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Integration of Millets in
Fortified Foods

August 2012

Gupta (Delhi) Dr Raj K. Fax: (011) 25846054 Email: naas@vsnl. Policy Paper No. Singh (Delhi) Immediate Past President: Dr Mangala Rai (Patna) Vice President: Dr S. Anwar Alam (Delhi) Dr N. New Ayyappan (Delhi) Dr Lalji Singh (Varanasi) Secretaries: Prof. 15 p. Dev Prakash Shastry Marg. Integration of Millets in Fortified Foods. Chhonkar CITATION : NAAS 2012. Director & Vice-Chancellor. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences.N. Devakumar : Dr P. Haryana EDITORS : Dr C. Gopakumar (Kochi) Dr H.P. New Delhi .P. Executive Secretary on behalf of NATIONAL ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NASC. Special Secretary (Delhi) Published by Mr H. Virmani (Hyderabad) Dr Biswapati Mandal (Kalyani) Editors: Dr C. Datta (Delhi) Dr B.110 012 Tel: (011) 25846051-52. Devakumar (Delhi) Dr P.K. Mukhopadhyay (Lucknow) Dr R.S. . Chhonkar (Delhi) Dr B.C.B. Web site: http://www.K.S. Singh (Lucknow) Dr M. Yadav (Gurgaon) Sh Rajiv Mehrishi. Pathak (Ghaziabad) Treasurer Dr Himanshu Pathak (Delhi) Dr A. EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 2012 President: Prof.S. Singh (Delhi) Members: Dr S.CONVENER : Dr A.M.K. Kalloo (Jabalpur) Dr (Ms) Gita Kulshrestha (Delhi) Foreign Secretary: Dr S.naasindia. Pathak. Gupta (Delhi) Dr G. Dhillon (Ludhiana) Dr K. R. 54. Srivastava. NDRI Deemed University.K.

organised a Brainstorming Session to analyse the current status of production. especially of resource-poor people inhabiting rainfed areas. In an agriculturally important country like India. especially in the vast rainfed arid and semi-arid resourcepoor settings. alleviation of the stubbornly entrenched high hunger and poverty must be foremost priority of the country. millets as the main feed and fodder resource. As detailed in this document. greatly complement the livestock industry in such ecologies. achieving household and individual level food security is still a daunting task. processing and utilization of millets in fortified foods. India is home to one-fourth of the world’s malnourished and over 40 percent of Indian children below five years of age are under-weight. It is hoped that the recommendations will be effectively implemented at different levels to augment the national nutritional and income security. the Session has recommended certain policy options and actions for enhanced production.K. towards strengthening this initiative. Millets. possessing superior nutritional attributes and adaptability to drought and low-input conditions. (R. processing and consumption of millets and millet products. Moreover. And. are thus a boon for agro-ecological and socioeconomic regimes of rainfed areas. Grateful thanks are due to the expert scientists for their active participation in the Brainstorming Session. Singh) President. agriculture-led growth is pivotal for overcoming hunger and poverty. especially the blends with dairy products to promote functional foods. Srivastava in convening the event. The National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS). NAAS . food-based nutrition is the most important way to fight undernutrition.Preface Notwithstanding the unprecedented success of the Green Revolution in rendering the nation food self-sufficient and food-secure. It is gratifying that in recent years the Government of India has initiated programmes to promote millets as nutricereals.B. Thus. The Academy greatly appreciates the efforts of Dr A.


