag Revolt in Sonoma. he instead entered the populated area of California and visited Santa Cruz and the Salinas Valley. ready to take over by force the disputed land. The Republic of Texas claimed land up to the Rio Grande based on the Treaties of Velasco. Polk authorized Slidell to forgive the $3 million ($82 million today) owed to U.[13] Origins of the war The border of Texas as an independent state was originally never settled. U. Larkin sent word that his actions were counterproductive. Frémont responded by building a fort on Gavilan Peak and raising the American flag. Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to Texas.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 5/34 .Wikipedia.308 today) for the Rio Grande border in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México.S. claiming the border as the Nueces River. President Polk claimed the Rio Grande boundary.S. the federally commissioned explorer John C.[18] http://en. Most Texians wanted to join the United States but annexation of Texas was contentious in the U. In 1845 Texas agreed to the offer of annexation by the U. where many American immigrants stated that they were playing "the Texas game" and declared California's independence from Mexico.[14] In July 1845. angering northern Democrats who felt he was prioritizing Southern expansion over Northern expansion. the free encyclopedia 1836. Congress' annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate.

S. which.[19] However.000 Mexican cavalry crossed into the disputed territory and routed a small detachment of American soldiers sparking the "Thornton Affair" [26] Polk received word of the Thornton Affair. After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power.[26] On April 25 2. citing the 1836 Treaties of Velasco. Sixty-seven Whigs voted against the war on a key slavery amendment. Polk ordered General Taylor and his forces south to the Rio Grande. Congress declared war on Mexico on May 13. 1846.[24] Mexican forces under General Mariano Arista prepared for war. which had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande and south of the Nueces River. declaring Mexico's intent to fight a "defensive war" against the encroachment of the United States. Mexican public opinion and all political factions agreed that selling the territories to the United States would tarnish the national honor. supported by populist newspapers.wikipedia. the presidency changed hands four times.[20] Mexicans who opposed direct conflict with the United States. Polk believed. considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult. entering the territory that Mexicans disputed. a 2.[25] Declarations of war In early 1846 relations between the two countries had deteriorated considerably and on April 23 the president of Mexico issued a proclamation. including President José Joaquín de Herrera. constituted a casus belli (cause for war). John Quincy Adams.S. Although President Paredes issued a manifesto on May 23 and a declaration of a defensive war on April 23. 1846. after only having a few hours to debate. both of which considered by some the de facto start of the war. the war ministry six times.S. In 1846 alone.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . On April 25.000-strong Mexican cavalry detachment attacked a 70-man U. claimed that the border was the Rio Grande. stated that "Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States. with southern Democrats in strong support. 1846. the free encyclopedia Mexico was not inclined nor able to negotiate. the Mexican cavalry routed the patrol. In the Thornton Affair. killing 16 American soldiers. Mexico officially declared war by Congress on July 7.[21] Military opponents of de Herrera.Wikipedia.[23] Taylor ignored Mexican demands to withdraw to the Nueces. He constructed a makeshift fort (later known as Fort Brown/Fort Texas) on the banks of the Rio Grande opposite the city of Matamoros.[27] His message to Congress on May 11. Tamaulipas. it publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas. returned to the U. Antonio López de Santa Anna http://en. Mexico laid claim to all the lands as far north as the Nueces River— about 150 mi (240 km) north of the Rio Grande. When de Herrera considered receiving Slidell to settle the problem of Texas annexation peacefully."[28][29] Congress approved the declaration of war on May 13.[30] including Rep.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 6/34 . patrol under the command of Captain Seth Thornton.[22] Conflict over the Nueces Strip President James K. added to the Mexican government's rejection of Slidell. it claimed all of Texas. were viewed as traitors. convinced that Mexico should be "chastised". The U.[21] Slidell. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil.[30] but on the final passage only 14 Whigs voted no. Mexico rejected the treaties and refused to negotiate. he was accused of treason and deposed. and the finance ministry sixteen times.

Adams had first voiced concerns about expanding into Mexican territory in 1836 when he opposed Texas annexation. He called the war with Mexico "an aggressive. War with Mexico would add new slavery territory to the nation. Only 13 others followed his lead. and unjust war".S. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 7/34 . unholy. Santa Anna reneged on both agreements. coined this phrase in its context. Among the most vocal opposing the war in the House of Representatives was John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts.C.[33] Southern Democrats.S.. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives of the U.wikipedia. declared war on Mexico. animated by a popular belief in Manifest Destiny. not expand it with more land.S.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War .[34] Northern antislavery elements feared the rise of a Slave Power.. President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. Democrats wanted more land. He said: http://en. When the vote to go to war with Mexico came to Overview map of the war. He continued this argument in 1846 for the same reason. increasingly divided by sectional rivalry.S. northern Democrats were attracted by the possibilities in the far northwest. Adams spoke a resounding "NO" in the chamber.Wikipedia. stating that it must be "our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions". editor of the Democratic Review. naval blockades.[31] Once back in Mexico at the head of an army. Meanwhile. John L. the free encyclopedia Once the U.[32] most Democrats supported it. Joshua Giddings led a group of dissenters in Washington D. He declared himself president once again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the U. Most Whigs in the North and South opposed it. Antonio López de Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying. Whigs generally wanted to strengthen the economy with industrialization. pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U.S. he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. a vote on May 13. but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had before. O'Sullivan. Opposition to the war In the U. and voted against supplying soldiers and weapons. the war was a partisan issue and an essential element in the origins of the American Civil War. invasion. supported it in hope of adding slave-owning territory to the South and avoiding being outnumbered by the faster-growing North.

the territories were feared to be under imminent threat of acquisition by America's rival on the continent. I can take no part either now or hereafter.S. the war's advocates viewed the territories of New Mexico and California as only nominally Mexican possessions with very tenuous ties to Mexico. This helped to rally congressional Democrats to his side.. or in robbing them of their country.. which had been for centuries. and unprotected frontier lands. after whom the fort was later named. The bombardment continued for 160 hours[38] and expanded as Mexican forces gradually surrounded the fort.[37] In it he scrupulously detailed his administration's position on the origins of the conflict. Opening hostilities The Siege of Fort Texas began on May 3. the free encyclopedia In the murder of Mexicans upon their own soil. where there was any at all. Mexican artillery at Matamoros opened fire on Fort Texas. Democratic Congressman David Wilmot introduced the Wilmot Proviso. whose nonaboriginal population. with seizing a country . Acting on his convictions. ensuring passage of his war measures and bolstering support for the war in the U.... "Show me the spot".S. ungoverned. 1847. He also elaborated upon the many outstanding financial claims by American citizens against Mexico and argued that. in view of the country's insolvency.. Thirteen U. Moreover. We charge the President with usurping the war-making power . Henry David Thoreau was jailed for his refusal to pay taxes to support the war. They saw the territories as actually unsettled. and was then in the possession of the Mexicans.[39] http://en. which replied with its own guns. the British. the measures the U. the cession of some large portion of its northern territories was the only indemnity realistically available as compensation. represented a substantial—in places even a majority— American component.[36] Northern abolitionists attacked the war as an attempt by slave-owners to strengthen the grip of slavery and thus ensure their continued influence in the federal government. he demanded.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . Wilmot's proposal did not pass Congress. but it spurred further hostility between the factions... had taken to avoid hostilities.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 8/34 .. and the justification for declaring war. We had territory enough.S.wikipedia. soldiers were injured during the bombardment.. Whig leader Robert Toombs of Georgia declared: This war is nondescript. President Polk reprised these arguments in his Third Annual Message to Congress on December 7.[38] Among the dead was Jacob Brown. Let us put a check upon this lust of dominion. and two were killed. Heaven knew.Wikipedia. and penned his famous essay Civil Disobedience. which aimed to prohibit slavery in new territory acquired from Mexico. I will not participate in them.[35] Fellow Whig Abraham Lincoln contested the causes for the war and demanded to know exactly where Thornton had been attacked and American blood shed. The guilt of these crimes must rest on others. Defense of the war Besides alleging that the actions of Mexican military forces within the disputed boundary lands north of the Rio Grande constituted an attack on American soil.

was imminent. making communication difficult.S.[43] Frémont's party was at Upper Klamath Lake. his troops fleeing in retreat. were ordered to occupy Mexico as far south as the city of Monterrey. Mexican troops were scattered. a type of mobile light artillery that was mounted on horse carriages with the entire crew riding horses into battle.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . War Department sent a U. Resaca de la impossible to rally his forces. Sloat. causing the Mexican Captain Charles A. Wool and the other under Taylor. 1846. American consul Thomas O. The Americans employed "flying artillery". but during the retreat. the free encyclopedia On May 8. when it received word that war between Mexico and the U. Kearny to invade western Mexico from Jefferson Barracks and Fort Leavenworth. Arista rushed north and intercepted him with a force of 3.wikipedia.[38] Fighting on the 2d Dragoons slashes through the unfamiliar terrain.S. and seeking terrain more to their advantage. Cavalry managed to capture the Mexican artillery. Larkin.S. one under John E. The Mexicans replied with cavalry skirmishes and their own artillery. flying artillery somewhat demoralized the Mexican side. declared war against Mexico on May 13. It provided a natural fortification. the senior military officer in California. Two more forces. Texas.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 9/34 . forces invaded Mexican territory on two main fronts. or Sonoma Barracks the Sacramento Valley in December 1845. Arista found it Mexican Army lines.[42] Captain John C.S. worked successfully during the events in that vicinity to avoid bloodshed between Americans and the Mexican military garrison commanded by General José Castro. Conduct of the war After the declaration of war on May 13.S. Army topographical expedition to survey the Great Basin.400 troops arrived to relieve the fort. U. May's squadron of side to retreat—a retreat that turned into a rout. Many Mexican soldiers drowned trying to swim across the Rio Grande. This was done primarily because of concerns that Britain might also try to seize the area.[44] the party then returned to California.S. the Mexicans retreated to the far side of a dry riverbed (resaca) during the night. Cavalry force under Stephen W. 1846. the two sides engaged in fierce hand to hand combat.[40] However. the American term for horse artillery. May 9. Zachary Taylor and 2. Frémont. Mexican casualties were heavy. stationed in Monterey. entered A replica of the first "Bear Flag" now at El Presidio de Sonoma. 1846 and the Mexicans were forced to abandon their artillery and baggage.S.Wikipedia. Palma. It had a devastating effect on the Mexican army. The U. reinforced by a Pacific fleet under John D.S.[45] http://en. California Campaign Although the U. Oregon Territory. Fort Brown inflicted additional casualties as the withdrawing troops passed by the fort.[41] it took almost three months (until early August 1846) for definitive word of Congress' declaration of war to get to California. The U. Both these engagements were fought prior to war being declared. leading a U. The U.400 at Palo Alto.[38] During the Battle of Resaca de la Palma the next day.

[51] San Francisco.S. in the Siege of Los Angeles.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 10/34 . garrisons in San Diego and Santa Barbara to flee. Sloat transferred his command of the Pacific Squadron to Commodore Robert F.[46] With rumors swirling that General Castro was massing an army against them. American settlers in the Sacramento Valley banded together to meet the threat. 1846. Later that day in Sonoma. Mexico. who was more militarily aggressive.[64] The Californios under the leadership of José María Flores.[48] One settler created the Bear Flag and raised it over Sonoma Plaza. erroneously believed Frémont to be acting on orders from Washington and ordered his forces to occupy Monterey on July 7 and raise the U.[47] On June 14.[50] On June 25.[52] On July 5 Frémont's California Battalion was formed by combining his forces with many of the rebels. 34 American settlers seized control of the undefended Mexican government outpost of Sonoma to forestall Castro's plans. 70 sailors and marines landed at Yerba Buena and raised the American flag. Sloat.[59] He mustered the willing members of the California Battalion into military service with Frémont in command. which increased the American forces there to 800.[53] Commodore John D.[69] He and Mervine then set up a base of operations at San Diego."[63] Stockton. acting on their own and without federal help from Mexico. forced the American garrison to retreat on September 29. with 8 severely injured. in addition to the California Battalion.[58] On July 15.S. commander of the U. Stockton.[55] Sloat. Stockton's 360 men arrived in San Pedro. left a tyrannical officer in charge of Los Angeles with a small force. whereupon he sent a report to the Secretary of State that "California is entirely free from Mexican dominion.Wikipedia.[68] Four Americans died. 70 more volunteers joined the rebels' force. Within a week. however. reaching it on July 1.[61] General Castro and Governor Pío Pico wrote farewells and fled separately to the Mexican state of Sonora.[49] which grew to nearly 300 in early July. near Mazatlan.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . Frémont brought 160 volunteers to Monterey.[67] They were ambushed and repulsed at the Battle of Dominguez Rancho by Flores' forces in less than an hour. Frémont's party arrived to assist in an expected military confrontation. then called Yerba Buena.S.[62] Stockton's army entered Los Angeles unopposed on August 13. upon hearing of the events in Sonoma and Frémont's involvement. the free encyclopedia Mexico had issued a proclamation that unnaturalized foreigners were no longer permitted to have land in California and were subject to expulsion.[66] Captain William Mervine landed 350 sailors and marines at San Pedro on October 7.[56] On July 9.wikipedia.[57] On Sloat's orders.[59] Stockton ordered Frémont to San Diego to prepare to move northward to Los Angeles. Stockton arrived with reinforcements at San Pedro. was occupied by the Bear Flaggers on July 2. had received orders to seize San Francisco Bay and blockade California ports when he was positive that war had begun.[65] They also forced small U.[70] http://en.[54] Sloat set sail for Monterey. flag.[60] As Frémont landed. Navy's Pacific Squadron. the Bear Flag was lowered and the American flag was raised in its place.