especially in micronutrient content superior to the commonly consumed cereals. Moreover. The high GHI is the result of high levels of child underweight. Along with millets. As per the Global Hunger Index (GHI).7 against the world average of 14. and green and dry fodder for ruminant livestock. posing an alarming situation [1]. majority of the rural resourcepoor are concentrated in rainfed areas. and the two commodities are highly complementary in socio-economic and ecological terms. millets are a boon. For instance.Integration of Millets in Fortified Foods Preamble Despite the Green Revolution and the acclaimed national level food security. particularly when nearly half of the population (about 600 million people) spends more than 50 percent of the income on food. as well as for poultry. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences 1 . millets comprise the bulk of the locally produced food. high-energy feed grain (for milch and draft animals. Under such settings of arid and semi-arid traits receiving low to scanty rainfall (200-600 mm). Likewise. fish. feed and fodder. they do not burden the state with demands for irrigation or power or too much of synthetic fertilizers or associated subsidies.6 India ranked 67th. in the Deccan and Rajasthan. livestock population and milk production are in rainfed arid and semi-arid areas. more than 51 and 74% women and children are anemic respectively. in the list of 81 countries. sub marginal and skeletal soils that are less than 15 cm deep with limited use of fertilizers supplemented with biofertilizers and farmyard manures. and other mono-gastric livestock). for the vast dryland areas. A recent UNICEF report reveals that India accounts for 42% of world’ underweight children under five years of age [2]. Millets are often grown on marginal. millets which can withstand drought like conditions can be grown successfully [3]. 2011. Thus. According to an estimate. ensuring household and individual level food and nutritional security is still a daunting task. For instance. under nutrition and ill health. one-fourth of the world’s. where fine cereals like rice and wheat cannot be grown profitably. Nearly 70 percent of the hungry and poor live in rural areas and majority of them belong to small and marginal farming households. 57% suffer from subclinical Vitamin A deficiency. Food-based nutrition is the most important way to fight hidden hunger. pearl millet in rainfed areas provides the main source of nutritious staple food grain. with a GHI of 23. Hence. Moreover. India is home to about 240 million undernourished people. millets are nutritionally.

4 m.4 million tons and a very low productivity of 491 kg/ha [3].38 million ha with a production of 2. apart from yield and performance improvement. Maharashtra. Efforts have been initiated under the ambit of All India Coordinated Small millets Improvement Project to conserve the germplasm and for varietal improvement of these millets.1 million tons to 18. little millet and barnyard millet with specific traits have been released. The introduction of improved cultivars that have been developed with specific traits and found suitable for processing will provide an alternative to farmers for crop diversification and also offer them better price in market. kodo millet. The adoption of these improved varieties by the farmers and dissemination of improved crop husbandry practices in millet crops is an uphill task and would require concerted efforts of agricultural and extension workers as famers have been diverting millets areas to more remunerative crops such as cotton.05 m. especially in the Third World nations has been emphasized.t. Proactive programmes in this direction through inter-disciplinary approaches should be initiated. The remaining small millets are grown on an area of 0.04 million tons and productivity of 1477 kg/ha [3]. grown predominantly in Rajasthan. Production Scenario Between 1955-56 and 2008-09. Many new varieties of finger millet. millet production increased from 14. whereas the average yield increased from 387 kg/ha to about 1000 kg/ha and the area decreased from 36. and productivity of 911 kg/ha. with a production of 7. Ragi is cultivated approximately on 1. proso millet. in recent years the importance of millets in ensuring the food and nutritional security in India and across the globe. the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS) organized a Brainstorming Session to analyze the status and scope of integrating millets in fortified foods towards enhancing nutritional security in the country. the available millet varieties have not been investigated extensively for their post harvest characteristics and suitability for value addition. Uttar Pradesh and Haryana which accounted for more than 90% of pearl millet acreage in the country. In order to sustain this initiative.6 m. 2 Policy Paper 54 . Fifty percent of the area and 52 percent of the production was attributed to pearl millet. fruits & vegetables.With the above backdrop.ha.33 m. to 18. foxtail millet. Sorghum or Jowar is the second most important millet cultivated in India on an area of 8. Gujarat. However. the R&D efforts need to be directed towards further enhancing the nutritional make up of millet crops.6 million tons. At present.ha.ha [3].9 million ha with a production of 0.