[81][82] That same day. Within a month. who had performed a grueling march across New Mexico and the Sonoran Desert. Later. were killed in 30 minutes of fighting.[86] Pacific Coast campaign USS Independence assisted in the blockade of the Mexican Pacific coast. 100 lancers under General Andrés Pico (brother of the governor). and landed bluejackets and Marines to occupy Mazatlán.[71] Stockton sent a 35-man patrol from San Diego to meet them. 1847.[86] Articles of Capitulation were signed on January 13 by Frémont. Sonora.[73] The wounded Kearny and his bloodied force pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule Hill". January 9. capturing the Mexican ship Correo and a launch on May 16. 1847. with the USS Cyane given credit for 18 ships captured and numerous destroyed. including three officers. Andrés Pico and six others at a rancho at Cahuenga Pass (modern-day North Hollywood).wikipedia. Entering the Gulf of California. and Cyane seized La Paz. not on the peninsula. fought Kearny's army of about 150 at the Battle of San Pasqual.[85] On January 12.S. the Stockton-Kearny army defeated the Californio force in the two-hour Battle of Rio San Gabriel. the Stockton-Kearny forces fought and won the Battle of La Mesa. capturing all major Baja California cities and capturing or destroying nearly all Mexican vessels in the Gulf of California. a major supply base for Mexican forces.[87] US (left) and Mexican (right) uniforms of the period. the free encyclopedia Meanwhile. She supported the capture of Guaymas.[72] On December 7.S. Army entered Los Angeles to no resistance.[83] The next day. Colonel Stephen W. destroying or capturing 30 vessels. most of the Pacific Squadron proceeded down the California coast. Congress. Frémont's force arrived at San Fernando.[84] On January 10. on November 11. 1847.Wikipedia. a 600-man American force under Kearny began a 150mile march to Los Angeles. 1847. General Pico kept the hill under siege for four days until a 215-man American relief force arrived. then captured and burned the small Mexican fleet at Guaymas. Independence.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 11/34 . Sinaloa. were taken as well. After upper California was secure. The objective of the Pacific Coast Campaign was to capture Mazatlán.[74] However. crossed the Colorado River in late November. Numerous Mexican ships were also captured by this squadron. tipped off and lying in wait. 1847.[78][79] Flores then moved his ill-equipped 500-man force to a 50-foot-high bluff above the San Gabriel River. where 22 of Kearny's men (one of whom later died of wounds).3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . Other ports.[77] On December 28.[86] This became known as the Treaty of Cahuenga. on October 19. Kearny and his force of about 100 men.[80] On January 8. Frémont and two of Pico's officers agreed to terms for a surrender. A Mexican campaign under Manuel Pineda to retake the various captured ports resulted in several small clashes http://en. U. they cleared the Gulf of hostile ships. the U. 1846.[75] Frémont and the 428-man California Battalion arrived in San Luis Obispo on December 14[76] and Santa Barbara on December 27. which marked the end of armed resistance in California. their sailors and marines captured the port of Mazatlán on November 11.

defeated and dispersed remaining Mexican forces at the Skirmish of Todos Santos. he reneged again and seized the presidency. Taylor broke the armistice and occupied the city of Saltillo. they changed their urban warfare tactics. then Camargo (where the soldiery suffered the first of many problems with disease) and then proceeded south and besieged the city of Monterrey.[89] Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government. The Mexican forces were under General Pedro de Ampudia and repulsed Taylor's best infantry division at Fort Teneria.wikipedia. Battle of San José del Cabo) and two sieges (Siege of La Paz. unaware that the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been signed in February 1848 and a truce agreed to on March 6. Then. with 4. they needed to punch holes in the side or roofs of the homes and fight hand to hand inside the structures. had entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista. Henry S. after a drawing by Carl Nebel.[88] He promised the U. where howitzer shelling forced Ampudia to negotiate. 2.S. troops crossed the Rio Grande after some initial difficulties in obtaining river transport. Texan soldiers had fought in a Mexican city before (the Siege of Béxar in December 1835) and advised Taylor's generals that the Americans needed to "mouse hole" through the city's homes. on March 31. Northeastern Mexico The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico. captured Pineda. Battle of La Paz. Col. Taylor agreed to allow the Mexican Army to evacuate and to an eight-week armistice in return for the surrender of the city. and. many Mexicans went with them: those who had supported the American cause and had thought Lower California would also be annexed like Upper California. Under pressure from Washington. 1847.[92] Eventually.000 men in a tired state. Lt.[91] This The Battle of Monterrey. garrisons remained in control of the ports. Burton marched out.[90] American soldiers. method proved successful. southwest of Monterrey.000 men. Led by Taylor. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. His soldiers occupied the city of Matamoros. Taylor. His forces rescued captured Americans. Santa Anna blamed the loss of Monterrey and Saltillo on Ampudia and demoted him to command a small artillery battalion. where they were annihilated by Mexican defenders well-hidden in Monterrey's thick adobe homes. He demanded and was refused surrender http://en. after being appointed commanding general.[90] Two days later. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the U.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 12/34 . In other words. On February 22. including many West Pointers. When the American garrisons were evacuated to Monterey following the treaty ratification.300 U.S. The American light artillery was ineffective against the stone fortifications of the city. that if allowed to pass through the blockade. U. these actions drove and trapped Ampudia's men into the city's central plaza.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War .600 men. had never engaged in urban warfare before and they marched straight down the open streets. The hard-fought Battle of Monterrey resulted in serious losses on both sides. the free encyclopedia (Battle of Mulege. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20.S. however.Wikipedia. Mexican natives called the Texas soldiers the Diabólicos Tejanos (the Devil Texans). Siege of San José del Cabo) in which the Pacific Squadron ships provided artillery support. Following reinforcement.S.

Furious fighting ensued. 1846. Santa Anna flanked the U. withdrew its forces preparing them for the next day. Perry arrived at the Tabasco River (now known as the Grijalva River) on October 22. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. seizing five Mexican vessels. possibly because the country had already been devastated by Comanche and Apache Indian raids. Before taking the square.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 13/34 . and the people chiefly confined to the towns and cities.S. but managed to cling to their entrenched position. during which the U. and avoiding damage to the merchants of the city.S. Perry led a detachment of seven vessels along the southern coast of Tabasco state. leaving Taylor in control of part of Northern Mexico. 1847. Perry decided to leave and return to the port of Frontera.[93] The civilian population of northern Mexico offered little resistance to the American invasion. Colonel Juan Bautista Traconis. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House.Wikipedia.S troops were nearly routed. He found the inhabitants much less willing to accept the American conquest than the New Mexicans."[94] Tabasco First Battle of Tabasco Commodore Matthew C. mules. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice.S. set up barricades inside the buildings. Doniphan occupied Chihuahua City. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign. Polk mistrusted Taylor. as Perry's fleet prepared to start the attack on the city. Northwestern Mexico On March 1. the townspeople of Parras enlisted Doniphan's aid against an Indian raiding party that had taken children. and unsuccessfully asserted it was under British protection. The American merchants either followed or returned to Santa Fe. Then in late April. Leaving a small garrison. Major William Gilpin advocated a march on Mexico City and convinced a majority of officers. Josiah Gregg. he advanced with his troops towards the town of San Juan Bautista (Villahermosa today). and money. British consul John Potts did not want to let Doniphan search Governor Trias's mansion. the Mexican forces began firing at the American fleet. Along the way.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. but Doniphan subverted this plan. so that the fire continued until evening. who was with the American army in northern Mexico. Taylor ordered the First Missouri Mounted Volunteers to leave Chihuahua and join him at Saltillo. the free encyclopedia of the U.wikipedia. The haciendas and ranchos have been mostly abandoned. he attacked the next morning. Alexander W. where he established a naval blockade to prevent supplies of food and military supplies from reaching the state capital. so he withdrew that night. Tabasco Departmental commander at that time. The U. Army. Second Battle of Tabasco http://en. Perry arrived in the city of San Juan Bautista on October 25. and seized the town Port of Frontera along with two of their ships. bombing began to yield the square. said that "the whole country from New Mexico to the borders of Durango is almost entirely depopulated. horses. American merchants in Chihuahua wanted the American force to stay in order to protect their business. The Mexicans had inflicted considerable losses but Santa Anna had gotten word of upheaval in Mexico City. On the morning of October 26. Perry realized that the bombing of the city would be the only option to drive out the Mexican Army.