8 5.4 2.6 4.7 2.0 13.2 16.8 2.0 0.5 12.6 66.6 10 160 Commodity Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Cystine Phenyle alanine Tyrosine Threonine Tryptophan Valine Histidine Table 2.7 11.2 1.5 3.0 1.0 1.1 2.5 3.0 3.6 2.4 5.3 8.9 6.4 8.5 41 306 0.7 3.0 2.6 1.6 4. Essential amino acid content of millets (g/100g) Sorghum Pearl millet Finger millet Proso millet Foxtail millet Kodo millet 3.3 12.2 3.0 70.6 0.5 Contd.8 1.6 9.2 3.2 26 215 2.5 11.7 344 283 2.5 20 348 1.3 1.3 3.4 11.8 1.0 5. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences 3 .0 1.2 4.1 7.9 14 206 8.2 71.1 4. Table 1.7 17 220 14. proteins and micronutrients in our diet.8 3.9 2.4 2.8 2.8 72.5 0.5 2.2 78.7 1.2 1.5 6.9 3.2 0.9 65.5 1.Millets – The Nutri-Cereals While cereals such as wheat and rice are the major source of calories.3 31 290 9.5 12.3 1.0 2.1 2.1 1.6 67.7 6.3 9.0 2.9 4.2 1.9 75.2 2.5 72.6 6.5 Crude Mineral Calcium Phosphorus fibre matter (mg) (mg) (g) (g) 1. Millet crops are relatively rich in proteins and minerals (Table 1) and are superior in amino acid balance in comparison to conventional cereal crops (Table 2).3 69.6 2.4 60.7 4.7 14 121 3.6 1.8 5.4 1.7 74.3 8.8 6.2 1.9 1.6 1.0 2.1 3.6 7. the consumption of these commodities in the refined form has deprived us of valuable micronutrients and fibers in our diet.6 25 222 1.6 11.2 1.7 3.1 2.6 3.1 4.3 3.0 3.0 2..3 5.8 1.9 5.9 3.7 6.1 3.5 11.2 Fat (g) 1. besides vitamins and fibre [4].0 1.3 42 296 3. coarse cereals and fine cereals (per 100 g) Commodity Sorghum Pearl millet Finger millet Proso millet Foxtail millet Kodo millet Little millet Barnyard millet Barley Maize Wheat Rice Protein Carbohydrates (g) (g) 10. Proximate composition of millets.6 2.6 27 188 8..9 4.5 6.

All the millets contain more fibre than fine cereals.6 2.3).8 4.6).6 1.8 3. it is rich in mineral matter and calcium in comparison to wheat and rice.4 6. Regular consumption of millet is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus because of its high magnesium and fiber content [9]. the small millets.9 1.2) and rice (0. 7.2 5. Luteolin. phenolic and phytate are now being designated as ‘phytochemicals’ because of their remarkable higher antioxidant potential. foxtail millet (12.4 Nutritional significance of millets lies in the richness in micronutrients like calcium. Proso millet (12. Certain anti-nutrients present in millets like tannin.8 4.3 3.6) and foxtail millet (8. cancerpreventive and anti-arrhythmic properties.2).3 2. iron.1 4.2 2. phosphorus.9 2.0 1.3 2.5) and barnyard millet (11. a flavone present in sorghum and millets is reported to have antioxidant. zinc.4 2.5 3. The alkaline nature of millets also makes them suitable for the population suffering with acidosis and peptic ulcer.7 8. 6.7).7 2.8 1. Sorghum and pearl millet bran act as excellent bulking agents and exhibit better cholesterol-lowering effect than wheat bran [5.4 5.5 1. The higher proportion of non-starchy polysaccharides.7 3.7 2. Particularly. and sulphur containing amino acids.5 1. The protein content in millets like Jowar (10. dietary fiber and low glycemic index render millets as ideal ingredients in many food formulations meant for specific target groups. Scientific investigations on millets and their processing have received an impetus after the discovery of the bio-active molecules in millets and their role in disease 4 Policy Paper 54 .4 5. The role of lignins present in millet in the modulation of different types of hormone-dependent cancers (such as breast cancer) is well documented.8 3. Kodo millet (9) little millet (8.8 12.9 4.4 3.6 2.2 1.0 3.4 0. Populations consuming millets reportedly had lower incidences of esophageal cancer compared to those consuming wheat or maize.2 3.7 1.6) is comparable with wheat (11.8 1.6 1.Commodity Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Cystine Phenyle alanine Tyrosine Threonine Tryptophan Valine Histidine Barnyard millet Barley Maize Wheat Rice 8.9 2.8 16.5). barnyard millet (14.6 2. 8].5 3.0) are the richest in fibre in comparison to wheat (1.4).1 1.9 2.8).5 6.9 4. The functionality of starch in millets is comparable to other cereals.6 3.5 5.5 2.9 1.1 2. Though the finger millet contains lesser protein (7.8) and much higher than rice (6. anti-inflammatory.2 2.6 9.8 3. namely. Bajra (11.