but the fleet's heavy naval guns quickly dispersed the Mexican force. press and popular war enthusiasm During the war. Desertion Desertion was a major problem for the Mexican army. Porter led 60 sailors ashore and seized the fort. With more than a decade's experience reporting urban crime. raising the U. depleting forces on the eve of battle. the fleet ran through an ambush with little difficulty. It has been suggested that others used the army to get free transportation to California. under-equipped. Digitally restored. Massachusetts. compared to 12. Hand tinted lithograph. towing 47 boats that carried a landing force of 1. Among fireworks and illuminations. 1847. David D. inventions such as the telegraph created new means of communication that updated people with the latest news from the reporters. Americans became emotionally united as a community. Perry and the landing force arrived and took control of the city around 14:00. where they deserted to join the gold http://en. Looking for their opportunity.200 out of 111. The attack included two ships that sailed past the fort and began shelling it from the rear. news about Zachary Taylor's victory at Palo Alto brought up a large crowd that met in a cotton textile town of Lowell. distribution of cheap newspapers throughout the country. the free encyclopedia On June 13.S. Shelley Streetby demonstrates that the print revolution (1830s-1840s). Some deserted because of the miserable conditions in camp. only partially trained.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . unit and get a second enlistment bonus.[95] This was the first time in American history that accounts by journalists. U.3% (9. usual peacetime rates of about 14. the soldiers were held in contempt by their officers and had little reason to fight the Americans. Cameron.173. New York celebrated the twin victories at Veracruz and Buena Vista in May 1847. By getting constant reports from the battlefield. they had a "grand procession" of about 400. In the Spring of 1846.[96] The desertion rate in the U.Wikipedia. 1847. Perry encountered Mexican fire from a river fortification known as the Colmena redoubt.8% per year. On June 16. instead of opinions of politicians.S.000). Commodore Perry assembled the Mosquito Fleet and began moving towards the Grijalva River. On June 15. Generals Taylor and Scott became heroes for their people and later became presidential candidates. Most soldiers were peasants who had a loyalty to their village and family.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 14/34 . which preceded the US-Mexican War. many slipped away from camp to find their way back to their home village. published by Nathaniel Currier. who were usually on the scene. Again at an "S" curve in the river known as the "Devil's Bend". Often hungry and ill. the "penny press" realized the public's voracious need for astounding war news. News about the war always caused extraordinary popular excitement. had great influence in shaping people's opinions about and attitudes toward a war.[97] Many men deserted to join another U. Moreover. flag over the works. and never well paid.S.000 people.7% during the War of 1812 and Battle of Churubusco by J. but not to the generals who had conscripted them.S. Perry arrived at San Juan Bautista and commenced bombing the city.wikipedia. Army was 8. 12 miles (19 km) below San Juan Bautista. made it possible for the Second Battle of Tabasco.

weapons.[98] Scott's Mexico City campaign Landings and Siege of Veracruz Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City.000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies. The Battle of Chapultepec. troops suffered 80 casualties.000 troops and artillery that http://en.[98] this.S.S. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in U. Grant. about half of whom were Catholics from Ireland. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. side began to fall victim to yellow fever. The Mexicans issued broadsides and leaflets enticing U. about half of whom were civilian. deserters went over to the Mexican side. the free encyclopedia rush. The city replied the best it could with its own artillery. U.. Ulysses S. Lee. Several hundred U. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3. 1848. soldiers with promises of money. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. and horses near the walled city using specially designed landing craft. 1847. and officers' commissions. the most famous group was the Saint Patrick's Battalion.500 healthy troops. About 50 of the San Patricios were tried and hanged following their capture at Churubusco in August 1847.wikipedia.S. history in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded. By the time word reached the eastern U. less than two weeks before the war concluded. The guerrillas coerced these men to join the Mexican ranks.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War .S.S. Bombardment of Veracruz Advance on Puebla Scott then marched westward Scott's campaign.S. George Meade.S. however.S.S. forces. that gold had been discovered. word also reached it that the war was over.Wikipedia. which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea. who risked being executed if captured by U. A group of 12. and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. During the siege. The generous promises proved illusory for most deserters. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12. Included in the invading force were Robert E. toward Mexico City with 8. On March 9. Nearly all were recent immigrants from Europe with weak ties to the U. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 15/34 . is unlikely as gold was only discovered in California on January 24. the U. land bounties. James Longstreet. Mexican guerrillas shadowed the U.400 men. Army and captured men who took unauthorized leave or fell out of the ranks. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott.

Scott decided not to weaken his army to defend the city but. During the following months Scott gathered supplies and reinforcements at Puebla and sent back units whose enlistments had expired. Advance on Mexico City and its capture With guerrillas harassing his line of communications back to Veracruz. However. Battle of Chapultepec The Battle of Chapultepec was an encounter between the Mexican Army and the United States on the castle of Chapultepec in Mexico City. the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and therefore revealed their positions. this castle was a renowned military school in Mexico City. advanced on Mexico City on August 7 with his remaining force.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War Storming of Chapultepec 16/34 .Wikipedia. and later became military governor of occupied Mexico City. until they broke down.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War .S. Because of the citizens' hostility to Santa Anna. They have lost six great battles. of Scott's 3rd Infantry. made twenty thousand prisoners. the legend of "Los Niños Héroes" was born. Instead of taking the main road. negotiate terms]![99] Pause at Puebla In May. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. the city capitulated without resistance on May 1. Winfield Scott became an American national hero after his victories in this campaign of the Mexican–American War. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north. leaving only a garrison at Puebla to protect the sick and injured recovering there. In August 1847. six military cadets between the ages of 13 and 17 stayed in the school instead of evacuating. Although not confirmed by historians.000 casualties and 3. These Niños Héroes (the young heroes) became icons in http://en. have the greatest portion of their country and are fast advancing on their Capital which must be ours. culminating in the Battle of Chapultepec. setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans.000 were taken prisoner. The U. at the Battle of Contreras and Churubusco. With the subsequent battles of Molino del Rey and of Chapultepec. on September 6. 1847. Fighting halted for a time when an armistice and peace negotiations followed the Battle of Churubusco.wikipedia. Army suffered 400 casualties.[100] They decided to stay and fight for Mexico. After the battle which ended in an American victory. Scott also made strong efforts to keep his troops disciplined and treat the Mexican people under occupation justly. the second largest city in Mexico. and the storming of the city gates. Although by then aware of the positions of U. along which he expected Scott to appear. Scott pushed on to Puebla. so as to prevent a popular rising against his army.S. reflected on the resistance of the Mexican army: They can do nothing and their continued defeats should convince them of it.—yet they refuse to treat [i.e.600 mounted dragoons ahead. troops. The Mexican army was routed. Scott had sent 2. the capital was occupied. nearly one hundred thousand stands of arms. while the Mexicans suffered over 1. The capital was laid open in a series of battles around the right flank of the city defenses.. we have captured six hundred and eight cannon. the free encyclopedia were trained on the road. At this time. Captain Kirby Smith.