Process-mediated inactivation of anti-nutrients could be applied to enhance nutrient availability and product development. The high fat. Phenols and tannins form conjugates with proteins and make them unavailable. anti-nutrients and lack of secondary processing equipment’s are the major hurdles that are preventing the widespread consumption of these crops and acceptance of food products of these commodities. pigments (dark seed coat of Ragi and pearl millet). The problem of shorter shelf-life of millet grains and flour could be sorted out by adopting National Academy of Agricultural Sciences 5 . oxalate. finger millet. Most of the produce is consumed locally in the form of traditional foods and majority of the nutrients remain unavailable to consumers because of the presence of anti-nutrients. being small seeded and low price commodity. Several primary processing equipments like pearler have been developed for dehulling of millets as dehulled grains can be more effectively utilized (Fig. Grains stored with high moisture content often develop mycotoxins/aflatoxins which is highly poisonous both for human and livestock. Besides. cancers etc. fibre. Processing and utilization of these crops are largely confined to home scale that renders many of these valuable nutrients unavailable to human beings on wider scale. Status and Scope of Millets Processing As mentioned. rains at the time of maturity/harvest also leave to poor quality of Kharif produce. protease and amylase inhibitors minimize the nutritional virtues of millets by adversely affecting their bio-availability. certain phenolics. Millets can be grown under diverse agro-climatic conditions with lesser inputs and possess unique nutrients and bioactive components that may promote health of consumers. The shelf life of flour of millets is also low because of high fat content in the grains. cardio vascular diseases. The awareness about the high nutritive values of millets is very low both among the producers and consumers. Phytate and oxalate bind with iron and calcium respectively. Studies need to be addressed on balancing the proportion of these compounds in millet products. Certain anti-nutrients present in millets like tannin. Presence of thick pericarp. 1). foxtail millet and kodo millet. inert matters coupled with high moisture content/high humidity leads to infestation of insect/fungus during storage. hence decrease their availability. particularly those from the less privileged groups. Besides.prevention. graded and dried before they are brought to the markets. Large scale epidemiological studies are required to further strengthen our understanding on the effect of millet consumption on the risk reduction of diseases like diabetes. India is the largest producer of millets including pearl millet. phytate. fetching low price to the farmers and poses storage problems. the produce is not properly cleaned. phenolic.

in combination with milk solids are generally used for the preparation of complementary food for weaning purpose. Millet flours may complement wheat or maize flour in formulation of several processed foods. development of gluten free products is real challenge in front of food formulators and interventions such as addition of milk proteins or enzymes could be useful. would certainly help the food industry to make use of millet flour on par with wheat and corn flour. Prospective scheme for developing composite health foods based on millets hydrothermal treatment similar to that used for parboiling paddy [10]. Preliminary investigations indicate that 50% replacement is possible in majority of food products. Fine-tuning and optimization of the proportion of the millet and wheat to make it suitable for making biscuits. pasta. There is rapid increase in the number of persons suffering with celiac disease and removal of wheat from the diet of such persons could only possible by using millets.Millet Grains Soaking Pearling/Debranning Conditioning Pearled/Debranned Millet Grains Popping/Roasting Germination/Malting Milling Germinated Flour/Millet Malt Grits. Semolina. 6 Policy Paper 54 . However. 1.. Cereals. Flour Milk Solids/ Cereal/Legumes Milk Solids   Composite Flour   Weaning & Complementary Foods   Breakfast Cereals   Malted Milk Beverage   Extruded Snacks   Fermented Milk-Millet Beverage   Bakery products   Fermented Milk-Millet Foods Fig. usually barley malt. This may be useful in enhancing the nutritional advantage of resultant products. noodles and bread etc.

Extruded millet could also be promoted as healthy snack due to lower proportion of fat. rapid urbanization. in such formulations. flaking and toasting needs to be evaluated for their suitability and efficacy in delivering novel foods based on millets in combination with other food sources. texture and overall acceptability of the product [19]. Probiotic organisms are now widely employed in the manufacture of functional foods. Preliminary trials indicated the possibility of utilizing millet malt specially finger millet and pearl millet malt. though utilization of millets will certainly enhance nutritional quality. riboflavin. Germinated. convenience and above all. The importance of breakfast cereal is gaining significance in an era of changing life-style. popped and roasted millet flours have been used for the manufacture of complementary foods along with milk solids. Certain lactic cultures mainly those belonging to lactobacilli possess phytase activity that effectively reduce phytate levels in fermented millet products. micronutrients and nutraceutical concentrations in RTE products. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics National Academy of Agricultural Sciences 7 . Addition of millet or malt components to milk or by-product obtained from dairy industries is another opportunistic entrance in the area of functional foods. owing to their reported beneficial attributes. Processing technologies such as extrusion processing. Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus reduce the serum cholesterol level. Millets have seldom been used in preparation of such products. Fermentation using selected probiotic strains results in better acidification. legume flour and other cereals to develop low cost weaning and complementary foods [11. 12]. Karnal that possess the nutritional supremacy of pearl millet along with healthy lactic bacteria [15]. Millets act as food substrate for probiotics and improve flavour.However. 17. The process developed also enhances the mineral bio-availability and consumer acceptability. developed by National Dairy Research Institute. niacin. hence the industry is also looking for some suitable substitute for barley malt. There is scope for introducing innovative products like Bajra lassi. popping and puffing are the traditional processes normally used to produce breakfast cereals. Extrusion processing has been found to lower the level of antinutrients and enhanced the digestibility of proteins and starch [13. Roasting. a health-conscious society. 14]. and such fermented milks could be used as an application for the production of lactic beverages containing probiotic organisms. It is another approach for increasing the level of dietary fibres. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria synthesize folic acid. majority of barley malt is used by brewing industry. cell count. pyridoxine and vitamin K [16. The Way Forward to Utilise Potential of Millet-based Processed Products Consumer interest in the relationship between diet and health has increased the demand for information on functional foods. 18]. thiamine.

at effective levels. Although certain products are already a big hit in the marketplace. increasing healthcare costs. Experience with such food products which are adequately formulated and processed in meeting the nutritional needs of infants and children. enriched or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis. ‘Diversification’ is the key word for sustainability. Majority of health foods attract little effective demand in Indian market and have to face competitions from established brands. is quite encouraging. A number of 8 Policy Paper 54 . However. female undernourishment and ill health and also appeal to the sophisticated plates of educated and health conscious consumers. Developing millet based weaning foods would come at an affordable price to the poorer sections of the society meeting the nutritional needs of infants and children an extremely high priority for India. There is readymade demand for quality weaning foods based on milk-cereal blend. into convenient. may it be of agriculture or of industry. fabrication of indigenous processing equipments. Research and technology development initiatives are needed for storage and processing of raw food materials. Various challenges both at production and processing levels would have to be met. an aging population and rising interest in attaining wellness through diet are among the factors that have fueled the rising interest in functional foods. There is a great scope for optimizing processing technologies for utilization of minor agricultural crops for the manufacture of novel foods with unique nutritional and therapeutic profile. Rapid advances in science and technology. In this regard several technologies developed in the universities and research institutes can be tested and fine tuned for up scaling. the major task that lies ahead is to design these basic ingredients into products that help in alleviating child malnutrition. modified foods. Considering the popularity of millets for their health benefits and excellent organoleptic qualities. The recent growth and upward trend of Indian food market offer new opportunities for the development of such health foods by judicious blend of millets with other cereals/milk or milk ingredients. appropriate packaging materials and techniques and rapid and reliable quality control methods. Credible scientific research indicates many potential health benefits from food components. and foods for special dietary use [20]. medical foods. changes in food laws affecting label and product claims." The ADA breaks down functional foods into four categories: conventional foods. they are not affordable to all segments of the society. novel food product development. long-life form with proven health benefits to consumers.(ADA) defines functional foods as foods "that include whole foods and fortified. diversification will not succeed until it is of commercial significance.