citizens.25 million ($88.452.[100][101] Santa Anna's last campaign In late September 1847. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities[107] – and the U. The battle was Santa Anna's last. by American diplomat Nicholas Trist and Mexican plenipotentiary representatives Luis G. Cuevas. the country was also faced with many internal divisions.S. Victories by General Lane over the Light Corps at Atlixco (October 18. However some bands continued in defiance of the Mexican government until the American evacuation in August.[103] Some were suppressed by the Mexican Army or.S. General Joaquín Rea began the Siege of Puebla.[102] He had also detailed an anti guerrilla brigade under Brig. ended the war.Wikipedia. politicians who had opposed the war from the start.587. Santa Anna made one last attempt to defeat the Americans. 1847) and over the guerrillas of Padre Jarauta at Zacualtipan (February 25. The treaty gave the U. soon joined by Santa Anna. After the two governments concluded a truce to await ratification of the peace treaty.300-man escorts.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande. General Scott sent about a quarter of his strength to secure his line of communications to Vera Cruz from the Light Corps of General Joaquín Rea and other Mexican guerilla forces that had been harassing it since May. newspaper. Utah. Puebla was relieved by Gen. Gen.S. by cutting them off from the coast. 1847.S.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . the free encyclopedia Mexico's pantheon of heroes. Joseph Lane prompted Santa Anna to stop him.000. New Mexico. 1848). 1847. and Miguel Atristain. 1848.000[106] ($497. executed. especially among U.S.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 17/34 . formal hostilities ceased.885 today) – less than half the amount the U. including the Caste War of Yucatán. at Perote and San Juan on the road between Jalapa and Puebla and at Puente Nacional between Jalapa and Vera Cruz. Rather than surrender to the U."[108][109] http://en.. Mexico received $15. the Whig Intelligencer.S. Thank God.S. established 750-man posts along the National Road at the pass between Mexico City and Puebla at Rio Frio. Kansas. Oklahoma. He strengthened the garrison of Puebla and by November had added a 1200-man garrison at Jalapa. the new Mexican government led by Manuel de la Peña y Peña asked Santa Anna to turn over command of the army to General José Joaquín de Herrera. following his defeat of Santa Anna at the Battle of Huamantla on October 9. Mexico could not defend itself. Nevada. and parts of Texas. sardonically concluded that "We take nothing by conquest .S.. Following the defeat. and Wyoming.[17] The acquisition was a source of controversy then. like Padre Jarauta. Lane October 12. Joseph Lane to carry the war to the Light Corps and other guerrillas.500 today) in debts that the Mexican government owed to U. some military cadets leaped from the castle walls.. 1847) and at Izucar de Matamoros (November 23. He ordered that convoys would travel with at least 1. In return. but they failed to take it before the approach of a relief column from Veracruz under Brig. A cadet named Juan Escutia wrapped himself in the Mexican flag and jumped to his death. most of Arizona and Colorado. undisputed control of Texas. A leading antiwar U. on March 6.[104][105] Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Outnumbered militarily and with many of its large cities occupied. Anti guerrilla campaign Following his capture and securing of the capital. established the U. Gen. Army. Bernardo Couto. signed on February 2. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California.wikipedia. reduced guerrilla raids on the American line of communications. 1848. agreed to assume $3. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

S. Edward A. in that the US pledged to suppress the Comanche and Apache raids that had ravaged northern Mexico and pay restitutions to the victims of raids it could not prevent. Lewis Cass.wikipedia. U.. Minister to http://en. Mississippi.Wikipedia. The Mexican Cession. Stephen A. Missouri. Most of the leaders of the Democratic party – Thomas Hart Benton. and Ambrose Hundley Sevier – were opposed. Senate made two modifications: changing the wording of Article IX (which guaranteed Mexicans living in the purchased territories Mexican territorial claims relinquished in the Treaty of the right to become U.[112] The protocol was signed in the city of Querétaro by A. It was supported by both senators from Texas (Sam Houston and Thomas Jefferson Rusk).[110] An amendment by Whig Senator George Edmund Badger of North Carolina to exclude New Mexico and Upper California lost 35–15. citizens) and Guadalupe Hidalgo in white.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 18/34 . shown in red. Dickinson of New York. Nathan Clifford. although a cholera epidemic reduced the numbers of the Comanche in 1849. Douglas of Illinois. when the two countries exchanged ratifications of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. though division of New Mexico down the middle at the Rio Grande never had any basis either in control or Mexican boundaries.[112] Article XI offered a potential benefit to Mexico. and the later Gadsden Purchase.S. and Tennessee. and one each from Alabama. the Indian raids did not cease for several decades after the treaty. they further agreed to a three-article protocol (known as the Protocol of Querétaro) to explain the amendments. Johnson. the U. 1848. Florida. Prior to ratifying the treaty. with three Southern Whigs voting with the Democrats. Daniel Webster was bitter that four New England senators made deciding votes for acquiring the new territories. Sevier. H. Herschel V. Hannegan of Indiana. and Luis de la Rosa. Daniel S. most of northeastern Mexico.[114] Robert Letcher. The acquired lands west of the Rio Grande are traditionally called the Mexican Cession in the U.S. Mexico never recognized the independence of Texas[111] prior to the war. and did not cede its claim to territory north of the Rio Grande or Gila River until this treaty.S. The first article claimed that the original Article IX of the treaty. Calhoun.[113] However. as opposed to the Texas Annexation two years earlier. although replaced by Article III of the Treaty of Louisiana. which failed 44– 11. The second article confirmed the legitimacy of land grants under Mexican law. would still confer the rights delineated in Article IX. Ohio. shown in yellow. striking out Article X (which conceded the legitimacy of land grants made by the Mexican government). On May 26. James Murray Mason of Virginia. the free encyclopedia Jefferson Davis introduced an amendment giving the U.S.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . John C.