  The Brainstorming Session concluded that the following measures are essential towards integrating millets into the mainstream food supply chain. the Scheme through processing and value addition techniques is expected to generate consumer demand for millet based food products and would support ten lakh millet farmers of arid and semiarid regions of the country to help improve nutritional security and increase feed and fodder supply for livestock. The initiative will be strengthened in the XII Plan. The scheme aims to demonstrate the improved production and post-harvest technologies in an integrated manner with visible impact to catalyze increased production of millets in the country. It is encouraging that the Government has recognized the role of millets in the food chain. Millets. The Scheme on Initiative for Nutrition Security through Intensive Millets Promotion (INSIMP) has been formulated to operationalize the initiative. To promote higher production. Besides increasing production of millets. The classical example of ‘Composite Dairy Foods’ based on milk and cereals is malted milk foods that have been consumed by people of all age groups specially by children. Several millet-based fortified biscuits have appeared recently in India.traditional food products are prepared by combining cereal grains/flour with milk. owing to their non-glutinous nature can serve as a suitable base material for gluten-free products including bakery products. upgrade processing technologies and to create health benefits awareness of these cereals. Malted milk foods and weaning foods basically complement the nutritive value of cereals and milk alike. There is scope for developing milk-millet based weaning or complementary foods at more economical levels. a provision of Rs. It offers most of the vital nutrients in more digestible and easily absorbable form. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences 9 . ÊÊ Increasing the minimum support price for millets. It not only enhances the palatability of these commodities. ÊÊ Ensuring proper markets for millets and millet based food products. In order to have a better out reach of the food processing sector. The demand for glutenfree products including India and use of millets as source of gluten free grain does not require any certification from any regulatory agency and it not only reduces the product cost but also enables hassle free marketing of millet products.300 crore was made in 2011-12 under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana for promotion of millets as nutri-cereals. Malting generates a number of intermediaries like malted flour and malt extract that may be included in the formulation of a wide range of processed health foods from millet. a new centrally sponsored scheme titled National Mission on Food Processing will be started in cooperation with the States in 2012-13. but also improves the nutritional value.

As millets milling requires specific considerations. 2. presently the varietal turn-over and availability of quality seed of millets is poor. Ca & P. and this gap should be bridged. and ÊÊ Integration of millets in fortified foods chain. 2. Critical review by a group of field crop-oriented scientists to show that millets can indeed yield high if managed properly and if proper incentive for higher production is in place. are undervalued as far as their nutritional potential is concerned. flour Millers may be provided incentive to take up millets processing. Currently available products must be tested for large scale consumer acceptance and must also be validated for their nutritional and therapeutic attributes through Inter-Institutional linkages. 10 Policy Paper 54 . There is need of total revival of system of flow of quality seed of new varieties from breeder to farmer. The problem of low palatability of millets also needs to be addressed properly. Fe. Extension of millet flour shelf-life is one of the most important considerations. The allele mining of millets with aim of complete genome mapping should be the part of priority research areas.ÊÊ Increasing the awareness of the nutritive quality of millets and millet based food products. ÊÊ Increasing the consumption of millets. very rich in micronutrients Zn. 3. Although the first hybrid variety which was developed in India was of a milletpearl millet. The problem may be addressed for each millet crop and variety-wise. The MMM . 3. Recommendations of the Brainstorming Session Enhancing Productivity 1.marriage of millets with milk (integration of milk and millet) has been found to provide the best nutritional synergy. Post-harvest handling of millets is most crucial in the entire value-chain system. Harnessing the Nutritional and Therapeutic Virtues of Millets 1. Millets. which are often deficient in diet of most Indian population. It will also show the unique value of these crops in terms of their resource use efficiency and in view of their resilience to climate change and adaptability to rainfed areas. Effectiveness of parboiling may be explored to get the best results in terms of product quality.