The American settlers surging into the newly conquered Southwest were openly contemptuous of Mexican law (a civil law system based on the law of Spain) as alien and inferior and disposed of it by enacting reception statutes at the first available opportunity.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 19/34 . although comparable in size to Western Europe. they recognized the value of a few aspects of Mexican law and carried them over into their new legal systems. were sparsely populated.000 were sold to the U. comprised almost 1. Another 30. for I would be glad of a chance to escape.000 by 1848.S.[118][119] as well as large Native American nations such as the Papago.Wikipedia.S..S. For example. in the Gadsden Purchase of 1853. The great majority chose to remain in the U.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . citizens. which was reduced to just under 800. Apache.700. and how? Are we beaten? Do you know of any nation about to besiege South Hadley [Massachusetts]? If so.[116] Results Altered territories Mexican territory. —The sixteen-year-old Emily Dickinson.[117] The annexed territories.000 sq mi (4. The lands contained about 14."[120] Although the Whigs had opposed the war.S. I suppose [our teacher] Miss [Mary] Lyon would furnish us all with daggers and order us to fight for our lives. for a total reduction of more than 55%. they made Zachary Taylor their presidential candidate in the election of 1848. However. While Whig Ralph Waldo Emerson rejected war "as a means of achieving America's destiny. was certain "that miserable 11th article" would lead to the financial ruin of the US if it could not be released from its obligations. victory and the acquisition of new land brought a surge of patriotism.400. Austin in the fall of 1847. the free encyclopedia Mexico in 1850.000 people in Alta California and fewer American occupation of Mexico City. do inform me of it. than 60. Pima. praising his military performance while muting their criticism of the war.wikipedia. prior to the secession of Texas.[115] The US was released from all obligations of Article XI five years later by Article II of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853. or 900. and later became U. Victory seemed to fulfill Democrats' belief in their country's Manifest Destiny.000 square miles. shortly after the Battle of Chapultepec[121] Political repercussions http://en.. The home front In much of the U.000 km2). Has the Mexican War terminated yet. and many others. Puebloan. A few relocated farther south in Mexico. most of the southwestern states adopted community property marital property systems. writing to her older brother.." he accepted that "most of the great results of history are brought about by discreditable means.000 in Nuevo México. Navajo. if we are to be stormed.

and companies of volunteers from the different states of the Union and the Americans and some of the Mexicans in the territory of California and New Mexico. For myself. who rallied pro-war sentiments in Illinois. in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional Gen. followed congressional scrutiny of the war's beginnings. which resulted. Stonewall Jackson. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war of modern times. Lincoln's Spot resolutions haunted his future campaigns in the heavily Democratic state of Illinois. the free encyclopedia A month before the end of the war. like individuals. Grant.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 20/34 . in an attempt to recapture Los Angeles. It was an instance of a republic following the bad example of European monarchies. Nations. I was bitterly opposed to the measure. George B. George Meade. Braxton Bragg. and were cited by enemies well into his presidency.Wikipedia. Ambrose Burnside. McClellan. that: Generally. as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. Navy fielded a battalion of sailors." This criticism. published in 1885.wikipedia. including factual challenges to claims made by President Polk. the U. On the West Coast. This list includes Ulysses S. 1846 territory. the war was fought by regiments of regulars and various regiments. Johnston.[126] Combatants On the United States side. and the future Confederate President Jefferson Davis.[122][123] The vote followed party lines. but not so all of them.S. in which Congressman Abraham Lincoln played an important role with his Spot Resolutions. the officers of the army were indifferent whether the annexation was consummated or not. recalled in his Memoirs. who as a young army lieutenant had served in Mexico under General Taylor. Lee.[125] Grant also expressed the view that the war against Mexico had brought punishment on the United States in the form of the American Civil War: The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war. James Longstreet. Sterling Price. Joseph E. Robert E. President Ulysses S. Lincoln's attack won luke-warm support from fellow Whigs in Illinois but was harshly counter-attacked by Democrats. William Rosecrans.[127] http://en. Kearny's annexation of New Mexico. Polk was criticized in a United States House of Representatives amendment to a bill praising Major General Zachary Taylor for "a war unnecessarily and unconstitutionally begun by the President of the United States.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War .[124] Effect on the American Civil War Many of the military leaders on both sides of the American Civil War had fought as junior officers in Mexico. William T. with all Whigs supporting the amendment. Grant. August 15. battalions. Sherman. and to this day regard the war. are punished for their transgressions.

In the northern territories of Mexico.. a vocal proponent of Manifest Destiny. Taylor at the beginning of the war. Mexican forces were divided between the permanent forces (permanentes) and the active militiamen (activos).S. the U. The expression "Just like Gaines's army" came to refer to something useless. one of mounted rifles). Owen Thomas Edgar. 1847). Army had eight regiments of infantry (three battalions). The last surviving U. eight regiments of cavalry. the phrase having originated when a group of untrained and unwilling Louisiana troops were rejected and sent back by Gen. a lawless drunken rabble. three brigades of artillery. mostly for one year.[128] State Volunteers were raised in various sized units and for various periods of time.Wikipedia. and killed several inoffensive inhabitants of the town in the streets.wikipedia.S. taken possession of their houses. veteran of the conflict. stole their fences for firewood.[131] http://en..S. and were emulating each other in making beasts of themselves.[129] The mass hanging of Irish Catholic soldiers who deserted to the Mexican side. presidial companies (presidiales) protected the scattered settlements there. These regiments were supplemented by 10 new regiments (nine of infantry and one of cavalry) raised for one year's service (new regiments raised for one year according to act of Congress Feb 11. U.563 U. many of the Louisiana volunteers were there. Mexico At the beginning of the war. 1929. soldiers' memoirs describe cases of looting and murder of Mexican civilians. the free encyclopedia United States At the beginning of the war. Later some were raised for the duration of the war as it became clear it was going to last longer than a year. soldiers are buried in the Mexico City National Cemetery.[130] John L. later recollected: The regulars regarded the volunteers with importance and contempt . forming the Saint Patrick's Battalion. They had driven away the inhabitants. which is maintained by the American Battle Monuments Commission. The militia amounted to nine infantry and six cavalry regiments. one separate squadron and a brigade of dragoons. four artillery regiments and three mounted regiments (two dragoons. One officer's diary records: We reached Burrita about 5 pm. Many of the volunteers were unwanted and considered poor soldiers. The permanent forces consisted of 12 regiments of infantry (of two battalions each). [The volunteers] robbed Mexicans of their cattle and corn. mostly by State Volunteers. died on September 3.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . O'Sullivan. at age 98. 1. got drunk.S.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 21/34 .