S. K. T.V. B. Gopalan. The situation of children in India: a profile (http://www. Wiesmann. H. composite grains and snack foods in place of wheat or rice. and their nutritional values must be publicized through “Millets Network of India”. Overview of millets cultivation in India. 2010. 2007. 3.2499/9780896299344ENGHI2011. A. Deosthale. Y. Global Hunger Index.D.. Fritschel. The technological hurdles must be addressed with all logical interventions including use of additives and modification of millet constituents...P. Minimum Support Price (MSP) for millets and its effective implementation is urgently required. 12th November. Torero. M. and india). National Institute of Nutrition. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences 11 . Hyderabad. Von-Grebmer.N.. S. Y.. 2. D.R. pp. The shrinking acreage under millets can thus be reversed. The “Millets Mid-day Meals” initiative of Government is a welcome development. and Yohannes.C. as it will encourage farmers to grow more millet.. The “awareness campaign for millets” should become a national movement. Schofield. they are “Nutricereals”. B. 1-11. UNICEF 2.doi.. Singh. Rao. But still millets are missing in Public Distribution System (PDS).G. K. 4. Primary processed products of millets should also be utilized in formulation of consumer products such as bakery. G. In “Research and Development in Millets: Present Status and Future Strategies”.. Farmers should be made aware of Government initiatives for millets.unicef.C.. The challenge of hunger: Taming price spikes and excessive food price volatility. (2011). Olofinbiyi. and Pant. Indian Council of Medical Research. Now it has been established that millets are not merely to be called coarse gains or minor millets. Patil. They should be provided with inputs and financial support from funds allocated for millet. Nutritive value of Indian foods. Policy Initiatives for Enhancing the Consumption of Millets 1.4. C. 4. T.V. and Von-Oppeln. B. Sastri. Revised and updated by Rao. and Ansari. 3. References 1. National Seminar on Millets. DOI: http://dx. L. J. Locally produced millets must be procured by the Government and channeled through PDS.

Jha. Kumari. proteins and lipids of finger millet after hydrothermal processing. and Ahuja. 57: 205-213.1007/s13197-011-0612-9. Sabikhi. 44(7): 1636-1642. and Rooney. Awika. and Kulkarni. Journal of Food Science and Technology. L. and Klaenhammer. Phytochemistry. 84: 319-331. 2012. 65: 1199-1221. Annual Report 2007-08. 2007.. S. L. Significance of coarse cereals in health and nutrition: a review. Bargale. National Dairy Research Institute. K. 2011. Journal of Dairy Science. Journal of Cereal Science. Cereal Chemistry. U.K. Novel food and non-food uses for sorghum and millets.E.C. M. S. A. 2004. 8.. 10. and Malleshi. Effects of blend and processing method on the nutritional quality of weaning foods made from select cereals and legumes. M.5. 2001. 41-43. L. 42: 916-929. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. NDRI 2008. Griffith.N. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 12. 2002. (1998). 44: 252-271. Technological aspects of composite dairy foods. S.. 2010. 75(1): 105-112.W. 52(3): 105-111. T. 9. Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering. and Sumathi. N.. A.R.K. Lecture compendium of Winter School on Technological Advances in Novel Dairy Products. Dykes. S.W. Effect of consumption of finger millet on hyperglycemia in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) subjects. P.E. and Griffith. M.J. 11.L.D.. 6. 135-140. L. Kaur. Development of raabadi-like cereal based traditional fermented milk foods with extended shelf life. P. J. Singh. and Singh. Gamlath. 13. L. Extruded functional foods using plant and dairy ingredients. S. Changes in carbohydrates.D. Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. 15. 2007. 7. pp. A. Karnal. pp. 1-21 March. India. Cereal Foods World. Bhopal. DOI 10. Nutritional aspects of food extrusion: a review. Raju.N. The scientific basis of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM functionality as a probiotic. 2011. P. Castell-Perez.K. L. Sanders. 12 Policy Paper 54 .E. J. K. and Bean. 14. and Wakeling.G. Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits.R. Schober.R. and Rooney. Taylor. T.M. Dharmaraj. 2006. 16. Singh. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition.D..