[132] In 1847 the House of Representatives passed the Wilmot Proviso." Saint Patrick's Battalion (San Patricios) was a group of several hundred immigrant soldiers.manufactured breech-loading Hall rifles and Model 1841 percussion rifles. Of these.S. Most were killed in the Battle of Churubusco. and at times these two factions inside Mexico's military fought each other rather than the invading American army. In the later stages of the war. approximately 1.S. political quarrels in the U.2 million square miles (3. another 12% were wounded or discharged because of disease. It was approved by the U.000 in 1846.1 million km2) http://en.wikipedia. of which the U. the centralistas and republicanos vied for power. was merely branded since he had deserted prior to the start of the war. Political divisions inside Mexico were another factor in the U.S. the total casualties may have reached 35–40% if later injury. veterans continued to suffer from the debilitating diseases contracted during the campaigns.S. Inside Mexico. victory. in a common cause and was fought almost entirely by volunteers. sovereignty over all of Texas north of the Rio Grande formalized the addition of 1. whose members wanted to install a monarch (some even advocated rejoining Spain).and disease-related deaths are added. Despite initial objections from the Whigs and abolitionists.5% were killed in the fighting and nearly 10% died of disease. Jon Riley. and roughly ½ were hanged as deserters. Santa Anna said.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 22/34 .S.S.Wikipedia. or both. The leader. 1848. soldiers. The Mexican army was using British muskets (e. U.S. For years afterward. As Gen.S. and a late attempt to add it to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was defeated. cavalry and officers were issued Colt Walker revolvers. The ease of the American landing at Vera Cruz was in large part due to civil warfare in Mexico City. Senate on March 10. artillery often carried the day. Veterans of the war who had seen Mexico at first hand were unenthusiastic. further complicated matters. stipulating that none of the territory acquired should be open to slavery. Anti-slavery elements opposed that position and fought for the exclusion of slavery from any territory absorbed by the U. On September 13. The army swelled from just over 6. Throughout the war.S. Another faction called the monarchists. In this respect. the free encyclopedia One of the contributing factors to loss of the war by Mexico was the inferiority of their weapons.000.S. and ratified by the Mexican Congress on May 25.S.g.S. we have brought this disgraceful tragedy upon ourselves through our interminable in-fighting. During the war. In contrast to the aging Mexican standardissue infantry weapon. the majority Irish.S. "However shameful it may be to admit this. which made any real defense of the port city impossible. Army had ordered 1. the war was proportionately the most deadly in American military history. They joined the Mexican army.S. troops had the latest U. This third faction would rise to predominance in the period of the French intervention in Mexico. The Senate avoided the issue. who deserted the U. Impact of the war in the U. about 100 were captured by the U. Brown Bess) from the Napoleonic Wars. the superiority of the U.S. arose regarding the disposition of conquered Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the result of Nicholas Trist's unauthorized negotiations. Mexico's cession of Alta California and Nuevo México and its recognition of U. The casualty rate was thus easily over 25% for the 17 months of the war. the Niños Héroes ("Hero Children") died defending the Chapultepec castle while it was taken by U. 1847.000 to more than 115.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . A brief "All-Mexico" movement urged annexation of the entire territory. Army because of ill-treatment or sympathetic leanings to fellow Mexican Catholics. some U. the war would nevertheless unite the U.

S. As late as 1880. The monument is an important patriotic site in Mexico. maker of the "Iron Palmetto" commemorating the loss of South Carolinians in the War Reconquista (Mexico) Republic of Texas – United States relations Territories of Mexico General: History of Mexico List of conflicts in the United States List of wars involving Mexico http://en. was made by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. 1947. the "Republican Campaign Textbook" by the Republican Congressional Committee[133] described the war as "Feculent. The war did not resolve the issue of slavery in the U.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War .S. Furthermore.S. "An Available Candidate: The One Qualification for a Whig President. which culminated in transcontinental railroads and the Indian wars later in the same century." Political cartoon about the 1848 presidential election which refers to Zachary Taylor or Winfield Scott. the Mexican–American War was one step in the massive migrations to the West of Americans.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 23/34 .S.S. 1847. in doing much to extend the nation from coast to coast. On March 5. particularly for the American West. President Harry S. A final territorial adjustment between Mexico and the U. While it marked a significant waypoint for the nation as a growing military power. Published by Nathaniel Currier in 1848. the free encyclopedia of territory to the United States.S. but rather in many ways inflamed it. the two leading contenders for the Whig Party nomination in the aftermath of the Mexican–American War. narrative of Manifest Destiny. as potential westward expansion of the institution took an increasingly central and heated theme in national debates preceding the American Civil War.Wikipedia. reeking Corruption" and "one of the darkest scenes in our history—a war forced upon our and the Mexican people by the highhanded usurpations of Pres't Polk in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement of the slave oligarchy. nearly one hundred years after the battle. Truman placed a wreath at the monument and stood for a moment of silence. agreed to pay $15 million and assumed the claims of its citizens against Mexico. See also Battles of the Mexican–American War Christopher Werner. in the first half of the 19th century. In Mexico City's Chapultepec Park." The war was one of the most decisive events for the U. In return the U. The resultant territorial gains set in motion many of the defining trends in American 19thcentury history. the Niños Héroes (Monument to the Heroic Cadets) commemorates the heroic sacrifice of six teenaged military cadets who fought to their deaths rather than surrender to American troops during the Battle of Chapultepec Castle on September 13. U.wikipedia. digitally restored. it also served as a milestone especially within the U.

pbs. Jay (1853) p. Macmillan.tshaonline. 21.state. 149.com/books?id=H42TwTwE1IwC). 658 (http://books.com/books? id=WBkOAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA464). No.dmdc. "The Monarchist Conspiracy and the Mexican War" in Essays on the Mexican War ed by Wayne Cutler.dmwv. 24. 2. 2012 5. Origins of Instability in Early Republican Mexico (1991) p. Mexican War (http://www. Department of State. August 7. pp. 18. Brian "Independent Indians and the U. Official DOD data (https://www. Zachary Taylor: Soldier. Retrieved May 28. Texas A&M University Press. p.org/handbook/online/articles/RR/mzr2.Wikipedia. PBS. Soto. 19.html). The Organization of the Mexican Army (http://www. vol. 2012 4. xi. Donald Fithian Stevens. 11.org/military/ops/mexican_war. 61–62. 2007.htm) from Global Security. Rives. 2004.org/kera/usmexicanwar/war/mexican_army.mil/dcas/pages/report_principal_wars. 22. ''The United States and Mexico'' vol.com. Justin Harvey Smith (1919).org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 24/34 . 2.globalsecurity. 2.google. l (Feb 2007).htm).jstor. pp.google. retrieved May 13. Retrieved July 6. http://en. Rives. 20. Brian. p. The United States and Mexico. 2009) 14. Descendants of Mexican War Veterans. 17. Miguel E.google. 48–49 12. DeLay.gov/milestones/1830-1860/Texas Annexation. K.com/books? id=vfhAAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA658) 7. 117. See Rives.com. the free encyclopedia Mexico-United States relations Notes 1. "The Annexation of Texas" U. 2012 8.archive. p. p. 2006. March 14. Rives. Mexican War" The American Historical Review. pp 45–46 (http://books. 165–168 15. 23. March 14. p.pbs. Statesman of the Old Southwest (http://books.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War .org/web/20090429075659/http://www.-Mexican War: Some Statistics (http://www. 1846 only.xhtml) 6.org/pss/25139106 Proposals for the colonization of California by England. 464. pp. Brooks (1849) pp. Rives.google.org/kera/usmexicanwar/war/american_army. See "Republic of Texas" (https://web. vol. retrieved May 13.html). Books. 2008.286 10. 1986.S. University of Texas Press. Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas. pp. 2. Delay.osd. 2012 3.google. PBS. 25. Jay (1853) p. vol. http://history. 30.S. September 28. California Historical Society Quarterly. Jack Bauer (1993). The U. p 35 9. The American Army in the Mexican War: An Overview (http://www. Vol 112. 119. 11.com/books? id=vfhAAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA45). Smith (1919) p. The war with Mexico vol. 1836-1986 (http://books.com/books?id=YnUKT4f_fZQC&pg=PA30). 1939 13. 2011. 1 (http://books. 2006.google. Louisiana State University Press. http://www. 2.org/mexwar/mwstats. 172–173 16. retrieved May 13. Planter.S.wikipedia. David Montejano (1987). The War of a Thousand Deserts New Haven: Yale U Press. html) at the Wayback Machine (archived April 29. 66–67.