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Balasubramanian. 12. Mr Sandeep Kapoor. National Director. ICRISAT. New Delhi. Mazumdar. 2. New Delhi. Dr Arun Gupta.S. New Delhi.. Dr H. Gupta. Secretary. Professor & Head. Mr Anuj Mehta. Department of Food Science and Technology. Director. Gurgaon. Prof Anwar Alam. Director (Quality). Malleshi. 8. Managing Director. Professor & Head.M. IARI. CIPHET. IGKV. VPKAS. College of Rural Home Science. Chief Operating Officer . Dean. MD & CEO. Senior Scientist. Punjab Agricultural Implements Pvt. Hyderabad. 16.S. Harvest Plus. Assocom-India Pvt. NAAS.S. Dr S. Varanasi. 13. Gujral. Dr Raj Kapoor. Senior Advisor. 17. New Delhi. 20. Bangalore. Dharwad. Dr H. Almora. Senior Scientist. Amritsar. ICRISAT. Pandey. Delhi. DDG (Engg. Dr S. 9..D. Danone India. 4. Dr Bangali Baboo.NutriPlus Knowledge Program. Mr Prashant Parameswaran.G. Retd. Manager (R&D). Dr I. Gurgaon. Ludhiana. Mysore. 18. Lalitha. Dr S. Dr R.. Dr Alok Jha. Dr S. GNDU. Patel.. Director. CFTRI. Ltd. Ltd. 3. Naik. 11. Dr M. 14 Policy Paper 54 . BHU. 19. ICAR. Raipur. Dua. Britannia Industries Ltd. Scientist. 14. Khairwal. 5. New Delhi.) ICAR. Dr Rama K. Kottaram Agro Foods Pvt. Associate Professor. R&D Manager. Hyderabad.P.List of Participants 1. Ltd. 15. Dr N. Chennai. Centre of Food Science and Technology. Danone India. 6. UAS. District Centre Laxmi Nagar. NAIP. 7. 10. Department of Process Engineering. Saharanpur. Dr Rajneesh Hora.

of Mycology & Plant Pathology. Directorate of Sorghum Research. CCSHAU. Dr K. Jodhpur. Dr A. Yadav. GBPUAT. Professor (F&N). Suresh. Srivastava. Karnal. New Delhi. Singh. President. BHU. 26. Varanasi. Saharanpur. 31. Hyderabad. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences 15 .N. 38. National Fellow. Division of Dairy Extension. Hyderabad.K. Pantnagar. Singh. Senior Scientist. Professor. Director. ICAR. Principal Scientist. NDRI. Scientist.. Rai. Directorate of Millet Development. Dr Ashish Kumar Singh. New Delhi. Division of Dairy Technology. 28.B. 32. Project Coordinator. Managing & Sales. Senior Scientist. Kottaram Agro Foods Pvt. Senior Scientist.P. 33. Dairy Technology Division. New Delhi. New Delhi. Sciences..). Karnal. Scientist E (Deputy Director). Head. Pantnagar. Director. 30.K. Director and Vice-chancellor. 35. Singh. 40. Director. Dr M. 37.P. 27. Dr Sarita Srivastava. New Delhi. RAU. Inst. Dr I. 25.R. 34.21. NDRI. 22. Nutritech Consultancy Services. Division of Dairy Technology. Dr P. Department of Food & Nutrition. 41. NDRI.B. Hyderabad. Dr O. NIN. Karnal. HarvestPlus-India.) Salil Sehgal. Ltd. Hisar. Dr J. CEO. Senior Scientist. Prasad. 39. of PHPFE. AICPMIP. Dr S. Ltd. Deptt. Dr Kavitha Reddy. 36.A. NDRI. Dept. ICAR. Division of Dairy Technology. 42. ADG (PE). 24. Karnal. NDRI. Professor.K. Dr Gopal Sankhala. 43. 23. Dr Anupama Singh. Karnal. ICRISAT. Prof R. Dr Amith Sebastian. Bangalore. Narender Raju. Singh. Karnal. Jaipur. Dr Latha Sabikhi. of Agril. Dr (Mrs. Prof H.P. NDRI. Nutritech Consultancy Services. Dr Gajendra Singh. Prof A. Dr Dinesh Tiwari. Patel. Tomar. Dr K. NDRI. Karnal. Punjab Agricultural Implements Pvt. GBPUAT. Dr Dayakar Rao. Director. NAAS. Former DDG (Engg. 29.

16 Policy Paper 54 .