and that the two nations are now at war. John Mack.yale. Brooks (1849) pp. 158 63. 2006. Walker p. 37. 34. Tucker (2013) p. New York: Macmillan. Walker p. Walker p. Walker p. 91.html). 2011. Polk: Third Annual Message—December 7. Walker. see A. p. Retrieved July 20. 40. 98 55. 134 52. Beveridge 1:417.. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education. 148 58.edu. 138 53.ucsb. Walker p. 29. 42. 28. 62-79 32. May 11. 122.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 25/34 . Presidency. 140 54. "Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States. 165–166. 31. Jewett and Company. Walker p. 1847" (http://www. 117. 1853. 129 50. Dale L. 1846" (http://www.Wikipedia. 159 http://en. 91-92. Walker p. 149 59. Jay (1853) pp. 2008. Speeches in Congress [1841–1852]. 33. Walker p. Jay (1853) p. Faragher." 30. 68. 110 48. Walker p.P. Giddings. 143-144 57. p. Walker p. p. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil.wikipedia. 139 51. 107 46.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . 279. Walker p. "Message of President Polk.grinnell. Walker p. 39. ISBN 0312866852. Walker p. Brooks (1849) p. Walker p. Retrieved May 28. J. Bauer (1992) p. Out Of Many: A History of the American People. eds.718.presidency. 157 62. the free encyclopedia 26. 96 43.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/messages/polk01. (1999). Walker p. 1991. Walker p. 27. et al. Walker p.17 36. 41. 104.edu/ws/print. Walker p. 101 47.edu/courses/HIS/f01/HIS20201/Documents/OSullivan. 123-125 49. Walker p. 154 60.ucsb.php? pid=29488). She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced. 103 45.htm). 72 44. Brooks (1849) p. Bear Flag Rising: The Conquest of California. 165. See O'Sullivan's 1845 article "Annexation" (http://web. United States Magazine and Democratic Review 35. 1846. Walker p. Smith (1919) p.Joshua Reed. Walker p. 156 61. 38. 121. Walker p. "James K. 142 56. Brook Caruso: The Mexican Spy Company.

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Wiltse. (1968). Army in the Mexican War.net/mexican-war/war. Smith. "29th Congress.edu/halsall/mod/1848hidalgo. from 1846 to 1848. Daniel (1984). (http://www. New Mexico: The University of New Mexico Press. D. Franklin (1991). 2008.htm) The Mexican–American War.edu/mexicanwar/index. bibliographies and collections Library of Congress Guide to the Mexican War Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mexican– American War.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 32/34 . Albuquerque.html) http://en. Hanover.wikipedia. Correspondence 6. United States House Journal. 1st session" (http://memory.niu. George Winston and Charles Judah. ed.html) Reading List (http://www..loc. ed. Internet Sourcebook Project. WASHINGTON. 1st session" (http://memory. The Papers of Daniel Webster.gov/cgi-bin/query/r? ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(hj041T000)):).Wikipedia. WITHERBEE & CO.mil/reference/mexwar/MW-CVR. Chronicles of the Gringos: The U. Proprietors). Jackson. 1989).loc.fordham. BRENTANO'S (A. United States Senate Journal. 2008.gov/cgi-bin/query/r? ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(sj037T000)):). C. Accounts of Eyewitnesses and Combatants. 2008.htm) compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History Mexican War Resources (http://www. Joseph E.org/details/mexicanwarvetera00roba) External links Guides. the volunteers are arranged by states. ed. 2008. Retrieved November 26.gov/rr/program/bib/mexicanwar/) The Handbook of Texas Online: Mexican War (http://www. "Mexican War veterans: a complete roster of the regular and volunteer troops in the war between the United States and Mexico. United States Senate Journal. Chance. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.loc.loc. Charles M. Retrieved November 26. United States House Journal.history. "28th Congress.sonofthesouth.gov/cgi-bin/query/r? ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(sj036T000)):). New Hampshire: The University Press of New England.loc. Retrieved November 26. 2nd session" (http://memory. S. The Mexican War Journal of Captain Franklin Smith. (https://archive. Illinois Historical Digitization Projects at Northern Illinois University Libraries (http://dig. alphabetically".html). William Hugh Robarts. "28th Congress. 2nd session" (http://memory. Retrieved November 26.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War .S.org/handbook/online/articles/MM/qdm2. the free encyclopedia of Arizona Press (Tucson. 1846–1848. "Treaty of Guadalope Hidalgo" (http://www.gov/cgi-bin/query/r? ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(hj040T000)):). 2008. Retrieved November 26.army.tshaonline. Webster. "29th Congress. 1887.lib.

info/pierce/mexican-war.uta.com/MexicoAnimation.S. . 1846– 48" (http://www.php) Robert E.html) Invisible Men: Blacks and the U. and lesson for high school students. 1845–1848 (http://www.org/materials/bound-for-the-rio-grande-traitors-or-martyrs/).pdf) Milton Meltzer.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.org/mex-war/Blacks-Mexican-War.HTM) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and related resources at the U.-Mexican War: Then and Now (http://www.familytales.org/w/index. video.com/country/us/hist/19/ush-mexw.S.org/mexwar/history/concise.com) – Complete Info on the battle Manifest Destiny and the U. Army in the Mexican War by Robert E.html) Letters of Winfield Scott including official reports from the front sent to the Secretary of War (http://www.org/educators/lesson_plans/borders/start.org/kera/usmexicanwar/educators/md3_war.htm) Mexican–American War (http://histclo. Library of Congress (http://www.civilwaranimated.pbs.html) The Mexican War (http://www.dmwv.html) Mexican–American War Time line (http://mexicanhistory.smithsonianeducation.php?title=Mexican– American_War&oldid=652785392" http://en.com/mall/texasinfo/mexicow. Google Map of The Mexican-American War of 1846-1848 (http://mapsengine.S.usapresidents.htm) Animated History of the Mexican–American War (http://www.S.history.battleofmonterrey. 1974.vt.org/kera/usmexicanwar) Battle of Monterrey Web Site (http://www.loc.vmi.php?tla=wfs) Franklin Pierce's Journal on the March from Vera Cruz (http://www.com/map/viewer?mid=zlY48eTMIq2I.edu/usmexicowar/index.org/wiki/Mexican%E2%80%93American_War 33/34 .Mexico War (http://library.edu/MxAmWar/INDEX.wikipedia. Reading.html) Other PBS site of US-Mexican war program (http://www.google.org/results.3/25/2015 Mexican–American War . Zinn Education Project/Rethinking Schools.aspx? id=4294968301) The Mexican War and the Media.pbs.lnstar. "Bound for the Rio Grande: Traitors--Or Martyrs" (http://zinnedproject. May (http://www.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Guadalupe.Wikipedia.edu/archives.latinamericanstudies.htm) Smithsonian teaching aids for "Establishing Borders: The Expansion of the United States.wikipedia.k7MbF6mcfN6M) Retrieved from "http://en. Lee Mexican War Maps in the VMI Archives (http://www.html) A History by the Descendants of Mexican War Veterans (http://www. the free encyclopedia Media and primary sources A Continent Divided: The U.

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